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Wastewww.greenspec.co.ukSegregationDiagramsWaste DefinitionsOn-site or off-site segregationTransfer & Bulking stationsRecycling/Recover/IncinerationInert/mixed/hazardous landfill sites© NGS 2004 Brian Murphy


Wastewww.greenspec.co.ukDefinitionsSite Waste ManagementGeneral Definitions© NGS 2004 Brian Murphy


Inert• Clean soils• Clean Sand and Gravels


Hazardous• Paints• Solvents• Oils• Batteries• Treated timber• Discharge luminaires• Asbestos


Clean:• Not contaminated with:–Hazardous–Active– Liquids (Paints, Oils, Solvents)


Segregate• Brick Block Concrete• Timber• Plasterboard• Metals• Glass• Packaging– Cardboard– Timber– Plastics• Plastics


Salvageable• Protection• Packaging• Pallets• Crates


Practice Options• Legal minimum• Good practice• Better practice


Legal Minimum• Duty of Care– Waste Transfer Notes– European Waste Catelogue• Special Waste Consignment Notes• Pollution Prevention– Watercourses–Noise– Nuisances


MixedConstructionWasteHazardousWasteWasteHandlingLandfill sitesNormal on &off-site PracticeMixedWasteHazardousWasteJuly 2004


Good Practice• See Separate presentation• Legal minimum +• Waste segregation• Packaging Waste segregation forrecovery or reprocessing• Packaging Recovery Notes (PRN)Money to be made


+Inert & Active MixedHazardous Waste1 Skip System Normal From July 2004 1=2On-site Practices from July 2004


Landfill Tax Rises£???m£??/tonne£259m Mixed£18/tonne£216mMixed£187m £15/tonne£13/tonne Mixed£11/tonneMixedInertMixedInert£504m£35/tonneMixed£6m £6m £6m £6m £6m£2/tonne £2/tonne £2/tonne £2/tonne £2/tonne £2/tonneInert Inert Inert Inert2003/4 2004/5 2005/6 2006/7Longterm


+Inert Active MixedHazardous Waste2 Skip System GoodLandfill Tax drivenFrom July 2004 2 becomes 3On-site Practices from July 2004


Packaging Inert Active(timber/plastics)3 Skip SystemLandfill Tax driven+Hazardous WasteFrom July 2004 3becomes 4On-site Practices from July 2004


Hazardous Waste• We know Asbestos Cement• Soon it all changes• Reclassification of materials• Gypsum is added to list• Others to follow• Need special licence to carry• Need special landfill to tip


What’s wrong with Gypsum?• Gypsum in mixed waste landfill canreact with decomposing organicmaterials and produce Sulfur DioxideSO 2 (new OED spelling)• SO 2 responsible for acid rain


Hazardous Waste• One companies HW may beanother companies rawmaterials• We must match supply todemand• We need a materialinformation exchange tolink them up


Deleterious Substances• European Waste Catelogue• Lists material that are DS• And should be recorded oncollection tickets for skipscontaining DS


Better Practice• Legal Minimum + Good Practice +• Materials Storage• Protection• Care• Good workmanship• Prefabrication/Preassembly whereappropriate• Site Waste Management Plans


Reject &ReturnDefectiveMaterialsReturnProtective& PackagingMaterialsReduceDemandon use ofMaterialsReuse sparematerialson-site & in useSegregateMaterialsoff-siteLessMaterialswastedOn-site Good PracticeSegregatewaste localto source toenable reuseon-siteRecycleMaterialson-siteNo Materialsimported to siteNo exportfrom siteRedesignTo reducewaste


Waste Reduction@ Design:DiagramsEasy steps to reduce your shareof the 90 m tonnes of construction anddemolition waste each year06/07/04 11:43 © NGS 2002-2004 Waste At Design 1


Reject &ReturnDefectiveMaterials


ReturnProtective& PackagingMaterials


ReduceDemandon use ofMaterials


RecycleMaterialson-siteReuse sparematerialson-site & in use


Segregate wastelocal topoint of generationto enable reuseon-site or offsiteAnd even on-site again


Site AutonomyNo exportfrom siteNoMaterialsimported tosite


RedesignTo reducewaste


Reject &ReturnDefectiveMaterialsReturnProtective& PackagingMaterialsReduceDemandon use ofMaterialsReuse spare No Materials Redesignmaterials imported to site To reduceon-site & in use No exportfrom sitewasteOn-site Better Practice


