Important Natural Landscapes (Boffa Miskell, 2013)
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Important Natural Landscapes (Boffa Miskell, 2013)



6IntroductionHurunui District Council (HDC) has engaged Boffa Miskell (BML) landscape planners to provide advice on landscaperelated aspects of their District Plan review. This report has been prepared by BML Landscape Planner Yvonne Pfluger toassist with identification of important landscapes under sections 6(a) and 6(b) of the RMA for the proposed HurunuiDistrict Plan.We have undertaken a preliminary review of the Outstanding Natural Landscapes (ONLs under RMA s6(b)) currentlyidentified in the Hurunui District Plan as part of a previous stage of work. We concluded that generally the existing areasare appropriate. We understand that the Council may not require a detailed review of all existing Outstanding NaturalFeatures and Landscape (ONF/L) boundaries, if they are not intending to change these boundaries unless challengedthrough the review or in response to specific requests in submissions. However, as requested by HDC, we undertook adetailed review of three particular ONF/Ls, namely the identification of Mt Cass as an ONF, the review of the Main DivideONL and a specific boundary review of the south western corner of the Waipara Gorge ONL. The option of undertaking adesktop review of all ONF/L boundaries will be discussed with Councillors at the upcoming workshop.While it is not considered necessary to have identical outlines for ONLs in the region (Regional Policy Statement/ RPS)and districts (District Plans), we noted that the areas are largely aligned in this case and seem to be appropriate whenassessed on a district-wide scale.In addition to this limited ONF/L review, HDC was also seeking advice onnatural character and landscape issues in itscoastal environment to fulfil the requirements under the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS, 2010). Thisincludes the identification of the coastal environment and an assessment of itsnatural character values in order toidentify the coastal areas that may be considered as having high or outstanding natural character under the NZCPS2010. The areas in the coastal environment identified d as outstanding interms of their natural character are referred to as“Outstanding Natural Character Areas” (ONCs).The landscape as we see it today is a product of both natural processes and several centuries of human occupation.Ongoing land use change and constantly evolving agricultural practices reflect economic efficiency and human needsat the time. Landscapes are dynamic and will continue to evolve, while both natural and cultural features remain asDRAFTevidence of past processes. While it is difficult to anticipate future land use development and pressures for changein the landscape, it is considered essential to provide for human needs as well as sustainably manage the existinglandscape values. This report helps to identify the sensitivities and values of the Hurunui landscape that require a levelof protection from inappropriate subdivision, use and development. While this does not mean that landscape changein general may be inappropriate in these areas, it is likely that the outstanding landscapes identified in this report aregenerally more vulnerable to extensive human intervention and have lower ability to absorb change than other rurallandscapes.Large-scale land use change, such as development of subdivisions, forestry plantations, substantial earthworks andnative vegetation removal, have an impact on the landscape that extends beyond the immediate surroundings. Theintroduction of man-made elements in the form of structures and the creation of unnatural patterns and lines canlead to degradation of the existing visual quality and landscape/ natural character values, such as intactness of legiblelandforms and native vegetation cover. The district plan aims to manage these irreversible impacts on the landscape andnatural character values within its special landscapes, including ONLs and Coastal Landscapes with outstanding naturalcharacter, in a sensitive manner. The findings of this report in relation to landscape and natural character sensitivitieswill inform the review of the relevant rules in the district plan, which provide guidance for potential landscape change.Hurunui District | 2013

Statutory Context and LandscapeManagementAll landscapes arguably merit some management consideration under the ‘sustainable management’ purpose of theRMA and the requirement to avoid, remedy or mitigate adverse effects of activities on the environment. From a technicallandscape perspective, the purpose of management may be characterised as:a) avoiding the inappropriate erosion of the intrinsic characteristics and qualities that have built up in the landscape overtime through the interplay of natural and cultural processes; andb) enabling development and change to occur that avoids the loss of landscape coherence, diversity and cultural identityand meaning.7SECTION AThis landscape perspective is packaged within the RMA under a number of matters of national importance (RMA Section6) and other matters to which the Council is required to have particular regard (Section 7). The key sections of the RMAthat relate to landscape are: ‘Protection of areas of significant indigenous vegetation and significant habitats of indigenous fauna’ (Section 6(c)) and‘the relationship of Maori and their culture and traditions with their ancestral lands, water, sites, wahi tapu, and othertaonga (Section 6(e)) are also clearly linked to a broad understanding and valuing of landscape.Natural features and landscapes that do not meet the criteria for being ranked as “outstanding” can nonetheless qualifyfor protection under other clauses in S.6 or be required to be “maintained and enhanced” either as “amenity values” orpart of the wider “environment” under S.7(c) or S.7(f). Thus, for example, coastal landscapes or rivers or lakes that werenot “outstanding landscapes” would still be required to have their “natural character” preserved under S.6(a), or areas ofindigenous vegetation or habitats of indigenous fauna that were not considered “outstanding natural features” underS.6(b) will require protection under S.6(c).DRAFTLarge areas of the western part of Hurunui District are within DOC ownership, including the Main Divide ONLs (ie withinmajor river valley, mountain ranges and main divide landscape types), but the low land landscapes are predominantly inprivate ownership and potentially vulnerable to change.As part of the District Plan Review, it is recommended that the objectives, policies and rules be reviewed andstrengthened to ensure that an adequate level of protection is provided for the District’s important landscapes. Thehighest level of protection would be warranted for those areas that are identified as “outstanding” under sections6(a) and 6(b) of the RMA, in other words the ONF/Ls and ONCs within the District. It is our understanding that HDC isnot considering the introduction of a second tier landscape protection under S.7(c) at this time. However, we wouldrecommend specific landscape management mechanisms be developed for the Coastal Environment within the district,to meet the requirements of the NZCPS, even though this landscape is generally more modified than the ONCs.Hurunui District | 2013

8Hurunui OutstandingNatural Features andLandscapesBackgroundThe findings in the study “Landscapes of the Hurunui District” prepared by Lucas Associates (1995) formed thebasis for ONL identification in the Hurunui District Plan. Most areas identified in the study have been carried overinto the formal recognition through the plan. The Conway Flats are the only notable omission. However, boundaryadjustments were undertaken for some of the other areas as part of landowner negotiations and submission/appeal processes.The Regional ONLs identified within the Canterbury Regional Landscape Study Review (BML, 2010) are generallysimilar to those in the Hurunui District Plan. It is to be expected that ONLs between the Region and District are notidentical, as they were undertaken at different scales and within a different context. There is a complex relationshipbetween the status "outstanding" and the scale at which an evaluation is made. District landscape studies areundertaken within the district context and are refined in accordance with the statutory processes for DistrictPlan preparation. It is our understanding that some small differences in boundary outlines are due to individuallandowner agreements following detailed assessments. It is acknowledged thatthe identified Outstanding NaturalLandscapes vary in land cover and landscape quality.Methodology for LandscapeRecognitionin the Current Hurunui District PlanIn accordance with the Hurunui District ict Council's background report, “Landscape Values: Literature Review” (1994),the definitions and criteria developed in the Canterbury Regional Landscape Study (1993) were adopted in the1995 “Landscapes of the Hurunui District” Report."Landscape" has thus been used to encompass both the physicalexpression of the land and a reflection of the values people place on the land. In the context of the District, foridentification as "outstanding", a landscape would need to have exceptional characteristics or values with regard toat least one of these criteria (see Appendix 2 for definition of those 1995 criteria).DRAFTThese criteria applied for the 1995 Hurunui Landscape Study are a set of values which have subsequently beenestablished and modified by case law over the years, and are known as the ‘Amended Pigeon Bay Criteria’ (egC180/1999 - Wakatipu Env. Society v QLDC). There is now a level of acceptance of their use as an assessmentframework within the landscape planning profession. The criteria used for the 1995 Hurunui Landscape Study arestill applied in today’s context and we therefore consider the assessment methodology remains appropriate androbust.The following criteria are a more recent evolution of those used in 1995, and have been used as a basis to structurethe evaluation of each landscape character type/ unit in relation to this current study:The natural science factorsThe geological, topographical, ecological and dynamic components of the landscapeIts expressiveness (legibility)How obviously the landscape demonstrates the formative processes leading to itIts aesthetic values including memorability and naturalnessTransient values - occasional presence of wildlife; or its values at certain times of day/ yearWhether the values are shared and recognisedIts value to tangata whenuaIts historical association.Hurunui District | 2013

The values listed above may be grouped as biophysical, sensory and associative qualities and each group requiresparticular management techniques. There are various different ways in which landscapes may be appreciated andwhich may help determine thresholds of quality.In recent decisions (eg EC C387/2011 – PC13 Mackenzie Basin) the Courts have indicated that ‘natural’ in thecontext of landscape identification under RMA section 6(b) does not signify ecological intactness. Modifications toendemic naturalness can still be perceived as natural. Based on findings in case law over recent years, thresholdsfor identifying ONF/Ls have changed, as have landscapes in terms of their qualities.The identification of ONLs in the current district plan was undertaken at a district scale, but mapping accuracy atthe time of preparation of the Hurunui Landscape Study (1995) was lower than what can be achieved nowadayswith modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS allows the assessor to zoom in and determine a moreaccurate location of landscape boundaries. While broad geographical features have been included in the 1995ONLs which have been mapped on 1:50,000 topographical maps, there is potential for boundary refinement basedon recent aerial photography. It should be noted that the limited ONF/L review provided in this report has onlybeen undertaken as a desktop study, including analysis of GIS data on land cover and aerial photos.9SECTION BStatus of ONFLs in District PlanProposed additions to ONFLsExisting ONFL Operative Hurunui District Plan0 5 10 20 Km° NMap showing ONF/Ls in Hurunui District as proposed following this landscape review. The three areas, where changesto the current Plan are proposed, are shown on the following pages.Hurunui District | 2013

10Mt CassOutstanding Natural Feature/ LandscapeMt Cass is located in the Waipara Basin, approximately 10 km north-east of Amberley. Mt Cass is one of three peaks on adistinctive cuesta landform, an asymmetric ridge of limestone rock outcrops. Totara and Oldham Peak are located alongthe ridge to the northeast. Typical of this type of landform Mt Cass has a steep north-west facing scarp slope and a gentlesouth-eastwards dipping backslope.Mt Cass was not identified as an Outstanding Natural Landscape in the Hurunui Landscape Study (Lucas Associates,1995). However, in a decision concerning a wind farm proposal on Mt Cass the landform was considered to be anOutstanding Natural Feature (ONF). In the Environment Court hearing considerable and detailed evidence on the questionof whether Mt Cass ridge is an ONF was presented. Between experts there was general agreement on its local significanceto the Waipara landscape. The Commissioner’s view that Mt Cass qualifies as an ONF was upheld in the EnvironmentCourt decision (EC C384/2011) released in 2011. The court concluded that the ridge feature between Mt Cass and TotaraPeak is distinctive within the wider landscape and is an ONF.For the preparation of this report we analysed the EC decision to determine the extent of the ONF for adoption into theDistrict Plan. The following paragraph of the decision gives guidance in relation to the location and extent of the ONF:[323] The Hurunui Commissioners concluded that Mt Cass ridge (that part of the site between Mt Cass and Totara Peakincorporating the limestone platforms, the native woody vegetation and thelimestone escarpment) is an outstandingnatural feature for the purposes of section 6(b) of the Act. 255 Ms Lucas and Ms Briggs agree that there is an outstandingnatural feature at Mt Cass, and that the escarpment is an integral part of the limestone landscape feature, as do the twogeomorphologists. Ms Lucas goes further to include the northern most extent of the ridge terminating at Oldham Peak,thus indicating a larger feature than had the Commissioners.In order to fully understand the extent of the ONF we also reviewed the evidence of the Council landscape witness, whoserecommendations were adopted (Liz Briggs) gs) and her graphic attachment which illustrates indicative outlines for the ONF.In her assessment against section 6 (b) of the RMA (para58-80) Liz Briggs concluded that (Para 73) “the Mt Cass landform,as illustrated and defined in Appendix pendix 2 and Appendix 3 constitutes an Outstanding Natural Feature. This is based on:DRAFT feature is of regional significance.”Based on this assessment we identified the extent of the ONF shown in the map on the facing page. On-siteinvestigations to confirm findings are yet to be organised (Site visit with Helga Rigg(Hurunui District Council) and AndrewHurley (Mainpower)).The images above informed the ONF identification, see Liz Briggs' EC evidence (prepared by Lucas Ass.)Hurunui District | 2013

