1. Introduction• After the country has recovered from the economic crisis, theelectricity consumption has grown rapidly• For the year 2004, Thailand Load Forecast Subcommittee(TLFS) is projection electricity demand and energy generationrequirement will grow by 6.65% and 6.34% in the ModerateEconomic Growth (MEG) scenario• EGAT formulate a new Power Development Plan (PDP 2004)base on the forecast adjusted by EGAT with respect to theTLFS forecast• PDP was prepared to assure power availability, affordabilityand security over the next 12 year (2004-2015)
Present Status2. Energy Supply and Demand• Peak demand for fiscal year 2004 reached 19,325.8 MWon March 30, 2004• Total installed capacity of the system is 25,705.2 MW• 1,204.4 MW (6.65%) up from the peak on May 7, 2003to hit 18,121.4 MW
Total installed capacity = 25,705.2 MW(As of March 2004)Gas Turbine andDiesel Power Plants,1,148.00 MW (4.47%)Renewable Energy ,122.90 MW ( 0.48%)EGAT – TNB HVDCLink, 300.00 MW(1.17% )Hydroelectric PowerPlants, 3,261.70 MW(13%)Combined Cycle PowerPlants, 12,533.60 MW(48.76%)Thermal Power Plants,8,339.00 MW(32.44%)
Load Forecast• Load forecast, of which the MEG case (Peak Cut 500 MW) wasprojected based on average annual demand increases of 7.11%,6.9% and 6.52% in the periods of 2004-2008, 2009-2013 and2014-2015• Peak demand of fiscal year 2015 was estimated at 40,478 MW
Total EGAT Generation RequirementModerate Economic Growth (MEG) load forecast45,000350,00040,000Fiscal Year Average Growth (% )Peak Energy300,000Peak (MW)35,00030,00025,00020,0002004-2008 7.11 7.712009-2013 6.90 6.752017-2015 6.52 6.42PeakEnergy250,000200,000150,000Energy (GWh)15,000100,00010,0005,00050,000019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420150Fiscal Year
Total EGAT Generation RequirementCase : MEG (Peak Cut 500 MW)Fiscal YearMWPeakIncreaseMW %GWhEnergyIncreaseMW %LoadFactor(%)Actual19918,045.00951.3013.4149,225.036,036.2413.9869.819928,876.90831.9010.3456,006.446,781.4113.7872.019939,730.00853.109.6162,179.736,173.2911.0273.0199410,708.80978.8010.0669,651.147,471.4112.0274.2199512,267.901,559.1014.5678,880.379,229.2313.2573.4199613,310.901,043.008.5085,924.137,043.768.9373.7199714,506.301,195.408.9892,724.666,800.537.9173.0199814,179.90-326.40-2.2592,134.44-590.22-0.6474.2199913,712.40-467.50-3.3090,413.99-1,720.45-1.8775.3200014,918.301,205.908.7996,780.726,366.737.0474.1200116,126.401,208.108.10103,165.206,384.486.6073.0200216,681.10554.703.44108,389.245,224.045.0674.2200318,121.401,440.308.63116,743.458,354.217.7173.5Average Growth1992-2003 - 839.70 7.00 - 5,626.54 7.46 -
järnålder. Dateringen bekräftas av fyndet av en mynningsbit medlätt förtjockad och avfasad kant. Keramiken kan hänföras till tidenförromersk/romersk järnålder.Anl nr Prov nr Lab nr14 C ålder BP Kal BC/AD1225 V103/108,provnr 225Ua-26438 2 065 ±40BP160BC-10BC432 V103/108,provnr 432Ua-26439 3 495 ±60BP1 890BC-1 680BCTabell över 14 C-daterade anläggningarUtvärdering och åtgärdsförslagMålsättningen för undersökningen var att klargöra fornlämningensomfattning samt att nå en preliminär kännedom kring karaktär ochdatering. De fynd som tillvaratogs vid utredningen samt de 14 C-dateringaroch fynd vilka framkom vid förundersökningen visar på attaktiviteter under en lång period. Anläggningarnas tydliga koncentrationtill områdets södra del i kombination med att inga strukturerhittades tyder på en fragmentariskt bevarad boplatslämning. Dåövriga ytor var så gott som tomma kan man tänka sig att boplatsenhaft samma utbredning som den idag stående gården, vilket innebäratt den största delen är förstörd eller starkt skadad. Även det modernajordbruket har inverkat på bevarandet av fornlämningen.Boplatsen kan ha utgjorts av en ensamgård, men även en störrebebyggelse är en möjlig tanke då läget för en sådan är idealiskt. Tidigareundersökningar i området samt i Fosie- och Köpingeområdethar indikerat att mindre gårdssamlingar och byar förekommer redanunder yngre romersk järnålder (Bergenstråhle 1995).Det får anses som osannolikt att en slutundersökning skulle ökamöjligheterna att närmare klargöra lämningarnas funktion. I resultatetmåste effekterna av det intensiva moderna jordbruket räknassom en källkritisk faktor avseende fornlämningens bevarandegrad.Resultatet från förundersökningen bedöms således utgöra tillräckligdokumentation av fornlämningen. Inga vidare åtgärder föreslås.SammanfattningMed anledning av planerad ombyggnad av väg 902 i ny sträckningutförde Riksantikvarieämbetet, avdelningen för arkeologiska undersökningar,UV Syd, en arkeologisk förundersökning. En utredninghade tidigare påvisat bevarade fornlämningar inom området. Denarkeologiska förundersökningen berörde ett ca 9 000 m 2 stort områdevarav ca 1 200 m 2 undersöktes genom sökschaktning.Anläggningarna utgjordes av gropar, stolphål samt diken och sentidastörningar. Dessa förekom spridda över ytan men med en koncentrationtill den södra delen. 14 C- resultaten samt de fynd som tillvaratogsvid utredningen och förundersökningen visar på att områdetnyttjats under lång tid.Boplatslämningar vid Trollebergs gård 9
List of Projects for PDP 2004(Future Project)Power Plants Fuel Type 2/ Capacity 3/(MW)TotalCapacity(MW)ScheduledCommissioningDateSPP (Phase II : Renewable)-151.1151.12004 – 2007Renovated Hydro Power PlantsHydro(124.7)(124.7)2006 – 2008SPP (Phase I)-6060Jan. 2007IPP (Gulf Power Generation Co.,Ltd.-700700Mar. 2007Additional)Song Khla CC # 1Gas700700Mar. 2008South Bangkok CC # 3Gas700700Mar. 2009North Bangkok CC # 1Bang Pakong CC # 5GasGas700700700700Mar. 2009Mar. 2010Total 3,711.1 MWNew Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2011New Capacity + RPS-3 X 700 + 1052,205Mar. 2012New Capacity + RPS-3 X 700 + 1052,205Mar. 2013New Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2014New Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2015Existing Capacity as of December 2003 25,363.0 MWTotal Added Capacity 4/ 22,444.6 MWTotal Retired Capacity -475.0 MWTotal 18 Unit,New Capacity 12,600 MWRPS 630 MW
