MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 1INFORMATION SOCIETIES TECHNOLOGY(IST)PROGRAMMEContract for:Shared-cost RTDAnnex 1 - “Description of Work”Project acronym: MINEOProject full title: Assessing and monitoring the environmental impact of miningactivities in Europe using advanced Earth Observation techniquesContract no.:Related to other Contract no.:Date of preparation of Annex 1: 22/10/99Proposal number: IST-1999-10337Operative commencement date of contract:GTK/RS/2004/10
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 2Primary author of this report is :Stéphane ChevrelBureau de Recherches Géologiques et MinièresBRGM3 Avenue Claude GuilleminBP 600945060 Orléans Cedex 2FRANCE
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 31. Project SummaryObjectivesThe objectives of MINEO are:- To develop advanced methods for the extraction of information and knowledge fromEarth Observation data, which will be required in the future in order to provide ECand users (industry, decision-makers) with new and regularly updated thematiclayers for environmental database related to mining areas and to developoperational tools for preparing and updating these layers;- To develop the key components of the decision making tools and methods to exploitthese data and facilitate their use in sustainable information systems to locateand monitor environmental risks related to mining sites and aid the decisionprocesses.Such tools will give the sound basis for effective environmental management througha dialogue between industrialists and decision-makers, ensuring a sustainabledevelopment of the mineral industry, which faces increasing environmental pressureand regulatory controls.Description of the workIn view of developing EO techniques and methods for contributing to environmentalimpact assessments, the work will consist in methodological developments, overvarious European environmental contexts, including:- airborne hyperspectral surveys (simulation of future space-borne missions),acquisition of conventional remote sensing archived data, simultaneous spectroradiometricfield;- study of the environmental status of mine sites through GIS techniquesmeasurements for data calibration and interpretation, including targeted mappingand sampling of polluted and contaminated areas;- development of specific image processing for pollution detection andcontamination mapping;- Geographic Information System (GIS) compilation of existing geoscientific andenvironmental baseline data in collaboration with mine operators and environmentalagencies;- GIS data integration, development of GIS tools, statistical methods andanalytical tools to aid understanding and modelling of the dynamics of pollutionprocesses.This will enable the development of generic tools :- generation of an European scale spectral library of contaminated areas;- creation of GIS and other products tailored to meet user community requirementsand provide decision-support tools;- simulation of hyperspectral satellite imaging for spaceborne global datacoverage in the future.Milestones and expected resultsMonth 6 : User need document (deliverable 4), Dissemination and use plan(deliverable 3, revised month 18Month 9 : Airborne hyperspectral survey (deliverable 5)Month 15: Provisional spectral libraries of contaminated areas (deliverable 6)Month 20: Image processing algorithms for test sites (deliverable 7)Month 24: Pollution dissemination mapping (deliverable 8)Month 30: generic image-processing (deliverable 9)Month 33: Generic modelsMonth 33: data dissemination concept and standardsMonth 36: Final result presentation(deliverable 12) and TechnologicalImplementation Plan (deliverable 13)
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 42. Project ObjectivesGeneral ObjectivesThe responsible management of Earth’s environment is one of today’s most pressing concerns. Soundenvironmental management of mining activities avoids high remediation costs, which frequently drainpublic funds. Surface and groundwater pollution, soil contamination, and terrain instability all causedamage that can affect urban and sub-urban areas. Understanding and monitoring pollution processes inmining areas is therefore of concern to a very wide user community, including central government bodiesor agencies, local authorities, industry, environmental groups and individual citizens.The general objective of the project is to develop hyperspectral remote sensing methods that can be used tomeasure and monitor mining and pollution at less cost and to common standards across the EU.Strategic ObjectivesThe land surface and sub-surface provides the physical infrastructure for all human activities. TheEuropean mining and extractive industry contributes about 7% of the gross domestic product of the EUfrom this resource and feeds essential raw materials to all other EU industries at local, regional and EUwidescales. However the European mining industry is facing increasing environmental pressure andregulatory controls. Industrialists and decision-makers need innovative and cost-effective tools forenvironmental data acquisition and processing that provide the sound basis for a dialogue ensuring thesustainable economic development of the mineral industry. Future decision making will need to bedeveloped within the frame of the ESDP (European Spatial Development Perspective) to be promulgated inMay 1999.The strategic objectives of this project are to develop the components of a possible future decision makingtool for use in environmental planning, and to disseminate knowledge and generate awareness of the rolethat can be played by Earth Observation data in this process.Scientific ObjectivesThe MINEO project aims to:−−Develop the advanced methods for the extraction of information and knowledge from EarthObservation data, which will be required in the future in order to provide the European Community andusers (industry, decision makers) with new and regularly updated thematic layers for an environmentaldatabase related to mining areas, active, planned or abandoned, and to develop operational tools forpreparing and updating these layers;Develop key components of the decision making tools necessary to exploit Earth Observationinformation and knowledge in environmental management systems and facilitate their use insustainable information systems to locate and monitor environmental risks related to European miningsites, and thus to aid the environmental management decision processes.Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and Environmental Management Plans (EMP) can takeadvantage of regularly updated environmental database layers related to mining environments. InnovativeEarth Observation (EO) techniques being developed by the Consortium of European Geological Surveysmembers of EuroGeoSurveys 1 Remote Sensing Topic Network and their partners can meet this demand.Hyperspectral imaging sensors produce data that can characterise the chemical and/or mineralogicalcomposition of the imaged ground surface. The primary advantages of this future space-borne imaging1 The association of the Geological Surveys of the European Union
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 5technique are the reduction in conventional, time-consuming and expensive field sampling methods andtheir capability to gather repeat data and so monitor mining pollution.Earth Observation data, when integrated into Geographic Information Systems and combined with otherdata relevant to environmental concerns, have been proven valuable in the environmental impactassessment of mining, both at local and regional scales. In particular, they can be used in the production ofpollution-risk maps around mining areas. It is therefore proposed to develop the contribution of variousEarth Observation techniques further. The most advanced current airborne hyperspectral sensors will beused to detect mine-waste pollution and soil/aquifer contamination. In particular, their capabilities indetecting and discriminating major pollutants will be assessed and validated during field campaigns.Regular acquisition of such high-resolution, remotely sensed geographic information will help theCommunity to set up a realistic, sustainable and coherent environmental management and monitoringstrategy at European scale.The project presented by the Consortium intends to:– Provide innovative and advanced Earth Observation methods for locating and monitoringenvironmental risks related to mining sites in Europe– Provide innovative technology for simulation of future space-borne imagingspectroradiometers which will be used to make these studies global in the near future– Aid decision-making by European governmental regulatory bodies and industryFurthermore, the transfer of relevant know-how and technologies will assist the competitiveness ofEuropean organisations and industries within the developing global market for environmental managementsystems.The work will develop innovative and cost effective earth-observation tools and information systemmethods to answer the strategic and scientific objectives and further facilitate the establishment of EIA’sand EMP's, with particular emphasis on:– Providing methods and elements for a better understanding of the environmental status andprocesses operating in and around mine sites, under various stages of their life cycle ;– Developing techniques for raising public awareness and setting safeguards in mining areas ;– Developing generic models for understanding pollution migration processes and for pollutionprevention and mitigation;– Developing tools for simulating the consequences of scenarios of rehabilitation and selectingthe most favourable ones.To undertake the envisaged developments, six mining areas, five within Europe (Portugal, UnitedKingdom, Germany, Austria, and Finland) and one in Greenland have been selected for investigation, toreflect European climatic, geographic and socio-economic environment diversity.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 63. List of participantsParticipantRoleParticipantnumberParticipant nameC 1 Bureau de RecherchesGéologiques et MinièresParticipantshort nameCountry Status* DateenterprojectBRGM F PUC 1 36P 2 Geological Survey of Finland GTK FIN GOV 1 36P 3 Geologische Bundesanstalt GBA A GOV 1 36P 4 Natural Environment ResearchCouncil ( British GeologicalSurvey)P 5 Geological Survey ofDenmark and GreenlandP 6 Bundesanstalt fürGeowissenschaften undRohstoffeNERC (BGS) UK GOV 1 36GEUS DK GOV 1 36BGR D GOV 1 36P 7 Instituto Geologico e Mineiro IGM P GOV 1 36P 8 Deutsche Steinkohle AG DSK D PRC 1 36A 9 Joint Research Centre/SatelliteApplication InstituteSponsorJRC/SAI/SSSA I JRC 1 3610 Mondo Minerals Oy MM FIN PRC 1 36A 11 National EnvironmentResearch InstituteNERI DK GOV 1 36*C = Co-ordinator (or use C-F and C-S if financial and scientific co-ordinator roles are separate)P - Principal contractorA - Assistant contractorDate exitproject
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 74. Contribution to programme/key action objectivesThe overall objectives of the Information Society Technologies programme are to make information easilyaccessible to and usable by the largest population. Emergence of digital interactive information productsand services will greatly facilitate this aim, provided data quality and reliability are ensured. Theprogramme also includes policy-oriented objectives aiming at supporting the European policies withtechnological developments. Key Action 1 is specifically dedicated to the support of new models of publicservice provision, with particular focus on cost-effective general-interest services. The development ofsystems making use of advanced technologies enabling innovative means of delivering high quality,useable, affordable and accessible services is given as a priority, notably in the field of environmentalmonitoring.Several key actions in FPV thematic programmes are relevant of environmental concerns. In many cases,data acquisition for environmental monitoring is given as priority actions.Theme 5 (Environment) of Key Action 1 is reminded in the table below:I.5 EnvironmentI.5.1 Intelligent environmental monitoring and management systemsObjective: To develop and demonstrate at local, urban, regional and trans-boundary level systems andtools for coherent international environment monitoring and management. The work is expected to involveintegration of diverse networked information sources including, as appropriate, high-resolution remotesensing,geographic information, advanced data mining and decision support systems. It isalso expected toinvolve development of intelligent sensors, detectors, models and networks for monitoring of slow chronicchanges, as well as pollution, and the assessment of new business models for value-added environmentalinformation services. RTD is expected to contribute to European and global standards for environmentaldata exchange and to the preservation of natural resources. It should also support environmental planningand early warning.I.5.2 Environmental risk and emergency management systemsObjective: To develop and demonstrate new tools and integrated systems for coherent emergencymanagement, supporting the entire cycle from prevention, identification, mitigation and post-crisis follow-upfor both natural and man-induced risks. The work, which is focused on severe weather, geologicalincidents, flooding, forest fires, landslides and industrial accidents, is expected to involve development anduse of intelligent, mobile and networked sensors for real-time data collection, remote sensing, highperformance visualisation systems combined with risk assessment models and real-time GIS. The systemsshould include tools for real-time command and control and the integration of data from satellite, fixed andmobile communication networks; they should include the provision of early warning and information to thecitizen. The RTD is expected to contribute to establish and enhance European standards for genericemergency management tools, including those to be used for potential high impact environments suchindustrial plants and urban environments.An environmental risk and emergency management system must be able to:− locate, retrieve and manage data relevant to the static environmental information− locate, retrieve and manage data relevant to the legislative and regulatory framework− locate, retrieve and manage data relevant to ongoing monitoring of the environment− perform automatic data combination or GIS queries relevant to the decision process, warning systemand/or useful in periodic documentation and/or reports on the status of the environmental management− perform user-customised data combination or GIS queries and/or simulations relevant to the decisionprocess and indispensable in crisis managementIn the light of this, the MINEO project aims at developing innovative and cost-effective data acquisitiontools and methods based on high resolution remote sensing and geographic information for assessment,monitoring and management of the environmental impact of mining activities. In particular, it is designedto offer operational remote-sensing methods for a regular updating of environmental database layers at theEuropean scale. Managed by regional-, national- or European-scale public organisations, these operational
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 8database layers will thus contribute to a coherent European environmental monitoring policy. Furthermore,easy access to reliable and up-to-date data and tools will encourage an operational integration ofenvironmental database layers into decision support systems, either by local, regional, national, andcommunity-wide authorities or by industrialists concerned with environmental management.Though not producing such a system, MINEO thus falls into environmental risk and emergencymanagement system requirements as it intends to develop system elements such as tools and methods toprovide data for assessing static environment and monitoring ongoing processes along with generic GIStools and models for pollution-dissemination monitoring and forecasting.Indeed, such data integration will contribute to the development of environmental risk managementsystems, notably through the provision of data for identification, prevention and mitigation of risks, as wellas post-crisis follow-up in the case of accidents. Their use in high performance visualisation systems,combined with risk assessment models and real-time GIS for risk and emergency management, will bemade possible from the products developed within the framework of the project.A common data dissemination facility requires the use of common data exchange standards that ensure amaximum degree of interoperability. The formulation of data exchange standards is a key part of theproject, and aims to define compatible formats with the project records following internationallyestablished metadata standards.5. InnovationElectronic imaging and digital image processing constitute –after the invention of photography – thesecond revolution in the use of images in science and engineering. Because of its inherentlyinterdisiplinary nature, image processing has become a major integrating factor stimulating communicationbetween engineering and natural sciences. The major advantage of image procesing is that ‘invisible’(features not sensible for human beings but sensible for instruments; mathematical and statistivcalcreations) can be visualised.Thanks to the latest developments in spectroscopic instruments (high spectral resolution along with highsignal to noise ratio), hyperspectral sensors are now able to generate exceptionally high-quality digitalhyperspectral information far beyond the capabilities of current multispectral remote sensing data. Indeed,hyperspectral sensors are characterised by their high spectral resolution across a wide range of theelectromagnetic spectrum, enabling the identification of the chemical composition of the imaged target(rock, soils, or vegetation).Hyperspectral sensors are now available on a commercial basis on airborne platforms. Development ofspace-borne imaging hyperspectral sensors is being conducted by the USA (NASA Earth Observation-1mission, part of the New Millennium Programme) and Australia (ARIES Consortium, Australian Research,Information and Environmental Satellite). The European Space Agency is embarked on a long-termdevelopment process for a space-borne hyperspectral sensor (PRISM) in the framework of the LivingPlanet programme.Hyperspectral airborne imaging and analysis has so far been used only tentatively for environmentalsurveying. The bottleneck in many remote sensing studies based on interpretation of hyperspectral (havingmore than 30 channels) imagery has been just Image Processing. This is mainly because the wholeapplication is fairly new. Multispectral and hyperspectral airborne campaigns are generally expensive. Thiscan lead to lack of resources in the follow up studies such as using suitable mathematical/computermethods and designing targeted algorithms. For example, classification of an image consisting of more than128 channels is a task demanding both high-tech software and hardware and professional IP skills.Hyperspectral sensors generate very large volumes of image data. Appropriate, dedicated image-processingsoftware became available commercially only recently. Most research and development has focused on