11SECTION B° N0 0.275 0.55 1.1 KmHurunui District | 2013

12Main DivideOutstanding Natural Feature/ LandscapeWhile we have not been asked to undertake a detailed review of all existing ONL boundaries, as currently shown in theDistrict Plan, they generally align with the ONLs identified in the Canterbury Regional Landscape Study. However, twoanomalies in the western part of the District were identified, where areas were excluded from the wider ONLs. Theseareas are located:a) around Philosophers Knob within the St James Conservation Area (surrounded by St James walkway) andb) around the headwaters of Hope, Doubtful, Nina Rivers (south of Lewis Pass within Lake Sumner Forest Park andtwo smaller conservation areas).Both of these areas were originally identified as significant landscape areas in the proposed Hurunui District Plan. A reviewof the 1995 landscape assessment (prepared by Di Lucas) was carried out by Allan Rackham of Boffa Miskell in 1999.This review again identified the Philosophers Knob area as a significant landscape. The Lewis Pass/Lake Sumner area wasnot included in this review. We note that the Wilkinson court decision (Wilkinson v Hurunui District Council C050/2000[2000] NZEnvC 78 (29 February 2000) led to the removal of significant landscape areas from the Plan.Since then these areas have been retired from farming and included in the Department of Conservation (DOC) managedconservation estate. This means that land cover regeneration is occurring in these areas and both their biophysical,sensory and associative qualities have improved since ONLs were identified for the currently operative district plan. Weconsider that these areas are of similar landscape quality in terms of their values and naturalness to the surroundingONLs. We, therefore, recommend that these areas are included into the surrounding ONLs from a technical point of view.While both of these areas are now owned by the Department ent of Conservationand therefore have public conservationland status, we consider additional protection through ONL identificationappropriate.HDC has discussed this matter with DOC (Waimakariri and Nelson/Marlborough Area offices) who have indicatedtheir full support for the inclusion of the areas as ONF/Ls. Smaller additions of DOC managed land have occurred alongthe tops of the Hanmer Range, land retired ed from Hossack Station (north of the upper Lottery River headwaters) andthe southern part of the Ka Whata Tu o Rakihouia Conservation Park around Mt Horrible, which extends into KaikouraDistrict.DRAFTHurunui District | 2013

13SECTION B° NHurunui District | 2013 0 12 Km

14Waipara GorgeOutstanding Natural Feature/ LandscapePrior to commencing the review of their district plan, HDC have been requested by Claremont Farms to review theexisting south western boundary of an ONL in the upper Waipara catchment. We have been provided with thecorrespondence between the farm owner and HDC and reviewed the maps attached to his letters. It appears that theproposed QE2 area referred to in the correspondence on the land in question has not been approved yet, as it does notshow in the QE2 GIS database.We reviewed the ONL boundaries in the area and concluded that there is potential for the outlines to be refined. Ourreview resulted in a recommendation to exclude some of the highly modified farm land along Ram Paddock Road. Inour opinion, the key landscape values are provided by the limestone features and the vegetated river bed and gullies(contained by steep limestone cliffs).We recommend the inclusion of the limestone feature as a whole (not just theoutcrop at the top) to ensure that the integrity of the landform is maintained.Furthermore, we also recommend inclusion of several vegetated gullies and limestone cliffs along the Waipara River,some of which are DOC land. While the ONL area may slightly increase overall based on these recommendations, it ismore confined to the gullies and ridgelines and excludes the more intensively farmed flats.As part of reviewing the ONL boundary situation at Claremont Farms, we found, based on our GIS desktop review, thatthere is potential for further ONL boundary refinement in other areas ofthe Waipara/ Weka Pass ONL. We recommendthat this GIS desktop review is undertaken at a scale of 1: 25.000 on aerial photofor the remainder of that area. Thiswould help to ensure that the limestone features are adequately included inthe ONL and some of the intensivelyfarmed areas that do not form part of the landform are excluded. Such desktop review of the boundaries of the ONLsis recommended across the wider District now that more detailed information is available than it was at the time ofdeveloping the current ONL boundaries. This is a matter for further discussion with the Council.We understand that any other potential ONL issues will be addressed through the submission process, which mayrequire further landscape assessment sment work at a laterstage in the District Plan review process.We reviewed the Geopreservation Inventory for the areaand confirmed that three sites adjacent to the identifiedONL that have not been included. We recommendinclusion of the following three Geopreservation Sites inthe ONL (see Appendix 3 for description):31(1)Deans Earthflow complex (between the Deans andWaipara River),2(2)Waipara River Cretatous Paleocene Sequencebluffs on south bank about 0.7km upstream fromLaidmore Station Road crossing, Waipara Riverbetween Doctors Gorge and junction with BirchHollows Stream),Geopreservation sites at the Waipara Gorge.(3)Waipara River Saurian beds (just downstream of siteNo 2 in Waipara River)Hurunui District | 2013

15SECTION B° NHurunui District | 2013 0 1.5 3 6 Km1:120,000

16Coastal Environment andNatural CharacterBackgroundBML was involved in a region-wide coastal assessment project commissioned by Environment Canterbury (ECan) in2011. The ECan project was completed to a first draft stage, which included delineation of the coastal environment(peer reviewed) and the natural character descriptions (not- peer reviewed). While the region-wide study has notbeen finalised and publicly released, ECan has made the work to date available to HDC internally for their district planreview. ECan provided the existing desktop information from the project, including an extensive record of oblique aerialphotographs and data, for further analysis on a district-wide level.The tasks involved in the Coastal Natural Character Assessment for HDC were the identification and delineation of thecoastal environment, an assessment of the natural character of the coastal environment and identification of Areasof Outstanding Natural Character (ONC, see Policy 13a of the NZCPS). These tasks resulted in an evaluative report andaccompanying GIS maps (see following section) that identify areas of high, very high and outstanding natural character.The ONCs identified in this report are a result of both (1) the extent of the coastal environment and (2) the degree ofnatural character.We would recommend that the evaluative part of the coastal natural character assessment for HDC, including the outlinesof areas of Outstanding Natural Character, is reviewed by an external peer reviewer prior to this report being madepublic.New Zealand Coastal Policy StatementThe recent release of the new Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS 2010) has highlighted the need for identification andmapping of special landscapes occurring curring within the coastal environment. Policies 13 and 14 of the NZCPS (2010) havebeen dedicated to the preservation and restorationof natural character. This includes the identification and protectionof coastal landscapes with high, very high or outstanding natural character . While outstanding natural landscape areashave been addressed in the operative Hurunui District Plan, areas of high natural character have not been specificallyidentified or provided for.DRAFTThe NZCPS 2010 requires councils to assess the natural character of the coastal environment of the region or district, bymapping or otherwise identifying at least areas of high natural character (Policy 13- 1(c)).Therefore, following the release of the NZCPS, an assessment of natural character along the Hurunui Coastline andidentification of areas with high and outstanding natural character was required. It was considered appropriate to (1)determine the inland extent of the coastal environment, (2) determine the degree of coastal natural character presentand (3) identify the spatial extent of any specific preservation or protection ‘zones’ necessary.The Coastal Policy Statement also covers the protection of historic heritage in the coastal environment and highlightsthe need for integrated management not only of historic sites, but also their context. It requires councils to initiateassessment and management of historic heritage in the context of historic landscapes . This matter is dealt withseparately within the District Plan review.Hurunui District | 2013

C11101_overview_map_yp.mxdKm0 5 10 017SECTION C1234567811109Coastal Character Areas Hurunui1 Claverley2 Conway Flats3 Conway Terraces4 Waiau125 Shag Rock6 Gore Bay7 Hurunui8 Stonyhurst9 Motunau IslandWithin the Hurunui Coastal Environment 12 areas havebeen identified that display similar characteristics andlevels of homogeneity.10 Motunau11 CassHurunui District | 201312 Waipara

18Protection of Coastal Natural CharacterSome landscapes that fall within the coastal environment will have natural character that may justify additionalprotection beyond that afforded to other rural landscapes (this will also apply to rivers, wetlands, lakes and their margins).The RMA in s6(a) does not specify a level of quality.Policy 13 of the NZCPS outlines the requirements in relation to the preservation of natural character as follows:(1) To preserve the natural character of the coastal environment and to protect it from inappropriate subdivision,use, and development:(a) avoid adverse effects of activities on natural character in areas of the coastal environment with outstanding (b) avoid significant adverse effects and avoid, remedy or mitigate other adverse effects of activities on natural This highlights that the need for protection from inappropriate subdivision use and development may apply to alllandscapes within the coastal environment but this will also relate strongly to the degree of natural character present. TheONCs provide values that make them “stand out” from the remainder of the coastal environment in terms of their naturalcharacter, and a higher level of protection is therefore warranted.Methodology Coastal Natural Character StudyDefining the Coastal EnvironmentThe RMA 1991 does not define ‘coastal environment’. However, to respond to Policy 1 of the NZCPS 2010: ‘Extent andCharacteristics of the Coastal Environment’ it was necessary essary to adopt a definition. Policy 1 recognises that the extent andcharacteristics of the coastal environment will vary from location to location and identifies nine characteristics which maybe included in the coastal environment:a) The coastal marine area;b) Islands within the coastal marine area;c) Areas where coastal processes, influences or qualities are significant, including coastal lakes, lagoons, tidalestuaries, salt marshes, coastal wetlands, and the margins of these; (Study Team emphasis)d) Areas at risk from coastal hazards;DRAFTe) Coastal vegetation and the habitat of indigenous coastal species including migratory birds;f) Elements and features that contribute to the natural character, landscape, visual qualities or amenity values;g) Items of cultural and historic heritage in the coastal marine area or on the coast;h) Inter-related coastal marine and terrestrial systems, including the intertidal zone; andi) Physical resources and built facilities, including infrastructure, that have modified the coastal environment.however, the list does not provide an answer in how to define this environment.Through the development of a methodology to determine the extent of the coastal environment, BML were guided by allof the identified characteristics, although gave particular consideration to item (c) of Policy 1(2) of the NZCPS 2010 ‘wherecoastal processes, influences or qualities are significant’. This, along with the relationship to the accompanying naturalcharacter study provided helpful guidance. All other characteristics of the coastal environment were also addressed in themethodology.The term ‘significant’ is not defined in the NZCPS 2010. Within the context of the RMA 1991 the word is used to addressSection 6(c) matters. In the context of Policy 1(2)(c) of the NZCPS 2010, the study team have interpreted the termEnglish Dictionary.Hurunui District | 2013

19The seaward extent of the coastal environment extends 12 nautical miles from MHWS and is administered byEnvironment Canterbury. However, whilst Motunau Island is situated in Environment Canterbury's jurisdiction (seawardof the MHWS) it is part of the Hurunui District's responsibility. Although the Hurunui coastline is, for the majority of itslength, generally uniform, specific attention needs to be given to more complex areas, including Gore Bay, river mouthsand areas of bays and beaches.A general rule of thumb is that the inland extent of the coastal environment extends to the first [proximate] significantridgeline inland of the coast, although for flat areas, the boundaries are determined more by landscape character andwhere coastal elements, patterns and processes are still sufficiently significant. The ‘first ridge’ concept has recently beendiscussed in the Mt. Cass Environment Court decision regarding a wind farm proposal:“[320] The Hurunui Commissioners, referring to case law, were persuaded that the coastal environment boundary shouldbe at the dominant landward ridge, which they identified as Mt Cass. We accept that Mt Cass is a dominant ridge andthat glimpses of it can be seen from some parts of the Hurunui coastline. In other cases before the Environment Courta landward ridge has been adopted as a boundary to a coastal environment. However, where a dominant ridge maybe a useful means to identify a coastal environment boundary, such a boundary should be relevant to the coastlineand coastal environment. There is no necessity to identify a dominant ridge in each case, particularly one that may bekilometres away from the coast. In any event we are satisfied that the effects on natural character and landscape wouldnot extend to that area which could properly be considered to be coastal environment of Hurunui.[321] We find that Mt Cass ridge and the dip slope landward of the ridge is not within the coastal environmentand neither is any part of the wind farm. By contending that the coastal environment has an extreme reach, we areconcerned that attention could be drawn from the importance of the coastline and derogate from the focus of section6(a).”Fundamental to this assessment of the Coastal Environment nt is the relevant and accessible data available to informjudgements. This is listed in the Mapping Information on section. The use ofprofessional knowledge of the study teamin relation to the elements outlined within Policy 1 of the NZCPS 2010 was also an essential source of information.Few components listed under Policy 1 have been excluded, whichinclude cultural and historical aspects and benthic/bathometry studies, since limited information was available.The mapping and assessment scale for this task is ‘for thedistrict’.Mapping InformationDRAFTThe scale of the natural character study is critical to the validity of the end results. As outlined earlier, natural characterassessment is scale related and determined by the study brief and to varying extents by the mapping scale of the informationused to determine the outcomes of the project. For this project, the scale is the region, although as describedearlier, mapping is at a district level.SECTION CThe assessment was primarily based on a desktop study and an aerial survey with limited ground-truthing. GIS hasbeen used to systematically map the extent of the Coastal Environment and to map coastal areas. The mapping scaleundertaken for this project is 1:50,000. It is acknowledged that the majority of the data used for this study is at scalesgreater than 1:50,000. The mapping has been undertaken on high resolution aerial images, although presented in thisreport on 1:50,000 topographical maps. Where more intricate sections of the coastline exist, these have been mappedat a finer scale. At these finer scales, GIS allows the viewer to zoom in and assess the exact location of the coastalenvironment. However, extent of the coastal environment and coastal area boundaries in this study were mapped withinthe context of the Canterbury region as a whole and with reference to surrounding broad geographical features, notpaddock by paddock. This broader context should be borne in mind. For a list of GIS information refer to Appendix 4.Hurunui District | 2013