PDP 2004 ChartBLCP 1,346.5 MWNew Capacity 12,600 MW
End of Year 2015Total installed capacity = 47,333 MWTotal Energy Generation = 265,787 GWhNew Capacity(83,958 GWh)31.6%Hydro(11,981 GWh)4.5%Others(2,135 GWh)0.8%Renewable(SPP+RPS)(5,175 GWh)2.0% Heavy OilImported Coal(12,378 GWh) Lignite4.6% (17,251 GWh)6.5%(1,613 GWh)0.6%Natural Gas(131,295 GWh)49.4%
ae Moh Power Plant(2,400 MW)BLCP Project(1,346.5 MW)
3. Energy Security and Policy• To develop 18 units of new power stations (12,600 MW in totalgenerating capacity) which natural gas is preliminarily assumedas fuel, to be on line during 2011-20152015• If the future gas price should become too volatile in the futureor there is going to be too much gas-based generation in thesystem which would be a threat to the system operation andelectricity tariff, EGAT would seek other alternatives such asimported coal or hydropower in the neighboring countries ascompetitive energy sources
more than 50% of power generation in Asia is coal-firedSource : IEEJ Asia/World Energy Outlook, March 2004
Thailand’s s reliance on coal-fired power is lowSource : IEEJ Asia/World Energy Outlook, March 2004moreindigenous coal resourceless100%80%60%40%20%0%2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020 2000 2020China India Indonesia Vietnam Thailand Philippines Malaysia Japan Korea TaiwanCoal Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Hydro Other Renewable
There is potential for more coal-firedIPPs loger termMW50,000New Capacity45,00040,00035,00030,00025,00020,00015,00010,000New CapacityRenewable Energy - RPSEGAT - TNBRenewable Energy - SPPGas Turbine and DieselCombined CycleThermalHydroelectric5,00002004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015Fiscal Year
4. Coal Supply and Demand• Reserve of coal was estimated around 1,354 million tons innorthern part of Thailand• Highest coal reserve is 1,140 million tons in mae moh mine,lampang province• Most of coal mines in Thailand are located in the north• Coal producers have been set into 2 groups. first group fromMae Moh of EGAT. other group from various private companie• Undeveloped resource more than 801 million tons of measuredcoal reserve and indicated coal reserve 804 million tons.• The biggest one is in saba yoi basin with 349 million tons ofmeasured coal• New coal mines difficult to be develop due to NGO intervention
Coal Production Area in ThailandMae Moh mineCoal Potential Area in ThailandWiang Haeng basinSaba Yoi basin
Coal Production in ThailandUnit : Million TonProducer2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1/Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %EGAT 12.85 78.6 15.70 79.0 14.95 76.8 15.42 85.8 12.43 82.3Private Company3.51 21.4 4.18 21.0 4.51 23.2 2.56 14.2 2.67 17.7Total 16.36 100 19.88 100 19.46 100 17.98 100 15.10 100YearNote: 1/ January-September 2004Uses of Domestic Coals in ThailandUnit : Million Ton1999 2000 2001 2002 2003Electricity 13.42 14.13 15.32 15.03 15.60Cement 3.82 2.54 2.82 3.27 1.65Paper 0.50 0.31 0.03 0.64 0.52Fiber 0.32 0.24 0.05 0.21 0.24Lime 0.03 0.04 0.43 0.10 0.06Others 0.38 0.65 0.45 0.13Total 18.47 17.64 19.50 19.59 18.20
Imported coal to Thailand classified by countriesCountryYearUnit : Million Ton1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1/China 0.20 0.13 0.190 0.33 0.13 0.16Indonesia 2.27 2.63 3.12 3.74 5.66 3.14Lao 0.18 0.15 0.21 0.14 0.22 0.23Myanmar 0.07 0.41 0.66 0.64 0.90 0.91Vietnam 0.47 0.70 0.73 0.74 0.95 0.56Others 0.04 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01Total 3.23 4.17 4.94 5.60 7.87 5.01Note: 1/ January-September 2004
Fuel Consumption for Power Generation (%)Recommend PlanFuel Type2003 2004 2010 2015Hydro 8.7 6.0 6.1 4.5Natural Gas 71.6 69.2 75.1 49.4Heavy Oil 1.8 8.4 1.5 0.6Diesel 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.2Lignite 14.7 12.7 8.9 6.5Imported Coal 2.2 1.9 6.4 4.6Renewable Energy (Existing) 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7EGAT-TNB HVDC Link 0.1 0.6 0.8 0.6Renewable Energy (RPS) 1/ - - - 1.3New Capacity - - - 31.6Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Coal consumption for coal-fired during 2011-2015Coal ConsumptionUnit : Million Ton2011 2012 2013 2014 2015Domestic Coal 15.90 15.94 15.90 15.90 15.90Mae Moh Power Plants 15.90 15.94 15.90 15.90 15.90Imported Coal 8.16 14.32 19.60 25.84 32.91IPP (BLCP)SPPs 1/ 3.401.03.411.03.401.03.401.03.401.0New Capacity 2/ 3.76 9.91 15.20 21.44 28.51Total Coal Consumption 24.06 30.26 35.50 41.74 44.41Note :1/ Only coal usage of SPPs for EGAT’s electricity purchase2/ New Capacity (12,600 MW) is coal-fired power generation
5. Environment Responsibility• EGAT control Mae Moh power plant’s generating process toreduce the SO2 emissions to be within environmental standardand regulations• Installation FGD system on Mae Moh power plant Unit 4 - 13,retired Mae Moh power plant Unit 1 – 3• All generating facilities have been high-efficiency ElectrostaticPrecipitator with 99% of lignite fly ash trapping capacity• Installation of a network of air quality monitoring stationscovering the areas of Mae Moh district and nearby areas withrelevant risks• Real-time air quality monitoring system measure concentrationsof emissions from the power plant stacks