Reject &ReturnDefectiveMaterialsReturnProtective& PackagingMaterialsReduceDemandon use ofMaterialsReuse spare No Materials Redesignmaterials imported to site To reduceon-site & in use No exportfrom sitewasteLabelLabelLabel Label LabelHazardLabel Label Label Label Label HazardOn-site Best PracticeLabel


Hazard Hazard Hazard Hazard Hazard HazardInertInertMixed Mixed Mixed MixedLabelLabelPackagingPackagingLabelFinishesFinishesOn-site Best Practice: Programme


Oil drums Sacks 2 wheel bins 4 wheel bins Skips of many sizesOn-site Best Practice: Different Sizes


On-site Best Practice:Initial Site Strip: Landscape WasteTopsoilStockpileSpread Seeds on topsoil todiscourage weedsCover topsoil with turfCollectSeedsGrassCompostLeafCompostBush & TreeTrimmingsTurfSite Strip AreaMix Green Waste with grass cuttings compostSub-soilHardcore


On-site Best Practice:Reuse of Green waste in LandscapeCollectSeedsTopsoilStockpileCompostUse stockpiled topsoilin landscapeUse stockpiled turfin landscapeAdd mature Leaf compost to Green CompostLeafCompostTurfTopsoilStockpileUse hardcore in road sub-baseand under floor slabsAdd manufactured topsoil to gardensAdd mature compost and Subsoilto make TopsoilSub-soilHardcore


InertHazardMixedPaperInsulationOn-site Best Practice:Dispersed V Central V Remote?MetalTimber


On-site Best Practice: Filling45% air voidsAnd much outsideof skip volumeOn-site Poor Practice: FillingWell filled


Bulking stationbrings onematerial typeTogether frommany sitesInertSite 1 Site 3 Site 1Waste Segregatedoff-site atRecycling Centre/Transfer stationBricksSite 2InsulationActiveConcreteStoneOff-site Good Practice: Segregation


CompartmentedSkipsHinged Trapsin SkipsSelectivedischargeof contents


Bulking stationbrings onematerial typeTogether frommany sitesStone PackagingInsulationActive Inert Metals MixedClean WasteRecyclateSold ToanufacturersPackagingWasteReturned toProduceror recycledWasteSegregateoff-sitereturn toManufacturerFor reuseResellreclaimedMaterialsto sitesInertWasteCrushedForHardcoreSubsoilMixed withCompostto maketopsoilValuableWasteRecycledMixedWasteWith noReuseToLandfillHazardousWasteTo specialLandfillOff-site Best Practice: Recycling


Bulking stationbrings onematerial typetogether frommany sites orTransfer stationsStoneStoneStoneStonePackagingPackaging PackagingPackagingOff-site best practice: Bulkling


ReduceReclaimReuseRecycleRecoverMaterialsIncinerate toRecover EnergySegregated/InertBest Good Normal BadMixed wastePracticeHazardous waste


What’s wrong with landfill sites?• Decomposing materials generatemethane CH 4• A Green House Gas• Global Warming Potential: 21 x CO 2• Plaster and acidic decomposingmaterial generates SO 2• Generates Acid Rain


What’s wrong with landfill sites?• Squander materials resources• Done in a destructive method• Landfill sites are unlikely to beexcavated to reuse resources• Future techniques may change this• But segregated waste could be storedseparately to allow this to happen


Bad Landfill Practices• Mixed waste• Mixed waste with hazardous waste• Generate CH4 and SO2• sometimes combust• Little or no potential to reclaim recyclerecover materials


Methane createdMixed wasteLeachate releasedMixed wasteHazardous wasteLittle or noOpportunity toRecycle andRecoverMaterialsMixed wasteHazardous wasteAnd CombustionBad Landfill Practice


Cap siteBottle the MethaneUse for fuelMixed wasteImpervious wallDrained cavityCollect LeachateMove to hazardous waste landfillLittle or noOpportunity toRecycle andRecoverMaterialsBetter Landfill Practice


Good Landfill Practice• Single Material Segregated• Later Potential to Reclaim RecycleRecover Materials


Segregated wasteSegregated wasteLeaves futureOption toRecover andRecycleMaterialsSegregated Hazardous wasteGood Landfill Practice


Best Landfill Practice• Single Material Segregated• Segregated Compartmented• Hazardous waste• Stored monitored & retrievable• Later Potential to Reclaim ReuseRecycle Recover Materials


Segregated wasteSingle materialsLeaves futureOption toRecover andRecycleMaterialsBest Landfill PracticeSegregated wasteCompartmented ‘cells’Landfill siteRe-excavate ableHazardous wasteAccessible StorageMonitoredRetrievableReusable

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