20COASTAL LANDSCAPE: UNDULATING LANDFORM(Extends to12 nauticalmiles)Coastal EnvironmentMHWSZone A: CMA and Active Coastal interfaceCOASTAL LANDSCAPE: FLAT LANDFORM(Extends to12 nauticalmiles)MHWSCMA Active CoastalInterfaceCoastal EnvironmentTZone B : Coastal SignificanceZone A: CMA and Active Coastal interfaceZone B : Coastal SignificanceCMAActive Coastal InterfaceeZone C : Coastal ContextZone C : Coastal ContextRAFTFTHurunui District | 2013

21The Coastal Environment – Zones of SignificanceBML has developed the following model which has been applied to the Hurunui coastline in order to determinethe Coastal Environment, as interpreted under Policy 1 of the NZCPS 2010. Essentially the Coastal Environmentcontains two zones of significance:The Coastal Environment and the Coastal Context Zone can collectively be referred to as The Coastal LandscapeThe two diagrams (opposite) illustrate the extent of the Coastal Environment and the three zones in two verydifferent types of coastal areas: one a steep coastal area and the second a flat coastal area. The diagrams illustratethat the coastal environment is determined by a variety of factors and changes from one coastal area toanother.SECTION CZone AThis zone includes the CMA and the Active Coastal Interface Zone. The CMA includes the sea,rocks and part of the beach up to the mean high water spring (MHWS) mark and extends outto sea for twelve nautical miles*. The Active Coastal Interface is where the sea is the dominantelement, and the primary or significant influence on landform, vegetation, and perception. TheActive Coastal Interface varies in width, but generally extends inland of the MHWS mark andcomprises the inter-tidal area above MHWS, beaches, lagoons, estuaries and their margins, rockypeninsulas and coastal cliffs.Zone BThe Coastal Significance Zone generally includes the land up to the first coastal ridge or escarpment(with the width of this zone varying depending on the topography environment. This zoneis where coastal processes are significant and may include inland cliffs, settled (or modified)dune lands, farm land, settlements and coastal forests.Both zones contain and exhibit coastal processes, influences and qualities that are significant.Inland, beyond the Coastal Environment, is a third area, where coastal processes, influences and qualities arenot significant but form part of the coastal landscape:Zone CThe Coastal Context is where coastal processes inland of the Coastal Environment have anDRARAFTinfluence on the landscape and would include developed back-dunes which no longer exhibitsignificant coastal processes, coastal plains, and containing hill-slopes. This zone generallyextends inland from Zone B to where coastal influences have sufficiently diminished. It is alsorecognised that some activities occurring within this zone can significantly affect the coastal environment(Zones A and B) either perceptually or physically to varying degrees. The inland extentof Zone C has not been mapped, as it falls outside of the Coastal Environment.*The seaward extent of the coastal environment extends 12 nautical miles from MHWS and is administered by EnvironmentCanterbury. However, whilst Motunau Island is situated in Environment Canterbury's jurisdiction (seawardof the MHWS) it is part of the Hurunui District's responsibility.Hurunui District | 2013

22Coastal Natural CharacterEnvironments with the greatest natural character are those devoid or virtually devoid of human modification andare therefore composed of natural elements appearing in natural patterns and underpinned by natural processes.Natural character is not defined in the RMA or in the NZCPS 2010. There are various working definitions of theconcept which are broadly similar and have been used in a number of Environment Court cases. In light of theNZCPS 2010, the definition was also discussed at the first of two workshops convened by DOC in August 2011to discuss potential guidance material in relation to Policy 13 and 14 of the NZCPS. This workshop, attended bylandscape architects, DOC and local authority personnel and other environmental practitioners discussed anddebated the term and its origins. Building on a previous definition from the Ministry for the Environment (MfE), theworkshop confirmed acceptance of the following definition, which is both useful and workable:Natural Character is the term used to describe the natural elements of all coastal environments. The degree or levelof natural character within an environment depends on:4. The effect of different types of modification upon natural character varies with context and may be perceiveddifferently by different parts of the community’This interpretation is referenced to varying degrees in Policy 13 of the NZCPS 2010.Within the ‘Long Bay’ Environment Court decision , the court built upon the ‘Outstanding Natural Featuresand Landscape’ definition of naturalness outlined within the ‘Wakatipu Environmental Society Incorporated vQueenstown Lakes District Council’ . Although specifically relating to ‘natural’ under Section 6b (of outstandingnatural landscapes), paragraph 135 of the Long Bay decision states the following definition of ‘natural’:‘The absence or compromised presence of one or more of these criteria does not mean that the landscape orcoastal environment is non-natural, just that it is less natural. There is a spectrum of naturalness from a pristinenatural landscape to a city scape, and a ‘cultured nature’ landscape may still be an outstanding natural landscape.’ DRAFTSince the development of the MfE definition, and the ‘Long Bay’ decision, the NZCPS 2010 has come into effectwhich states (Policy 13) that natural character may include:(a) natural elements, processes and patterns;(b) biophysical, ecological, geological and geomorphological aspects;(c) natural landforms such as headlands, peninsulas, cliffs, dunes, wetlands, reefs, freshwater springs andsurf breaks;(d) the natural movement of water and sediment;(e) the natural darkness of the night sky;(f) places or areas that are wild or scenic;(g) a range of natural character from pristine to modified; and(h) experiential attributes, including the sounds and smell of the sea; and their context or setting.Recognising a lack of guidance for the implementation/interpretation of the NZCPS 2010, BML held a two-day inhouseworkshop in early 2011 to develop a consistent approach to natural character assessment and interpretationof NZCPS 2010 terms. At the BML 2011 workshop, it was evident that ecologists’ and landscape architects’ views of‘natural’ and ‘naturalness’ are complementary yet sufficiently different to warrant further clarification. Ecologistsinterpret natural character in terms of indigenous attributes, whereas landscape architects take a broader viewthat can encompass both indigenous and exotic natural attributes. Accordingly, the thresholds differ and a refineddefinition of ‘naturalness’ was agreed as being:Hurunui District | 2013

23i) Ecological naturalness (indigenous nature); and Through the BML 2011 workshop, participants were able to develop a consistent company-wide assessmentapproach that incorporates both landscape and ecological expertise as well as taking into consideration the ‘MfEdefinition’, case law (including the ‘Long Bay’ decision), and those definitions developed in the NZILA Best PracticeNote 2010 . The assessment approach is based upon an agreed interpretation of key terminology, and includes amethod for determining the inland extent of the Coastal Environment (refer to the Coastal Environment discussionabove) as well as an assessment matrix and evaluation methodology for identifying ‘high’ and ‘outstanding’ naturalcharacter (as required by Policy 13 of the NZCPS 2010). Importantly, the BML methodology can be adapted to suitdifferent types and scales of coastal landscapes.SECTION CFor the purposes of this project, the following key points are noted: Limited input on ecological values was provided by BML ecologists. Marine ecology information was providedthrough Department of Conservation publications. That natural character assessment is context and scale related, so that the coastal environment can beperceived as having different levels of natural character at different scales, because the level of detail thatcan be discerned and the dominant attributes that are displayed vary according to the scale at which theyare considered. Similarly, a proposal can have different effects on natural character when the surroundingenvironment is considered at different scales. For the purposes poses of this assessment, the scale assessed is at the That natural character occurs on a modification continuum and describes the expression of natural elements,patterns and processes (or the ‘naturalness’) in a landscape where the degree of ‘naturalness’ depends on: The fact that the highest degree of natural character (greatest naturalness) occurs where there is least The fact that the degree of natural character is fluid and can change over time.DRAFTSignificant rocky reefs occur around the limestone outcrops at Napenape where impressive rock platforms protrude inparallel bands for over 100m from the shore.Hurunui District | 2013

24Natural Character Assessment and Key IndicatorsThe degree or level of natural character has been, for the purposes of this study, ranked on a seven-point scale:Very High (lowest amount of modification), High, Moderate to High, Moderate, Moderate to Low, Low and VeryLow (greatest amount of modification). In accordance with the requirement outlined within Policy 13 of the NZCPS2010, at least areas of high natural character have been mapped. For completeness, all coastal areas have beenmapped according to their degree of natural character (i.e. very low through to very high). The rateable ‘degree’of natural character for each coastal area were obtained by amalgamating the ‘values’ assigned to each of thefive attributes assessed as listed in the table below. The ratings for each coastal area were considered in a districtcontext, therefore an area holding high natural character holds that rating value at a district scale, not at a regionalor national scale.As part of this study, the Hurunui coastline has been divided into 12 coastal areas that share a similar characterand are broadly homogenous. Coastal areas range in length and overall size, depending on type of coastline andvariation of landscape character. Some coastal areas may contain smaller ‘highlights’ such as headlands or rivermouths, but are an integral component of the broader coastal area.Coastal Areas and the Coastal Environment Assessment MatrixIt is acknowledged that there are a number of key attributes that need to be considered when assessing the naturalcharacter of the coastal environment. Through BML’s experience and the interpretation of the NZCPS 2010, thefollowing attributes have been identified which consider/ reference the different aspects of the natural patterns,processes and elements of the coastal environment and the degree e of modification present. All aspects are coveredwithin Policy 1 of the NZCPS 2010 and some further refinement of the list may berequired:WaterAbioticSystems andLandforms[Zone A]. Includes the water body of the CMA (including surf breaks) and landforms withinthe Active Coastal Interface and below MHWS (e.g. rocks, reefs, stacks, channels). Alsoincludes habitats, ts, biota and naturalprocesses within Zone A. This excludes water-bodiesabove MHWS (or those contained within Zone B). Considers the degree of modificationDRAFTFTsuch as changed water courses, earthworks, presence of built structures, (moorings, jetties,marine farms, and navigation structures), and dredging.[Zones A & B.] Abiotic systems, including the degree of activeness of the tide, waves andcurrents as well as wind, landform and terrestrial coastal formation, erosion, river mouthprocesses including sedimentation. Geomorphology, identification of different types oflandforms and landforming processes (e.g. dunes, wetlands) and the physical modificationsto these natural landforms such as built structures, road cuts, earthworks and reclamationworks are also an important component of this attribute.Perceptual &experientialTerrestrial &aquatic(Biotic Systems)Land Cover &Land Use[[Zones A & B]. Natural attributes regarding the experience in seeing/feeling/ and perceivingthe coastal environment. This includes aromas, aesthetics, auditory, sense of wildness,remoteness, isolation. Includes ephemeral human activity (such as recreation and commercialactivities: including ports, marinas and aquaculture).[Zone B]. This attribute applies to estuaries, wetlands and terrestrial areas in Zone B and isecologically and processes based. Intactness and expression/appearance of natural ecologicalprocesses ranging has been considered from dominant to non-existent. Diversity ofspecies, communities and habitat form part of this attribute.[Zone B]. Land Cover and associated land use, including the composition, distribution, andcondition of land cover including presence of indigenous/exotic species. Biotic systems areoutlined above. This attribute also includes settlements, roads and other built forms.Hurunui District | 2013

25Degree of NaturalCharacterNatural Character AttributesZone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLandCover &Land UseZone CThe CoastalContext ZoneVery High Descriptive textHigh around elements that still mayModerate to High contain ‘significant’ModerateModerate to LowLowVery Lowaspectsof the CoastalEnvironment butfall within theCoastal Context(Zone C).Overall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe above attributes have been assessed for each coastal area and considered as part of a matrix. The attribute tablehas been developed to avoid double-counting and to ensure e that the indicators for each attribute are mutually exclusive.There are, however, overlaps between some attributes, tes, which is reflected in the descriptions for each coastal area. Eachattribute has been considered equally, with no weighting applied.The degree of natural character for each coastal area was then assessed, based on an aggregation of the values. Thestudy team acknowledge that not all attributes within each coastal area need to score ‘high’ to hold an overall ratingof high. In some instances a coastal area which rates highly overall, may only have a few attributes holding high or veryhigh ratings. While the study team tried to maintain a high level of objectivity throughout this process, professionaljudgment was involved in the determination of the thresholds. This was based on a rigorous analysis of the dataavailable and a carefully crafted methodology. Whilst in some instances the overall natural character rating for a coastalarea was obvious ( fell at either end of the continuum), particular consideration arose around areas those areasholding ‘moderate‘ ratings.HIghDRAFTSECTION CFurthermore, Zone C has also been considered, as it is acknowledged that elements within this zone can also affect thenatural character of the coastal environment. No value system has been ascribed to Zone C, only a description.Hurunui District | 2013