• In 2003, SO2 emissions from Mae Moh power plant averagedat only 2-3 tonnes per hour, well below the regulatorystandard limit of 11 tonnes per hour, while the average hourlyconcentration level in the ambient air was under 780micrograms per cubic metre
6. Conclusions• Presently the energy-mix for power generation in Thailand isover-dependent on gas. Up to year 2006–2007, there will becoal-fired power stations of BLCP Project (IPPs) coming onstream with a total capacity 1,346.5 MW• In long term (2010-2015), if the future gas price is unpredictableor the gas consumption is excessively too high, EGAT seekother alternatives such as imported coal or hydropower in theneighboring countries as the generation option• Environment impact and social perception on coal will play adramatic role in power projects.• Public acceptance can be improved when the operation ofexisting coal-fired power plants can be shape up good images ofthe plants and a communication plan can be properly performedfor new per project
• Clean Coal Technology have to be developed to acceptablelevel and have to acknowledge the publish to realize how cleanthe coal is in the clean coal combustion technologies. CCT isexpected to reduce the negative environmental impact of powergeneration• There should be an organization or institution to acknowledgethe publish to realize how clean the coal is in CCT. Otherwisedemand of coal especially for power generation will bedramatically reduced due to public awareness and perception.• New coal mines in Thailand tends to be difficult to develop dueto NGO intervention. This is the broader opportunity for importcoal to fulfill future demand of the country• Benefit from increased coal utilization are set to encourage andprovide opportunities for existing and new entrepreneurs, bothlocal and foreign
Thailand Coal Demand for Power Generation in 2004 - 2015Viroj SivavongNattinee LimkitisupasinChief-Coal Management Department Administrative OfficerElectricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Thailand------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. IntroductionAfter the country has recovered from the economic crisis, the electricityconsumption has grown rapidly as a result of an abrupt improvement in all economic sectors.The progress has also been expected to last for a couple of year and that the electricity demandwill be growing in the same fashion. For the year 2004, the Thai economy is projected toexpand further at a rate similar to that of the preceding year. The Government’s policies ofeconomic stimulating measures should be able to drive up consumption and investmentcontinuously, despite a few unfavorable external factors such as unstable world economies,fluctuating oil prices and concerns over persisting terrorism. According to the latest projectionprepared by the Thailand Load Forecast Subcommittee in January 2004, the country’selectricity demand and energy generation requirement for the year 2004 will grow by 6.65%and 6.34%, in the moderate economic growth scenario. Therefore, EGAT formulate a newPDP which was dubbed the ‘PDP 2004’, base on the forecast adjusted by EGAT with respect tothe January 2004 forecast.Coal plays an important role in power generation and other industries. Thetrend of coal consumption in Thailand has show slightly increased although all newdevelopment projects as fuel encounter environmentally and difficulty progressing the project.Two coal-fired power stations of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have been postponedand changed fuel type to gas. Even such environmentally and difficulty processing of the coalproject, policy have been given to use coal for power generation as much as possible becauseof fuel diversification, security of supply and relatively low fuel cost. To encourage the use ofcoal in Thailand, a good understanding of how environmental friendly the current clean coaltechnology is needed to be acknowledged to all the concerned sector.This paper has a purpose to analyze the role of coal on Thailand energy security.Of course, coal does not help directly improve energy security. But, through reducing gasdependency, coal contributes to establish more stable energy supply system.
2. Energy Supply and Demand2.1 Present StatusThe highest demand for fiscal year 2004 reached 19,325.8 MW on 30 March2004. This new record was 1,204.4 MW (6.65%) up from the peak demand of the last fiscalyear which was registered on 7 May 2003 to hit 18,121.4 MW. Meanwhile, the total installedcapacity of the system is 25,705.2 MW.As of March 2004, the total generating capacity of Thailand was 25,705.2 MWconsisting of 3,261.7 MW (12.7%) hydroelectric power plants, 8,339.0 MW (32.4%) thermalpower plants, 12,533.6 MW (48.7%) combined cycle power plants, 1,148.0 MW (4.5%) gasturbine and diesel power plants, 122.9 MW (0.5%) renewable energy and 300 MW (1.2%)EGAT – TNB HVDC link. Of this amount, 15,150.8 MW (58.9%) was owned and operated byEGAT while 10,554.4 MW (41.1%) was purchased from private sectors and neighboringcountries.2.2 Load ForecastThe actual peak demand of fiscal year 2003 was 18,121.4 MW which was 278.4MW over the forecast that The Thailand Load Forecast Subcommittee (TLFS) announced inAugust 2003 (17,843 MW). Coupled with the Government’s measures to boost the country’seconomy, it is likely that the electricity demand after 2003 will increase at a higher rate thanearlier expected. The TLFS, therefore, issued a new load forecast in January 2004, of whichthe Moderate Economic Growth (MEG) case was projected based on average annual demandincreases of 7.5%, 6.8% and 6.4% in the periods of 2004-2008, 2009-2013 and 2014-2015,respectively. The maximum demand of fiscal year 2015 was estimated at 40,978 MW asshown in Table 1.