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 9mineral prospecting applications, mainly by American, Canadian and Australian teams. Development ofthe customised, thematic, environmental applications required in the European context and specificcorresponding algorithms is lacking.The current status of Image Processing (IP) is based on the modern computer facilities and cooperation ofscience groups with computing departments/groups. Hardware usable for this purpose is composed of e.g.modern PC :s and Unix workstations. Top-quality hardware and software are now available for thispurpose.The mathematical top methods (software implemented) which are available and generally used for theinterpretation of remotely sensed images are : the concepts of (see the references below) Mixed Pixels,End Members, Linear Unmixing, Spectral Angle Mapping, Bayesian statistics, Kriging and variousmethods of Artificial Neural Networks.Available methods for mapping and monitoring mining pollution plumes are not fully satisfactory and aregenerally expensive. Laboratory analyses of surface samples collected during regularly time-spaced, fieldsampling campaigns present heavy and constraining costs. For example, the annual budget for anenvironmental impact study and follow-up environmental monitoring for a single coal-mine is estimated atmore than 1 Million Euro (up to 3 Million Euro for certain years). The provision of appropriate expertise,airborne photogrammetry to generate DEMs, field surveying, ground water modelling, the measurement ofsubsidence, etc. may include:− more than 200 groundwater levels measured every two weeks over an area of 100 sq. Km.− a DEM with a high density of points and contour lines and an accuracy of 20 cm for each surface point,updated every 3 or 4 years (in case of the subsidence monitoring)− land-use cover, updated periodical, to detect change and to distinguish between impacts due to miningand those with other causesThe development of low cost remote sensing and geographic information tools for mapping contaminationextent and modelling its evolution will represent a critical improvement in mining environmentalmanagement. It will make possible the forecasting of the pollution dissemination processes, thusminimising field-sampling density. Indeed, the cost of acquisition and processing of a satellite image andits further combination with other environmentally relevant data into decision support systems is unlikelyto exceed a few tens of thousands of Euro 2 .Base line in remote sensing applied to environmental monitoring 3 :Systematic mitigation and remediation projects of mining environments are today being carried out inworld-wide context. However, use of advanced Remote Sensing has been minimal – excluding a fewcases. Aerial photography have been used for DEM:s, cartography and volume estimations in mining andlandfill areas (e.g. Avery 1977, Vincent 1994). Multispectral scanner airborne and satellite data has beenused to interpret soil composition and satellite imagery for creating synergic views to larger vicinities ofmines. Satellite radar interferometry has been used for mapping of very small topographic elevationchanges (28 mm) caused by earthquake (Vincent 1997). Herman et al.(1994) reported a Superfund wastesite in Michigan, where trees suffering of clorosis could be mapped by multispectral remote sensing.Recently (1995) the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with NASA , JPL (JetPropulsion Laboratory) and US Geological Survey started a project for utilising the Airborne VisibleInfrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) system for environmental investigations of mining contaminatedwatersheds (Henderson and Lachance 1999). Wider applications of hyperspectral image analysis to miningenvironments are still lacking.2 Imaging Spectroscopy Saves Millions of Dollars!Recent word from the Environmental Protection Agency is that our work at the California Gulch Superfund site near Leadville, Colorado has savedan estimated 2 million dollars in site investigation study expenditures, and shortened the site investigation by an estimated 2.5 years! All withAVIRIS, imaging spectroscopy mineral mapping. (Letter from Max H. Dodson, Assistant Regional Administrator for Office of EcosystemsProtection and Remediation, EPA, to W.F. Townsend and R. Harris, NASA, dated February 27, 1997.)3 See further references at the end of this annex
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 10Easy access to operational and reliable data and tools through European, regional or local data bases will beof economic value both for organisations in charge of pollution control, and for mining companies withinthe frame of their Environmental Management System.Hyperspectral discrimination capabilities have been demonstrated mostly in arid or sparsely vegetatedenvironments. Europe has a very wide diversity of environments, ranging from semi-arid in its southernpart to boreal environment in the north, and even arctic when including Greenland. This environmentalrange is reflected by the selection of test sites from the various settings: arctic, boreal, alpine, centralEuropean densely populated area, western European abandoned mining area and Mediterranean. Thisvariety gives an opportunity to apply the developed methods and tools of the project to most of Europe’senvironments. Testing the ability of hyperspectral sensors to discriminate not only bare soil contaminationbut also resulting vegetation stress will be an essential goal of the research.It should be remembered that dense vegetation, anthropogenic perturbations, and atmospheric effects mighthamper discrimination. In a similar way, only certain pollutants might be distinguished, either themselvesor through their impact on the environment, while others will not be detectable through remote sensingmethods at all.6. Community added value and contribution to EU policiesContribution to EC policyThe EC environmental legislative regulations cited are Framework Directive on Waste 75/442/EEC asamended by Directive 91/156/EEC, Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain publicand private projects on the environment as amended by Directive 97/11/EC and Directive 92/104/EEC onthe minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in surface andunderground mineral-extracting industries.CARACAS (Concerted Action on Risk Assessment on Contaminated Sites) was set up in order to addressthe issues relating to contaminated land risk assessment in Europe. It was established as part of theEnvironment and Climate RTD Programme of the European Commission and co-ordinated by the GermanFederal Environment Agency. CARACAS combined the knowledge and expertise of academics andgovernment experts from 16 European countries. Final results of this scientific partnership are presented intwo volumes: vol. 1 for technical aspects, risk assessment and state of the art, vol. 2 for policy framework.No agreement was reached about a European regulatory framework, and following subsidiarity principle,each country has its own regulation, but the final objectives of environmental protection have been agreed.Regulations for polluting industrial activities apply to mining and extractive industries. Remote sensing isone of the tools that have been envisaged for site investigations, particularly at regional scale.The Network for Industrially Contaminated Land in Europe (NICOLE) is a Concerted Action of the EUEnvironment & Climate RTD Program in 1996. It is an alliance of industrial problem holders, researchperformers, technology developers, service providers and research planners from 15 EU and EasternEuropean countries. NICOLE is industry-led and provides a forum for the dissemination and exchange ofscientific and technical knowledge and ideas relating to all aspects of industrially contaminated land.NICOLE also contributes to co-ordinating this kind of studies and is of importance to the EuroGeoSurveysRemote Sensing Topic Network.WWF (Worldwide Fund for nature), European Policy Office, has recently presented a report entitled“Report on toxic waste storage sites in EU countries A preliminary risk inventory” along with a paperentitled “Suggested action at the EU level to prevent unregulated, accidental pollution from metal miningactivities”. Among these recommendations, the first one is an extensive inventory at European scale ofmining activity sites, active or abandoned, and their environmental consequences. Earth Observation isexplicitly mentioned as a privileged tool, not only for tailings dam inventory, but also in vulnerabilitystudies, particularly in wetlands.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 11Community added valueThe emergence of Environmental Management Systems 4 (EMS), standardised through ISO14000, impliesthat there is a strong need for Environmental Management, particularly in the mining sector. EnvironmentalImpact Assessments and Environmental Management Plans (which form part of EMS’s) can take benefit ofregularly updated environmental base layers obtained through EO techniques.Mining companies and governmental institutions involved in environmental monitoring have interest inminimising and optimising the number of monitoring stations, in order to reduce the number of expensivechemical analyses. Hypespectral imagery processing can be used in detailed mapping of programmes formonitoring pollution from mines and other sources of pollution. It may be even used for identification ofnaturally or man-made polluted areas. This will make it possible placing monitoring stations at points ofhighest pollutant concentration, without implementing systematic grid of large number of sampling stationsto identify highest pollution levels. The developed tools and methods are expected to provide informationon key sites for pollution and to lower monitoring costs. 5All mining companies in Europe are obliged under legal acts to monitor the environment in their miningareas. It is expected that these requirements will increase in the future. Therefore, an efficient use of remotesensing methods with low cost and high quality is essential for the mining companies. This supposesmaking available:• an official and objective spectral database for every hyper- or multispectral data (spectral library)• related and standardised image processing algorithms• standardised methods for a multi-temporal change detection• obligatory guidelines for the environmental monitoring of mining areasEuropean dimension of the ProjectEurope has a very wide diversity of environments, ranging from semi-arid context in its southern part toboreal and sub-arctic environments in the north, and even arctic when including Greenland. Thisenvironmental wealth is reflected in the project by the selection of test sites in various contexts: arctic,boreal, alpine, central Europe densely populated area, western Europe and southern Europe. This diversityguarantees that the Consortium will develop generic methods and tools valid for most of the Europeanencountered contexts.National Geological Surveys have an extensive and longstanding experience in the compilation, analysisand integration of environmental and mining data and are very familiar with their own environment andrelated problems. Remote Sensing has been an integral part of their activity for long time. Each is thusbringing its original contribution to a European scale problem. On the other hand, their complementaryexpertise within the EuroGeoSurveys (an association of more than 6000 experts, many of whom work onEuropean environmental issues) guarantees a pan-European approach is taken into account and ensures thestandardisation of the products.The Space Application Institute of JRC has a global view of the EO industry in Europe and in particular ofuser requirements and access to EO data. It will thus provide its complementary downstream experience indata dissemination and exchange.4 United Nations Environment Programme, Industry and Environment, Volume 20 No 4, October - December 1997,pp 17-205 Mapping acid-generating minerals at the California Gulch Superfund Site in Leadville, Colorado using imagingspectroscopy : http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/PAPERS.Leadville95/leadville1.htmlA NASA airborne sensor aids in superfund site clean up:http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/PAPERS.Leadville95/press.release.3.13.96.html
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 12Mining companies are in “front line” of environmental concerns, facing both economical andenvironmental, sometimes antonymous, constraints. Their participation in the project will significantlycontribute to better orientate it toward user needs, in technical and economical aspects of the fight againstpollution.7. Contribution to Community social objectivesThe unemployment rate has risen considerably in certain European countries. Jobs ensured by mining andrelated industries play a very significant role in national economies. The employers in mining industry arehighly conscious about the fact that only those firms who operate responsibly also in environmentalconcerns can successfully keep the jobs.The key environmental problems associated with mine waste are high concentrations of heavy metals, lowpH, and an inadequate soil structure with a low level of plant nutrients. The main contaminants are arsenicand copper, with some lead and zinc depending on the nature of minerals extracted. Pollution caused bymine-waste extends much further than the visible mounds of spoil due to dispersion by gravity, surfacewater and groundwater. Pollution is also caused by acid mine water draining from the adits of abandonedmines. Such mining contamination can affect directly the health of the local communities. The impact onsurrounding farmland is of concern if livestock ingest contaminated grass and soil. In this scenario, foodscares affect health and consumer confidence among a much wider community. This study will provideinformation to supplement government data on low level As-intake and the occurrence of disease in thepopulation. The reclamation of mine sites which have not fully recovered through soil and plantregeneration is an important issue for local authority planners. These sites are eyesores within regions keento develop tourism to replace the abandoned mining activity as a major part of their economies. This studywill aid strategic planning of mine site rehabilitation, pinpointing areas that should be earmarked forreclamation via techniques including the use of barrier layers and tree planting.Quality of life is also highly dependent on the surrounding scenery where people live. Here again, theprojects results will also contribute to remediation, e.g. reforestation and rehabilitation of former miningareas.8. Economic development and S&T prospectsGeneral trends and developments of EO markets can be expected to be inferred from industry expectations,which naturally also depend on the tools and methods made available by various developers and suppliers.According to the CEO report (ESYS-98196-RPT-02) the most high expectations are placed ondevelopment of (spectrally and spatially) high resolution EO imagery. The new trends in the developmentof GIS make it possible to fully utilise this high resolution imagery especially in mining environments. TheGIS development stages are suggested to be as follows:1. Professional GIS2. Desktop GIS3. Embedded GIS4. Internet GIS5. Social GIS6. Open GISAt the moment the GIS development goes between 3 and 4. Environmental risk and emergencymanagement systems rely on such Internet-based GIS developments. Concerning hyperspectral data thereare however constraints which have to be taken into account such as availability of data, data sales policy,
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 13decreasing public budgets, delayed or cancelled launches and discontinuities in data supply. Concerning thefuture market opportunities such EO approaches as mapping of surface contamination, prevention wasteand pollution at the source and remediation planning and rehabilitation such as reforestation can beregarded as most potential value adding issues for mining industry and environmental agencies.The trends described above are enhanced by the moves of data providers and value adding companies tobecome more service oriented and to enter the wider market environment of spatial information services.The increasing penetration of GIS modules in local and regional administrations is one reason for this moveand it is certainly paving the way for a wider usage of new EO data sources that will increasingly also besupplied by private commercial EO missions. The increase in demand for EO data caused by the need tosupport EU Environmental and natural resource management policies as well as national law by carryingout environmental impact studies is another important driver for a growth in EO markets. This increase willalso be reinforced by European governments programmes to aid opening EO market toward new users.In addition, scientific research is pressing harder to achieve operational status. With respect to miningapplications, of great interest are the interferometric data sources to become available from ESA’s Envisatmission once launched. A commercially interesting application in this context is the mapping of surfacesubsidence enabled by interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data sets, as already proven usingERS 1 and 2 SAR data .Based on the analysis of comprehensive market surveys, there is no reason to believe that EO data will notbecome an acknowledged and established way of collecting spatial information to aid decision processes inenvironmental management in combination with other data sources and in an integrated approach. Theproposed project is an important step to enable the infrastructure that will add to the availability ofintegrated spatial information services making use of a wide range of geographical data sources.EuroGeoSurveys and its component parts will benefit in the long term as European agencies acquire thetools which help them to apply EuroGeoSurveys methods to their problems. MINEO is designed to developsome of these tools. In addition, the collaboration with environmental agencies and mining companies willhelp raise awareness of the techniques in industry. The net result will be an expansion of this business forEuroGeoSurveys 6 . Furthermore, EuroGeoSurveys and its networks is a key to open the correspondingmarkets in all the European countries and even more.9. WorkplanSummary of the Work Plan9.1 General descriptiona) Project structureb) Overall methodology6 According to development banks, expected growth of the market in Mining and Environment is among the mostimportant ones, along with water resources. Recent international call for tenders reflect this tendency and the methodsdeveloped in MINEO will greatly facilitate the elaboration of attractive tenders in this domain. Among these tenders,one can mention:• World Bank project ARPE57124: Argentina-Mining Decontamination Project• International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 4282-AR: Secundo Proyecto de Asistencia tecnica parael desarroloo del Sector Minero Argentino (PASMA II)• EU DGXI: Improvement of radioactive waste management at Sverodvinsk (Russia)• EU DGXI: Security analysis of radioactive waste in Latvia• etc