26Outstanding Natural CharacterUnder RMA s6(a) it is necessary to determine the existing attributes and extent of natural character and assesshow these will be affected by a specific proposal. This approach is also required under the NZCPS 2010. However,Policy 13 of the NZCPS 2010 also specifically requires that an evaluation is made as to whether the natural characterin the existing coastal environment is outstanding or not (in order to determine whether Policy 13(1)(a) or 13(1)(b) is triggered). Policy 13(1) of the NZCPS 2010 states:(1) (a) avoid adverse effects of activities on natural character in areas of the coastal environment withoutstanding natural character; and(b) avoid significant adverse effects and avoid, remedy or mitigate other adverse effects of activitiesAn area with outstanding natural character may be an area within the coastal environment that is considered tohave high or very high levels of natural character, although it is important to note that the high or very high ratingsdo not equate in themselves to ‘outstanding’.The following definitions were established and agreed at the BML 2011 internal workshop:others in the same study context.‘Outstanding Natural Character’: The coastal environment may be outstandingwhere it has high or very high levelsof natural character.It was determined by the study team that outstanding natural character should be assessed separately. An assessmentto establish whether all or parts of a coastal area contains outstanding natural character is undertaken onlywhen all of the attributes, when assessed at an adequate scale andusing adequate data, is assessed as containing‘high’ or ‘very high’ levels of natural character.Of the attributes within a coastal area having ‘high’ or ‘very high’ levels of natural character to be considered ‘outstanding’,they must: ‘exhibit a combination of natural elements, patterns and processes that are exceptional intheir extent, intactness, integrity and lack of built structures (the ‘clutter’ factor ) and other modifications comparedto other areas in the Hurunui District.DRAFTAreas of Outstanding Natural Character have been mapped and identified by their extent.The isolated Waiau River Mouth (above) is separated from inland basins by a range of coastal hills in privateownership.Hurunui District | 2013

C11101_overview_map_yp.mxdKm0 3. 5 .5 1527Coastal AreaMotunau IslandWaiauConway TerracesClaverleyShag RockHurunuiStonyhurstCassGore BayConway FlatsMotunauWaiparaEvaluationVery HighHighHighHighHighHighHighHighModerateModerateModerateModerateClaverleyConway FlatsConway TerracesWaiauShag RockGore BayHurunuiStonyhurstMotunauMotunau IslandCassSummary of NaturalCharacter AssessmentWaiparasee Section D of report for detailed descriptionand assessment of each areaHurunui District | 2013Natural Character EvaluationVery LowLowMediumHighVery High

28Hurunui Coastal AreasBased on the methodology in outlined in Section C of this report 12 coastal areas with homogenous landscape characterwere identified. The following section provides a description and assessment of the natural character values of each area.Coastal Area 1 : ClaverleyThe northernmost coastal area of the district is broadly defined by the Okarahia Stream, which enters the seaimmediately south of the Haumuri Bluffs, which are part of the Kaikoura District. The coastline is accessible inparts, via the Claverley Road, which terminates at Claverley. The main north railway line extends close to the coastalong this stretch of the district. There are several watercourses that drain the inland hills in this rural coastal area,including Claverley Creek and Waitotaranui where deep incised, bush-clad gullies divide the grassy paddocks.Coastal ContextThe hinterland of this coastal area contains the eastern part of the undulating Hundalee Hills, which are dissectedby SH1. Generally the land cover of the foothills is modified by pastoral use, with some remnants of nativevegetation in the gullies and stream, such as the kanuka and broadleaf vegetation in the Okarahia Stream and OldClaverley Creek catchments.° N0 0. 5 1.5 KmHurunui District | 20131:50,000

29SECTION DRocky outcrops and terraces are particularly well developed around the Haumuri Bluffs where mudstone and foldedlimestone platforms slope gently for more than 100m seaward.TSpy Glass Point (pictured, Haumuri Cliffs in background) is one of the key landmarks on the Canterbury coast line,marking the transition between the rocky Kaikoura coast and marine terraces and sea cliffs of the Conway area.Representative coastal diagram of Claverley.Hurunui District | 2013

30Coastal Area 1 : ClaverleyNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High HighModerate to High ModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe main north railway line extends along this entireHector’s dolphins and whales are often encounteredcoastline, where passengers would experience close-uparound Haumuri Bluffs and along this coastal part ofsea views. Otherwise this part of the coast is reason-northern Hurunui. The sub tidal marine ecosystems onably yremote.the rocky shore are an important attribute of this area,similarly to other shore platformsalong the KaikouraTerrestrial BioticSystemcoast to the north.The principal terrestrialbiotic values are held withinAbiotic Systems andthe incised gully systemsLandformwhich harbour a mosaicThe coastline comprisesof indigenous vegetation.narrow gravel beachesThese gullies are separatedbacked by eroding escarpments.These sea cliffs formfrom each other by broad,flat topped high producingthe seaward extent of thegrass paddocks, which areuplifted marine terraces ofoften lightly grazed.the Conway Coast, which occurbetween Dawn Creek and changes from cliffs and rocky offshore platformsSouth of Haumuri Bluffs the Hurunui CoastlineLand Cover and LandHaumuri Bluffs. The raised to narrow gravel beaches backed by erodingUsecoastal plains consist of escarpments.The railway line and Claverleyloess, gravel and tertiary rock.Road, which extend along theA tertiary hillscape forms the hinterland with colluvial/coast line represents the most significant human interventionin this area. The general land use is predomi-alluvial slopes and fans between the raised coastalplains and hills. Offshore, the seafloor steepens rapidly.nantly farming, but native vegetation is regeneratingon the steep slopes and incised stream catchments inPerceptualthe northern part of this coastal area.Although Claverley Road extends along part of thiscoastline, the road terminates south of the Claverleyfarmstead and does not attract any through-traffic.DRAFTFTFTHurunui District | 2013High

31SECTION DClaverley Road extends along part of this coastline, theroad terminates south of the Claverley farmstead and doesnot attract any through-traffic.DRThe general land use is predominantly farming, but native vegetation is regenerating on the steep slopes and incisedstream catchments in the northern part of this coastal area. Views from Claverley Beach northwards to HaumuriBluffs are particularly spectacular.Hurunui District | 2013

32Coastal Area 2 : Conway FlatsThe coast between the settlement at Claverley to the north and Sawpit Creek to the south, features the ConwayRiver mouth and lagoon. This area south of the impressive Haumuri Bluffs and headland of Spy Glass Point comprisesmodified lowland farms backing high-energy gravel beaches. This coastal area is predominantly intensivelyfarmed flats which contrast with the natural patterns around the centrally located Conway River mouth.Coastal ContextThe Conway Flats are intensively farmed with a patchwork of improved pastures. The backdrop of the Conway Flatsis dominated by the Hundalee Hills, where the Conway River emerges between Mt Guardian to the north and SkullPeak to the south. The Derek and Limestone Stream catchments on the northern slopes contain large areas of regeneratingscrub, such as kanuka, while the southern hills are generally covered in extensive pastures. Remnants ofnative vegetation can be found in the gullies of the incised Waitotaranui Creek catchment and above the ConwayRiver. A Geopreservation Site is situated at the Lower Conway railway cutting, which displays a good section of iceage deposits.AFT° N0 1 Km1:60,000Hurunui District | 2013

33SECTION DThe Conway River emerges from the foothills approximately 3km upstream of its mouth. In its lower section it forms asmall braided river delta.Representative coastal diagram of Conway Flats.Hurunui District | 2013

35over. Elephant seals sometimes come ashore in thevicinity of the Conway River mouth. New Zealand furseal use this area for breeding and hauling out, as farsouth as Motunau Island. The lagoon at the ConwayRiver mouth is notable for its unusual salt marshcommunity, including a native sedge and raupo, whichfringes parts of the landward margins of the lagoon.A small area of conservation land is designated alongthe Conway River mouth with the remainder of thecoastal plains in pastoral farming uses. The trees liningthe lower Conway and river mouth are predominantlyexotic, in particular willows and wattles form densefloodplain forests along some sections of the banks.Land Cover and Land UseThe gravel beach and Conway River mouth/ lagoon arefree of human modification and structures, howeverthe coastal plains are dominated by agricultural landuses apart from the native vegetation occurring aroundthe river mouth. The majority of the coastal plainscontain paddocks, separated by coniferous shelterbelts.Settlement in the coastal environment is very limited.There are few individual houses near the northern andsouthern extent of the area in proximity to the coast.SECTION DAlluvial flats surround the lower Conway, backed by the Hundalee foothills and raised marine terraces to the northand south.Hurunui District | 2013

36Coastal Area 3 : Conway TerracesSouth of the Conway River a series of raised marine terraces extends to the mouth of the Waiau River. Theseterraces are dissected by numerous ephemeral streams which drain the steeply rising hill slopes of the HawkswoodRange to the west. The native vegetation contained in these deeply incised gullies is notable and contrasts withthe improved paddocks on the flat elevated terraces. Steep sea cliffs and a narrow gravel beach form the ruggedcoastline.Coastal ContextThe Hawkswood Range, which rises to almost 700 metres in height, separates the Conway coast from the inlandParnassus Basin. Various terrace levels can be distinguished on the eastern slopes of the range between HaumuriBluffs in the north and Waiau River in the south. While the terraces are flat or gently sloping, the hill slopes riserelatively steeply to the west. The large areas of regenerating forest, predominantly containing kanuka, interspersedwith broadleaf bush in the gullies are notable on the upper slopes of the Hawkswood Range.RAFT° N0 1. 5 .5 Km1:80,000Hurunui District | 2013

38Coastal Area 3 : Conway TerracesNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High High Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe foreshore of this coastal area is formed byerosion and fan accumulation can be recognisednarrow, high energy gravel beaches. Coastal erosionon the Conway Coast. In the last glacial phasedominates in this area. The Waiau River to the south isextensive alluvial fans developed, which have beenan important coastalfurther covered bysediment supplier.loess. Following theBushett Shoal, whichrapid uplift of thecontains rocky offshoreHawkswood Range,bars, lies somedistinctive drainage7 km off the coast,patterns of deeplyapproximately half wayincised streamsbetween the mouthsdeveloped on theof the Conway andslopes and alongWaiau Rivers. Bushettthe terraces. TheShoal can generallymarine terraces formbe spotted from thea large identifiedturbulence around theGeopreservation Site,sunken rocks. Theseand are particularlyrocky sea-mounts riseThe elevated tops of the terraces are farmed and devoid of nativelegible. A fossil forestfrom 40 metres to justvegetation, while bush remnants are confined to the incisedand marine fossila few metres below thegully systems.traces, which aresurface of the water.located at the backOn their seawardof the gravel beach near Ploughman Creek, have alsoside is the very deep water of the southern end of thebeen identified as such sites. The most recent erosionalKaikoura Canyon.processes have created impressive steep sea cliffsAbiotic Systems and Landformimmediately adjacent to the gravel beaches on theforeshore.Three ice-age cycles of marine cliffing, marineaggradation, regression of the sea, followed byRAFTFTFTHIghHurunui District | 2013

39PerceptualThis impressive coastal area is in private ownershipand difficult to access, as the Conway Flat Road endsin a dead-end farm track to the south of Conway Flatsettlement. The narrow beach strip is backed by steeperoding cliffs, which form a visual separation betweenthe foreshore and the high-lying terraces. The farmedtops of the terraces contrast with the densely bushcladgullies that create a distinctive drainage patternacross the elevated flats and slopes. The Bushett Shoalsunken reef system attracts many keen boat fishermenin search of trumpeter and blue cod.Terrestrial Biotic SystemsThe New Zealand fur seal breeds in this area betweenthe Conway River mouth and Motunau Island. Thegullies, created by eroding streams, contain dense bushand forest remnants and provide a connection to thecoastal strip, while the seas cliffs separate the higherterraces from the shoreline. Some of the gullies containQE II covenants. Big Bush Gully and Ploughman’sStream contain broadleaf indigenous hardwoods, whilemost of the other gullies are covered in regeneratingbush, predominantly kanuka.Land Cover and Land UseThe elevated tops of the terraces are farmed and devoidof native vegetation, while bush remnants are confinedto the incised gully systems. Overall the indigenouslandcover in this area is of significance given therarity of native bush along the coastline to the south.Man-made structures and landform modificationsare minimal, but agricultural land use modificationsdominate the flat terraces.SECTION DThe native vegetation contained in these deeply incised gullies is notable and contrasts with the improved paddockson the flat elevated terraces.Hurunui District | 2013