Table 1 : Total EGAT Generation RequirementPeakEnergyIncreaseIncreaseFiscal YearMWMW %GWhMW %LoadFactor(%)Actual19911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220038,045.008,876.909,730.0010,708.8012,267.9013,310.9014,506.3014,179.9013,712.4014,918.3016,126.4016,681.1018,121.40951.30831.90853.10978.801,559.101,043.001,195.40-326.40-467.501,205.901,208.10554.701,440.3013.4110.349.6110.0614.568.508.98-2.25-3.308.798.103.448.6349,225.0356,006.4462,179.7369,651.1478,880.3785,924.1392,724.6692,134.4490,413.9996,780.72103,165.20108,389.24116,743.456,036.246,781.416,173.297,471.419,229.237,043.766,800.53-590.22-1,720.456,366.736,384.485,224.048,354.2113.9813.7811.0212.0213.258.937.91-0.64-1.877.046.605.067.7169.872.073.074.273.473.773.074.275.374.173.074.273.5Average Growth1992-2003 - 839.70 7.00 - 5,626.54 7.46 -Forecast2004200520062007200819,600.0021,143.0022,238.0023,844.0025,548.001,478.601,543.001,095.001,606.001,704.008.167.87188.8.131.5226,811.00136,784.00147,656.00158,211.00169,279.0010,067.559,973.0010,872.0010,555.0011,068.008.627.867.957.157.0073.973.975.875.775.62009201020112012201327,352.0029,308.0031,344.0033,445.0035,673.001,804.001,956.002,036.002,101.002,228.007.067.156.956.706.66180,941.00193,529.00206,673.00220,252.00234,671.0011,662.0012,588.0013,144.0013,579.0014,419.006.896.966.796.576.5575.575.475.375.275.12014201538,015.0040,478.002,342.002,463.006.576.48249,842.00265,787.0015,171.0015,945.006.466.3875.075.0Average Growth2004-20082009-20132014-2015---1,485.322,025.002,402.507.116.906.52---10,507.1113,078.4015,558.007.716.756.42---Thailand Load Forecast SubcommitteeApril 2004
2.3 The Power Development Plan (PDP 2004) for the EGAT SystemTo obtain the least cost solution as the final result, EGAT has examined anumber of alternative generate under the allowable technical and economic constrains. Themain features of the PDP 2004 are as follows.2.3.1) To develop 18 units of new power stations (12,600 MW in totalgenerating capacity) which natural gas is preliminarily assumed as fuel, to be on line during2011 - 2015. Nevertheless, if the future gas price should become too volatile in the future orthere is going to be too much gas-based generation in the system which would be a threat to thesystem operation and electricity tariff, EGAT would seek other alternatives such as importedcoal or hydropower in the neighboring countries as competitive energy sources. It isrecommendable that EGAT be granted the right to construct half of the total capacity additionsat the cost which is competitive with the private sector. This is to guarantee that the electricityprice will be easily regulated and monitored which would in turn create fairness to both thegeneral public and the industry.2.3.2) To purchase an addition of 700 MW electricity from Gulf PowerGeneration Co., Ltd. by March 2007.2.3.3) A 700 MW combined cycle power plant in Songkhla Province will beconnected to the grid by 2008 to serve the demand in the Southern region.2.3.4) To construct new combined cycle blocks at the following sites, i.e.,North Bangkok, South Bangkok and Bang Pakong for commissioning by 2009, 2009 and 2010,respectively. The plant capacity could be either 700 or 800 MW depending on the marketsupply and technology development at the time of bidding.2.3.5 The power import from Nam Theun 2 Hydro Power Plant will beavailable to the EGAT’s system in 2009.2.3.6 To renovate hydro power plats which have been in operation for a longtime, especially at Ubon Ratana Dam, Sirindhorn Dam, Chulabhorn Dam, Nam Phung Damand Kang Kachan Dam.2.3.7 To include 630 MW of renewable energy during 2011 - 2015 to complywith the strategy on energy. The strategy on energy will require 5 % of the future capacity(from 2011 onwards) to be generated with renewable energy (Renewable Portfolio Standard –RPS).List of projects with their commissioning dates are shown in Table 2
Table 2 : List of Projects for PDP 2004 (Year 2004-2015)Power Plants Fuel Type 2/ Capacity 3/(MW)TotalCapacity(MW)ScheduledCommissioningDateKrabi TH #1Oil340340Feb. 2004Ongoing ProjectLan Krabu GT(Moved from Nong Chok)Lam Takhong Pumped Storage # 1-2IPP (BLCP Power Co.,Ltd. : Rayong) # 1-2IPP (Gulf Power Generation Co.,Ltd.) 1/IPP (Ratchburi Power Co.,Ltd.) # 1-2GasHydroCoalGasGas1222 X 2502 X 673.257002 X 7001225001,346.57001,400Apr. 2004Jun. 2004Oct.2006 - Feb.2007Mar. 2008Mar.2008 - Jun.2008Purchase from Lao PDR (Nam Theun 2)Hydro920920Nov. 2009SPP (Phase II : Renewable)-151.1151.12004 – 2007Renovated Hydro Power PlantsHydro(124.7)(124.7)2006 – 2008SPP (Phase I)-6060Jan. 2007IPP (Gulf Power Generation Co.,Ltd. Additional)-700700Mar. 2007Song Khla CC # 1Gas700700Mar. 2008South Bangkok CC # 3Gas700700Mar. 2009North Bangkok CC # 1Gas700700Mar. 2009Bang Pakong CC # 5Gas700700Mar. 2010New Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2011New Capacity + RPS-3 X 700 + 1052,205Mar. 2012New Capacity + RPS-3 X 700 + 1052,205Mar. 2013New Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2014New Capacity + RPS-4 X 700 + 1402,940Mar. 2015Existing Capacity as of December 2003 25,363.0 MWTotal Added Capacity 4/ 22,444.6 MWTotal Retired Capacity -475.0 MWGrand Total Installed Capacity at the end of 2015 47,332.6 MWNote : 1/ Under negotiation2/ Recommended fuel for new capacity is natural gas, while alternative fuel sources are imported coaland hydroelectric.3/ The unit size of new capacity is initially assumed to be 700 MW. Hower, it can be changed to 800 MW,once the technology is commercially available.4/ Addition of 175 MW renewable capacity during 2008-2010.
