From concept to designWith the tremendous increase in air traffic and the number ofpeople involved in their operation, airports are increasinglyfaced with the negative impacts they have on the environment.This has created a need for airports to function with aminimum environmental load.Noise and emission of Carbon Dioxide are the two main sourcesof this negative impact. Although aircraft cause the bigger partof this load, this brochure concentrates on the airport and itsoperational processes. Reducing the impact of the aircraft is thefield of aircraft manufacturers, developing effective plans for anenergy-efficient airport is our field.Emission of Carbon Dioxide is leading in the list of environmentalimpacts of an airport. A wide range of measures isavailable to reduce the energy consumption that causes theCarbon Dioxide. Think for instance of energy-efficient lighting,cogeneration, etcetera. Yet, the effect of application of thesemeasures is limited. A far better result would be achieved if theactual sources of the environmental load could be tackled.In order to do so, the first step should be to look at the basicfunctions of an airport, and then see whether an airport could beorganised in such a way, that the basic functions are bothperforming well and organised in an energy-efficient way.Apart from the economical advantages for the airport, causedby reduced energy costs, the public image of the airport wouldalso benefit from minimal primary consumption of fossil energy.Of course, the possibilities of re-organising an existing airport insuch a way will be very limited. It is not realistic to rebuild anorganically grown airport with widespread buildings into acompact and logistically efficient airport. But, one could imaginean imaginary new airport, that performs both functionally andenvironmentally well. How could you achieve this? Where wouldyou start?You would have to start thinking about the basic functions of anairport. Then about how these functions are supported by thebuildings and technical systems. Once that is done, you shouldthink about what causes the energy consumption of thebuildings and the systems and you could reduce this. Thisanalysis being done, you could start develop solutions thatimprove both the performance of the airport functions and theenergy performance.Airports are in essence a combination of logistic services,whose primary task it is to transfer passengers and cargo fromone mode of transport to another. And create a pleasant andcomfortable place for the people during their stay at the airport.The parameters for the success of an airport are safety, correctoperations, comfortable and well equipped facilities and anoperational level that meets the demands of complex logistics.From an environmental point of view, transport of people andbaggage and creating a comfortable and healthy environmentfor the people in the airport are main energy consumingprocesses.Therefore, we could concentrate on these two and develop aplan based on simultaneous optimisation of functionalperformance and minimisation of energy demand. This doesrequire a joint effort by the parties involved in the airport,resulting in an integrated approach.Deerns is experienced in starting up such processes effectivelyand directing design teams towards finding new solutions. Fromconcept to design is our motto to create new solutions todaythat will meet future demands with minimum or zero environmentalimpact.Character of an airportAirport functionThe primary function of an airport is the transportation ofpeople. However, flying is not like taking a bus. It involves awhole emotional experience: luggage is handled, goodbyes aresaid, there are luxury shops etc. At the same time, securityaspects have become increasingly significant. And last but notleast, the environmental image of an airport is becoming anissue.The Impact of LogisticsAs we no longer step from our car with our luggage onto anaircraft, the energy consumption of baggage and personaltransport has increased considerably. Moving walks andbaggage systems run many kilometres and account for aconsiderable proportion of the energy consumption.Energy ConsumptionThe energy consumption on an airport, electricity and naturalgas, is high: up to C= 1,00 per passenger in a modern hub(2,2 GJ/m2) or C= 0,35 in a modern airport (1,4 GJ/m2). In bothcases, a conservation potential of 30% is available throughsmart climate control, intelligent lighting management andefficient heating and cooling.Airport typesThere is no general solution for making an airport green.Depending the type of the airport, different solutions andtechnologies will be designed. In some cases, existing airportsforce us to use the shape or the orientation for the most optimalsolution. In other cases, entirely new airports give us theopportunity to think out of the box. Four airport types arementioned below to show the different ways of thinking.
Organic growth of airportsMany airports, particularly older ones, started with a building thathas expanded organically over the course of time. A typicalcharacteristic of these buildings is that large internal distanceshave to be travelled by both passengers and their luggage. Notmuch energy saving is to be gained in these buildings throughshape or material, but their areas makes them particularly suitedfor applying solar cells or solar telescopes.Underground Building and TransportA entirely new concept is an underground terminal building withunderground transport system. The idea is based on a compactbuilding, as described above, where all processes are dealt withover several floors. Climatologically the building can be controlledmuch more effectively. Underground transport moves passengersfrom the building to the airplane line-up. In this concept, manyaircraft parking positions can be created on a relatively smallarea.Multi-terminal BuildingA second type of airport is the multi-terminal concept. The entireterminal complex consists of several buildings that each serve aspecific destination or airline. Energy saving in this case will befound, apart from other useful technologies, in shortening logisticflows. Domestic flights, for instance, depart from one buildingwhile international flights are organized from another. Logisticflows are thus channelled and internal distances limited.Self Supporting AirportEnergyHow do we create a GreenAirport? Reduction of energyconsumption takes place throughset rules, called Trias Energetica.Compact Building & SatellitesAnother airport type where the focus also lies on distances is acompact building with satellites. In this building, on differentfloors, all processes can be managed for checking in, baggageintake, security, etc. Logistic distances are limited, thus savingenergy. After passengers have gone through all the necessaryprocedures, they can continue onto smaller satellite buildings,from where they board their aircraft.1. Limit Demand for EnergyFirst of all, the utmost should bedone to reduce consumption initself. This requires the necessaryinsight into all relevant energyaspects when designing new facilities. A range of possibilitieshas been developed that can be applied to various areas. Theireffectiveness is calculated by using advanced computermodelling.2. Use Sustainable EnergySecondly, the use of natural resources or systems should beoptimized. Here, one should consider using incomingsunlight, natural sustainable sources of cold, andrainwater, as well as the installation of activeelements for additional generation andstorage of energy.BCN NacoNaco
3. Use the Highest Possible Conversion Efficiency for ExternalEnergy SuppliesWhen generating energy, naturally available waste products canbe utilized, such as the application of biogas generators. If aclosed cycle for energy cannot be applied with the highestefficiency for fossil fuels: reduce consumption.The level in which the use of fossil fuels disturbs the balance ofCarbon Dioxide is also a measure for the environmental damagecaused by the airport. This effect can be fully reversed byresponsible planting of trees elsewhere.What is the Challenge?Good examples of minimal energy consumption for smallsystems are well known. To integrate these individualexamples in a systematic approach on a much larger scalehowever is not easy. And the circumstances on an individualairport with many customers and employees are not going tohelp us either. A good overall planning and consequent follow upactions are required to fulfil the maximum potential in designinggreen airports. The combination between a strategic approachon a higher conceptual level, and the actual finding of practicalsolutions in the every day design practice isn’t easily madebut essential in order to reach maximal environmentalfriendly solutions.NacoNacoNaco