40Coastal Area 4 : WaiauThis relatively short coastal area contains the Waiau River mouth, which is the largest river in the northern part ofthe Canterbury Coast. The river mouth is inaccessible, as a coastal hill range separates the coast from the inlandParnassus Basin, which contains the township of Cheviot and other settlements. The braided river meandersthrough steep coastal mountain ranges and terminates in a large lagoon, which extends for over 2 km along thecoast.Coastal ContextPodocarp forest remnants can be found inland of the coastal environment, such as within Settlers Bush on theslopes above the true left bank of the lower Waiau. Dead Mans Hill to the north and Mt Eleanor to the south forma strong boundary to the coast. Access and the visual connection to the coast from the inland basin, which isconsiderably more modified, is limited.RA° N0 0. 5 1.5 Km1:50,000Hurunui District | 2013

41SECTION DThe Waiau River mouth, similar to other rivers in northern Canterbury, terminates in a hapua-type lagoon, created bysediment drift that builds up a beach barrier.The shoreline around the Waiau mouth is made up of low-resistant marine sandstone and siltstone overlaying hardergreywacke which contrasts with the harder more resistant greywacke shores to the north.Representative coastal diagram of Waiau.Hurunui District | 2013

42Coastal Area 4 : WaiauNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High High Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaPerceptualThe Waiau River is the dominant coastal sediment plier in North Canterbury, as it delivers five times thesup-amount of sedimentfrom the HurunuiRiver to the south. Themarine environment isunmodified.This inaccessible part of the northern Canterbury coastcan onlybe experienced by jet-boat from the river orby boat from the coast,as surrounding landis in private ownership.Visually the rivermouth is separatedfrom the inland basinsAbiotic Systemsand LandformThe Waiau Rivermouth, similar toother rivers in northernCanterbury, terminatesby a range of coastalhills. Archaeologicalsites in the reservenear the mouth tellthe story of early a hapua-type lagoon,created by sedimentdrift that builds upa beach barrier. Theshoreline around theWaiau mouth is madeThe Waiau River is the dominant coastal sediment supplierin North Canterbury, as it delivers five times the amount ofsediment as the Hurunui River to the south.Terrestrial BioticSystemsThe Waiau River mouthand lagoon representan important site forup of low-resistant marine sandstone and siltstoneoverlaying harder greywacke which contrasts with theharder more resistant greywacke shores to the north.Only a small fan delta has developed between theeroding cliffs surrounding the river mouth and extendingalong its lower reaches. The north bank serves as agood example of Hurunui soils under lowland forest.birds, including a small pied cormorant colony and ablack-fronted tern wintering site. A large DOC managedscenic reserve is located on the northern banks abovethe Waiau River mouth, referred to as Faraway Reserve.Within the reserve, an isolated lowland podocarpbroadleavedforest is situated on steep terrain, fringedwith kanuka forest. Scattered podocarps can also befound on hill slopes elsewhere in this coastal area, asRAFTFTFTHurunui District | 2013High

43well as on the northern river terrace and valley floor.Kanuka forest and mixed shrubland is common onthe forest margin. The remainder of the hill slopes iscovered with silver tussock and introduced pasturegrassland. Dalziels Gully on the southern bank containsindigenous hardwoods and remnant lowland podocarpforest which is of high ecological value. However,overall native vegetation is more limited than to thenorth of the river mouth.Land Cover and Land UseThe hill slopes on the south bank are predominantlycovered in extensively grazed pastoral farmland,but the DOC managed scenic reserve on the northbank contains a significant area of native podocarp/broadleaved forest. There is no significant humanintervention in the form of man-made structures orlandform modifications in this coastal area. Access isexclusively by boat or farm track.SECTION DThere is no significant human intervention ntion inthe form of man-made structures or landform modifications in thiscoastal area.DA large DOC managed scenic reserve is located on the northern banks above the Waiau River mouth, referred to asFaraway Reserve.Hurunui District | 2013

44Coastal Area 5 : Shag RockThe Waiau River mouth forms the northern boundary of this coastal area, which extends to the northern endof Gore Bay. This stretch of coast is distinctive due to its intricate shoreline with protruding rock platforms andoffshore rock stacks. Shag Rock is the most prominent of these coastal features. The upper slopes and spurs in thiscoastal area are generally extensively grazed, while the lower steep slopes contain more native vegetation. Thesteeply rising hinterland confines the coastal catchment and separates it from the inland basin around Cheviot.Coastal ContextThe coastal foothills between Mt Maccoinnich, Mt Caverhill and Mt Beautiful, which are around 400 metres inheight, separate the narrow coastal strip from the Parnassus Basin inland. While most streams have a very shortand steep catchment, Cadman Stream extends over 3km inland and contains significant areas of native bushremnants. St Anne’s Lagoon near Cheviot is outside the coastal context, but serves as an important habitat forwaterfowl.A° N0 0. 5 1.5 Km1:50,000Hurunui District | 2013

45SECTION DThis stretch of coast is distinctive due to its intricate shoreline with protruding rock platforms and offshore rock stacks.Shag Rock is the most prominent of these coastal features.Representative coastal diagram of Shag Rock.Hurunui District | 2013

46Coastal Area 5 : Shag RockNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High High Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe offshore rock stacks of Shag Rock create a marinehabitat that is distinctively different to the sweepingcoastline of Gore Bay to the south. These significantrocky reefs protrude insome cases for a coupleof hundred metres offshore.Abiotic Systemsand LandformA narrow strip ofboulder/ gravel beachis backed by steeplyrising eroding slopes.The drainage patternof the western hillshas created dissectedspurs, which abruptlydrop to the coastline.Scree slopes provideevidence of recent erosional processes. Shag Rock, aformer headland relic just offshore, is a remarkablelandscape feature. At Shag Rock, a GeopreservationSite has been identified around an occurrence of pillowlava, which is a good example of large pillows withradial jointing.PerceptualHighThis inaccessible part of coastline would best beexperienced by boat, since most slopes terminate ineroding sea cliffs whichlimits access fromthe west. Only a fewprivate farm trackscross the coastal hillsbetween the coastlineand the ParnassusBasin. Offshore rockstacks, in particulararound headlands,provide visualinterest, Shag Rockis the largest, mostprominent formation.RAFTFTFTTerrestrial BioticSystemsThe spurs high above the protruding headlands aregenerally grazed and devoid of native bush. However,on the steep coastal slopes, in particular north of ShagRock and below Mt Beautiful, broadleaved indigenoushardwoods form a relatively coherent cover. Shag RockScenic Reserve contains coastal forest with a notablepodocarp component, situated on remote steep gullies,ridges and hill slopes extending from sea level to 250m.Hurunui District | 2013

47Apart from hardwoods, the forest also contains manukaand kanuka forest, surrounded by bracken fernlandand silver tussock on farmland margins. The coastlinebeside the reserve supports a large and expandingfur seal colony. Shag Rock supports breeding gulls andshags and there are occasional nesting colonies ofwhite-fronted terns along this coastline.Land Cover and Land UseWhile the majority of the hills are covered in modifiedgrassland, which is extensively grazed, there areconfined areas in the northern part of this coastal areathat contain coastal broadleaved hardwood forest withpodocarp tree species. The pattern of vegetation withforest contained in gullies on steeper slopes, reflectsland use limitations. The scenic reserve was gazettedin 1993 and shows significant regeneration. No manmadestructures and very limited tracks are present inthis area.SECTION DNorth of Shag Rock and below Mt Beautiful (pictured), broadleaved indigenous hardwoods form a relatively coherentcover.Hurunui District | 2013

48Coastal Area 6 : Gore BayThe long sweep of Gore Bay covers a distance of over 5 kilometres between the rocky shoreline to the north andthe distinctive headland of Point Gibson. The area is characterised by eroding cliffs projecting offshore at PortRobinson, with sections of rocky shorelines, shore platforms, steep, composite beaches, mixed sand and gravelbeaches, and sandy beaches. There are no significant coastal plains.Coastal ContextGore Bay Scenic Reserve with its walking tracks extends beyond the identified coastal environment. While theCathedrals are the key feature of the reserve, the forest and shrubland on steep slopes of gullies and badlandsare also distinctive for the hinterland. The access road to the inland basin follows the Jed River. The Jed River andBuxton Creek with their tributaries contain native vegetation, while the remainder of hills in the hinterland arecovered in extensive pasture.DRAFT° N0 0. 5 1.5 Km1:50,000Hurunui District | 2013

49SECTION DPort Robinson (north), Point Gibson (centre) and Manuka Bay (south). A Geopreservation Site has been identifiedaround the prominent Cathedrals Rock Pillars (north of Port Robinson).TThe Jed River in the northern part of this area has created a beach and narrow coastal plain, while the sea cliffs risesteeply from the coast around Point Gibson in the south. Gore Bay (left) and Jed Valley and River (right).Representative coastal diagram of Gore Bay.Hurunui District | 2013

50Coastal Area 6 : Gore BayNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialVery HighHigh Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe coast of Gore Bay is characterised by a composite,rather than mixed sand and gravel beach types. Thismeans that the upper foreshore is composed ofvariable mixturesof sand and gravel,while the adjacentforeshores andswash zones aresandy. The sandis therefore onlyexposed at low tide.A narrow lagoon hasformed to the southof the Jed Rivermouth, which isgenerally blocked bythe beach barrier.AbioticSystems and LandformThe Jed River in the northern part of this area hascreated a beach and narrow coastal plain, while the seacliffs rise steeply from the coast around Point Gibson inthe south. North of Tweedies Gully, the tidal foreshoreis contained by a backshore beach with limited sandand dune deposits. The steep to very steep sea cliffs tothe west are formed by erosional hill slopes comprisingloess mantled soft rock. The hinterland transitions intoHurunui District | 2013Moderaterolling spurs and gully systems. Around Point Gibsonthe backshore is absent and sea cliffs with earth flows,land sliding and badlands have been formed by erosionadjacent to the coast. Tunnel gullying and sheet/ rillerosion zones canbe found aroundthis stretch of coastwith easy rollingremnant coastalterraces and plainsin the hinterland.A GeopreservationSite has beenidentified aroundthe prominentCathedrals RockPillars, which are oneof the best examplesin New Zealand oflarge-scale badlandserosion with deeply dissected and fluted gravel cliffsand pinnacles, measuring 12-16 metres in height.RAFTFTFTPerceptualWhile the coastline to the north and south of Gore Bayis sparsely populated, the small settlements locatedat Port Robinson and Gore Bay are popular holidaydestinations. Manukau Bluff separates the coastlinebetween the two settlements, with Gore Bay adjacent

51to the beach and Port Robinson on an elevated terracenear the headland ofPoint Gibson. Visitorscome to experience thebeach at Gore Bay, thePort Robinson coastalwalkway, Tweedies/Cathedral Gully track andpopular surfbreaks. WhileGore Bay settlement islocated in a sheltered bay,Point Gibson is a windsweptheadland that Rocky shore, Gore Bay.allows for long distanceviews along the coast.Several archaeologicalsites are located near theshore around Gore Bayand Jed Vale, as a sign ofearly Maori occupation.Terrestrial BioticSystemsGore Bay Scenic Reservecontains a coastal Cathedral Rock Pillars.broadleaved forest withmanuka (rather than the more common on kanuka) onsteeper gully slopes, with scattered shrublands mixedwithin calcareous siltstone badlands. This reserveDRAFprotects an example of Medina intergrade soils andit is one of only a fewreserves where yellow andgrey-yellow brown earthsoccur under coastal nativevegetation.Land Cover and LandUseThe land cover of thiscoastal area is varied,where pastoral farmingis located on spurs andgentler slopes, and nativevegetation generallythriving in the incisedgullies and near streambeds. The most significantareas of coastal bush occurwithin the Gore Bay ScenicReserve around Tweediesand Cathedral Gully andin steep coastal gulliesaround Manukau Bluff.Gore Bay and Port Robinsonsettlements contain the mostsignificant nodes of development along this otherwisesparsely populated coast.SECTION DManuka Bluff (centre) separates the coastline between Gore Bay and Port Robinson, with Gore Bay adjacent to thebeach and Port Robinson on an elevated terrace near the headland of Point Gibson.Hurunui District | 2013

52Coastal Area 7 : HurunuiThe Hurunui River mouth is the key feature of the coastal section between Point Gibson and Napenape. ManukaBay in the northern part of this coastal area is separated by a rocky headland below Mt Seddon. Further south isthe Hurunui River mouth and associated Hurunui Lagoon. The tiny settlement of Napenape forms the end of along gravel road accessing the coast from inland Greta Valley, while a bridge across the Lower Hurunui connectsthe area to the north.Coastal ContextThe Blythe River valley and the lower reaches of the Hurunui River connect this part of the coast with the inlandbasins to the west. The braided Hurunui flows through a constricted passage above the mouth as it passesthrough the coastal foothills that confine the coastal area to the west.FT° N0 1 Km1:60,000Hurunui District | 2013