2.4 Projection of Future install capacityAccording to the PDP2004, net additional capacity of 22,444.6 MW (consistingof new power plants, RPS’s, SPP’s minus retired projects) during the interval of 2004 - 2015will be installed into the national power system. Combined with the existing 25,442 MWinstalled capacity (as of December 2003), the national power system will possess the totalinstalled capacity of 26,372 MW 37,443 MW and 47,332.6 MW at the end of 2006, 2011 and2015 respectively.At the end of 2015, the total generating capacity of Thailand was 47,332.6 MWconsisting of 4,682.0 MW (9.9%) hydroelectric power plants, 9,211.0 MW (19.5%) thermalpower plants, 18,458.0 MW (39.0%) combined cycle power plants, 1,027.0 MW (2.2%) gasturbine and diesel power plants, 426.0 MW (0.9%) renewable energy : SPP, 300.0 MW (0.6%)EGAT-TNB HVDC link, 630 MW (1.3%) renewable energy : RPS, and 12,600.0 MW (26.6%)New Capacity. (show details in figure 1-4)Energy Generation in 2003 classified by Type of FuelTotal Generation = 116,743 GWh.Installed Capacity = 25,422 MW.Lignite(17,134 GWh)14.7%Heavy Oil(2,150 GWh)1.8%Imported Coal(2,526 GWh)2.2%Renewable(SPP)(1,103 GWh)0.9%Others(150 GWh)0.1%Hydro(10,180 GWh)8.7%Natural Gas(83,500 GWh)71.6%Figure 1 : Present Status of Installed Capacity & Fuel Supply in 2003
Energy Generation in 2006 classified by Type of FuelTotal Generation = 147,658 GWh.Installed Capacity = 26,372 MW.Renewable(SPP)(1,179 GWh)Imported Coal 0.8%(2,460 GWh)Lignite 1.7%(16,622 GWh)11.3%Heavy Oil(17,306 GWh)11.7%Others(6,118 GWh)4.2%Hydro(7,604 GWh)5.1%Natural Gas(96,369 GWh)65.3%Figure 2 : Project of Installed Capacity & Fuel Supply in 2006Energy Generation in 2011 classified by Type of FuelTotal Generation = 206,673 GWh.Installed Capacity =37,443 MW.Renewable(SPP+RPS)(2,600 GWh)Imported Coal1.3%(12,378 GWh)6.0%Lignite(17,315 GWh)8.4%Heavy Oil(2,756 GWh)1.3%Others(2,190 GWh)1.0%New Capacity(11,728 GWh)5.7%Hydro(12,057 GWh)5.8%Natural Gas(145,648GWh)70.5%Figure 3 : Projection of Installed Capacity & Fuel Supply in 2011
Energy Generation in 2015 classified by Type of FuelTotal Generation = 265,787 GWh.Installed Capacity =47,333 MW.New Capacity(83,958 GWh)31.6%Hydro(11,981 GWh)4.5%Others(2,135 GWh)0.8%Renewable(SPP+RPS)(5,175 GWh)2.0% Heavy OilImported Coal(12,378 GWh)4.6%Lignite(17,251 GWh)6.5%(1,613 GWh)0.6%Natural Gas(131,295 GWh)49.4%Figure 4 : Projection of Installed Capacity & Fuel Supply in 2015
3. Energy Security and PolicyThe amount of fuel required for power generation as per PDP2004 classified byfuel types is summarized in Table 3.Table 3 : Portion of Fuel Consumption in Electricity Generation(Recommended Plan)Unit : %Fuel TypeHydro- EGAT- Myanmar/Laos/ChinaNatural Gas- EGAT- EGCO- RATCH- IPP (Existing)- SPP- Gulf (Additional)Heavy Oil- EGAT- RATCHDiesel- EGAT- EGCO & IPPPDP 20042003 2004 2010 20184.108.40.206.627.410.016.010.08.20.01.81.80.00.00.00.06.04.02.069.225.69.715.011.57.40.08.46.22.26.12.43.7220.127.116.11.017.95.52.7Lignite 14.7 12.7 8.9 6.5Imported Coal- IPP- SPP2.20.02.2Renewable Energy (Existing) 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7EGAT-TNB HVDC Link 0.1 0.6 0.8 0.6Renewable Energy (RPS) 1/ - - - 1.3New Capacity - - - 18.104.22.168.11.90.01.91.51.50.00.30.30.06.45.01.22.214.171.1249.4126.96.36.199.44.01.8Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0Note : 1/ Biomass, wind energy, solar, hydro and small scaled hydro power plants0.60.60.00.20.20.04.63.61.0
4. Coal Supply and Demand4.1 OverviewFor decades in Thailand, coal, as an important alternative source of energy hasbeen used for power generation. Coal was firstly mined in 1900 at Bang Poo Dam, in Krabiprovince, southern Thailand. But, the mine lasted within 7 years. History of coal mining inThailand seemed to commence in 1955 when Mae Moh, the largest open-pit coal mine in SEAsia was started up by EGAT in Lampang province, northern Thailand. Coal of this mine haslong-time served the nation for electricity generation.Most coals in Thailand have been found in intermundane basins of Tertiary age.Due to containing commonly high in ash and moisture content, Thai coals are low in heatingaverage. Based on ASTM classification, they are ranked as either lignite or sub-bituminous.Coals of many basins in Thailand are found to be high in sulfur content. Less than 1% ofexcavated coals in Thailand ranked anthracite. These coals have been found as thin, foldedbed in complex carboniferous strata.Now coal will still be a future fuel for Thailand, not only because of plentyavailable, but cheaply in cost. Even blames on its environmental adverse quality but withinnovated technology dirty coal can be used friendly and safely plausible.4.2 Coal ReservesSince 1987 the Exploration & Assessment Project (CEP) set under MineralFuels Division, has assessed the coal resources throughout Thailand in more than 70 Tertiarybasins. The works carried-out covered detailed-geology investigation, high-resolution seismicreflection survey and drilling with well logging. Most of coal is classified in Lignite - Subbituminous and only few in Anthracite. Disclosed by mining data an ultimate remaining reserveof coal was estimated around 1,354 million tons in 16 districts in northern part of Thailand.The highest coal reserve is 1,140 million tons in Mae Moh Mine, Lampang Province. Thedetails of coal reserves as shown in Table 4.4.3 Undeveloped ResourcesThe explored data from the Department of Mineral Fuels (DMF) found 30 coaldeposits, which were measured coal reserve 801 million tons and indicated coal reserve 804million tons. For many years of exploration, DMF compiled and computed data as resourcemore than 801 million tons of measured coal reserve and indicated coal reserve 804 milliontons. The biggest one is in Saba Yoi basin with 349 million tons of measured coal as shown inTable 5.