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 141. Assessment of user needs and Review of mining and environmental concerns inEurope (Workpackage 1-1)2. Methodological development of tools and methods in various environments(Workpackages 2-1 to 2-6)2.1. Test site description2.2. Proposed methodological steps2.2.1.Task 1: Compilation of existing data, acquisition of specific data2.2.2. Task 2: Environmental hazard review and socio-economics impact2.2.3. Task 3: Hyperspectral airborne survey2.2.4. Task 4: Spectroradiometric survey2.2.5. Task 5: Hyperspectral image processing, contamination mapping2.2.6. Task 6 : Generation of Digital Elevation Models2.2.7. Task 7: GIS integration2.2.8. Task 8 : Geostatistical analysis2.2.9. Task 9 : GIS modelling2.2.10.Task 10: Summarising report3. Development of generic tools3.1. Development of generic image processing (Workpackage 3-1)3.1.1 Task 1 : Development of generic image processing for pollution andcontamination mapping3.1.2. Task 2 : Simulation of future hyperspectral satellite imagery3.2. Development of generic models (Workpackage 3-2)4. Data and result dissemination4.1. Dissemeination and implementation, Data dissemination and standards(Workpackage 4-1)4.1.1. Task 1: Data dissemination concept4.2 Result dissemination (Workpackage 4-2)4.2.1. Task 1: Final workshop4.2.2. Task 2: Publications4.2.3. Task 3: Web site9.2 Workpackage description9.3 Deliverable list9.5 Project planning and time table9.6 Graphical presentation of the project’s components1. Graphical presentation of the project’s components2. Task responsibility and partner distribution9.7 Project management1. Project Structure2. Project management and quality evaluation2.1. Project handbook2.2. Steering Committee2.3.Quality management committee2.4. Quality control table9.1 General descriptiona) Project structureWith respect to the main project aims of developing generic tools and methods applicable at the Europeanscale, the Project is conceived as a four-fold programme.It thus includes:
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 151. An extensive review of the user needs for environmental data sets and of the socio-economic andenvironmental problems related to mining activities, including European regulations, along with anappraisal of the “state of the art” of GIS and remote-sensing applications in environmental studies, witha particular focus on mining related problems;2. A methodological development of the remote-sensing and GIS tools and methods simultaneouslycarried out in various climatic, socio-economic and environmental contexts, representative of theEuropean diversity;3. The development of generic tools, methods and models of impact assessment and environmentalmonitoring applicable all over Europe and likely worldwide. These models should take into accountconcerns outlined during the first and second steps;4. A final step dedicated to the dissemination and use of the results and the definition of European dataexchange concepts and standards.The workpackage breakdown presented in 9.2, its graphical representation (Pert diagram) and scheduling(Gannt chart) reflects this project structure, with :− An initial common workpackage devoted to the first project step (Workpackage 1-1);−−−Six workpackages, each dedicated to a specific European context (Worpackages 2-1 to 2-6). Being ofequivalent methodological-development purpose, these six workpackages will be carried outsimultaneously, each under the responsibility of a participant familiar with the correspondingenvironmental context;Two common workpackages (Workpackages 3-1 and 3-2) contributing to the methodologicaldevelopment of generic operational remote-sensing and GIS tools and methods;Two final, common workpackages (Workpackages 4-1 and 4-2) designed to ensure the development ofdissemination and use concepts and standards for data and tools, and to present the project results.b) Overall methodology1. Assessment of user needs and review of mining and environmental concerns in Europe(Workpackage 1-1)The aim of this first work package is to obtain an in-depth view of the user perspective as well as of thetechnical parameters and legal framework conditions on top of which MINEO is going to be conducted.The acquired information will be compiled and presented in a User Needs Document consisting of thefollowing sections:User perspective: In order to address and understand the needs of those involved, a detailed user needsassessment will be carried out by means of a literature survey and personal interviews. The contacts will bearranged through the EuroGeoSurveys Office and will include European scale environmental authorities, aswell as national and local agencies. These will be consulted to determine their exact needs in terms ofenvironmental information systems related to mining areas.The socio-economic importance of mining and its effects on the environment will be reviewedextensively by key participants. A report will provide a synopsis of the socio-economic situation in miningenvironments in Europe. The economic dimension of the problem in particular will be approached. Areview of the European regulatory framework will enable the ultimate development of tools and methodsuseful in fulfilling these regulations.Technical parameters: Finally, a “state of the art” review of existing tools, methods and models using GISand remote sensing techniques in environmental impact and monitoring studies will be performed. In thisaspect, the economics of the possible contribution of Earth Observation data to the assessment ofenvironmental problems will be a specific point of focus.The results of the user needs analysis together with the legislation analysis will form the basis for theconcept design of the data collection carried out over the test sites.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 162. Methodological development of tools and methods in various environments (Workpackages 2-1to 2-6)The development of generic methods and tools will require preliminary assessments in different contexts,representative of European diversity. The selected test sites are listed below:− Arctic environment: one site in Greenland (Workpackage 2-1)− Boreal environment: one site in Finland (Workpackage 2-2)− Alpine environment: one site in Austria (Workpackage 2-3)− Central Europe densely populated environment: one site in Germany (Workpackage 2-4)− Western Europe environment: one site in United Kingdom (Workpackage 2-5)− Southern Europe environment: one site in Portugal (Workpackage 2-6)Test site selection reflects diverse environmental problems due to diversity of mineral extracted, methodsof exploitation, etc. as described below.Greenland site: Mesters Vig (Blyklippen), central East GreenlandMesters Vig is the largest of the numerous Pb-Zn occurrences situated within a series of sanstones andintercalacted conglomerates of Upper Carboniferous to Lower Triassic age. The mine is situated in amountainous area with arctic flora and fauna. The natural conditions are affected by permafrost.The occurrence was discovered in 1948. The mining operations lasted from 1956 to 1963. Subsurfacemining produced 545 000 t ore with and average grade of 9 % Pb and 10 % Zn, 58 000 tons of galena and75 000 tons of sphalerite concentrate were recovered.During the mining operations tailing and other mine waste influenced the drainage system. Environmetalproblems related to the transport and shipping of the concentrate have also been registered. The periods ofintense runoff, during the spring in particular and strong winds are the main factors for the dispersion ofpollutants.Since the closure of the mining operation only insignificant remediation measures have been carried out(closing the underground workings, removal of buildings, etc.)The central East Greenland is virtually uninhabited, and apart from the short period of mining, theanthropogenic environmental impact is negligible. This implies that Mester Vig mine area with itssurroundings constitutes an ideal target for environmetal baseline studies and qualitative and quantitativeassessment of the pollution levels and modelling the pollutant dispersion process. The Mesters Vig test siterepresents one of the natural extremes of the MINEO project.Mining industry is one of the key economic factors for the - often remote, arctic areas and the localauthorities often undertake various measures to promote the exploration and exploitation of the mineralresources of the arctic regions. The arctic environment is notable for its high degree of vulnerability. Theenvisaged research on the Mesters Vig test site has a good potential for contributing to the understandingand development of models and tools applicable for the environmental monitoring of the ongoing andfuture activities in the other arctic regions.Finnish site: Lahnaslampi talc mineThe large Lahnaslampi talc-magnesite mine is situated in the sensitive nature of Boreal forest in Sotkamocommunity in Northern Finland. Genetically, the Lahnaslampi orebody is an alteration result of anultramafic massive, which is an inclusion in black graphite bearing shales and mica schists of Karelian age,
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 171970 million years. The natural rock type of the ore formation itself and the black shales area are typicallyeasily weathering in comparison to other bedrock types in Finland.The mine is operated by Mondo Minerals Oy. Volume of annual mining of ore and country rock is about1,5 million tonnes. Annual production of talc enrichment is 200 000 tonnes.The main categories of land use in the Lahnaslampi mine area are as follows:• Open pit area• Industrial infrastructure areas• Mining dumps and waste heaps• Tailing ponds with possible outlets• Boreal forest exposed to dust• Natural lakes, ponds, rivers and streamsEnvironmental risks: The mining operations, waste heaps and the tailings produce large amounts of mineraldust material (talc, silicates, carbonate, sulphides) which is distributed to the surrounding enviromnent bywind. Ca, Cu and As are diluted by surface waters from the ore material. Black shales with anomalousamounts of sulphides and heavy metals are abundant in the area. They can cause contamination andacidification of surface and ground waters. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers a new innovative andsustainable method for mapping symptoms of this contamination and studying the related processes ofpollution.The baseline knowledge of this mining area consists of the following information:1. detailed geology, composition and structure of ore deposit,2. mining and enrichment processes,3. rough estimate of distribution and tonnage of waste material4. chemical composition of waste material in number of control points5. chemical composition of waste waters in a few control pointsThe estimated mining operation will still last at leas for 20 years. Mondo Minerals has an active plan forremediation and rehabilition of the area. The MINEO study will contribute to this plan.Austrian site: Erzberg mineThe “Steirische Erzberg” iron ore deposit is located 60 km NNW of the city of Graz in the province ofStyria. Mining took place since Roman time. In the 16 th century underground mining started, which wasclosed down in 1986. Since the 18 th century open pit mining activities increased, which are still underway.Since the beginning of mining activity about 230 million t of iron ore have been mined at the Erzberg; 200million t in this century. There are still 140 million t of recoverable and another 95 million t of geologicalreserves left.The Erzberg is the biggest iron ore open pit mine in central Europe. Mining activities encompass the wholemountain, which rises about 700 m above the bottom of the valley up to 1400 m above sea level and coversan area of about 6,5 km 2 . Mining is done in about 30 levels with an height of 24 m. The annual productionis approximately 3 million tons of iron ore with an iron content of 21%. Main ore minerals are siderite,ankerite and ferrous dolomite. Accessory minerals are pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, tetraedrite andcinnabar.The open pit mine can be subdivided into different areas with regard to specific land use conditions:• Areas of active mining• abandoned mining areas• mining dumps and waste heaps in use• old mining dumps and waste heaps• tailings ponds• areas unaffected by mining activities
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 18Active mining areas exhibit fresh rock surfaces of different lithologies. Abandoned mining areas compriseweathered rocks of different types covered by vegetation of different intensity and condition. Dumps andheaps consist of material of different lithological mixtures, of different grain or block size, at differentslope angle. Depending on their status of use heaps and dumps show no vegetation at all or are covered bydifferent types and intensities of vegetation. In tailing ponds fine grained material is deposited.Mining dumps comprise an area of about 3 km 2 ; 0.6 km 2 is used as a test area for mining site landscapingand reforestation in an Alpine environment, and is covered by different types of vegetation. These activitiesare carried out by a consortium of university institutes and local consulting companies ("Development ofstandards for the renaturation and recultivation of mining sites and quarries", "Soil reconstruction overalpine mine tailings"). In the framework of these projects a lot of relevant parameters for the reforestationof mining areas in an alpine environment were acquired. (ground composition, grain/block size of material,vegetation type, vegetation stress, ...)RationaleLandscape degradationAlpine environment is extremely sensitive regarding the interference in the natural ecosystem. Open pits,mining dumps, and tailing dams are a severe degradation of the environment. Due to the specific climaticand topographic conditions in an Alpine environment nature's self-healing capabilities are considerablyreduced. As in this area the economy relies on tourism to a considerable extent, human support is needed tominimise the negative effects of mining activities and to speed up the process of mining site re-naturation.Landslides - dump slope stabilityNot stabilised mining dumps are potential thread because of the possibility of dump slides, endangeringpeople, infrastructure, and the environment. Dump stability depends on many factors, e.g. type of material,grain or block size, slope angle, thickness, water content, and type of cover (uncovered material, differenttypes of vegetation). Mining dumps can be stabilised by means of landscaping and reforestation, thusregulating water balance within the tailings.ContaminationBecause of the relatively pure carbonatic iron ore mined at Erzberg, direct contamination by toxic materialis not a major problem in this case. However in general mining dumps are a potential thread to theenvironment because of leaching of toxic elements by precipitation, or dust blow-out from the tailings.These effects can be reduced by targeted remediation activities, reforestation being an effective method toinhibit excessive percolation of dumps by precipitation. Therefore methods for environmental monitoringdeveloped at Erzberg test site will be applicable also to mining sites with serious contamination problems.German site Kirchheller Heide mining areaThe Central European test site, named “Kirchheller Heide” is situated very close to the Ruhr Area, one ofthe biggest urban and industrial areas of Europe. It is an area of more than 100 km² with forests, naturereserves, meandering flowing waters and agricultural fields. But there are recreation areas for theinhabitants of the Ruhr area and opencast mines, too. Finally Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK) is exploitinghard coal from more than 800 m under the surface. That is the reason for surface subsidence and changes inthe environmental balance (e.g. groundwater level, flowing directions, vegetation). The monitoring of theenvironmental balance and its changes is essential for this area. DSK is obliged under acts to do anenvironmental impact study for this area. A lot of data exists over the “Kirchheller Heide” test site, fromthe environmental impact study. Especially HyMAP scanner data from a flight in August 1998 are existing.This data will be used in the project as the starting point of a multitemporal data series for changedetection in land use, vegetation, soil and soil moisture.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 19British site : West Cornwall mining districtThe site is within the Redruth-Camborne area of the West Cornwall Mining District, UK. Metalliferousmineral mining began in the Bronze Age and developed into systematic underground mining by the 14 thcentury. Mining reached its peak in the 19 th century with the production of up to 15,000 tons of tin andcopper per annum. Thereafter production steadily declined and the last working mine, Wheal Jane, closedin 1985.This long period of mining activity has left a legacy of derelict land, mineral pollution and abandoned mineshafts. Arsenic and base metals in the soils produce high levels of toxins that produce geobotanical andeco-toxicological effects in the vegetation that are poorly understood. Existing data will be collated for thesite. Hyperspectral data, field and laboratory spectroscopy will be collected to discriminate and classifyhealthy and stressed vegetation, to map minerals where exposed, and so to map contamination. Theairborne data and aerial photography will also be used to map abandoned mine shafts and generate DTMsfor the site.The data collated and collected will be brought together in a GIS and analysed to assess the environmentalcontamination in the area. Based on the evidence contained in the data, conceptual models will bedeveloped for understanding the pollution pathways and processes in both soils and groundwater. Riskmaps will result, as well as data processing strategies for temperate, vegetated European sites.Portugese site : São Domingos mine, Southeast PortugalHISTORICAL ASPECTSSão Domingos is a mining centre with known activity since pre-roman and roman times, with extraction ofgold, silver and copper. A British company exploited the area from 1858 to 1966, who built a typicalmining village with autonomy.The large area covered by the mine is the result of extraction of more than 25 millions tons of ore (copperconcentrate production) from which 9.9 millions tons of cupriferous pyrite were processed as anelementary source of sulphur. The ore was transported through a 15km railway, built to this end, toPomarão harbour, on Guadiana River, where it was then connected with the Mediterranean Sea.Nowadays there is a general urbanisation plan for the recovery of the village and also the modernisation ofPomarão harbour for recreation. The area will be converted into a mining museum attraction.CHARACTERISTICSThe climate is mediterranean with atlantic and/or continental influences, characterised by long drysummers and short winters. The air daily medium temperature is 16-17,5ºC.The population density is low and main activity was dedicated to mining of sulphide deposits.Most of the area is covered by thin soils, and natural rock outcrops are relatively rare and weathered.São Domingos belongs to the Iberyan Pyrite Belt, with the outcropping area sequences formed by a uniquevertical mass of cupriferous pyrite associated to zinc and lead sulphide. At surface level, due to alterationprocesses, a reddish-brown gossan cap, resulting on anomalous concentrations of limonite and hematitebodies, represents the top of the massif ore.The area of study, including the open pit, village and Pomarão harbour, is 60km 2 .ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSThe landscape has a high degradation level with approximately 750 000 tons of scoria and dumps. Theenormous pit, left by extraction works, 122m deep, is filled with acid waters (pH=1,7). The mining effluentduring productive phase has been estimated on 2hm 3 /year, leading to critical environment situation. Theacid drainage from the reservoir contaminates soils and groundwater along several km, affecting values ofpH and fluid conductivity on a dam nearby.Exploratory data confirm the geochemical contamination of the area with an association of Cu-Pb-As-Sb-Fe(Zn, Ag, Cd).