53SECTION DManuka Bay (pictured) in the northern part of this coastal area is separated by a rocky headland below Mt Seddon.Further south is the Hurunui River mouth and associated Hurunui Lagoon.TThe Hurunui River forms a small river delta surrounded by coastal cliffs and the mouth terminates in a hapua –typelagoon, which is a coast-parallel water body.Representative coastal diagram of Hurunui.Hurunui District | 2013

54Coastal Area 7 : HurunuiNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High High Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaRock stacks around Point Gibson assist in confiningManuka Bay, which contains a sweeping black sand/pebble beach. A small headland provides a naturalbarrier for theHurunui Lagoonextending northfrom the mouth.Around the Hurunuimouth and to thesouth at Napenapea relatively wideshingle beach hasformed with adistinctive foreshoreand backshore.The Hurunui River forms a small river delta surroundedby coastal cliffs and the mouth terminates in ahapua –type lagoon, which is a coast-parallel waterbody. The lagoonpredominantlycontains freshwater, impoundedby a long, narrowspit formed ofcoarse sediments bylongshore drift. Thebeach barrier offsetsthe river mouth overa kilometre to thenorth unless theriver is breachingAbioticSystems andLandformUnlike Point Gibsonand the shorelineto the north of GoreImportant areas of native vegetation can be found in and aroundthe DOC reserves and in gullies, such as those below Mt Seddon.Otherwise the rural landscape is dominated by improved pastures forfarming.this during floods.The lagoon receivessome salt by sprayand washover.A strikingamphitheatre-shapedBay, the beach in this area is wide enough to containa homogenous foreshore and a backshore with fansand badlands. These backshore areas with scattereddriftwood are backed by gullies and erosion zones thathave developed in the gravel with easy rolling remnantcoastal terraces plains in hinterland.slumpedarea occurs near the southern boundaryof this coastal area. Unusual and varied limestonelandforms in this area, located within the NapenapeScenic Reserve, include colluvial hill slopes, limestonebedrock cliffs and outcrops, screes, sinkholes andblockfields.RAFThapuaFTFTHighHurunui District | 2013

55Near the Hurunui River mouth a good example ofsandstone intrusions, which have been forced intooverlying rocks, can be found. This formation thatrepresents a recording of the geological episode ofdeformation, is identified as a Geopreservation Site.PerceptualThe coastal area can be accessed via a gravel roadfrom the southwest or on a shorter sealed from thesettlement of Domett. The Port Robinson walkway runsalong this coastal strip, passing through spectacularscenery and forested scenic reserves. Near the southernend of this coastal area, good views are gained of theHurunui River mouth and lagoon. Two scenic reserves,in Manuka Bay and at Napenape, provide publicaccess. The naturalness of the bush-sea interface andlimestone cliffs in the Napenape amphitheatre areparticularly impressive. A popular camp ground islocated near the Hurunui River mouth, an area that isfrequented for fishing. Several archaeological sites withmiddens, fire areas and artefacts have been recorded atthe Hurunui River mouth and Napenape.Terrestrial Biotic SystemsThe land administered by DOC in Manuka Bay andNapenape Scenic Reserves contains coastal al bush ofngaio, akeake, golden akeake, shining broadleaf andkowhai. Within the Napenape Scenic Reserve, drynative coastal forest occurs on limestone substrate,which is uncommon in New Zealand. The rare grassAstrofestuca littoralis is found on coastal margin of thereserve, within the splash zone.The Hurunui River mouth and lagoon are importantsites for birds. On the Hurunui River mouth spit,variable oystercatchers and banded dotterels nest. It isalso an important black-fronted tern wintering site andan occasional nesting area of white-fronted terns.Land Cover and Land UseSmall settlements can be found in this coastal areawhere road access exists, such as at the HurunuiMouth. The bridge across the Hurunui is locatedapproximately one kilometre inland of the coast.A camp ground and other man-made structuresare clustered ed inland of the mouth, in particular onthe north bank. Exotic deciduous hardwoods linethe Hurunui River andsmall-scale exotic coniferplantations have been planted on some steep coastalFTslopes for erosion control. However, important areasof native vegetation can be found in and around theDOC reserves and in gullies, such as those below MtSeddon. Otherwise the rural landscape is dominated byimproved pastures for farming.SECTION DHurunui Mouth is a small batch settlement close to the river confluence with the ocean.Hurunui District | 2013

56Coastal Area 8 : StonyhurstSouth of Napenape the coastal strip narrows to steep seacliffs, which dominate the shoreline as far as Motunau.In the northern part of this coastal area the steep slopes rise from rocky shore platforms and sea cliffs. South ofStonyhurst extends a long and relatively homogenous coastline with a narrow beach backed by sea cliffs andintensively farmed paddocks on elevated terraces. The incised gullies and coastal erosion features contrast withthese flat, modified terraces.Coastal ContextIn Boundary Creek Scenic Reserve lowland forest remnants can be found in the gullied upper and middle reachesof Boundary Creek. In this area dry unstable slopes have developed in the gullies cutting down into the tertiarysandstones. The greywacke hill slopes to the west rise up to 200 meters in elevation, separating the coast fromGreta Valley inland. Some small-scale pine forest plantations occur on upper hill slopes.Cranky Tom Scenic Reserve and two QEII covenants are also present in this coastal context zone.Blythe ValleyNapenapeDM otunau Beach° N0 1.5 3 Km1:100,000Hurunui District | 2013

57SECTION DSouth of Stonyhurst extends a long and relatively homogenous coastline with a narrow beach backed by seacliffs andintensively farmed paddocks on elevated terraces.The incised gullies and coastal erosion features contrast with the flat, modified terraces.Representative coastal diagram of Stonyhurst.Hurunui District | 2013

58Coastal Area 8 : StonyhurstNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High HighModerate to High ModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaPerceptualSignificant rocky reefs occur around the limestoneoutcrops south at Napenape where impressive rockplatforms protrudein parallel bandsfor over 100m fromthe shore. South ofBlack Birch Creek thecoastline consistsof a sand and gravelbeach which is up totwo hundred metreswide.Visitor concentrations are found to the south of thiscoastal area in Motunau and to the north in Gore Bay.The limestonecoast betweenNapenape andStonyhurstis veryinaccessibleand remote,while theNapenapeoffshore reefis a popularAbiotic Systemsand LandformThe northern partof the coastlineis dominated bylimestone outcropssouth of Napenape,The limestone outcrops south of Napenape beach are remote andinaccessible by public road.surfingspot. HappyValley Roadconnects theinland area toMotunau andStonyhurst. Thewhich form steep impressive sea cliffs. The morehomogenous coast between Black Birch Stream andMotunau is backed by eroding sandstone cliffs. Theeroding gullies and streams, which have incised theirpaths into the elevated flat terraces form a distinctivenarrow beach below the eroding sea cliffs is difficultto access apart from low tide. The homogeneity of thefarmed coastal terraces adds to the visual contrastwith thesteep gullies and sea cliffs, which gives thisarea a characteristic appearance.pattern.RAFTFTFTHIghHurunui District | 2013

59Terrestrial Biotic SystemsThe patchwork of modified, intensively farmedpastures on the terrace tops contrasts with thepredominantly native vegetation in the deeply incisedgullies and streams. These gullies lead from higherelevations to erosional coastal features where agradation of several lowland forest types can be found.Some mixed black beech and kanuka forest occurs onhigher spurs and ridges and slopes while shrublandand broadleaved forest with a podocarp componentcovers the incised gullies. The largest streams in thisarea with widely branching catchments are Black BirchCreek and Boundary Creek. At Boundary Creek Lagoon asmall pied cormorant colony can be found.Land Cover and Land UseThe eroding cliffs sea between Black Birch Stream andMotunau are backed by farmland, but gully systemscontain largely native vegetation. The unnaturalpattern of the farmed paddocks contrasts with thesinuous shape of the incised streams. The erodingcoastal areas are partly covered in native vegetationwith some pine plantations around Manuka Creek.SECTION DNapenape Scenic Reserve contains a large area of indigenous hardwoods.Hurunui District | 2013

60Coastal Area 9 : Motunau IslandMotunau Island, with its distinctive flat top, lies 1.2 kilometres off the Hurunui coast, near the Motunau Beachsettlement. It is the only major offshore island located on the wider Canterbury Coast. The island is approximately200 metre wide, formed of eroding cliffs and represents the most important seabird breeding area between theMarlborough Sounds and Foveaux Strait, as well as being an important habitat for many other species. The islandis a designated Nature Reserve and uninhabited.0 1 Km1:60,000Hurunui District | 2013° N

61SECTION DMotunau Island, with its distinctive flat top, lies 1.2 kilometres off the North Canterbury coast, near the MotunauBeach settlement.Motunau Island is the only significant nearshore island in the region. The island has steep sides, rocky beaches andnumerous offshore reefs.Representative coastal diagram of Motunau Island.Hurunui District | 2013

62Coastal Area 9 : Motunau IslandNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsVery High HighModerate to HighLand Cover& Land UseModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaFTFTTerrestrial Biotic SystemsVery HighMotunau Island is the only significant nearshore islandin the district. The island has steep sides, rocky beachesand numerous offshore reefs.Motunau Island is an internationally importantbreeding colony for seabirds, including the fairy prionand the endemic white flippered penguin (breedingAbiotic Systems andLandformThis small flat-topped islandis contained by eroding cliffs,which are made up of tertiaryrock, capped with loess andgravels. The friable soils areburrowed extensively bybreeding seabirds. The islandis surrounded by wave-cutreefs.colony of 5000 birds). Inaddition, sooty shearwaterand white-faced stormpetrel (around 50% of theworld’s breeding population)nest in burrows on theisland and uncommonlizards inhabit the island.Following a pest eradicationprogramme, the islandis free of introducedmammals. The rocky shorePerceptualMotunau Island hasattractive sharp cliffs andThis small flat-topped island is contained by erodingcliffs, which are made up of tertiary rock, cappedplatforms are used as a hauloutarea for fur seals.a distinctive flat top. The with loess and gravels.Land Cover and Landrichness of wildlife found onUsethis island provides transient values, which can onlybe experienced in a few places in New Zealand. Sincethe island is a nature reserve managed by DOC, entry isper permit only. The island, which once was a whalingstation is also an archaeological site.Introduced grassland covers the raised platform/plateau of the island, while some native grasslandand herbfields are found on cliffs and scarps. Themixed shrubland patches consist mainly of introducedspecies. The rocky shore provides important reefhabitat.Hurunui District | 2013

63SECTION DMotunau Island is situated offshore from the coastal settlement of Motunau.Introduced grassland covers the raised platform/plateau of the island, while some native grassland and herbfields arefound on cliffs and scarps.Reef surrounding Motunau Island.Hurunui District | 2013

64Coastal Area 10 : MotunauThis coastal area includes the headland north of Motunau Beach settlement, the Motunau River mouth, the settlementand the 3.5 kilometre long, sweeping coastline as far south as Mt. Vulcan. The elevated, flat hinterland distinguishesthis area from the hill country bordering the coastal environment to the south. The mixed sand/ gravelbeach is contained by eroding cliffs to the west.Coastal ContextThe hinterland of Motunau consists of gently rolling hill country on the elevated terraces. The pleasant rural landscapeis of high visual diversity and provides amenity values despite its land cover modification. The gullies drainingMt Vulcan contain a mix of regenerating shrubland and pine plantations.D° N0 1 Km1:60,000Hurunui District | 2013

65SECTION DThe Motunau raised plains and beach form a distinctive, frequently visited landscape within the Hurunui District. Asurf break is locted at Motunau Beach (immediately south of the settlement) and the rocky coastline offers attractivefishing and diving opportunities. Motunau River provides boating access via the Motunau River Bar.TThe eroding sea cliffs separate the narrow beach from the raised coastal plains to the west.Representative coastal diagram of Motunau.Hurunui District | 2013

66Coastal Area 10 : MotunauNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery HighHigh Moderate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterAbiotic Systems and LandformOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe morphology and dynamic processes of the mixedsand and gravel beaches, like the one found southof Motunau, differ from those of pure sand beachesor gravel beaches found in more southerly parts ofHurunui District | 2013Moderatethe district.The backshore, which is the area thatA small, resident population of Hector’s dolphins existcannot even be reached by storm waves, is covered inaround the shores of Motunau. The headland d withcoarsedisc-shaped gravels. While the most significantits rugged rocky coastline has been included d in thismorphological processes occur in the foreshore zone,area. An unusualwhere wavesabundance ofbreak, mixedcrayfish and fish insand andthis area attractsgravels createnumerous fishermana dynamic(particularly onarea. Theboats) and divers.beach is in anThe Motunau Rivererosional state,bar is prone to siltingvery slowlyand is shallow at lowdecreasingtide. To enable boatin size, astraffic the MotunausedimentsRiver mouth iscannotdredged periodically.withstandSmall-scale erosion/the highenergywaveflood protectionworks have been erected along the shoreline within the environment. The eroding sea cliffs separate thesettlement.narrow beach from the raised coastal plains tothe west. The undulating, raised coastal plainsDRAFTFTFTare dissected by steeply incised gorges. TwoGeopreservation Sites have been identified, namelyat the tip of the headland north of Motunau andapproximately 4km upstream of the Motunau Rivermouth. Both sites contain important fossil discoveries.