Table 4 : Coal Reserves of ThailandUnit : Million TonsBasin NameLocation(Province)ProducedReservesRemainingCoal Rank Age StatusNorthern RegionMae Moh Lampang 235 905 Lignite-Sub bituminous Tertiary ActiveLi Lamphun 35.88 NA Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveMae Than Lampang 17.47 18.34 Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveNa Hong Chiang Mai 2.38 NA Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveChiang Muan Phayao 1.69 2.0 Sub bituminous-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveBo Luang Chiang Mai 1.27 NA Sub bituminous-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveMae Lamao Tak 1.25 0.38 Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary ActiveMae Teep Lampang 0.91 10.09 Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary SuspendedMae Tun Tak 0.32 0.90 Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary SuspendedCentral RegionNong Ya Plong Phetchaburi 1.21 0.51 Lignite-Bituminous Tertiary SuspendedSouthern RegionKrabi Krabi 9.20 110.80 Lignite-Sub bituminous Tertiary ActiveKantang Trang 0.10 NA Lignite Tertiary SuspendedNortheasternRegionNa Duang Loei 0.154 NA Anthracite Pre-Tertiary SuspendedNa Klang Udon Thani 0.006 NA Anthracite Pre-Tertiary SuspendedTotal Reserve 306.84 1,048.02Note : NA, data not available
Figure 7: Coal Production Area in Thailand
Table 5 : Coal Resources of ThailandUnit : Million TonsBasin Name Province Measured Indicated Coal Rank1 Saba Yoi Songkhla 349.860 254.890 Lignite2 Wiang Haeng Chiang Mai 93.019 34.124 Lignite to Sub-bituminous3 Sin Pun Nakhon Si Thammarat 91.060 16.428 Lignite to Sub-bituminous4 Ngao Lampang 48.186 50.690 Lignite to Sub-bituminous5 Mae Ramat Tak 37.540 72.170 Lignite to Sub-bituminous6 Chiang Muan Phayao 25.275 17.989 Lignite to Sub-bituminous7 Mae Tha Lampang 22.487 55.065 Lignite to Sub-bituminous8 Chae Hom-Muang Pan Lampang 16.186 41.047 Lignite to Sub-bituminous9 Mae Lamao Tak 15.575 46.366 Lignite to Sub-bituminous10 Khian Sa Surat Thani 15.411 40.000 Lignite to Sub-bituminous11 Nong Phlub Prachuap Khirikhan 10.520 2.786 Lignite to Bituminous12 Hang Chat Lampang 10.320 28.260 Lignite to Sub-bituminous13 Phan Chiang Rai 9.810 26.610 Lignite14 Wang Nua Lampang 9.012 21.160 Lignite to Sub-bituminous15 Umphang-Pala Tha Tak 8.053 19.236 Lignite to Sub-bituminous16 Bung Sam Phun Petchabun 6.850 NA Lignite to Sub-bituminous17 Mae Chaem Chiang Mai 6.080 16.040 Lignite to Sub-bituminous18 Serm Ngam Lampang 5.730 12.040 Lignite to Sub-bituminous19 Nong Ya Plong Petchaburi 4.452 12.256 Lignite to Bituminous20 Kantang Trang 3.420 10.260 Lignite to Sub-bituminous21 Phob Phra Tak 2.330 7.040 Lignite to Sub-bituminous22 Mae Chang Lampang 2.009 5.003 Lignite to Sub-bituminous23 Mae Jai Phayao 1.790 5.360 Lignite24 Wichian Buri Petchabun 1.650 2.620 Lignite to Sub-bituminous25 Phrae Phrae 1.612 0.403 Lignite to Sub-bituminous26 Na Sai Lamphun 1.310 5.270 Lignite27 Fang Chiang Mai 1.120 NA Lignite to Sub-bituminous28 San Pa Tong Chiang Mai 0.500 NA Lignite to Sub-bituminous29 Bo Salee Chiang Mai 0.432 0.667 Sub-bituminous30 Pai Mae Hong Son 0.174 0.366 Lignite to Sub-bituminousTotal 801.773 804.146Note :NA, data not availableMeasured coal refers to the amount in the radius of 200 m of an exploratory well.Indicated coal refers to the amount in the adjacent annulus of 200-400 m apart.
Figure 8 : Coal Potential Area in Thailand
4.4 Coal ProductionMost of coal mines in Thailand are located in the north. The types ranged fromlignite to bituminous. Mainly the lignite produced from the mines are low in quality as well asin heating value, approximately 2,500 – 4,000 Kcal/Kg (GAR) with high quantity of sulphur,approximately 3-5%. Most of it were produced from Mae Moh mine for power generation atMae Moh power plants. Apart from this, coal were produced from various private companies inThailand with better quality of heating value approximately 2,800 – 4,500 Kcal/Kg (GAR) andlow sulfur about 1-3%At the present time the coal producers have been set into 2 groups. The firstgroup is coal producers from Mae Moh of EGAT. As for the other group, the coal wasproduced from the mines that various private companies owned in Thailand for their clients inthe industrial group (about 6-8 of them). The biggest private coal company in Thailand isBanpu Company followed by Lanna Resources Company and Siam Cement Company. Mostlythe mine owned by Siam Cement produces coal for its own business. There are other small coalproducers which are Chieng Muan Mine Company, Siam Carbon Company etc. At the momentthe coal reserves in various areas of these coal companies are low in quantity. A prediction inthis matter indicated that the production of coal will be able to operate not longer than the next2-3 years. The amount of coal production in Thailand separated by group of producer is shownin Table 6.Table 6 : Coal Production during 1999-2004Unit : Million TonsProducer1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1/Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity % Quantity %EGAT 12.02 70.4 12.85 78.6 15.70 79.0 14.95 76.8 15.42 85.8 12.43 82.3PrivateCompany5.05 29.6 3.51 21.4 4.18 21.0 4.51 23.2 2.56 14.2 2.67 17.7Total 17.07 100 16.36 100 19.88 100 19.46 100 17.98 100 15.10 100Note: 1/ January-September 2004
4.5 Coal Utilization4.5.1) Domestic CoalMain use of coal in Thailand is electricity generation. Long as decades,indigenous coal has been fired at the EGAT’s mine-mouth power plants. Coal was producedaround 18 million tons in 2003 and domestically uses about 18.2 million tons per year, forpower generaion 85.7 %, cement industry 9.1 % paper industry 2.6 % and others 2.7 %,respectively.Table 7 : Uses of Domestic Coals in Thailand during 1999-2004Unit : million tonsYear1999 2000 2001 2002 2003Electricity 13.42 14.13 15.32 15.03 15.60Cement 3.82 2.54 2.82 3.27 1.65Paper 0.50 0.31 0.03 0.64 0.52Fiber 0.32 0.24 0.05 0.21 0.24Lime 0.03 0.04 0.43 0.10 0.06Others 0.38 0.65 0.45 0.13Total 18.47 17.64 19.50 19.59 188.8.131.52) Imported CoalDue to lower calorific value of domestic coal, higher calorific coal from outsideis thus necessarily imported every year. Thailand imported coal in 2003 at volume of 7.87million tons, or 28.8 % higher than of 2002. This exceeding 7 million tons record wasprobably due to the economic recovery. Most of the import was primarily used in cementindustry. Because of containing higher calorific, imported bituminous and other coals as fuelswere suitable to blend with Thai coal for cement manufacturing. Bituminous was, thus, thetop of the import list and remarkably increased recently.New coal mines in Thailand tends to be difficult to develop due to NGOintervention. The main reason of no coal mine refers to possible environmental adverse. Thisis the broader opportunity for import coal to fulfill future demand of the country.