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 202.2. Proposed methodological stepsKeeping in mind the final objectives of the project - developing generic image processing and GIS toolsand methods - methodological development will follow the same general overall steps for each of the testsites, though possibly slightly differing in details with respect to test site specificity.Warning : Due to task overlapping, task description is not strictly time sequential. Schedule must refer toProject time and time table (point 9.5)2.2.1.Task 1: Compilation of existing data, acquisition of specific dataAll data relevant to the environment and contamination process will be collated, or specifically acquiredwhere absent. This will include topography, geology, land-use and land-cover, hydrology andhydrogeology, rainfall and climate, geochemistry (soils and waters), ecology, etc., as well as existing aerialphotographs and satellite imagery2.2.2. Task 2: Environmental hazard review and socio-economics impactTo be able to better quantify the socio-economic contribution of the products developed during the project,a review of environmental hazards related to each site and of their socio-economic consequences,qualitatively as well as quantitatively, will be performed. This will include an assessment of the difficultiesencountered in environmental management both by the mining company and the relevant local or nationalauthorities, along with their expectations from the project results.2.2.3. Task 3: Hyperspectral airborne surveyTo date, hyperspectral-imaging sensors are not borne by any operational satellites. To acquire hyperspectralimagery and simulate future hyperspectral satellite data, an airborne survey of each of the mine site and itssurroundings will be performed. The MINEO project intends to use the best available operationalspectroradiometer HyMap, developed in Australia by Integrated Spectronics and operated by HyVistaCorporation.Acquisition of high resolution (Ground Instant Field Of View less or equal to 5 metres) airbornehyperspectral image data for each test site is a vital prerequisite for this project. This task is to be carriedout in each test area by a sub-contractor using a suitable aircraft carrying the hyperspectral imagingspectrometer system, an aerial survey camera and other necessary instrumentation.The airborne survey will record irradiance, which will be transformed into reflectance using the necessarycalibration information relevant to the laboratory processing of the data. The flight navigation data and theaerial photography will be used for the preparation of the digital elevation model (DEM) for each test site.The DEM is an important basis for the geometric correction and interpretation of the hyperspectral imagedata and it will be also used in the data integration and analysis.The success of the airborne data acquisition campaign will be measured through the provision of a surveyreport and data set preview (deliverable 5).2.2.4. Task 4: Spectroradiometric surveyHyperspectral data calibration and interpretation requires libraries of spectral signatures corresponding todifferent surface materials encountered during studies. The objective of the spectroradiometric survey is to
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 21record and analyse spectral signatures (e.g. reflectance of the material in each wavelength) of selectedmaterials and vegetation in and around mining sites and processing plants, in order to identify contaminatedmaterials and vegetation stress.Field measurements of the reflectance of surfaces and vegetation from the visible to short wave infraredpart of the electromagnetic spectrum (450-2500 nanometres) will be preferably performed simultaneouslywith airborne data acquisition, using a GER Mark V and Perkin Elmer LAMDA 9 spetroradiometers.Control samples will be collected and measured in the laboratory as control measurements. The data willthen be analysed with a special software tool (IRIS – GRAPHER 1.26 software and PERKIN ELMER UVWinLab/FL WinLab) in order to determine polluting related materials through hyperspectral remotesensing. After the completion of the data measurements a spectral library for each test-site will be created.(deliverables 6-a to 6-f)Character of the hyperspectral databaseThe spectral database will import and analyse the hyperspectral data obtained from the test sites. The datawill be connected with additional data like chemical and mineralogical analyses and will be redistributed toall participants of the project. When needed, the partners will be advised about the interpretation of thespectral information.Content•TechnologyThe database will use the image processing software ENVI 3.1, which is common in the project group.Interfaces will be programmed for field and laboratory spectroradiometer data as well as to a databasesoftware e.g. MICROSOFT ACCESS. Further a link and analysis of graphic–alpha–numeric data sets willbe programmed. All data will be available in a standardised format to allow for a smooth data exchange.UtilisationThe spectral curves will be interpreted in view of the materials found in the field which reflect the situationof intact and disturbed environment. Image processing of the HYMAP data will allow to determine thespatial distribution of different materials in and around the mining areas economising future investigationsof comparable cases. Additionally, hyperspectral data will give indirect information about landslidesaround unstable waste heaps and subsidence over abandoned underground mining sites.2.2.5. Task 5: Hyperspectral image processing, contamination mappingQuality control of the physical content of the hyperspectral (HS) airborne image measurements and of theparameters for spectral and spatial corrections will be performed. The airborne HS image data recorded bythe sub-contractor and the spectral and spatial (radiometric, atmospheric and geometric) corrections will bechecked. This checking includes visual checking of the sampled channels from VIS, NIR and SWIR areasseparately and comparison of the corrected HS-image pixel values of reference reflectors with theirrespective values from laboratory spectra.The image processing of HS data cannot be done without very high capacity computers and software. Alarge variety of software and hardware is commercially available for image processing. The ENVI softwareis a common standard in hyperspectral image processing and will be used by all participants in charge ofthis kind of processing. It will be ensured that high capacity is available for all participants who use imageprocessing. On the other hand, the participants must use standard image processing tools to produce resultsthat can be easily linked and interchanged through Internet.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 22The purpose of the image-processing task is the mapping of contaminated areas, i.e. study of thehyperspectral imaging capabilities in discriminating major pollutants and mapping their extent. The mostoptimal spectral and spatial enhancement and classification techniques will be applied and results will beverified. The techniques relevant for environmental assessment and monitoring of mining impacts arevarious classification methods, linear unmixing, spectral angle mapping and some methods stemming fromthe the neural network concept. The potential spatial methods include Fourier/Wavelet analysis,segmentation and mathematical morphology. The results will be controlled by e.g. the Bayes’ Probabilityfor Minimum Cost.Spectral and spatial techniques relevant for future mitigation and remediation of the mining impacts will bedeveloped. For example, the result from the classification will be subject to further research. The Weightsof Evidence concept will be used for calculation of areas requiring mitigation and remediation of miningimpacts.A summary of the Image Processing tasks carried out in each test area will be prepared and the generatedimage processing algorithms will be provided along with guidelines for users (deliverables 7-a to 7-f)2.2.6. Task 6: Generation of Digital Elevation Models2.2.78. Task 7: GIS integration.Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have proven their valuable contribution in environmentalmanagement studies and modelling. Indeed, decision-aiding documents take advantage of cartographicrepresentation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Data Base Management Systems (DBMS)allow three-dimensional (3D) processing of data into a single cartographic projection, whatever theirorigin. They enable the analyst to take many parameters into account simultaneously, thus improving thequality of the result, and process data on a standard form based on homogeneous criteria over the whole ofthe study area, leading to a homogeneous result.2.2.8. Task 8: Geostatistical analysisFor the estimation of pollutant concentrations an interpolation algorithm will be used, and mathematicalsimulation methods, such as stochastic simulation, will generate maps taking into account the spatialvariability of data. In the case of pollutants, it is important to define the extreme values that can be reached,so the output scenarios will avoid smoothing effects.The methodology will be divided into two stages. The first one will be exploratory spatial data analysis byusing multivariate data processing and integration of existing thematic data (geochemistry, geologicalinformation, soil mineralogy, topography, geophysical methods, etc.). This will be done from dataintegrated into the GIS in Task 7. Secondly, spatial simulation, multivariate simulation algorithms andkriging will be done according to the conclusions obtained on the former stage. Jointly with the otherexisting data, the resultant maps and models will provide a powerful tool for subsequent decision makingon remediation scenarios and processes.2.2.9. Task 9: GIS modellingThe objective of this task is to understand and model, using 3D GIS tools, the pollutant disseminationpathways inducing soil and water contamination and to develop risk-based tools for soil and waterpollution-sensitivity analysis as well as for defining groundwater vulnerability. Such tools will allow theassessment of the contamination risk not only at the scale of a mine, but also at mining district, catchmentbasin or aquifer scales. Furthermore, they can provide analysts with knowledge on the seriousness of the
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 23problem, prioritisation of remedial actions and prediction of future problems, as part of the mining planningprocess.This methodology is a guide to future development and identification of critical problem areas.2.2.10.Task 10: Summarising reportA summary of the work carried out on each test site will be presented in a report describing the methodsand the results obtained, relevant to application of EO and geographic information to environmental impactassessment and monitoring (deliverable 8-a to 8-f).3. Development of generic tools (workpackages 3-1 and 3-2)This step aims to develop tools, methods and models necessary for assessing and monitoring theenvironmental impact of mining from remote sensing and GIS techniques across all European mining sites.The enlargement of these generic “products” will proceed from the developments made when studyingvarious specific environments during workpackages 2-1 to 2-6.This step will include developments in image processing and simulation on the one hand and improvementof GIS modelling tools on the other.3.1 Development of generic image processing (Workpackage 3-1)The objective of developing advanced Earth Observation methods to provide the European Community andusers with new and regularly updated thematic layers for an environmental database related to mining areasrequires the development of specific image processing for pollution detection and extent mapping that canbe used all over Europe.This will be done in two steps, respectively development of generic image processing for pollutiondetection and simulation of future satellite-borne hyperspectral imagery.3.1.1 Task 1: Development of generic image processing for pollution detection and contamination mappingThe objective of this task is to make summaries of the main types of polluted areas interpreted in the WorkPackages 2-1 to 2-6 by image processing of hyperspectral data. It will be studied to what extenthyperspectral EO can reveal environmental indicators common to all mining test areas. The Arctic, Boreal,Alpine, Central European, Western European and Mediterranean mining environments form the verticalelements of the summary model. The different types of surface targets such as vegetation stress,geochemistry of soil and bedrock, buffer capacity, mass removal and accumulation and surfacehydrogeology form the horizontal elements of the summary model. This work will summarisehyperspectral indicators of these horizontal elements, when the hyperspectral indicators can becharacterised and modelled by physical/statistical terms.Finally these summaries will be input into a generic model which can be used by 3D GIS. InformationSystem products will be tailored to meet user community needs as defined during WP 1-1 and providedecision-support tools for global application.3.1.2. Task 2: Simulation of future hyperspectral satellite imageryHyperspectral image data used in the framework of this project will only come from airborne acquisitionwith a specific imaging spectrometer (HyMap). They will thus not be fully representative of futurehyperspectral imagery acquired by satellite (different ground resolution and bandwidth and number). Thepurpose of this task is to simulate, from the airborne data used in the project, data provided by futuresatellite-borne hyperspectral sensors. This will be done using various re-sampling algorithms.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 243.2. Development of generic models (Workpackage 3-2)The growth of geographic information and their use in decision support systems will be a key trend in thenext century. The project not only aims at developing image processing techniques for surface pollutiondetection and mapping and environmental database “feeding”, but a major project output must be the use ofthese products in the environmental management and decision processes and in particular in environmentalrisk and emergency management systems.To this end, three-dimensional models of pollution diffusion and migration into the environment, that usethe results of developments performed in tasks 1 (Development of generic image processing for pollutiondetection and contamination mapping) and 2 (Simulation of future hyperspectral satellite imagery) will bedeveloped.This will be done through the definition of the geo-environmental parameters that are the most relevant toimpact assessment and monitoring. The project will assess how these parameters have to be combinedtogether to simulate pollutant dissemination or produce pollution risk maps. Information system productswill be tailored to meet user community needs, as defined during WP 1-1, and to provide decision supporttools for global application.4. Dissemination and implementation, Data and result disseminationThe aim of this work package is the determination of a common data dissemination and distributionstrategy which will then be carried out by the project partners in WP4-2. This strategy will be presented inthe Dissemination and Use Plan a draft version of which will be produced in the beginning of the project(month 6). This draft version will be revised and updated in the middle of the project (month 18) once thedata collection exercise and initial data analysis is completed.The Dissemination and Use Plan will be taken up and referred to by the Technical Implementation Plan,mandatory for IST SCA projects which will be produced in the end of the project (month 36).4.1. Data dissemination and standards (Workpackage 4-1)All data sets, tools and methods collected and developed during the previous project stages have to be madeavailable to a large public of potential users, in view of fulfilling the project and the IST programme’sobjectives. It has to be ensured that the data collected over the various test sites as well as the supportingdata available from other sources will be disseminated in a fast and efficient way. This shall be done viastate-of the art electronic on-line media link from data providers to the relevant project participants and ona pan-European level. In order to achieve this, a dynamic data dissemination concept will be designedbased on the user needs analysis carried out in the beginning of the project. The dissemination conceptdesign will take account of the fact that the nature of the data collected is heterogeneous and wide ranging.4.1.1 Task 1: Data dissemination conceptThe dissemination and distribution strategy will take account of the user’s needs as defined during the firstproject phase (WP1). The concept will formulate and include recommendations for a data distributionstrategy that meets these needs. The facility to be developed during the project will provide a single entrypoint allowing access to data held in the project data pool. Data sources to be included are• Data catalogues of data providers• Raw data products collected in the field survey• Value added data products• Auxiliary data sets such as DEM’s• GIS thematic data layers
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 25• Geographic databases, integrating various input data sources (socio-economic parameters,environmental data sets etc.)In addition, the design of the data dissemination concept will take account of the following elements:• Analysis of applicable data copyrights and data ownership issues. This issue is of crucial importancealready at an early stage of the project. It will therefore be given a high priority throughout the conceptdesign phase.• Level of services required for the data dissemination architecture regarding customised user interfaces.• Level of technological facilities available to users. First information on this will already be collectedduring the user needs assessment but a more detailed investigation will be carried out at the conceptand implementation stage.The data dissemination and distribution mechanisms will be implemented by means of a project networkingsystem to be defined in this work package.4.1.2 Task 2: Data exchange standardsA pre-requisite for a common data dissemination facility is the use of common data exchange standardsthat ensure a maximum degree of interoperability. All inventories, data catalogues, databases anddirectories must therefore use the same standards and will be stored in a compatible format with the recordsfollowing international metadata standards.The harmonisation of various data exchange standards will be addressed during this work package.The European Community, the project partners and potential users at decision making level will require toreceive the information on a regular basis and will therefore be provided with up to date thematic datalayers as input to their on-site environmental database. It is of paramount importance to ensure a perfect fitwith the requirements that the various input data sources in an integrating platform such as a GIS arevalidated.Meta data standardsMeta data will be generated and organised according to the recommendations laid out in the User Guide« Recommendations on Metadata, Version 2.0 », (February 1999) produced by the Centre for EarthObservation Programme of the European Commission.Meta data information shall be produced on:• the MINEO project itself (background information, rationale, time schedule etc.)• Remote sensing data collected over the test sites (if commercially exploitable, this can be registered asan advertisement)• Software and algorithms• Events (workshops, information meetings)• PromotionINFEO 7 (INFormation on Earth Observation) web site of CEO and linked GEIXS 8 , the geological dataexchange facilities from EuroGeoSurveys will be the platforms to disseminate MINEO results and toconnect to data catalogues as well as make meta data accessible. The EuroGeosurveys GEIXS projectestablished common data exchange standards for geoscience data amongst all the European geologicalsurveysStandards for generated hyperspectral data7 http://infeo.ceo.org8 http://geixs.eurogeosurveys.org