68Coastal Area 11 : CassA long coastal area has been identified between Motunau Bay and Pegasus Bay. The eroding terraced coastline inthis area is often backed by further elevated terraces and gently rising spurs further inland. This remote part of thecoast impresses through its homogenous appearance and repetitive pattern of terraces, spurs and gullies.Coastal ContextThe key landmark in the hinterland of the coast is the limestone ridges of Mt Cass, which afford long distanceviews of the coast as far as Banks Peninsula. Walkways and various reserves, protected by the QEII trust andDOC, have been established around Mt Cass and Tiromoana Bush, some of which are part of a restorationproject emerging from the mitigation of resource consents by Transwaste. However, the majority of the land isprivately owned. Dry pastoral farmland covers most of the northern part of the context, while a large exotic forestplantation is located along the southern end of the area. The Kate Valley landfill represents the most significantmodification of the coastal context of this area.SpyeOmihiAmberley Beach° N0 .5 5 Km1:150,000Hurunui District | 2013

69SECTION DThe foreshore of this area consists of narrow sand and shingle beaches covered at high tide which are backed to thewest by up to 60 metre high eroding cliffs.FTThe eroding terraced coastline in this area is often backed by further elevated terraces and gently rising spurs furtherinland.Representative coastal diagram of Cass.Hurunui District | 2013

70Coastal Area 11 : CassNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery High HighModerate to HighModerateModerate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe foreshore of this area consists of narrow sand andshingle beaches covered at high tide which are backedto the west by up to 60 metre high eroding cliffs.Parts of the coast are made up of two tiers of elevatedmarine cliffs and terraces,which are particularlyimpressive. Slumping hasoccurred in the cliffs ofthe lower reaches of KateValley and nearby streams.Abiotic Systemsand LandformThe coastline withinthis area predominantlycomprises sandstonein the hinterland, butan approximately 4kmlong section in thecentre is formed ofunderlying limestone. The Mt. Vulcan rock slide andthe Montserrat earth flow are good examples of earthmovement, the latter one being heavily crevassed withan impressive scarp along its headwall. Both earthflows have been classified as Geopreservation Sites,the latter as an extremely well defined landform ofscientific/educational value. In addition, the coast inthis area contains crab fossils of particular interestHIghin the vicinity of Glenafric. The cliffs each side ofDovedale Stream contain fossils which weather outonto the beach, which has also been identified as aGeopreservation Site.PerceptualSea View and Glenafricare two of the smallsettlements found in theimmediate hinterlandof the coastal area. Thegravel access roads stopnear the settlementsand the coast line itselfis inaccessible from thewest due to the steepsea cliffs. The wider coastof Pegasus Bay can beviewed from the highpointat Mt Cass, located in thehinterland of this area, but the shorelinebelow is obscured. A number of walkways aroundTiromoana Bush provide access from Mt Cass Road tothe coast and Ella Peak with various viewpoints andecological attractions, such as wetlands along the way.DRAFTFTFTHurunui District | 2013

71Terrestrial Biotic SystemsDovedale Stream is the main stream located in thiscoastal area. In its incised, relatively wide gully a combinationof indigenous hardwoods and regeneratingscrub can be found. A number of other gullies to thesouth of Dovedale Stream also show signs of nativeregeneration. However, in general the coastal slopesare extensively grazed with more intensive agricultureon the flat spurs and tops, while native vegetation issparse and confined to a few gullies. Tiromoana ScenicReserve has been established in the Ella Peak area onlow hills adjacent to the coast, near Glenafric Beach.The coastal hill slope included in the reserve is dividedby an incised gully running from the ridge top to sealevel, cutting through a raised marine terrace. Kanuka isthe dominant hardwood forest on the hill slope and inthe coastal gully.Land Cover and Land UseAgricultural land uses dominate in this coastal area.Settlements can only be found in the hinterland, sincethe coast is largely inaccessible. A large pine forestplantation covers several spurs north of the WaiparaRiver to the south of Mt Cass. This forms the endpointof Pegasus Bay and its sandy beaches.SECTION DRocky inter-tidal reef south of Motunau (image courtesy of P. Langlands).Glenafric settlement (right), broadleaved indigenous hardwoods in incised stream gully below Totara Peak andsandstone cliffs.Hurunui District | 2013

72Coastal Area 12 : WaiparaThis northern Pegasus Bay coastal area extends from the Waipara River lagoon to Ashworths Beach in the southand includes the settlements of Leithfield and Amberley Beach. The Saltwater Creek/ Ashley estuary is locatedin the adjacent coastal area to the south, however four small lagoons are included in this area. The wide, flatbeaches in the northern part of Pegasus Bay contrast with the cliffs of the steeply eroding coastline below Mt.Cass further north. The Waipara and Kowai River mouths are also key features of this northern section.Coastal ContextThe flat northern Canterbury Plains, which form the context for this coastline are intensively farmed and smallscale settlements, such as Leithfield and Amberley, lie along State Highway 1. On the coastal side of the highwaylarge plantation forests are covering extensive areas and modifications, such as oxidation ponds and quarries,occur in this coastal hinterland. While the majority of the area is flat, low cliffs form the boundary to the coastalenvironment along the northernmost section of this coastal area, where the land starts to rise towards the Mt.Cass foothills.RAFT° N0 1. 5 .5 KmHurunui District | 20131:80,000

73SECTION DThe Waipara (pictured) and Kowai River mouths are key features of this northern section.The wide, flat beaches in the northern part of Pegasus Bay contrast with the cliffs of the steeply eroding coastlinebelow Mt. Cass further north. Waipara hapua lagoon is pictured in the foreground.Representative coastal diagram of Waipara.Hurunui District | 2013

74Coastal Area 12 : WaiparaNatural Character AttributesDegree of Natural Character Zone A Zones A & B Zone BWaterAbioticSystems &LandformsPerceptual/experientialTerrestrialBioticSystemsLand Cover& Land UseVery HighHighModerate to HighModerate Moderate to LowLowVery LowWaterOverall Natural Character Ratingfor Coastal AreaThe coast line south of the Kowai River is dominated bysandy beaches backed by low coastal dunes. North ofLeithfield, the sand beaches change to steep, erodingcomposite beaches, andmixed sand and gravelbeaches. These northernPegasus Bay beaches arecharacterised by upperforeshores composedof variable mixtures ofsand and gravel adjacentto sandy foreshores andswash zones. The sandypart of the beach is onlyexposed at low tide. Thenorthern boundary of theBanks Peninsula MarineMammal Sanctuary islocated at the WaiparaRiver mouth. Within the sanctuary, there are a number offishing restrictions and areas set aside for fishing.Abiotic Systems and LandformThis coast consists predominantly of composite, ratherthan mixed sand and gravel beach types. Gravel beachesare more stable than sand beaches and raised gravelridges have developed along the landward side ofthe beaches. While these areas are well drained, theyModerateare sometimes flooded by the sea, which can leadto erosion of unconsolidated gravel and sand. TheWaipara River mouth, which only occasionally opens,is usually offset tothe north behinda bar, forming acharacteristic hapuatypelagoon. Severalnotable hapua lagoonsare located in thiscoastal area, namelythose associated withthe Waipara and KowaiRiver mouths, andAmberley Beach andMimimoto Lagoonsbetween these tworivers.RAFTFTFTPerceptualThe coastline consists mainly of shingle beachesabove the tide mark with some low cliff faces. Whileaccess to the coast is relatively easy, these beachesare only rarely used for bathing. However, fishing,4WD/ motorbike use and some fishing occurs, andLeithfield Beach serves a local surf spot. The coastallagoons mentioned above are currently being restored(with willow removal) and walkways/ picnic areasHurunui District | 2013

75have been installed to link Amberley and LeithfieldBeach, extending the network of tracks along thecoastal reserve linking the Mimimoto Lagoon to theWaipara River. The coastal fringe contains rich farmland, settlements and associated recreation facilities,such as a golf course in Amberley Beach. The levelof modification within the coastal environment is,therefore, higher than along the inaccessible Hurunuicoastline.Terrestrial Biotic SystemsAmberley Beach has a stable gravel area in theform of old beach ridges, rather than dunes locatedimmediately behind the beach. These are colonisedby scattered plants, such as shrubs, vines, grasses andherbs. These well-drained gravelly sites are exposedto salt spray during storms and very hot and dry insummer, which limits plant growth. The restorationof coastal wetlands in the northern part of PegasusBay has ecological benefits. The river mouth/coastallagoons described above and the coastal AshworthsPonds serve as sea and shorebird habitats.Land Cover and Land UseThe land cover on the dunes and coastal fringe isgenerally dominated by exotic species. In the centraland southern section agricultural land use, settlementsand recreational facilities (golfcourse) are encroachingtowards the dunes. The lagoons/ wetlands and riversare generally lined by willows, but restoration effortshave been undertaken to remove some of them. Exoticconifer plantations occur along the inland side of thedunes south of the Kowai River.RAFTSECTION DMimimoto Lagoon shortly south of the Waipara River.Northern extent of Pegasus Bay.Hurunui District | 2013

76Outstanding Coastal NaturalCharacter AreasFollowing the assessment of natural character for each coastal area, coastal landscapes with Outstanding Natural Character wereidentified (see Section C for methodology). The following Section provides the maps and detailed value descriptions for each one ofthese seven areas that have been assessed as Outstanding in terms of their natural character.Conway GulliesOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaExceptional examples of a large sequence of deeply incised drainage gullies, draped with coastal vegetationConway Gullies Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitUnit Character RatingValuesAbiotic SystemsPerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverNumber 1: Conway TerracesHighAncient marine cliffing with coastal erosion, followed by rapid uplift. Very distinctive drainagepattern. Entire area is a Geopreservation site. Fossils and gravel beaches assist in tracing geologicalhistory. The marine terraces are an identified Geopreservation Site, as the layering of the six marineterraces sequences is particularly arly legible. A fossilforest and marine trace fossils at the back of agravel beach near Ploughman Creek have also been identified as such sites.Private property with limited access.NZ fur seals bread in area. Gullies contain broadleaf indigenous hardwood forests.Indigenous nous land cover within gullies is significant given rarity of bush along coastline in Hurunui.Big Bush Gully and Ploughmans Stream contain broadleaf indigenous hardwoods, while most ofDRARAFAFTthe other gullies are covered in regenerating bush, with predominantly kanuka.Conway Gullies Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingOutstandingThe incised gullies of this section of coastline contain indigenous hardwood forests.Hurunui District | 2013

77SECTION EAFTHurunui District | 2013° N0 1. 5 .5 Km1:50,000

78Waiau River MouthOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaExceptional example of a relatively unmodified major river mouth, displaying excellent intact coastal characteristics.Waiau River Mouth Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitNumber 2: WaiauUnit Character RatingValuesWaterAbiotic SystemsHighWaiau River dominates coastal sediment supply.Hapua-style lagoon at river mouth, with beach barrier. Very limited modification.PerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverInaccessible, other than by river.Large scenic reserve on northern banks, with isolated lowland podocarp forest, which isvery uncommon. The Waiau River mouth and lagoon represents an important site for birds,including a small pied cormorant colony and black-fronted tern wintering site.Some parts grazed, but DOC managed scenic reserve is significant. Limited modificationother than grazing.Waiau River Mouth Coastal Natural CharacterArea RatingRAFTFTOutstandingWaiau River Mouth is inaccessible by road and contains unmodified coastal characteristics.Hurunui District | 2013

79SECTION ERAFTHurunui District | 2013° N0 1. 5 .5 Km1:50,000

80Mt BeautifulOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaDramatic and intricate section of the Hurunui coastline displaying prominent coastal features with limited modification.Mt Beautiful Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitUnit Character RatingValuesWaterAbiotic SystemsNumber 3- Shag RockHighSignificant rocky reefs immediately off shore. Shag Rock supports breeding gulls and shagsand there are occasional nesting colonies of white-fronted terns along this coastline.Steeply eroding cliffs, with dissected spurs. Shag Rock is a Geopreservation site.PerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverInaccessible. Dramatic coastline.Shag Rock Scenic Reserve located in southern part. Steep coastal slopes covered withbroadleaf indigenous hardwoods. Gullies also rich with native species. Seals are alsoabundant.Unmodified steep coastal cliffs and beaches, es, with limited tracks.Mt Beautiful Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingAFTFTOutstandingLocated shortly south of the Waiau River Mouth Mt Beautiful terminates in rugged, steeply eroded cliffs and offshore rocksand reefs.Hurunui District | 2013

