An Overview of post-combustion CO2 Capture at CSIRO

An Overview of post-combustion CO2 Capture at CSIRO

Day 2 Tuesday 16 October 2007Session 8: FBC/ USC/ IGCC/ CCSSpeech 1 AustraliaAn Overview of post-combustion CO 2 Capture at CSIRODr. Paul FeronCEO Science LeaderCSIRO Energy TechnologyCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)Australia

Post-combustion CO 2 capture R&D at CSIROAPEC Clean Fossil Energy SeminarPaul H.M. FeronXian, 15-17 October 2007

Overview‣ Introduction‣ Climate Change‣ CO 2 Emission reductions & CCS‣ Post-Combustion Capture (PCC)• Issues• Technology potential‣ PCC programme at CSIRO• Research activities• Pilot activities‣ Acknowledgements

CSIRO Energy Technology• 6 500 researchscientists/engineers andsupport staff• 56 sites around the countryand abroad• Division of EnergyTechnology:• Renewables• Low emission fossilfuels• Energy storage• Distributed energymanagement and supply

Quotes from Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (Work in Progress!)IPCC AR4: Working Group I (The PhysicalScience Basis) Summary for Policymakers:‣"Warming of the climate system is unequivocal."‣"Most of the observed increase in globallyaveraged temperatures since the mid-20thcentury is very likely due to the observedincrease in anthropogenic greenhouse gasconcentrations."

Lowering CO 2 -emissionsLowering the carbon intensity of our society:‣ Switching from coal to gas‣ Improve energy efficiency‣ Extend use of renewable energy‣ Extend use of nuclear energyCarbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) isvaluable addition to this portfolio:‣ Allows continued use of fossil energy sources in a carbonconstrained environment‣ Buys time for transition to sustainable energy systems

Emission reduction pathway for Australia500450400Energy ManagementEnergy efficiency & struct...Distributed generationEfficiency(10%)Electricitydecentral(20%)350RenewablesMt CO2e300250Fossil and nuclearElectricitycentral(50%)200150100Alternative fuels & vehiclesReduced travelTransport(20%)5050% below 1990 emission levels02000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050Source: Energy Futures, Paul Graham, CSIRO

Near zero-emission technologiesfuelairenergyCO 2flue gasconversion separationpower CO 2PF Power Plant(Post-combustionCO 2 -N 2 separation)airairIGCCfuelfuelconversionCO 2separationH 2energyconversionflue gas(Pre-combustionCO 2 -H 2 separation)powerCO 2airfuelairenergyO 2powerseparationconversionN 2 CO 2Oxy PF Power Plant(Denitrogenation -O 2 /N 2 separation)

Maturity of CCS technologyOxyfuelcombustionPost-combustionPre-combustionIndustrialseparationMineralcarbonationOcean storageEnhancedCoal BedMethaneGas and oilfieldsSalineformationsTransportIndustrialutilizationEnhanced OilRecoveryResearchphaseDemonstrationphaseEconomicallyfeasible underspecific conditionsIPCC special report on CO 2 capture and storageMaturemarket

Challenges for CO 2 captureCapture of CO 2 can be done withtechnologies presently available but:‣ Sizeable efficiency reduction‣ Power generation costs will increase‣ There is no experience with CO 2 captureintegrated at the power plant scale

Why prefer Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture?‣Low technology risk‣Flexible operation, in tune with marketrequirements‣Ability to adopt technologyimprovements, providing pathwaytoward zero-emissions‣For new and retrofit applications,preventing stranded assets

PCC application in Australian coal fired power stations‣Generation capacity ~ 28 GW‣Electricity production 170 TWH/a‣Average generation efficiency• Black coal: 35.6% - 0.9 tonne CO 2/MWh• Brown coal: 25.7% - 1.3 tonne CO 2/MWh‣CO 2 -emissions ~ 170 Mtonne CO 2 /a from ~ 60 flue gas streams‣SO 2 levels:• Black coal: 200 - 600 ppm• Brown coal: 100 - 300 ppm‣NO x levels:• Black coal: 300-700 ppm• Brown coal: 100-200 ppm‣Cooling water: 1.5-3.0 m 3 /MWh‣Typical flue gas stream: ~2.5 10 6 m 3 /h at 120 o C(0.5 GW)Data used from CCSD – technology assessment report 62

PF Power Plant with PCCBoilerGeneratorElectricityLiquid CO 2Low CO 2 flue gasCO 2CoalAbsorberStripperFlue gaspretreatmentFly-ashFlue GasC.W.ReboilerLeading option is a solvent process

Solvent process diagramCO 2AbsorberStripperFlue gaspretreatmentC.W.Flue GasReboiler

Known issues with PCC‣ High cost: around $30/t CO 2 captured‣ Electricity cost increase from $30/MWh to$50/MWh for an 85% reduction in GHG‣ Loss of generation efficiency around 20-30% to capture 90% of CO 2‣ Not demonstrated in integrated powerplants scale‣ Sensitive to O 2 , SOx and other flue gasconstituents‣ Large increase in cooling water requirement

Typical volume flows in absorption processVented GasCondenserFlow~0.05Flow~0.00013Flow~0.004Flow~0.2CO 2 –ProductP = 110 barAbsorberP=1 barP=1 barT=50ºCT=50ºCHTX100ºCP=1.8 barDesorberFlow~0.3120ºCFlow~1Flue Gas In

Solvent system developmentSolvent - chemistryProcess design - flow sheetEquipment - hardwareIntegration - thermodynamicsA holistic approach is essential!