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 26As a result of the project, it may be neccessary to harmonise various data exchange standards relatingspecifically to hyperspectral data and field or laboratory spectra. This issue will be adressed during thiswork package. In order to ensure a common baseline in this area, the project participants will all use theEnvironment for Visualising Images (ENVI) as the main processing software for this aspect of the study.As all project partners will use the same software, which is worldwide the most used and most completeone for the processing of hyperspectral data, the standard will be the same. Additionally, the calibration ofthe data will be performed on the basis of field measurements carried out with the same field instrumentand identical calibration targets during the flight campaign. So an uniform standard is secured.The European Community, project partners and potential users at the decision making level will need toreceive up-to-date thematic data layers as inputs to their on-site geo-environmental databases. To ensurethat these requirements are fully met, the various input data sources must be fully validated. Validation willalso take place in this work package.4.2. Result dissemination (Workpackage 4-2)4.2.1. Task 1: Final workshopAt the end of the project, a final workshop will be held that will gather user groups and representatives ofEU and linked projects. The workshop will present the technical and scientific advances carried out duringthe project as well as the opportunities for using EO and geographic information in environmentalmanagement systems. Workshop proceedings will be published and displayed on the Project web site.4.2.2. Task 2: PublicationsScientific and technical results will be submitted for publication in academic journals. Developments forintegrating EO and geographic information into the environmental management decision process will besubmitted for publication in appropriate journals addressing various user groups4.2.3. Web siteThe web site initiated at the first stage of the project, and regularly updated, will carry the final results andfinal workshop proceedings.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 279.2. Workpackage listWorkpackageWorkpackage title LeadNo 9 contractorStartmonthEndmonthPhasePersonmonthsDeliverableNo0-1 Project co-ordination andmanagementBRGM 6 0 36 1,12,140-2 Assessment and evaluation BRGM 0.5 0 36 21-1 Assessment of user needs andreview of mining andenvironmental concerns inEuropeBRGM 7.5 0 6 42-1 Arctic Environment test site GEUS 29.25 3 24 5,6,7,82-2 Boreal Environment test site GTK 32.5 3 24 5,6,7,82-3 Alpine environment test site GBA 30 3 24 5,6,7,82-4 Central Europe environment testsite2-5 Western Europe environment testsite2-6 Southern Europe environmenttest site3-1 Development of generic imageprocessingDSK 34.75 3 24 5,6,7,8BGS 15.5 3 24 5,6,7,8IGM 25.75 3 24 5,6,7,8GTK 23 25 30 93-2 Development of generic models BRGM 15 28 33 104-1 Dissemination andimplementationData dissemination concept, dataexchange standards4-2 Result dissemination &workshopsJRC/SAI 8.75 31 33 3,11,BRGM 11.75 34 36 3113TOTAL 240.259 Workpackage number: WP 1 – WP n.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 289.3. Workpackage descriptionsWorkpackage number : WP0-1: project co-ordination and managementStart date or starting event: Month 0Participant number: BRGM GTK GBA BGSPerson-months per participant: 4.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Objectives :Objectives of this workpackage are :− Project co-ordination: project management, European Union relation, quality plans, links with otherprojects, steering committee meetings− Project reporting: technical and financial progress and final reports,Project result dissemination: organisation of technical meetings, consultative workshops with user groups,internet pages maintenance, etc.Description of work :Apart from technical and financial project management, the work will consist in establishing and maintainingclose relationship with EU representatives, users groups, and possible linked projects.The work will also consist in the organisation of technical meetings and technical and/or consultativeworkshops.Deliverables− Project handbook and validation plan−−−−−6-monthly reports12-monthly reportsMid-term assessment and Final reportKick-off workshop and technical progress workshops, inviting user groups and representatives of EUand linked projectsProject internet site implementation, maintenance and updatingMilestones and expected result :3-monthly management reports: at months 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 33 and 3612-monthly reports for publication: at months 12, 24 and 36Mid-term assessment report: at month 18Final report: at month 36Kick-off workshop (combined with project kick-off meeting): at month 1Steering committee meetings : twice a year, once a year combined with consultative workshopTechnical project meetings : not less than twice a year, according to project activitiesProject Web pages : updated every month
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 29Workpackage number : WP0-1: Assessment and evaluationStart date or starting event: Month 0Participant number:BRGMPerson-months per participant: 0. 5 10Objectives :Objective of the assessment and evaluation workpackage is to follow up the project progress with respect tothe fulfilment of its initial objectives. This will be done through a “Quality Management Committee” thatwill advise the project co-ordination and propose corrective measure where necessary.Description of work :Evaluate and measure project progress compared to its initial objectives, in terms of scientific and technicalobjectives, management and allocated resources. Assessment and evaluation will comply with a plan built onthe recommended “six steps for building evaluation” which will be strictly followed when preparing theProject validation plan (deliverable 2) and project validation report (deliverable 15);Analyse possible project drift with respect to these objectives and alert project co-ordination if such drift isjudged harmful to the objective fulfilment;In case of problems, propose corrective measures, project re-orientation or budget re-allocation to bettercomply with project goals.DeliverablesProject handbook (deliverable 2)Project validation plan (deliverable 2)Project validation report (deliverable 15)Milestones and expected result :Project handbook: at month 1Project validation plan: at month 1Project validation report: at month 3610 0.5 month corresponds to the time required to built the Project Handbook and the Project validation plan. The restof the time required makes part of the Co-ordinator time. Time spent by the BRGM’s Quality Delegate, acting asprofessional evaluator, is not charged to the Project.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 30Workpackage number : WP1-1: Assessment of user needs and review of mining andenvironmental concerns in EuropeStart date or starting event: 0Participant number: BRGM DSK JRC GTKPerson-months per participant: 2 1 4 0.5Objectives− To determine the user needs for environmental data sets concerning the effects of mining activities andto analyse how Earth observation can help to meet these requirements. The users are identified asenvironmental agencies, European, national or local authorities and industry.−−To analyse the current European legislation situation regarding mining and environment, and examinetheir socio-economic impactTo review how current and future Earth Observation technologies can help meeting these needsDescription of workA. A detailed user needs analysis will be carried out by means of a literature review as well as throughdirect user consultations carried out by means of personal interviews. Contacts shall be establishedthrough the EuroGeoSurveys office and through the knowledge of the partners. Information will becollected on data formats, delivery mechanisms and appropriate data exchange standards, frequency ofobservation, delivery time, spatial resolution and spectral resolution. The results of this analysis willhave direct influence on the Dissemination and Use Plan to be produced by WP10.B. In order to address the legal parameters, an analysis of the European legislation will be undertaken. Thisanalysis will be complemented by an assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impactscaused by mining operations to provide an indication of the importance of these issues to the citizen andcommunities.C. A review of available and future Earth observation technologies, both aerial and satellite, will be carriedout to give an overview over the state of art and to provide information on how Earth observation cancontribute to the environmental management of mining sites.The results of the user needs analysis together with the legislation analysis form the basis for the conceptdesign of the data collection exercise carried out over the test sites.DeliverablesUser need document (deliverable 4)Synopsis of socio-economic situation in mining environments in Europe and review of the state of the art ofEO in mining applications (deliverable 4)Milestones and expected result• Completion of user needs survey (month 4)• Completion of synopsis of socio-economic impacts of mining and associated environmental problems(month 4)• Completion of European legislation regarding mining and environment (month 4)• Completion of review of the state of the art of EO in mining applications (month 5)
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 31Workpackage number : WP2-1: Arctic environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: GEUS BRGM GTK GBA BGS BGR IGM NERIPerson-months per participant: 8. 5 2.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 4.5 1 11.5Objectives− Baseline studies to establish the natural geochemical/biochemical levels of element concentrations inprimary and secondary environment on and adjacent to the exposures of ore grade deposits as well asareas devoid of deposits− Correlation of the spectral characteristics of vegetation to the measured geochemical background levelswith special emphasis to establish criteria to determine the stress symptoms related to toxic levels ofpollutants− Mapping and monitoring of the dispersion of the pollutants in order to understand the dynamics of thepollutant process− Provide tools and data for remediation plans and measuresDescription of workAccording to the general project workplan, the work will include :− Careful compilation, evaluation and analysis of a) production and processing data from miningoperations, b) available environmental, geoscientific and meterological data sets to estimate theenvironmental status of the area.− Airborne hyperspectral survey and spectroradiometric field and laboratory measurements− Field sampling programme carried out to generate representative reference collections for the variouschemical and spectroradiometric laboratory investigations− Detailed digital elevation model (DEM) necessary for the effective and accurate pre-processing and useof the airborne hyperspectral data. DEM will also be an essential basis for the analysis and modelling ofthe pollutant dispersion process.− The DEM will also provide basis for the production of accurate topographic base map for the survey.− Study of the discriminative capabilities of the hyperspectral technique to detect the various levels ofpollution and vegetation stress by multivariate statistical analysis. Preferred/Recommend schemes ofprocessing will be developed.DeliverablesArctic environment spectral library of contaminated areas (deliverable 6-a)Image processing algorithms for Arctic environments (deliverable 7-a)Arctic vegetation stress discrimination (deliverable 8-a1)Pollution dissemination mapping and modelling of the Arctic test site (deliverable 8-a2)Milestones and expected resultMonth 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: in case theAirborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justifiedMilestone 2. Completion of the field data acquisition (month 22), preliminary evaluation and analysis of thefield and airborne HS-data) . Actions: re-evaluation and adjustment of the scope and the critical factors forthe final data processing and analysis .Pollution dissemination mapsModels explaining the process of pollution process
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 32Description of data and work for the arctic test siteData compilation - existing data data• Mineral production and processing data from the mining operations• Geological and geochemical data• Environmental monitoring data• Landsat TM and MSS dataThe bulk of the existing data is of reconnaissane character and the coverage is both spatially andChronologically very sporadic. The archived geological, mine planning, mineral production andprocessing data from the mine operator is relatively compherensive and detailed.Hyperspectral Airborne SurveyThe hyperspectral data acquisition is to be carried out in the period July August. The period around theend of July beginning of August is optimal. The weather conditions in central East Greenland tend to befairly stable this time of year.Spectroradiometric SurveyField spectrometry data from the test area will be collected with the aid of BGR during the flight campaignconcerning biogenic soils, vegetation and the standard reflectors. Field spectrometry on mineral soils canbe collected other times, too.Hyperspectral image processing, contaminationOne of the key tasks of the project is to develop image processing procedures for the discrimination ofpollutants in mining environments. The high resolution modern hyperspectral data in range 350 - 2500nanometers is expected to have adequate discriminative power for detecting and mapping of pollutants insoil, vegetation and surface waters.The development of the image processing schemes will be done by utilising IDL, ENVI and PCI software.The targets for description are vegetation stress, contaminated vegetation, soil and surface waters andbuffering materials. The mathematical background for this work is: Spectral and spatial corrections, Mixedpixel & Pixel purity concept, Minimum Noise Fraction, EndMebers, Neural Networks, Kriging, etcDEM generationThe generation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by using modern photogrammetric instruments will bebased on high-resolution aerial photography carried out concurrently with the HS - survey. The DEM willbe used for mass removal calculations and as projection bases for the other data sets.GIS compilation and Data AnalysisModern GIS - technology will be used for the compilation of all data sets. Statistical analysis andmodelling of the pollutant dispersion and migration will be based on the tools available in GIS.Summarising reportThe results will be presented as summary report which contains data and metadata and other relevantdocumentation for the more advanced phases of the MINEO project.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 33DataThe following types of new data will be collected1. Hyperspectral airborne survey data2. Geochemical data of soil samples from the mining area and the surrounding glacial till3. Field spectrometry data from polluted soils and vegetation4. Dust samples & analyses5. Water samples & analyses6. Vegetation samples & analyses
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 34Workpackage number : WP2-2: Boreal environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: GTK BRGM GBA BGS GEUS BGR IGMPerson-months per participant: 23.5 2.5 0.5 0.25 0.25 4.5 1ObjectivesDevelopment of tools for assessing and monitoring of environmental impact of mining activities in Borealdeglaciated environment.Analysis of natural geochemical background levels, baseline studies and development of a hyperspectral(HS) image processing method serving the objectives of the entire project.Mapping of surface pollution by hyperspectral Earth Observation and studying dynamics of pollutionprocessesProviding tools and data for environmental decision making and rehabilitation of the Boreal mining areasDescription of workResearch on natural geochemical background levels and baseline studies to estimate the environmentalchanges from the natural to current level due to mining.Effective HS image processing has has been a bottleneck in many previous projects. To avoid this asystematic HS image processing method will be developed to be modified and applied in this and otherother workpackages.Detection and mapping of surface pollution in the mining areas by the aid of hyperspecral airborne surveytogether with digital elevation models and other conventional data. This will be carried out with the aid offield spectrometric data and of the field data.Studies on dynamics of pollution processes due to moving of mining material: mechanical transport andaccumulation, migration of contaminants by water and spreading of dust by wind.Deliverables- Provisional boreal environment spectral library (deliverable 6-b): Spectral library and interpretation keysfor the discrimination of environmental targets from the hyperspectral images from Boreal miningenvironment- Image processing (IP) algorithms for Boreal environment (deliverable 7-b): strictly defined series ofnecessary consequential IP operations from input (HS imagery and ground truth) to output(discrimination of environmental and other targets)- Natural geochemical background, current baseline studies (deliverable 8-b2) and contribution ofhyperspectral method to surface contamination mapping for the Boreal test site (deliverable 8-b1)- Site contamination process model for the Boreal test site (deliverable 8-b3)
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 35Milestones and expected result- Month 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: incase the Airborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justified- Month 15: Spectral reflectance signatures and their deviations for formulation of discriminationfunctions- Month 16: Completion of study on Surface contamination- Month 20: Completion of the image processing method- Month 21: Completion of natural background and baseline studies- Month 24: Completion of development of the statistical model for the Boreal mining environment
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 36Description of data and work for the boreal test siteData compilationExisting data will be compiled first. Additional need for new specific data acquisition is however anessential work. The following new data (aside the hyperspectral airborne and field spectrometry survey)intended to be collected:• Geochemical data from soil samples from the mining area and the surrounding glacial till• Multitemporal dust samples and their analyses• Multitemporal water samples and their analyses• Vegetation samples and their analysesEnvironmental hazard review will be done by comparing the natural geochemical background with thebaseline data.Hyperspectral Airborne SurveyThe most optimal time for the flight campaign for hyperspectral data acquisition is between mid July andmid August. Weather conditions and the optimal state of vegetation mainly dictate this time.Spectroradiometric SurveyField spectrometry data from the test area will be collected with the aid of BGR during the flight campaignconcerning biogenic soils, vegetation and the standard reflectors. Field spectrometry on mineral soils canbe collected other times, too.Hyperspectral image processing, contaminationSpecial effort will be taken to formulate image processing system dedicated to discrimination of pollutedmaterials in mining environments. This system aims to account for spectral variability and phenology ofthis variability in hyperspectral remote sensing data. This development work will mainly be based on IDL,ENVI and ErMapper softwares. The targets for description are vegetation stress, contaminated vegetation,soil and surface waters and buffering materials. The mathematical background for this work is: Spectraland spatial corrections, Mixed pixel & Pixel purity concept, Minimum Noise Fraction, EndMebers, NeuralNetworks, Kriging, etcDEM generationThe DEMs needed in the project will be created by using high-resolution digital airborne imaging andstrereomatching of the images. The DEMs will be used for mass removal calculations and as projectionbases for the other data sets.GIS integrationAll data sets are studied 3D GIS integration.Geostatistical analysisGeostatistical analysis will mainly be used for the final statistical modelling of the environment and thevaluation of he interpretation results.GIS modellingAll data sets are made ready for GIS modelling: The targets for GIS modelling are vegetation stress,contaminated vegetation, soil and surface waters and buffering materials.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 37Summarising reportAll relevant results from the Boreal test site will be summarised to provide data and information for theEuropean-wide “generic tools and models development” phase of the project.DataNew data intended to be collected6. Hyperspectral airborne survey data7. Geochemical data of soil samples from the mining area and the surrounding glacial till8. Field spectrometry data from polluted targets and vegetation9. Dust samples and their analyses10. Water samples and their analysesVegetation samples and their analysesThe baseline knowledge (already available data) of this mining area consists of the following information :6. Detailed geology, composition and structure of ore deposit,7. Mining and enrichment processes,8. Rough estimate of distribution and tonnage of waste material9. Chemical composition of waste material in number of control points10. Chemical composition of waste waters in a few control points