81SECTION ERAFTHurunui District | 2013° N0 1. 5 .5 Km1:50,000

82Cathedral GullyOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaDramatic eroding coastal cliffs and incised gullies covered with indigenous vegetation located very close to a popularholiday location.Cathedral Gully Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitGore Bay*Unit Character RatingValuesAbiotic SystemsPerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverModerateTidal foreshore comprising sand backed by impressive steep sea cliffs. Listed as aGeopreservation site.Access to gully via beach. Important landscape feature of the area.Significant stand of coastal bush within gullySurrounded by modification, this accessible small pocket of steeply incised gullies drapedwith indigenous vegetation is rare.Gore Bay Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingOutstanding*Note: To be considered ‘outstanding’ in the methodology only natural character areas rating as ‘high’ or ‘very high’ need tobe considered. We have broken the rule in this case and included Gore Bay (for Cathedral Gully).RAFTFTFTThe Cathedral cliffs and incised gullies are a distinctive natural feature of the Gore Bay Coastline.Hurunui District | 2013

83SECTION EFTHurunui District | 20130 0.5 1 Km° N1:25,000

84Hurunui River MouthOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaThe Hurunui River mouth is the key feature of the coastal section between Point Gibson and Napenape.Hurunui Mouth Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitNumber 5- HurunuiUnit Character RatingValuesWaterAbiotic SystemsPerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverHighHurunui Lagoon extending north from the mouth. Wide shingle beach has formed with adistinctive foreshore and backshore.The Hurunui River forms a small river delta surrounded by coastal cliffs and the mouthterminates in a hapua–type lagoon. The lagoon predominantly contains fresh water, impoundedby a long, narrow spit formed of coarse sediments by long-shore drift.Near the Hurunui River sandstone intrusions, which have been forced into overlying rocks,can be found. This geological feature is identified as a Geopreservation Site.Camp ground located near Hurunui River mouth, area is frequented for fishing. Severalarchaeological sites with middens, fire areas and artefacts recorded at the Hurunui RivermouthRiver mouth and lagoon are important sites for birds.Small settlements can be found in this coastal area where road access exists, such as at theHurunui Mouth.Conway Gullies Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingDRAFTOutstandingThe Hurunui Lagoon, river mouth and cliffs that surround it are a key natural feature of the Hurunui Coastline.Hurunui District | 2013

85SECTION EDRAFTHurunui District | 20130 0.5 1 Km1:25,000° N

86NapenapeOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaThe striking amphitheatre-shaped coastal slump, unusual geology and impressive land-sea naturalness are uncommonin Hurunui.Hurunui Mouth Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitNumber 5- HurunuiUnit Character RatingValuesWaterAbiotic SystemsHighStriking amphitheatre-shaped slump with unusual limestone landforms.PerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverScenic Reserve clad in indigenous coastal vegetation.Significant stands of indigenous coastal forest, with rare grass found on coastal margin.Impressive coverage of native vegetation.Conway Gullies Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingFT FTOutstandingNapenape Scenic Reserve has an impressive coverage of native vegetation.Hurunui District | 2013

87SECTION ERAFHurunui District | 20130 0.5 1 Km1:25,000° N

88Motunau IslandOutstanding Coastal Natural Character AreaDistinctive, flat topped island, noted for its internationally significant breeding bird colony is rare off the east coast of theSouth Island.Motunau Outstanding Natural Character AttributesNatural Character UnitMotunau IslandUnit Character RatingValuesWaterAbiotic SystemsPerceptualTerrestrialLand CoverVery HighSignificant nearshore island in district, with offshore reefs.Excellent example of eroding cliffs, friable soil and wave-cut reefs and cliffs.Attractive and very visible cliffs, rich wildlife association with very limited modification.Internationally significant for birdlife.Motunau Island Coastal Natural Character AreaRatingFTOutstandingMotunau Island is the only significant nearshore island in the region. The island has steep sides, rocky beaches andnumerous offshore reefs.Hurunui District | 2013

89SECTION EDRAFTHurunui District | 20130 0.5 1 Km1:25,000° N

90AppendicesAppendices 1 Landscapes recognised in the Hurunui District PlanThe following landscapes have been identified as Outstanding and Significant Landscapes in the current Hurunui DistrictPlan.OUTSTANDING LANDSCAPES:Waiau mouthGore Bay, Port RobinsonHurunui mouthNape napeMotunau IslandMaugatere/Mount GreyWeka Pass areaWaiau RiverInland Road, TerakoHanmer Range (western slopes)Clarence ValleySpenser RangeLewis Pass areaHurunui CatchmentTe Kooti & TekoaLandscape Recognition other DocumentsHurunui District Landscape Study (Lucas Associates, 1995)The following landscapes have been identified as Outstanding Landscapes in the Hurunui Landscape Study.OUTSTANDING LANDSCAPES:Conway FlatsWaiau mouthGore Bay, Port RobinsonHurunui mouthNapenapeMotunau IslandMaugatere/Mount GreyWeka Pass areaWaiau RiverInland Road, TerakoHanmer RangeClarence valleySpenser RangeLewis Pass areaHokakura and Hurunui CatchmentTe Kooti & TekoaDRAFTSIGNIFICANT LANDSCAPES:Coastal hills and plainsHurunui River & GorgeAmberley Beach and plainHurunui District | 2013

91Mount Grey DownsHurunui HillsLowry Peaks RangeIsolated HillWaiau RiverHanmer Springs areaAmuri RangeClarence ValleyPhilosophers KnobMain DivideHurunui catchmentWaitohi GorgeWaikari basinSECTION FCanterbury Regional Landscape Study (Boffa Miskell and Lucas Associates 1993)Through a review of data, the Canterbury Regional Landscape Study (Boffa Miskell and Lucas Associates 1993) identifieda number of areas in (or associated with) the district as regionally "outstanding". Areas and generic features of regional"significance" were also identified.REGIONALLY OUTSTANDING:Haumuri Bluff and Kaikoura CoastMid and Upper Clarence RiverSpenser RangeLewis Pass areaHurunui Lakes areaWeka Pass areaREGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT:Motunau to Conway coastal plainSaltwater Creek and Ashley estuaryDRAFTplus, rivers, springs, wetlands, river terraces, coastal cliffs, dunes, inland sandhills, tussock and flax lands, shrublandand forest, prehistoric sites.Mount Oxford to Mount Grey Rangeplus, limestone scarps, outcrops and sinkholes, tussock and wetlands, forest and shrubland, flax and cabbage trees,prehistoric sites, skylines.Proposed RPS following Canterbury Landscape Study Review 2010: The following areas have been identified in the Canterbury RPS review: Molesworth (incl Mid and Upper Clarence River) Weka Pass Kaikoura Peninsula and Coast (incl Haumuri Bluffs)Lake Sumner and Lewis Pass (incl Spenser Range, Lewis Pass Area, Hurunui Lakes area)Hurunui District | 2013

92Appendix 2 Definition of Criteria for ONL IdentificationThe criteria for identification of Outstanding Natural Landscapes applied in the Hurunui Landscape Study (1995, LucasAssociates) were defined as follows:1. NATURAL SCIENCENatural features and landscapes of at least district importance for reasons of the rarity or representativeness of theirparticular landform and landcover. A natural feature may be a landscape feature or an element/component of thelandscape. Under S.6(b) geology and soils are elements of particular focus, as flora and fauna values are also consideredelsewhere in the Act.2. LEGIBILITYThe landscape (or natural feature) of district significance should clearly express past natural and/or cultural processes.Some may have strong historical connotations and a distinctive sense of place.3. TRANSIENTThe natural feature or landscape of district significance providing predictable or regular experience of dimensions ofnature other than landform or landcover e.g. concentrations of wildlife.4. AESTHETICLandscapes (and natural features where applicable) that are of high aesthetic value determined on how memorable theyare, on their naturalness, on their composition (coherence) and on other important aesthetic factors.5. SHARED AND RECOGNISEDThere should be a substantial measure of agreement between professional and public opinion as to the value of naturalfeatures and landscapes, for example as reflected through writings and paintings or through favourite locations to cite orvisit. The presence of existing protected sites is also likely to reflect shared and recognised values.6. TANGATA WHENUADRAFTThe natural feature or landscape identified as having particular district importance to tangata whenua.Appendix 3 Geopreservation Sites Waipara Gorge ONF/LWaipara River Cretaceous-Paleocene Sequence- CanterburySIGNIFICANCE: One of the most complete and well exposed K-T sequences in New Zealand. Diverse microfauna,including type locality for various species. Holostratotype of Teurian Stage.DESCRIPTION: Concretionary sandstones, mudstones and greensands. The K-T boundary occurs at the base of a 4 m thickglauconitic sandstone member near the top of the Conway Formation.LOCALITY: A bluff on the south bank about 0.7 km upstream from the Laidmore Station road crossing, Waipara Riverbetween Doctors Gorge and junction with Birch Hollow Stream. M34 760 940.ACCESS: Cross river at the base of hill on McKays Road.EXPOSURE TYPE: River cuttings and river cliffs.CLASSIFICATlON: Importance= A Vulnerability = 3Hurunui District | 2013

93Waipara River Cretaceous "Saurian Beds"- CanterburySIGNIFICANCE: The most prolific, easily accessible late Cretaceous marine reptile locality in New Zealand.LOCALITY: Middle of Waipara River between Doctors gorge and junction with Birch Hollow Stream. M34 770 945.EXPOSURE TYPE: Stream cuttings and river cliffs.CLASSIFICATION: Importance = A Vulnerability= 2HAZARDS: Commercial exploitation or plundering, erosionSECTION FDeans Earthflow Complex - CanterburySIGNIFICANCE: A series of earthflows important due to being one of the best New Zealand examples - particularlysignificant as a South Island example. Classified as an extremely well defined landform of scientifideducational value.LOCALITY: "The Deans", Waipara River, North Canterbury. M34 81 I 961.CLASSIFICATION: Importance = B Vulnerability= 3DRAFTHurunui District | 2013

94Appenix 4 GIS data for desktop reviewNational GIS data provided by BML (and mapped at a variety of scales): Topo Maps (LINZ) Digital contour information 20m interval (LINZ) Land Cover Database 21 (Terralink, based on 2002 aerials) DOC conservation Units (May 2009) Critical sites2 identified by DOC (Cant. Conservancy Animal Pest Management Strategy, 2006) QE II covenants (March 2007) River Environment Classification (NIWA) Land Resource Inventory (Landcare Research)Geopreservation sites and areas, as indicative points (Kenny & Hayward, 1998). These are mapped at 1:50,000 scale.The following data was provided by Environment Canterbury: Current georeferenced orthophotos of the region Digitised (shp file format) land types of the Canterbury Region, and grouped into landscape types (data at1:250,000) Digitised (shp file format) significant and outstanding natural features and landscapes Digitised (shp file format) outstanding natural features and landscapes from district plans Landscape series from District Plans, e.g. prominent ridgelines and significant landscapesEcological series from District Plans (for some districts) Sites affected by Ngai Tahu Settlement Claims Act (ECAN, NRRP, 2002) Archaeological Sites for Canterbury (New Zealand Archaeological Association).Specific GIS files included: Coastal hazard zones Coastal marine area Coastal inundation areas River and open water habitats for indigenous birds Significant vegetation of Canterbury water bodiesLand of national significanceDRAFTFT1 Land Cover Database 2 (LCDB2) is a thematic classification of 43 land cover and land use classes covering mainlandNew Zealand, the near shore islands and the Chatham Islands. The first Land Cover Database (LCDB1) was completedin 2000 using SPOT satellite imagery acquired over the summer of 1996/97. LCDB2 was released in July 2004 and usedLandsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery acquired over the summer of 2001/02. The new release reports land cover/land usechange for the five-year period between each acquisition of satellite imagery.The Landsat 7 imagery used has been pan-sharpened to 15m spatial resolution then orthorectified using groundcontrol point pairs from ortho-photography to a target r.m.s. (root mean square) positional mapping error of 20m. In areaswith good ground control the Landsat imagery is correct to within 1 pixel. In areas with poor control (typically mountainousterrain) the imagery may have a positional error of two or more pixels.Polygon boundaries have been created using both, automated and manual digitising techniques. Manual digitisingwas undertaken at a display screen resolution of 1:15 000. Cartographically this results in a mixture of “rasterised” andsmooth polygons. This has been retained in the database to remind users of the spatial resolution of the imagery used. Theraster effect becomes noticeable at 1:25 000 and users are advised to use the data at 1:25 000 or smaller scales to avoidvisually having to confront this effect. Given the spatial resolution, ortho-rectification error and scale of manual digitisingof LCDB2, it is good practice to use LCDB2 at a scale of 1:25 000 or smaller, (i.e. 1:50 000).2 Critical sites integrate the conservation values of threatened and representative species and habitats in terrestrial,freshwater and marine ecosystems. They may have a variety of features contributing to their status such as the presenceof representative or threatened species or habitats, connections between high value sites, or that they are a large area ofrelatively intact habitat.Hurunui District | 2013


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