Integrated PCC R&D ProgrammePilot plant programme (Learning by doing)‣ Hands-on experience for future operators‣ Identification of operational issues and requirements‣ Testing of existing and new technologies under realconditionsLab research programme (Learning by searching)‣ Support to pilot plant operation and interpretation ofresults‣ Develop novel solvents and solvent systems whichresult in lower costs for capture‣ Addressing Australian specifics (flue gases, water)

Development Pathway for PCCCurrent best technologyGeneration I: MEA(chemicals)$/t CO 2Generation II: Improved “MEA”(EOR, chemicals)Generation III: Novel solvents(PCC-CS)Generation IV: Novel capture systems(PCC-CS)//1930 2000 2010 2020Focus of the lab research

PCC Technology Development ScenarioThermal energy requirement [Gj/ton CO 2] CO2 binding Contribution steam stripping Contribution solvent heatingState of the artG 1 G 1/2 G 2/3 G 3/4 G 4Technology developmentImprovementPotential

Efficiency and CO 2 EmissionsEfficiency no captureEmissions no captureEfficiency with captureEmissions with captureGeneration Efficiency0.600.400.200.00-0.20-0.40-0.60Efficiency reductionState of the artG 1 G 1/2 G 2/3 G 3/4 G 4CO 2 Emission reductionTechnology development2.402.202.001.801.601.401.201.000.800.600.400.200.00CO2-emissions [ton/MWh]

Cooling water issuesNo Capture90% CaptureCooling water requirement [m 3 /MWh] 1/2G 2/3G 4G 1State of the artIncrease in cooling waterG 4G 2/3G 1/20.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00G 1CO 2 -emission [ton/MWh]

Basic Chemistry Gl/ll2R-NH 2+ CO 2 R-NH 3++ R-NH-COO -(MEA)(Carbamate)• Advantages of MEA• Very fast reaction• Efficient absorption of CO 2• Amine is relatively cheap• Disadvantages of MEA• Carbamate is very stableHigh energy ofregeneration• 2 moles of amine required permole of CO 2 (2:1 ratio)• Amine undergoes oxidativedegradation• Amine is corrosive at highconcentrations• Some amine loss due to lowvapour pressure of amine

G III-IV R&D Directions‣Advanced amines• Formulated mixtures, multiple amine groups‣Non-aqueous solvents• Ionic liquids‣Phase change solvents• Slurries, emulsions‣Modified process concepts• Intercooling, heat exchange integration in stripper, integration ofcompression, split flow‣Novel process components• Membrane contactors, heat pumps‣ Robust solvents•Ammonia‣Biomimetic approaches• Enzymes for solvent process improvements

Solvent PCC Activities – G III Solvent systemsMacro-scaletestingMicro-scaletestingMolecularmodelling andstructureactivityrelationships -Pilot-scaletestingDemonstrationplantSynthesis ofnovel aminesProcessengineeringandeconomics

Pilot plant flow diagramCO 2 lean fluegasProduct CO 2WaterFlue gaswashingFlue gasDirect contactcoolerAbsorbentregeneratorCO 2absorberPre coolerReboilerWaterAbsorbentfilter

Transportable PCC Pilot PlantMultiple transportable pilot plants• 1,000-5000 tpa• Pre-wash column for optional SO x / NO xscrubbing• Dual 200-800 mm absorbers• Single stripper columnRelocatable for slip stream operation• Several power stations in program burningblack and brown coalModular construction• Plans for testing different packing types andnovel membrane contactors• Testing of alternative solvents (e.g. chillerbeing added to test chilled ammonia as asolvent)Sophisticated gas analysis• Providing data on solvent stability• Crucial information for environmental impactassessments

Confirmed Pilot Plants- APP support- Munmorah Power Station- Black coal- Ammonia based- No FGD/DeNoxLatrobe Valley PostCombustion Project- APP support- Gaobeidian Power Station- Black coal- Amine based- FGD/DeNox installed- ETIS support- Loy Yang Power Station-Lignite- Amine based- No FGD/DeNox

The PCC Team thanks you for your attention!Energy Technology:Paul FeronSolvent development:Moetaz AttallaGraeme PuxtyRob RowlandAndrew AllportJewel Huang (ILs)Molecular & HealthTechnologies:Mark BownMohammed ChowdhuryQi YangMineralsShi SuRamesh ThiruvenkatachariMarcel MaederRobert BurnsNichola McCannProcess modelling:Narendra DaveThong DoEntomology:Victoria HaritosGreg DojchinovGary RochellePilot Plants:Aaron CottrellJames McGregorScott MorganDoug PalfreymanRussell ReynoldsKonrad HungerbuhlerBobby NeuholdLevente Simon

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