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 38Workpackage number : WP2-3: Alpine environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: GBA BRGM GTK BGS GEUS BGR IGMPerson-months per participant: 22 0.25 1 1 0.25 4.5 1ObjectivesAssessing and monitoring of the environmental impact of mining activities under the specific climatic,geomorphologic, and vegetative conditions of an Alpine environment by Hyperspectral Remote Sensingverified by extensive ground truth data and incorporated into a Geographical Information System (GIS).Development of combined Remote Sensing and GIS tools for mining site rehabilitation and reforestation inan Alpine environment.Description of workEssential information for monitoring and targeted site rehabilitation and reforestation of mining areas in anAlpine environment encompass the spatial distribution of specific lithologies, soil types and vegetation coverin combination with specific mining dump characteristics (slope angle, material size) and thehydrogeological setting.Hyperspectral imaging data from an advanced airborne scanner will be utilised for the determination of thecomposition of earth's surface in respect of specific rock, soil, and vegetation cover and vegetation stress. Toverify and interpret these data ground truth measurements will be carried out by field and laboratoryspectrometry in the VIS through SWIR region employing GER Mark 5, Pima II, and Perkin Elmer Lamda 9spectroradiometers; as well as field surveys, X-ray diffraction analysis (mineralogy) and geochemicalanalysis.Airborne geophysical data (magnetics, EM/resistivity, radiometrics) will be used to identify structuralfeatures, lithology covered by soil and vegetation, and soil characteristics.All data obtained in combination with existing data will be included into spectral libraries and data bases andincorporated into a Geographical Information System (GIS) in order to develop GIS-based Alpineenvironment mining site monitoring tools and a mining site rehabilitation and reforestation decision supportsystem.DeliverablesAlpine environment spectral library of the mining area (rock, soil, vegetation) (deliverable 6-c)Alpine environment dedicated image processing algorithms (deliverable 7-c)Alpine mining area environmental status (deliverable 8-c1)Alpine environment mining site rehabilitation and monitoring guidelines (deliverable 8-c2)Milestones and expected resultMonth 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: in case theAirborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justifiedMonth 14: Completion of ground survey and hyperspectral data interpretationMonth 19: Completion of GIS data integrationMonth 24: Completion of Alpine environment mining site monitoring tools and rehabilitation guidelines
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 39Description of data and work for the Alpine test siteAcquisition of hyperspectral dataThe flight campaign for hyperspectral data acquisition should be carried out end of July - mid August. Thereason for this period is that there can be snow still in June in the more shadowy places and the vegetationneeds some time to recover. As vegetation stress is also being studied it is important not to mix geologicalwith meteorological effects.A successful flight campaign is the prerequisite for the ongoing project. After the flight campaign the datawill be processed and basic correction will be applied by the data provider.Ground checks & geochemistryTo provide a reliably basis for hyperspectral data interpretation extensive ground checks will be carried outincluding:• IR-spectrometry• geological mapping• vegetation mapping• geochemical analysesAll data will be incorporated into the "mining environment" databaseDatabase design & data compilationDuring the lifetime of this project a large quantity of data will be collected. In order to make these dataaccessible in an efficient way in order to support the specific tasks of the project a database structuresuitable for these needs will be created. This database will be linked to a GIS system to provide the facilityof visualising and interpreting the data in a spatial context.All relevant data from existing sources will be compiled, and - after quality control - transformed into aformat suitable for further requirements. This work involves coordinate transformation of mining maps,and compilation and quality control checking for existing geochemical and vegetation data.Hyperspectral data analysis I (geology)Analysis of hyperspectral data in a geological context: Discrimination of different lithologies andmineralogical parameters, taking into account the differences in reflection of fresh and weathered rocksurface, dumps with different grain/block size, tailing pond mud; masking soil and vegetation. This workwill be done with the ENVI software package utilising ENVI's special features (end-member identification,spectral angle mapper, pixel purity index,...). Ground truth data will be essential for this task.Hyperspectral data analysis II (vegetation)Interpretation of hyperspectral data from vegetated mining areas with respect to soil composition,vegetation type and condition using previously acquired ground check data. Vegetation type and conditionwill be interpreted in a geological context.Airborne geophysical data analysisInterpretation of airborne geophysical data (supplied free of charge by GBA) to identify coveredlithologies, thickness of mining dumps and tailing ponds, structural features, soil composition within themining area.• Magnetics• Resistivity (EM)• Radiometrics (K, U, Th, Cs)• L-band antenna (soil moisture)GIS data integration
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 40Integration of all relevant data on geology (interpreted hyperspectral data, geological maps, interpretedgeophysical data), mineralogy (interpreted hyperspectral data, ground check information), groundcharacteristics (morphology, outcropping rock, dump grain/block size), vegetation (interpretedhyperspectral data, vegetation maps), geochemistry, hydrochemistry, digital elevation model.GIS-modelling for environmental status monitoring and assessmentBased on GIS data integration and the results of hyperspectral image processing remote sensing and GISbasedmethods for assessing and monitoring the environmental status of the mining area will be developed,encompassing integrated RS/GIS-products on• land cover type (soil-, rock-, vegetation-diversity)• runoff characteristics• slope stabilityas a basis for assessing the impact of mining activities on the environment in order to provide a reliabledecision support for effective site remediation and reforestation activities.Summarising reportIn this report all relevant results from the Alpine test site will be summarised to provide data andinformation for the European-wide "generic tools and models development" phase of the project.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 41Workpackage number : WP2-4: Central Europe environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: DSK BRGM GTK GBA BGS GEUS BGR IGMPerson-months per participant: 27 0.25 1 0.5 0.25 0.25 4.5 1ObjectivesObjectives of this workpackage are :− Application of advanced Earth Observation Techniques on a Central European test site with urbanstructure, forests and agriculture.− Application of advanced Earth Observation Techniques on a test site with− surface subsidence in large scale because of deep coal mining− open cut mining of loose rocks− heaping up dumps.− Development of a guideline for a long-term observation process with analysis of time series.Description of workIn accordance with the general project workplan the same general tasks than over other test sites have to beperformed. After compilation of the existing data and specific data acquisition, the airborne survey of the testsites and the hyperspectral field survey will take place at the same time. Hyperspectral laboratory imagingspectrometry will follow and then the special emphasis will lie on the hyperspectral image processing. Incomparison with already existing hyperspectral data from previous surveys, investigations of changedetection(land-use, soils and their quantitative analyses, soil moisture and other environmental impacts incase of mining activities) will be carried out. Finally statistical analyses, GIS-integration and GIS-modellingwill be done.Deliverables− Central Europe environment spectral library of areas with mining activities (deliverable 6-d)− Image processing algorithms for Central Europe environment (deliverable 7-d)− Multi-temporal change detection (deliverable 8-d1) land-use, soils, soil moisture and otherenvironmental impacts in case of mining activities will be the main result of hyperspectral imageprocessing. The processed hyperspectral data will be store in a GIS and merged with other relevant data,at last time series of the environmental change in the test area will be carried out as maps or GIScoverages.− Environmental monitoring guidelines (deliverable 8-d2) will summarise the results of the work over thisWP in a report. This report will give recommendations to every mining company in Europe which willbe obliged under acts for environmental monitoring.Milestones and expected result− Month 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: incase the Airborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justified− Month 20: image processing algorithms ready for future use and processed data ready for the followingGIS-integration− Month 24: end of GIS-integration and modelling, conception for multi-temporal change detection andenvironmental monitoring guidelines
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 42Description of data and work for the Central Europe test siteIntroductionAll activities related of deep hard coal mining in Germany are concentrated in the company Deutsche Steinkohle AG(DSK). This is the precondition for future shaping of the coal-mining districts, which are Ibbenbüren, the Ruhr andSaarland with at least 15 active mine sites. With 40 million tons the annual production is roughly a third of all hardcoal mined in Europe. The annual productivity increases of three per cent in spite of difficult geological conditions.Today mining activities affects an area of approx. 2 000 sqkm totally. The largest area is the Ruhr area with approx. 1500 sqkm. It is a conurbation with a population of about 7.5 million and with a correspondingly dense network oftransport routes of all kinds and with all types of infrastructure. Besides the agricultural areas and extended forestlandscapes there are an increasing number of natural resource areas, which are have a high ecological value and agreat importance for the inhabitants in terms of recreation. The conservation and development of these different areasis a highly important public task in a densely populated industrial country like Germany. For the company and itsmining activities this situation means high demands to prevent influences of infrastructure caused by subsidencedamages and it requires high demands to extraction planning, monitoring of current activities and for tasks ofrecultivation.With all the environmentally relevant planning, Deutsche Steinkohle AG is obliged under acts, ordinances and officiallicenses, and within the framework of ongoing licensing procedures to monitor and to analyse all involved effects ofunderground mining on the surface. The core of these regulations is the environmentally relevant framework plan ofoperations (Rahmenbetriebsplan) as a licensing procedure under mining law in the form of the Federal Mines Act. Anenvironmental impact study is mandatory. Its legal basis is the Ordinance on the Environmental Impact Study forMining Projects. This Ordinance documents in the final analysis the incorporation of corresponding Europeanstatutory regulations in national law.The analysis and evaluation of all relevant information for surface monitoring are performed according to uniformcriteria of the Geo-Information-System (GIS) run by DSK, based on ARC/INFO. All GIS-related activities of DSKare in responsibility of the department “Dienstleistungsbereich Geoinformationsbearbeitung (DG)” with more than 40scientists, engineers and technical staff. Different measuring techniques and different methods of data collectionprocedures are used, depending on the particular job in hand. DSK has tested the possibilities using remote sensingdata for current monitoring tasks in a number of research projects since 1990. With the use of satellite imagery, theresearch projects have shown that available methods of digital image processing are ideally suited to deal withnumerous tasks. The following main fields of special interest can be mentioned:• Recording actual land-cover and land-use in mining areas.• Digital image processing techniques to evaluate forested areas in terms of relative vitality.• Classification results as input data layer for hydrological modelling,• Long-term observation with analyses of time series for change detection.• Development of digital image processing and GIS-related modelling techniques to monitor areaspossible effected by mining activities.The test site “Kirchheller Heide” is located at the northern border of the Ruhr area. The main land-coverclasses are forests and agricultural farmlands. Due to the hydrological situation of the undulated terrainwith small meandering streams, this small-parcelled area has an important ecological value.Specific problemsDuring active and future mining activities subsidence movements will occur. This phenomenon leads to serious andspecific problems, especially related to the hydrological situation. Changes of the ecological conditions of this smallparcelledarea can lead to influences and changes of the ecological situation. In short to medium term, changes in thebiosphere system due to human activities are related to different dynamics:
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 43Ground-water situationChanging topographic conditions affect different parameters of the ground-water situation. This results in changes ofthe spatial situation of the ground-water and its subsurface watersheds. Long-lasting effects are different ground-waterrecharge rates and change of the ground-water table. Besides the serious consequences related to water resources thiscould have a strong influence to the growing situation and ecology for specific vegetation types at different locations.WatercourseMeandering small streams are very sensitive related to changes in slopes and watersheds. Topographic changes lead todifferent parameters of the draining regime. While these effects can be reduced for the stream network by engineeringtechniques, spatial changes of the soil wetness and change of the infiltration capacity can not be evaluated andcorrected easily.Landscape EcologyThe changes described before lead to change of the ecological situation of different kind of plant communities indifferent locations. It is important to set up a monitoring for these habitats to preserve portions of the naturalecosystems. As this area relies on recreation on a considerable extent, human support is needed to minimise negativeeffects of mining activities. It is important to detect the spatial and temporal variations in specific ecosystems.ObjectivesAssessing and monitoring of the environmental impact of mining activities under specific hydrological and ecologicalconditions in a Central European environment with advanced Earth Observation Techniques and GIS-relatedmodelling techniques. A verification will be done by an extensive collection ground truth data. In summary a set ofbasic land features and their characteristics must be observed to describe surface characteristics and conditions. Thisincludes land-cover, terrain characteristics, soil data, surface and subsurface water. All these new data become part ofthe GIS run by DSK. The aim is the development of a guideline for a long-term observation with a focus on analysesof high resolution imagery.Description of workIn accordance with the aims of the project in generally nearly the same tasks like on other test sites have tobe performed. After compilation of existing data and additional data needed will acquired. The airbornescanner survey of the test site and the field survey will be done simultaneously. Additional laboratoryimaging spectrometry has to be performed with a special emphasis to advanced hyperspectral imageprocessing. In comparison with already existing data from previous airborne scanner surveys,investigations of the land-cover, soils and their quantitative analyses, soil moisture and other environmentalimpacts in case of mining activities will carried out. Finally statistical analyses, change detectiontechniques and GIS-modelling will be done.The primary focus of this high spatial and high spectral resolution of the airborne scanner is thedevelopment of a conceptual link between mining activities and hydrological and ecological parameters. Amajor concern is the scaling up of small scale processes to a regional scale. By advancing theunderstanding of these processes at small scales, this project will enhance knowledge about spatiallydistributed models. This improvement will result in advances in environmental monitoring andmanagement.TasksAcquisition of hyperspectral dataThe flight campaign for hyperspectral data acquisition should be carried out end of July to August. This gives theopportunity to take a second data set nearly at the same time scanner data were acquired before. A successful flightcampaign is the prerequisite for the ongoing project. Therefore it is important to carry out the field campaignsimultaneously. Besides the ground checks it is necessary to take additional parameter of the atmosphere. They areneeded for a successful atmospheric corrections of the data. After the flight campaign the data will be processed andbasic correction will be applied by the data provider.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 44Ground checks & geochemistryTo provide a reliably basis for the image processing extensive ground checks will be carried out including:• Spectroradiometric measurements on specific locations,• soil mapping and sampling for further spectrometric and laboratory measurements,• vegetation mapping and sampling for further spectrometric and laboratory measurements,• additional chemical analyses of soil and vegetation samplings,• data gathering of additional hydrological data.All data will be incorporated into the database of the GIS run by DSK.Hyperspectral data analysis I (soils)Discrimination of different soils and their quantitative parameters. This work will be done with the state-of-the-artimage processing software like ENVI utilising ENVI's special features. Ground truth and laboratory data will beessential for this task. The aims is the development of methodologies for these quantitative analyses related to specificminerals.Hyperspectral data analysis II (vegetation)Hyperspectral image processing of vegetated areas with respect to vegetation type and condition using previouslyacquired ground check data. Additional in situ and laboratory spectroradiometric measurements will performed. Theaim is the derivation of quantitative parameters related to vitality mainly concerned with change detection and afurther understanding of geo- and biophysical interactions.Database design & data compilationDuring the lifetime of this project a large quantity of new data will be collected. In order to make these data accessiblein an efficient way in order to support the specific tasks of the project a database structure suitable for these needs willbe created. All relevant data from existing sources will be compiled, and - after quality control - transformed into aformat suitable for further requirements.GIS-modelling for environmental status monitoring and assessmentIntegration of the actual field survey data and image processing data lead to the development of methods for assessingand monitoring the environmental status of the mining areas. This includes integrated RS/GIS-products for imageprocessing and GIS-related modelling. This provides a reliable decision support for effective site classificationactivities. Spatially distributed information on the interaction of ecological parameters (ground-water-soil-vegetation)and change detection techniques of these ecosystems are needed for these tasks.Summarising reportIn this report all relevant results from the Central European test site will be summarised to provide data for theEuropean-wide "generic tools and models development" phase of the project.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 45Datadescription time of ascertainment method / procedure scale /accuracy application1. Available Dataairborne and satellite dataaerial photographs, analogue 1988 airborne camera, CIR 1:6000 large scale mapping of biotopeand land-cover (aerial photographs, analogue 1993 airborne camera, RGB 1:6000, 60% overlapping, GPSand control point measurementsdigital terrain model (DTM) andtopographic measurementsLANDSAT-TM1989 – 1997, serveral scenes,different aquisitation timessatellite imagery standard land-use classifications and timeseries analysesIRS-1C (ms, pan) 1997 satellite imagery standard land-use classifications and timeseries analysesKVR-1000 1992 satellite imagery ~1:220000; dx,dy: 2-3 m geometric enhancement of usedsatellite imageryHyMAP 1998 airborne scanner GIFOV 7m small- parcelled land-use andbiotope classificationsHRSC-A 1998 airborne scanner GIFOV 0.2m high resolution DTM, data fusionwith HyMAP-DataGIS-data (primary data)(v: vector format; r: raster format)digital terrain model; v, r 1993 based on photogrammetricmeasurements by DSK, generatedwith ARC/info TIN moduleground-water model; v, r 1993 consultant(finite-element software)dx,dy < 20 cm, dz < 25 cmdifferent scalesanalyses of topographic situation,input data to evaluate subsidencemovement effectsanalyses of hydrological situation,input data to evaluate subsidencemovement effectsland-cover; v 1993 local authorities 1:10000 visualizationmapped biotope, land-use; v 1993, update 1995 intensitive field work of1:5000 – 1:10000 base data for biotope monitoringconsultantssoil data 1993 official maps 1:5000, 1:50000 input data for hydrologicalsimulationsdigital forest inventory;v 1993, update 1995 local authorities, field work of1:10000 base data for biotope monitoringconsultantsdifferent type of coal depositdata; v1993 – recent DSK, detailed mining data 1:5000 - 1:10000 input data for subsidencemovement calculations