According to the statistics of imported coal in the past 6 years (1999-2004), thecountries which mainly supplied coal for Thailand for various types of industries are Indonesia,Lao, Myanmar and Vietnam. Apparently, these countries have their share of coal market inThailand more than 95% of the grand total of imported coal in each year (especially Indonesia,this country holds largest coal market share of 60-75% in Thailand). The rest of the shares lessthan 5% of imported coal is from China and briquettes from Taiwan, Japan etc.The types of imported coal are anthracite, bituminous and coke & semi coke.The coal imported in the early years was over 90% bituminous. As for other types of coalwhich are anthracite sub-bituminous and coke, in the past couples of years, the total quantityimported was less than 10%. Then the ratio of imported bituminous has become lowergradually at the average of 8-10%of the total quantity imported. At the same time the demandof imported sub-bituminous would increase at the average of ratio close to the loweredbituminous. This is the cause of the increase in demand of sub-bituminous in those cementindustrial group in Thailand in the recent years. These sub-bituminous were imported from Laoand Myanmar with much more lower price than bituminous. The import of anthracite fromVietnam is tend to increase consecutively due to the increase of usage for NPS (They are powerplants in SPP’s group). Moreover some of anthracite has also been use as a try for cementmanufacturing. As for the imported coke from China Taiwan and Japan to be used in steelIndustry is tend to be continuously decreased in demand since 2541, the statistics according tothis matter is shown in Table 8 and Table 9.Table 8 : Import of Coal to Thailand during 1999-2004 Classified by CountriesCountryYearUnit : Million Tons1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1/China 0.20 0.13 0.190 0.33 0.13 0.16Indonesia 2.27 2.63 3.12 3.74 5.66 3.14Lao 0.18 0.15 0.21 0.14 0.22 0.23Myanmar 0.07 0.41 0.66 0.64 0.90 0.91Vietnam 0.47 0.70 0.73 0.74 0.95 0.56Others 0.04 0.15 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01Total 3.23 4.17 4.94 5.60 7.87 5.01Note: 1/ January-September 2004
Table 9 : Import of Coal to Thailand during 1999-2004 Classified by Type of CoalCoal TypeYearUnit :Million Tons1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1/Anthracite 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.58 0.53 0.23Bituminous 2.22 2.39 2.80 3.57 5.35 2.92Coke&Semi-Coke 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.05Subbitumonous0.82 1.54 1.85 1.38 1.93 1.81Total 3.23 4.17 4.94 5.60 7.87 5.01Note: 1/ January-September 20044.6) Current Coal Demand for Electricity GenerationAt present the most of the coal demand in Thailand is mainly for powergenerating industry with high ratio of 70-75% of the total coal demand in Thailand (this totaldemand is from coal production Thailand which also included the import).The lower rate ofcoal demand is in cement industry in the ratio of 20-25% and the rest about 5% of the total coaldemand is for other smaller industries respectively.The situation in coal demand for power generating industry between theresources in Thailand and the imported coal will be at the ratio of 90 : 10. This ratio is only forthe use of Mae Moh power plants and for the SPPs. But in the future, if the IPPs are able tooperate power generation as planned and the coal demand meets the expected plan, the ratio ofcoal usage will then become 70 : 30 (this is due to the total usage of imported coal of the IPPs)The estimation of coal demand for power generating is shown in table 10.
Table 10 : Coal Consumption for Power Generation in ThailandProducerCapacityCoal UsageCoal Sources(MW)(Million Tonnes)EGAT 2,400 15-16 Domestic Coal (Lignite) from MaeMoh Mine, LampangIPP (BLCP) 1/ 1,346.5(2 unit@ 673.25)3.4Imported Coal (bituminous) fromIndonesia, AustraliaSPPs 868.2 2.1 Imported Coal - 95% (anthracite &bituminous-sub bituminous fromVietnam, Indonesia etc.)Domestic coal - 5% (sub-bituminousfrom private coal producer)Total 4,614.7 20.5-21.5 -Note : 1/ Ongoing project (Schedule commissioning in 2007)4.7) Projection of Coal Demand for New Power Plants in 2011-2015In the long term (2010 onwards), the major fuel indicated in PDP2004 is naturalgas. A portion of 76.1% of the total energy generation in 2010 will be from natural gas, and itwill go up to 81.0% in 2015. This proportion obviously dominates other fuel usage andimplies that the country’s power supply fully depends on natural gas, which is contrary to thefuel diversify principle. This principle states that a system should not rely too much on oneparticular fuel to avoid instability of system reliability and electricity tariff.However, if the future gas price is unpredictable or the gas consumption isexcessively too high, EGAT has devised an alternative PDP as a way out which reckonsdomestic coal-fired power plants and foreign hydroelectric power plants as the generationoption. This leaves gas and coal to be the main fuel mix for power generation. The use ofimported coal with the stable prices and abundant supply is complementary to domestic gas, asit would optimize the development and usage of domestic gas resources. Policies andstrategies have been developed to ensure continuous supply of coal at competitive prices.The amount of fuel required for power generation as per PDP2004 classified byfuel types is summarized in Table 11. And the amount of coal required for new power plants in2011-2015 is forecasted in Table 12.