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 46description time of ascertainment method / procedure scale /accuracy applicationtopographic maps; r 1993 – recent scanned raster maps 1:5000 – 1:50.000 visualizationGIS-data (derived datasets)(v: vector format; r: raster format)modelled and simulatedsubsidence movements; v, r1993, 2004, 2009, 2019 DSK, based on extractionplanningmodelled and simulated1993, 2004, 2009, 2019 DSK, based on subsidencehydrological parameters; v, rmovements and recent updates3D river network 1993 – recent DSK, based on subsidencemovements and recent updates1:5000 - 1:100001:100001:5000 - 1:10000reports (with maps)ecological assessment and change1993 consultant 1:10000prediction of biotopeforest stock-taking and dynamic1993 forestry comission 1:10000predectionforecasts of changes for biotope 2001, 2019 consultant 1:10000hydrological situation 1993 consultant 1:100002. Needed data(apart from airborne survey)actual landcover and biotopes June-August 2000 Field survey to update thegeographical and thematicinformation of the GISground-water levelling June-August 2000 Collecting data at ground-watermeasuring points and gatheringadditional hydrologicalbiophysical parameters andlaboratory measurements ofvegetation and soil samplings1:5000 – 1:10000 update of base data for biotopemonitoringdifferent scalesupdate of analyses ofhydrological situation, input datato evaluate subsidence movementeffectsparameter.June-August 2000 Laboratory measurements 1:5.000 additional input data forhydrological and ecologicalsimulations
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 47description time of ascertainment method / procedure scale /accuracy applicationmeasurement of subsidence June-August 2000 GPS-measurements of specificlocations in areas with actualsubsidence movements caused bymining activities1:1.000 additional input data forhydrological and ecologicalsimulations
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 48Workpackage number : WP2-5: Western Europe environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: BGS BRGM GTK GBA GEUS BGR IGMPerson-months per participant: 8.5 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.25 4.5 1Objectives− Ascertain the effectiveness of combined hyperspectral data and GIS modelling for assessing theimpact of mining contamination on a typical Western European mine site and its surroundingenvironment.− Correlate the results with those from Alpine, Arctic, Boreal, Central European and Europeanenvironments.− Establish generic processing and modelling approaches and standard tools and products fordissemination to regional, local and Institutional planners and decision-makers.−Simulate the use of forthcoming global environmental satellite systems using airborne hyperspectraldata.Description of workFollowing the general project plan, the work package will involve:- collation and evaluation of existing geo-environmental data held by the BGS and co-operatingorganisations for the study area- collection of airborne hyperspectral data, aerial photography, field and laboratory spectra- fieldwork to verify the airborne survey results and provide samples for laboratory analysis- the creation of mineral and pollution maps from the airborne, field and laboratory spectral data- the creation of a DTM and orthophotographs from the aerial photography- the modelling of pollution dispersal, pollution hazard and the risk to the local population- reporting of results and contribution of site specific results to subsequent, generic work packagesDeliverables- Western European environment spectral library of contaminated areas (deliverable 6-e)- Image processing algorithms for Western Europe (deliverable 7-e)- Mineral and groundwater contamination and pollution risk maps (deliverable 8-e1)- Pollution risk map (deliverable 8-e2)Milestones and expected result- Month 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: incase the Airborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justified- Month 20: the end of image processing will result in image processing algorithms- Month 24 : the end of GIS analysis will result in models and maps for contamination and pollution risk
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 49Description of data and work for the Western Europe test siteBackgroundThe site is within the Redruth-Camborne area of the West Cornwall Mining District, UK. The area has onlymoderate relief and is sparsely populated. It has a mixed rural economy relying on tourism and farming atthe present time, but in the past mining was a key element of the local economy. Tin, copper, arsenic,antimony, iron and manganese have all been exploited. In fact, metalliferous mineral mining began in theBronze Age and from this base it developed into systematic underground mining by the 14 th century.Mining reached its peak in the 19 th century with the production of up to 15,000 tons of tin and copper perannum. Thereafter production declined steadily and the last working mine, Wheal Jane, closed in 1985.This long period of mining activity has left a legacy of derelict land, mineral pollution and abandoned mineshafts. There are a variety of mine sites with tailing ponds and waste dumps exposed in the area. Acid minedrainage has been known to cause pollution of local watercourses, with the resulting pollution reaching thesea. Arsenic and base metals in the soils produce high levels of toxins that produce geobotanical and ecotoxicologicaleffects in the vegetation. These are poorly understood. Soils in the contaminated areas may bebare but commonly support a wide range of vegetation types, including grasses and heath land species suchas heather, gorse and bracken. There is a complex intermingling of cover types in the study area, and one ofthe main research challenges will be to understand the relationship between the vegetation, its spectralresponse and the underlying contamination in the soil.Existing dataExisting data will be collated for the site. This includes geographic base maps, geological maps,information on vegetation species and distribution, knowledge of the mining activity that has taken place inthe past and a limited amount of geochemical data for the mining area. The BGS has a nearby office inExeter whose staff have worked in the area for many years and are well-placed to assist with this datacollation exercise. There have also been studies of the site using less advanced, multispectral airborneremote sensing systems; these studies form a baseline for the remote sensing study at the UK site.New data collectionThe collection of new data will focus on those aspects of most relevance to this study: spectral data,topographic data and geochemical data. Hyperspectral data will be collected via the airborne survey withthe HyMap instrument. As part of the same survey, vertical aerial photography will be collected and usedto generate an accurate, high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM). The airborne data, aerial photographyand DTM will also be used to map abandoned mine shafts and delineate other surface features of relevanceto the study. Field spectroscopy will be used to discriminate and classify healthy and stressed vegetation, tomap minerals where exposed, and so to map contamination. Samples will be taken for analysis in thelaboratory. The BGS is currently looking to bring forward the date for its geochemical baseline survey ofthe area and it is hoped that this comprehensive baseline geo-environmental survey will occur during thelifetime of the remote sensing project.Processing and analysisThe data collated and collected will be processed to extract information from them. The field andlaboratory spectra will be collated in a spectral library and used to characterise the chemistry andmineralogy of the study site. They will be used to produce an interpolated ground-derived mineral map andto map the surface features due to pollution. The hyperspectral data will be processed using ENVI softwareto extract calibrated spectra for each pixel in the scene and used to produce a contiguous mineral map forthe area. This will depict any mineral pollution that can be detected from the air, as well as the stress onvegetation species caused by pollution in the soils. The aerial photography will be processed using a digitalphotogrammetric workstation to derive a DTM and orthophotographs for the study area. The resulting
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 50layers of information will be brought together as layers in a GIS and analysed to assess the environmentalcontamination in the area. Based on the evidence contained in the data, conceptual models will bedeveloped for understanding the pollution pathways and processes at the surface, in the soils and viagroundwater.OutputsThe airborne survey will result in pollution maps for the site. Modelling in the GIS will result in anassessment of pollution hazard and the risk it poses to the local population. In addition, the hyperspectraldata processing strategies and spectral libraries developed for temperate, vegetated European sites will befed into the subsequent, generic stages of the overall project.User GroupAs part of the work package, a user group will be established to steer its progress. This will involverepresentatives of the project, the active mining interests in the South West of England, the local authoritiesand the Environment Agency in the region.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 51Workpackage number : WP2-6: Southern Europe environment test siteStart date or starting event: 3Participant number: IGM BRGM GTK GBA BGS GEUS BGRPerson-months per participant: 15.6 2.5 1 0.5 1 0.25 4.5ObjectivesIn the Southern Europe Environment test site, contaminated by mining activities until more than thirty yearsago, Advanced Earth Observation Techniques will be applied to assess and monitor the environmentalimpact.Development of lines for mine rehabilitation, with a support system based on GIS.Description of work− Development of a database with existing data and specific new data (soil, rocks and water geochemistry,mineralogical analysis, cover vegetation, land use, DEM generation, etc.).−−Acquisition of hyperspectral data (airborne and ground measurements). Airborne data processing inorder to determine characteristics of the surface of the mining area and controlled by ground data(spectral and non-spectral).A DEM will be generated and all data integrated in GIS to develop a system specific to this test site.−−Estimations of pollutant concentrations will be done by integration of remotely sensed data(multispectral and with special emphasis on hyperspectral data) and few geochemical ground controldata. This will be done using an interpolation algorithm and mathematical simulations (stochastic). Toobtain better results, a previous exploratory spatial data analysis by multivariate data processing andintegration of existing data is done. The estimations will lead to contamination mappingGIS modelling is the final stage of the system developed.Deliverables− Provisional Southern Europe Environment Spectral Library of contaminated area. (deliverable 6-f)− Image processing algorithm for Southern Europe (deliverable 7-f)− Accurate maps of the contamination plumes in the surroundings of the mine areas (deliverable 8-f1).Milestones and expected result− Month 9: Completion of the airborne HS-survey (HS-survey report and data previews). Actions: incase the Airborne HS-survey cannot be carried out, the further work on this site is not justified− Month 18: Completion of hyperspectral image processing−−Month 20: Completion of geostatistical analysisMonth 24: Completion of Southern Europe Environment test site
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 52Description of data and work for the Southern Europe test siteAcquisition of hyperspectral airborne dataThe flight campaign for hyperspectral data acquisition should be carried out mid July to end of August.This period is the most suitable due to weather conditions, which has the highest probability of clear sky ofall the year. Also a good soil exposition not covered by agriculture, particularly wheat fields.A successful flight campaign is the prerequisite for the ongoing project. After the flight campaign the datawill be processed and the data provider will apply basic correction.Ground truth dataThe hyperspectral data interpretation requires ground truth data (spectral and non-spectral) that will beacquired or completed in several fields. This includes:• hyperspectral field data• detailed geological mapping• general geochemical analysis (rock, soil, stream sediments and water)• specific geochemical analysis (soils organic content and free iron oxides)• mineralogical analysis of bulk soils and clay fraction• biogeochemical analysis• granulometric analysis in order to determine soil textures and permeability studiesDatabase design and data compilationThe huge volume of different types of data acquired or gathered for this project in this test site, mustconstitute a database with such a structure that provides easy access and data management suitable forproject requirements.Hyperspectral data analysisHyperspectral data will be analysed using ENVI software in order to definemineralogical/geochemical/vegetation composition based on ground truth data.GIS data integrationThe database developed in task 3 will be linked to a GIS system to provide easy visualisation andinterpretation of data from different sources simultaneously in a single spatial context (2-D or 3-D). Mapsresultant from previous tasks will also be integrated.Geostatistical analysisEstimations of pollutant concentrations will be done by integration of remotely sensed data (multispectraland with special emphasis on hyperspectral data) and few geochemical ground control data. This will bedone using an interpolation algorithm and mathematical simulations (stochastic). To obtain better results, aprevious exploratory spatial data analysis by multivariate data processing and integration of existing data isdone. The estimations will lead to contamination mapping.GIS-modellingGIS tools will be used to define pollutant dissemination pathways and develop methods for soil and waterpollution-sensitivity analysis. Modelling the direction and extension of pollution plumes will contribute fora reliable assessment and decision support for effective site remediation.Summarising reportAll relevant results will be summarised providing material for the next workpackages, contributing to thedevelopment of generic methods for environmental monitoring and environmental impact assessment.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 53Already available Data• geological mapping• incomplete magnetic and gravimetric data• incomplete geochemical analysis (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Ni, As, Bi)• geochemical analysis of dump material (Cu, S, Pb, Zn, Au and Ag)• drilling cores
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 54Workpackage number : WP3-1: Development of generic image processingStart date or starting event: 25Participant number: BRGM GTK GBA BGS GEUS BGRPerson-months per participant: 2 7.5 2.5 3 1 7ObjectivesResearch and development of generic hyperspecral image processing model for mining environments indiverse climatologic conditions of Europe. Simulation of hyperspectral satellite imagery.Description of workSummaries by image processing of surface pollution of different types in Arctic, Boreal, Alpine, CentralEuropean, Western European, MediterraneanResearch on what extent hyperspecral EO can reveal environmental features and indications common to allmining test areas studied in Workpackages 2-1 to 2-6. The environmental hyperspectral features andindications are studied and summarised from the following points of view:1. Biological: Vegetation – ecosystem2. Geochemical: Soil and bedrock3. Mass removal and accumulation, tailings4. Surface hydrogeology5. Buffer capacity6. Generic characterisation, classification and summaries of environmental categories of miningenvironments. Implementation a link to GIS modelling.7. Simulation of hyperspectral satellite imagery to extend this type of research global in the future.Deliverables1. European spectral library of contaminated areas, summary of surface pollution image indications inEuropean mining areas (deliverable 9-a)2. Dedicated generic IP models for European mining environment contamination discrimination andmapping, including results from simulation of satellite imagery (deliverable 9-b).Milestones and expected resultMonth 30: Completion of summaries from component modelsMonth 30: Completion and verification of IP generic model
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 55Workpackage number : WP3-2: development of generic modelsStart date or starting event: 28Participant number: BRGM GTK GBA BGS GEUS IGM DSK NERIPerson-months per participant: 3 1 1.5 1.5 1 3 2 3ObjectivesDevelopment of generic models of pollution migration and pollution risk mapping based on the use of EOand their integration and combination with other data relevant to environmental problems into GeographicInformation Systems.Models to be further integrated into decision support systems.Description of workSearch for common trends in pollution dissemination models developed during Workpackages 2-7 overdifferent European environments.Definition of generic guidelines, parameters, criteria and data processing algorithms best adapted inmodelling pollution transfer from Earth Observation data and geographic information and applicable at apan-European scale.Test of these guidelines and criteria over the test sites.DeliverablesGeneric models or recommendations for modelling pollution dissemination and for pollution prevention ormitigation (deliverable 10-a)Rehabilitation and remediation general guidelines (deliverable 10-b)Milestones and expected resultMonth 30: Guidelines and criteria to be used in modelling pollution transferMonth 32: Completion of test over the test sitesMonth 33: Completion of generic tools and methods:
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 56Workpackage number : WP4-1: Dissemination and implementationStart date or starting event: 31Participant number: JRC BRGM GTK BGS DSKPerson-months per participant: 6 0.5 1 0.25 1ObjectivesTo develop a data dissemination and distribution strategy to make the collected data sets, algorithms andimage processing software available to the targeted range of usersTo define and develop data exchange standards enabling a common platform distribution architectureDescription of workA. A data Dissemination and Use Plan will be produced which outlines the dissemination of expertiseobtained during the course of the project as well as the plans for the exploitation of the results (first draftmonth 6). This Draft Dissemination and Use Plan will then be revised and updated following the dataacquisition and the preliminary analysis over the test sites. At the end of the project, a TechnicalImplementation Plan (TIP) will be produced which will describe the activities regarding thedissemination that have already been undertaken and the plans for future activities.B. Data sets, tools and methods developed during the previous project stages will be made available to theparticipating partners and potential users. The results and findings of the work carried out in the test siteswill be analysed in order to develop a common strategy for a dynamic data dissemination anddistribution concept based on the User Needs Document produced in WP1-1. At the centrepiece, a stateofthe art electronic on-line media networking system connecting data providers to the relevant projectparticipants and potential users on a pan-European level will be implemented using the existing INFEO(Information on Earth Observation) system developed by the JRC.C. A pre-requisite for a common data dissemination facility is the use of common data exchange standardsthat ensure a maximum degree of interoperability. All inventories, data catalogues and databases anddirectories must therefore use the same standards and will be stored in a compatible format with therecords following internationally standardised metadata recommendations. The harmonisation of variousdata exchange standards will be addressed during this work package. Data exchange standards will bedefined based on the User Needs Document produced in WP1-1 because it is important to address theissue of catalogue interoperability right from the beginning. This includes the raw data supplied by thedata providers, the value-added data sets and also the meta-data.Deliverables• Month 6: Draft Dissemination and Use Plan (Deliverable 3)• Month 18: Revised Dissemination and Use Plan• Month 36 : Technical Implementation Plan (Deliverable 13)Milestones and expected resultDetermination, documentation and implementation of a strategy to put in place an electronic projectnetworking system to make the data sets, tools and methods developed in the project available toparticipating users on a fast and reliable basis. This strategy will then be carried out as past of WP4-2.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 57Workpackage number : WP4-2: Result dissemination and workshopsStart date or starting event: 33Participant number: BRGM GTK GBA BGS GEUS IGM DSK NERIPerson-months per participant: 2.5 1 1 2.25 0.5 3 1 0.5ObjectivesThe project results must be disseminated to a large future user’s panel through different communicationmedia, i.e. publications, workshop and internet.Description of workOrganisation of a final project workshop, with users (environment agencies, national and local authorities,mining companies…) to present methodological developments and expected promises in environmentalmonitoringHigh rank publication of the scientific resultsPresentation of project results via the project web site and linked sitesAdvertise the availability of a common platform data exchange architectureDeliverablesMonth 36 : Final Project workshop, Submission of publications in scientific and thematic (environment,mining) journals, Project web site finalisation (Deliverable 12)Milestones and expected resultFinal Project workshopProject web site