Table 11 : Portion of Fuel Consumption in Electricity Generation during 2011-2015(Alternative Plan)Unit : %Fuel TypePDP 20042011 2012 2013 2014 2015Hydro 5.9 5.5 5.2 4.8 4.5Natural Gas 70.9 64.7 60.2 55.3 50.2Heavy Oil 1.3 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6Diesel 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3Renewable Energy (Existing) 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0. 7EGAT-TNB HVDC Link 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6Renewable Energy (RPS) 1/ 0.4 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.3Total 80.4 73.6 68.8 63.6 58.2Coal Demand1) Lignite 8.4 7.9 7.4 6.9 6.52) Imported Coal- IPP- SPP3) New Capacity 2/(Imported Coal)6.04.71.35.184.108.40.206.11.25.03.91.14.73.71.05.2 12.9 18.5 24.5 30.6Total (Imported CoalConsumption)Total Coal Consumption(Domestic & Import)11.2 18.5 25.9 31.4 35.319.6 26.4 31.2 36.4 41.8Grand Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0Note : 1/ Biomass, wind energy, solar, hydro and small scaled hydro power plants2/ New capacities are coal-fired thermal power plantsThe alternative plan of PDP 2004, the fuel for new power plants will be changefrom natural gas to imported coal. The portion of natural gas consumption for electricitygeneration in 2011 is 70.9% of the total energy, and it will decrease to 60% and 50% of thetotal energy generation in 2013 and 2015, respectively. In the other hand the portion ofimported coal consumption will be increase 5.2% to 11.2% of the energy generation in 2011and will go up rapidly to 25.9% and 35.3% in 2013 and 2015 respectively.And the use of fuel coal imported for new power plants planed are expected thatthe portion of imported coal will be highly increase. By the year 2011 imported coal will beincrease 3.76 million tons to 8.1 million tons and dramatically expanded in year 2013 and 2015to 19.6 million tons and 32.9 million tons respectively.
This fuel coal consumption is estimated by comparing with imported coalconsumed by BLCP power plants. In practically, the quantity coal consumed for new powerplants could be vary from estimated due to difference factors such a heating value, plantefficiency or even advance technology in the future.Table 12 : Forecasted of Coal Consumption for Coal-fired thermal Power Plantsduring 2011-2015Unit : Million TonsCoal Consumption2011 2012 2013 2014 2015Domestic Coal 15.90 15.94 15.90 15.90 15.90Mae Moh Power Plants 15.90 15.94 15.90 15.90 15.90Imported Coal 8.16 14.32 19.60 25.84 32.91IPP (BLCP)SPPs 1/ 3.401.0New Capacity 2/ 3.76 9.91 15.20 21.44 28.513.411.03.401.03.401.03.401.0Total Coal Consumption(Domestic& Imported Coal)24.06 30.26 35.50 41.74 44.41Note : 1/ Only coal usage of SPPs for EGAT’s electricity purchase.2/ Forecasted from the imported coal usage of BLCP.5. Environment ResponsibilityTo maintain its leadership of a respected organization and value-based corporategovernance, EGAT gives a very high priority to continual improvement of environmentalmanagement to prevent and control environmental impacts and social repercussions caused byits operations and activities. The improvement of EGAT’s environmental management inevery step of its operations - power development, generation, transmission and other associatedactivities, to the internationally accepted standards, provides assurance that EGAT can continueto operate with high efficiency and responsibility. In addition, EGAT has encouraged publicparticipation process by which the public and potentially affected stakeholders canmeaningfully participate in EGAT’s processes of environmental implementation andmonitoring programme aimed to prevent and control adverse environmental impacts. EGATalso strives for the fair sharing of mutually beneficial outcomes from the project developmentthrough community development and quality of life improvement in a sustainable manner.EGAT and all agencies concerned joined by implementing measures to controlMae Moh power plant’s generating process to reduce the SO 2 emissions to be withinenvironmental standard and regulations. The control measures included the installation of theflue gas desulfurization system on Mae Moh power plant Unit 4 - 13, retired Mae Moh powerplant Unit 1 - 3, Installation of a network of air quality monitoring stations covering the areasof Mae Moh district and nearby areas with relevant risks, and putting in place the real-time air
quality monitoring system to measure concentrations of emissions from the power plant stacks.In 2003, SO 2 emissions from Mae Moh power plant averaged at only 2 - 3 tonnes per hour,well below the regulatory standard limit of 11 tonnes per hour set for Mae Moh power plant,while the average hourly concentration level in the ambient air was under 780 micrograms percubic metre.In addition, EGAT has regularly implement measures to control dust from MaeMoh power plant and mine complex. All generating facilities have been equipped with highefficiencyelectrostatic precipitator with 99% of lignite fly ash trapping capacity. Thecollected fly ash has been sold to private companies for various users. In 2003, a total of 1.5million tonnes of lignite fly ash were sold, reflecting EGAT’s successful researches on theutilization of lignite fly ash which have led to wide-spread use of lignite by-products forseveral activities. Other dust control measures included the utilization of the conveyor beltsystem for handling the overburden, lignite, fly ash and gypsum, as well as the moisture controlfor lignite, fly ash and gypsum. As a result, the volumes of dust in the vicinity decreasedmarkedly.6. Conclusions6.1 Presently the energy-mix for power generation in Thailand is overdependenton gas. To supplement gas, coal has been identified as a viable additional andalternative fuel source for the future. UP to the year 2006 – 2007, there will be coal-firedpower stations of BLCP Project (IPPs) coming on stream with a total capacity of 1,346.5 MWand coal consumption of about 4 mtpa.6.2 In the long term (2010 onwards), if the future gas price is unpredictable orthe gas consumption is excessively too high, EGAT has devised an alternative PDP as a wayout which reckons domestic coal-fired power plants as the generation option.6.3 Public acceptance can be improved when the operation of existing coalfiredpower plants can be shape up good images of the plants and a communication plan can beproperly performed for new per project.6.4 The mandatory clean coal technology is expected to reduce the negativeenvironmental impact of power generation. Combining energy efficiency efforts, conservationinvestments, continued fuel supply diversification, technology and capabilities are thechallenges in ensuring the sustainability of coal utilization.6.5 The energy development plans in Thailand aims at sustainable developmentthrough the integration of the 3E (economic development, environment protection and energysecurity). Coal if balanced into the energy mix will provide the strategy to balance betweenadequate, secure energy supplies, economic growth and protection of the environment.
6.6 New coal mines in Thailand tends to be difficult to develop due to NGOintervention. The main reason of no coal mine refers to possible environmental adverse. Thisis the broader opportunity for import coal to fulfill future demand of the country.6.7 Coal is abundant and price-competitive, therefore, the outlook of coal inThailand will still be relatively prosperous in the future.6.8 The benefit from increased coal utilization are set to encourage andprovideopportunities for existing and new entrepreneurs, both local and foreign.…………………………………………………………..