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 589.4. Deliverables listIn bold : Project deliverableShaded gray : Important Project deliverable and milestoneDel. Del. name WP no. Lead Estimate Del. type Securit Deliveryno.particip personmonthsy*ant(proj.month)1 Project presentation 0-1 BRGM 1.5 Web Page PUB 32 Project handbook andvalidation plan3 Dissemination and useplan4 User need document0-2 BRGM 0.5 Handbook 14-1 JRC 4.75 Report IST 6 (revised atmonth 18)1-1 BRGM 3.75 Report PUB 6Synopsis of socioeconomicsituation inmining environment inEurope and review of thestate of EO in miningapplications5 AirborneHyperspectral data2-1 to2-6GEUS 0.5 Survey reportand data setpreviewI NT 96 Provisional spectrallibraries ofcontaminated areas fortest sites2-1 to2-6BGR 51.4 Hyperspectraldata baseCD-ROMIST 156-a Provisional Arcticenvironment spectrallibrary of contaminatedareas6-b Provisional Borealenvironment spectrallibrary of contaminatedareas6-c Provisional Alpineenvironment spectrallibrary of the miningareas6-d Provisional CentralEurope environmentspectral library of areaswith mining activities2-1 GEUS 6.252-2 GTK 7.52-3 GBA 9.52-4 DSK 9.756-e Provisional Western 2-5 BGS 8
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 59Europe environmentspectral library ofcontaminated areas6-f Provisional SouthernEurope environmentspectral library ofcontaminated areas2-6 IGM 10.47 Image processingalgorithms for test sites2-1 to2-7GTK 39.7 Algorithms anduser guideIST 207-a Image processingalgorithms for Arcticenvironments7-b Image processingalgorithms for borealenvironments7-c Alpine environmentdedicated imageprocessing algorithms7-d Image processingalgorithms for CentralEurope environments7-e Image processingalgorithms for westernEurope environments7-f Image processingalgorithms for SouthernEurope environments8 Pollution disseminationmapping and modelling8-a1 Arctic vegetation stressdiscrimination8-a2 Pollution disseminationmapping and modellingof the Arctic test site8-b1 Surface contaminationmapping byhyperspectral methods8-b2 Geochemicalbackground, baseline,pollution processes8-b3 Site contaminationmodel for boreal test site2-1 GEUS 6.252-2 GTK 5.252-3 GBA 8.52-4 DSK 62-5 BGS 52-6 IGM 8.72-1 to2-7BRGM 67.25 Maps, reportsandexplanotorynotes2-1 GEUS 5.52-1 GEUS 82-2 GTK 42-2 GTK 82-2 GTK 6IST 248-c1 Alpine mining area 2-3 GBA 6.25
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 60environmental status8-c2 Alpine environmentmining site rehabilitationand monitoringguidelines8-d1 Multi-temporal changedetection (land-use, soils,soil moisture, otherenvironmental impacts ofmining activities, etc.)8-d2 Environmentalmonitoring guidelines8-e1 Mineral and groundwatercontamination maps2-3 GBA 42-4 DSK 13.252-4 DSK 42-5 BGS 0.758-e2 Pollution risk maps 2-5 BGS 0.58-f1 Accurate maps of thecontamination plumes inthe surroundings of themined areas9 Generic imageprocessing9-a European spectral libraryof contaminated areas,summary of surfacepollution imageindications2-6 IGM 73-1 GTK 23.5 303-1 BGR 14 CD-ROM PUB9-b Dedicated generic imageprocessing algorithms forEuropean miningenvironmentscontaminationdiscrimination andmapping3-1 GTK 9.5 Generic ImageProcessingmodel, report onhyperspectralsatellite datasimulationPUB10 Generic models 3-2 BRGM 15.5 Conceptualmodels andguidelines10-a Generic models orrecommendations formodelling pollutiondissemination and forpollution prevention andmitigation10-b Rehabilitation andremediation generalguidelines3-2 BRGM 12.75 Guidelines formodelingpollutiondisseminationfrom EarthObservationdata and GISPUB3-2 BRGM 2.75 Guidelines PUB3311 Project networkingsystem.4-1 JRC 1.5 Networking ofproject33
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 6112 Web site, Final projectworkshop, Submissionof publications13 Technologicalimplementation planparticipants4-2 BRGM 9 Web SiteWorkshopPublicationsPUB 364-1 JRC 5.5 TIP IST 3614 Reporting 0-1 BRGM Reports INTPUBINTPUB3-monthlyreports : 3,6, 9, 12, 1518, 21, 24,30, 33, 3612-monthlyreports :12,24,36Mid-termassessment :18Finalreport : 3615 Project validation report 0-2 BRGM Report IST 36*Int.Rest.ISTFP5Pub.Internal circulation within project (and Commission Project Officer if requested)Restricted circulation list (specify in footnote) and Commission PO onlyCirculation within IST Programme participantsCirculation within Framework Programme participantsPublic document
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 629.5. Project planning and timetable
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 639.6. Graphical presentation of project components1. Graphical presentation of project components
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 642. Task responsibility and partner repartitionExplanationParticipants in the taskTaskresponsibleTask Nb (referGantt chart)
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 659.4. Project Management1. Project structureSteeringCommitteeProjectCo-ordinatorEU DGXIIRepresentativesQuality CommitteBRGMGTKGBABGSGEUSBGRIGMDSKCEOMMNERIHyMapThe steering Committee will be composed of the board of Directors of EuroGeosurveys, representativesfrom European Environment Agency and national environmental agencies, representatives from miningcompanies, representatives from local authorities.2. Project management and quality evaluationA project committee, composed of a representative from each partner, will particpate in the co-ordinationof the Project. Each partner will nevertheless be responsible for the actual management of its contributionto the research programme and its appropriation of the allocated funds.Communication between partners on the status of the project will be essentially through technical meetingsof all partners that the Co-ordinator shall organise not less than twice a year. The commission ProjectOfficer will be invited to attend these meetings. It is at these technical meetings that orientations of theoriginal concept will be reviewed and possible modified in the light of results, and in agreement with theCommission Representative (see also below Steering Committee and Quality Management Committee).The first such meeting (kick-off meeting) will be held as soon as the contract has been awarded to theConsortium.The partners will report on the advance of their task project in Project Progress Reports. Partners willsubmit to the Co-ordinator, two weeks before report deadlines, a text describing their advance in the tasksin which they are involved.6-monthly reports will be submitted at month 6, 18 and 30. 12 monthly report will be submitted forpublication at months 12, 24 and 36. A mid term assessment report and a final report are planned at month18 and 36 respectively.2.1 Project HandbookThe co-ordinating organisation is responsible for quality management of the Project.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 66All organisations involved in the project have their own standards for scientific work. The most commonquality standards forming the base for the project works are the EN-45000, ISO guide-25 and ISO9000standards.BRGM, the co-ordinating organisation, develops a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 International Standards.A member of BRGM’s management is in charge of the development and monitoring of the quality system.In particular, internal quality audits are implemented every year.The documentation of the quality system includes:− a BRGM quality manual ;− specific quality assurance manuals for laboratories and geological maps production ;− general quality procedures that apply to the whole BRGM ;− specific quality procedures that apply to particular departments ;−−specific quality procedures that apply to project management, including proejct handbookoperatory procedures for measurements.ISO 9002 certification for geological maps production is anticipated for the end of 1999. Laboratories areaccredited by COFRAC for various analyses of soils and water.The Co-ordinator will be responsible for elaborating a “Project Handbook” that will carefully describe allproject tasks and corresponding schedule. A copy of this handbook will be provided to each individualintervening in the project that will return a signed “return of receipt” to the project Co-ordinator.The “Project Handbook” is a summary of rules, methods and tools that fixes:a) the project objectives and their analysis in terms of products, tasks and necessary resources (personnel,financial and material);b) a related reliable time and financial schedule;c) the specific project procedures in accordance with FP5 and IST programme requirements;d) the measures to reach cost and delay objectives of the project.The Project Handbook will be presented and discussed to all contractors during the Project kick-offmeeting. The co-ordinator will ensure the responsibility for technical management and administrativesupport. He will circulate and archive all correspondence related to the project, internal as well as external,using a specific project numbering. He will carefully follow up the project progress and point out everypossible problem or improper functioning. He will report scientific, technical and financial progress to the“Steering Committee” and the “Quality Management Committee” (see below). Where necessary, afterconsultation and in accordance with the committees, he will immediately propose the best-adaptedremediation measures.Professional project management software will be used in the project continuous follow up andmanagement.2.2 Steering CommitteeA Steering Committee will be created at the beginning of the Project. He will bring together future endusers,such as members of environmental agencies, mining industry and local or regional authorities, along
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 67with EC DGXII representatives and a board of Directors of EuroGeoSurveys. The steering Committee willsupervise the scientific progress of the Project and, where necessary, advise the Consortium on possibleorientations or developments, taking into account time and budgetary constraints.2.3 Quality management Committee.A Quality Management Committee will be created at the beginning of the Project, composed ofrepresentatives of EuroGeoSurveys Board of Directors, the Project Co-ordinator and the Quality Delegateof the co-ordinating organisation who will act as project evaluator. The Quality Management Committeewill be in charge of following the project progress in terms of compliance with the project objectives. Inparticular, the Quality Delegate (project evaluator) will carefully follow delays and check quality ofmilestones, and if necessary alert the Project Co-ordinator and propose, in relation with the PO and the Coordinator,corrective measures.2.4 Quality control Table (D means done by, C means checked by, R means reviewed by)Task nameEU Steer.Com.CoordBRGMGTK GBA BGS GEUSWP1: Mining and environmental concernsSocio-economics impacts R DReview of environmental problems related to R DState of the art R DLegal analysis and legislation requirements C, R D,CWP2: Arctic Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R D DEnvironmental hazard review R C DHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D D,CHyperspectral image processing, contamination R C DDEM generation R C DGIS integration R C DGeostatistical analysis R D CGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP3: Boreal Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R D,C DEnvironmental hazard review R D,C DHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D D,CHyperspectral image processing, contamination R D,CDEM generation R D CGIS integration R D CGeostatistical analysis R D CGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP4: Alpine Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R D,CEnvironmental hazard review R D,CHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D D CHyperspectral image processing, contamination R C DDEM generation R D CGIS integration R D, CGeostatistical analysis R D CGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP5: Central Europe Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R DBGR IGM DSK CEO MondoNE-RI
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 68Environmental hazard review R DHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D,C DHyperspectral image processing, contamination R C DDEM generation R C DGIS integration R C DGeostatistical analysis R C DGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP6: Western Europe Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R D,CEnvironmental hazard review R D,CHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D D,CHyperspectral image processing, contamination R C DDEM generation R D, CGIS integration R C DGeostatistical analysis R D CGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP7: Southern Europe Environment test site EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiExisting data compilation, specific data R D,CEnvironmental hazard review R D,CHyperspectral Airborne Survey R CSpectroradiometric Survey R D,C DHyperspectral image processing, contamination R C DDEM generation R C DGIS integration R C DGeostatistical analysis R D, CGIS modelling R C DSummarising report R R C,R D,CWP8 : Development of generic Image EU St. C. Co. BRG GTK GBA BGS GEU BGR IGM DSK CEO Mon NERiDevelopment of generic image processing R D D,C D D D D D DSimulation of future spaceborne data R D D,C D D D D D DWP9 : Development of generic modelsDevelopment of generic models R D,C D D D D D D DWP10 : Data dissemination and standardsData dissemination concept R D,CData exchange standards R D,CWP11 : Result disseminationFinal workshopR,DPublications R R R,C D D D D D D D D DWeb site R R R ,C D D D D D D D D D
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 69SOME SELECTED REFERENCESExamples of Current knowledge of Environment and remote sensing (e.g.) :Arkimaa, H., Bärs, R.. Kinnunen, K.A., Kuosmanen, V., Laitinen, J., Pääsky, H., Rainio, H. andRuohomäki, T. 1999 : Geological applications of the AISA imaging spectrometer in Finland. IN :Proceedings of the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/ 21 stCanadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, pp. II-867 – II-875, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 21-24 June1999.Avery, T.E. 1977 : Interpretation of Aerial Photographs. Burgess Publishig Co., MinneapolisBaird, C. 1999 : Environmental Chemistry. 557 p. Appendix and Index, Freeman, NY.Benecke, N.; Brandt, S.; Fischer, C.; Spreckels, V.; Vosen, P.: Überwachung der Tagesoberfläche imGebiet des Steinkohlenbergbaus – Nutzung von GIS, Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung. In: GIS-Zeitschrift für raumbezogene Information und Entscheidungen, Heft 1/99, S. 34 - 39.Chevrel S. and Coetzee H. (1997) An example of GIS use in surface and ground-water pollutionsensitivity analysis: Regional impact of mining activities in South Africa - CMWR 97 (Fourthinternational conference on Computer Methods and Water Resources) - Byblos - Lebanon - 16-18June 1997Coetzee, H & Chevrel, S, 1997, Adding value to geophysical data: GIS explorations of anenvironmental problem, S.A. Geophysical Assn., 5 th technical meeting, Swakopmund, Namibia, 29-30September 1997, 142-147.Costick L.A., Ustin S.L. & Wallender W.W. 1997: Mine Site Location and Environmental HazardsClassification Tutorial. - Pilot Project: Resources Agency, Department of Conservation, Office of MineReclamationFarrand, W.H. 1997: Identification and mapping of ferric oxide and oxihydroxide minerals in imagingspectrometer data of Summitville, Colorado, U.S.A., and the surrounding San Juan Mountains. Int. J.Remote Sensing, Vol. 18, No 7, 1543-1552Farrand, W.H. and Harsanyi, J.C. 1997. Mapping the Distribution of Mine Tailings in the CoeurD’Alene River Valley, Idaho, through the use of a Constrained Energy Minimisation Technique.Remote Sensing of the Environment, 59, 64-76.Ferrier, G. 1999. Application of Imaging Spectrometer Data in Identifying Environmental Pollutioncaused by Mining at Rodaquilar, Spain. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 68, 125-137.Fischer, C.; Busch, W.: Nutzung von Fernerkundungsdaten bei einer GIS-gestützten Modellierunghydrologischer Parameter im Rahmen der großräumigen Umweltüberwachung bergbaulicherTätigkeiten. In: Haasis, H.-D., Ranze, K.C. (Hrsg.): Umweltinformatik '98. Vernetzte Strukturen inInformatik, Umwelt und Wirtschaft. 12. Int. Symposium Informatik für den Umweltschutz" derGesellschaft für Informatik (GI), Bremen 1998, Band II, Metropolis -Verlag, Marburg 1998, S. 553 -561
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 70Fischer, C., Spreckels, V.: Environmental Monitoring of Coal Mining Subsidences by Airborne HighResolution Scanner. Poster presented at the IGARSS'99 and Proceedings of the Int. Symposium ofGeoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS), Hamburg, June 28 - July 2nd, 1999Herman, J.D., Waites,J.E., Ponitz, R and Etzler, P. 1994: A temporal and spatial resolution remotesensing study of a Michigan Superfund site. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 60,No. 8, 1007-1017.Henderson, F.B. and Lachance, K. 1999: An Industry and Governement Collaboration, Utahabandoned mine hyperspectral imaging analysis project enables environmental insight. EarthObservation Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 33-35.King T.V.V. (ed.) 1995: Environmental Considerations of Active and Abandoned Mine Lands. - U.S.Geological Survey Bulletin 2220, 37 p., Denver, CO.Lundgren, L.W. 1999 : Environmental Geology. 511 p., Prentice Hall, New Jersey.Rencz A.N. (ed.) 1999: Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. - Manual of Remote Sensing, Vol 3,3rd edition, 707 p., John Wiley & Sons, NY.Resmini, R.G., Kappus, M.E., Aldrich, W.S, Harsanyi, J.C. and Anderson, M. 1997: Mineral mappingwith HYperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) sensor data at Cuprite, Nevada,U.S.A. Int. J. Remote Sensing, Vol. 18, No 7, 1553-1570Spreckels, V.: Monitoring of Hard Coal Mining Subsidence by Airborne High Resolution DigitalStereo Scanner Data. In: ISPRS Joint Workshop on "Sensors and Mapping from Space", ISPRS WGI/I, I/3, IV/4, Hannover, Sept. 27 - 30, 1999, proceedings in print.Swayze, G.A., Clark, R.N., Pearson, R.M. and Livo, K.E. 1996. Mapping Acid-generating Minerals atthe California Gulch Superfund Site in Leadville, Colorado using imaging spectroscopy. The SixthAnnual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, JPL Publication 96-4, 231-234.Vincent, R.K. 1994: Remote Sensing for Solid Waste Landfills and Hazardous Waste Sites.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 60, No. 8, 979-982.Vincent, R.K. 1997: Fundamentals of Geological and Environmental Remote Sensing. Prentice Hall,NJ, 366 p.References (examples) describing the level current Image Processing knowledgeBoardman, J. W., 1989, Inversion of imaging spectrometry data using singular value decomposition: inProceedings IGARSS '89, 12th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, v. 4, IGARSS'89, Canada, p.2069 - 2072.Boardman, J. W., 1991, Sedimentary facies analysis using imaging spectrometry: A geophysical inverseproblem: Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 212 p.Boardman, J. W., and Kruse, F. A., 1994, Automated spectral analysis: A geological example usingAVIRIS data, northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada: in Proceedings, Tenth Thematic Conference,Geologic Remote Sensing, 9-12 May 1994, San Antonio, Texas, Environmental Research Institute ofMichigan (ERIM), Ann Arbor, MI, p. I-407 - I-418.Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES), SIPS User's Guide, Spectral Image Processing System,Version 1.2, Center for the Study of Earth from Space, Boulder, CO, 88 p.
MINEO IST-1999-10337 Annex 1, Page 71Clark, R. N., King, T. V. V., Klejwa, M., and Swayze, G. A., 1990, High spectral resolution spectroscopyof minerals: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, no. B8, p. 12,53 - 12,680.Goetz, A. F. H., Vane, G., Solomon, J. E., and Rock , B. N., 1985, Imaging spectrometry for earth remotesensing: Science, v. 228, p. 1147 - 1153.Gillespie, A. R., Kahle, A. B., and Walker, R. E., 1986, Color enhancement of highly correlated images I:Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 20, p. 209-235.Kowalik, W. S., Sabins, F. F., Corea, W. C., and Alameda, G. K., 1991, Multispectral scanning and digitalprocessing of well cores: in Proceedings, Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing,Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM), Ann Arbor, MI., p. 27 - 29.Kruse, F. A., Lefkoff, A. B., and Dietz, J. B., 1993b, Expert System-Based Mineral Mapping in northernDeath Valley, California/Nevada using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS):Remote Sensing of Environment, Special issue on AVIRIS, May-June 1993, v. 44, p. 309 - 336.Kruse, F.A., Huntington, J.F. And Green, R.O., 1996: Mineralogic and Geochemical Mapping at VirginiaCity, Nevada Using 1995 AVIRIS Data. Proceedings of the second International Airborne Remote SensingConference and Exhibition, Vol III, ERIM, pp. I-211-221.Kruse, F. A., Kierein-Young, K. S., and Boardman, J. W., 1990, Mineral mapping at Cuprite, Nevada witha 63 channel imaging spectrometer: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 56, no. 1, p.83-92.Nash, E. B., and Conel, J. E., 1974, Spectral reflectance systematics for mixtures of powdered hypersthene,labradorite, and ilmenite, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 79, p. 1615 - 1621.Van Der Meer, F. & Bakker, W. 1999: CCSM: cross correlogram spectral matchingInt. J. Remote Sensing, Vol. 18, No 5, 1197-1201