Agenda• Schedule & Public Process• Recent Efforts/Current Projects• Site Analysis:– Context Infrastructure– Area Details• Market Analysis• Summary Concepts• Next Steps
Schedule + Public Process
SchedulePhase 1: Assessment1.1: Project Framework/Stakeholder Interviews1.2: Site Analysis1.3 Transportation & Infrastructure Analysis1.4: Market Analysis & Program DevelopmentPhase 2: Master Plan2.1: Alternatives2.2: Public Process/Work Sessions2.3: Preferred Master Plan ConceptPhase 3: Implementation Plan3.1: Draft Master Plan3.2: Draft Implementation Plan3.3: Public Process/Public Hearings3.4: Final Documentation3.5 Final Presentations3.6 Knowledge TransferSummary of Work SessionsPublic Meetings/WorkshopsStakeholderPlanning Department/City StaffCity Commission/City CouncilWalking TourNovember December January February March AprilMay JuneJuly August September October Novemberweek of 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 24 1 8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27
City's Vision• A Coastal Recreational Park• Human scale• Public open spaces• Connectivity for the pedestrian realm• Waterfront promenades• Diverse open spaces• An active park• Sensitive environmental spoil island connections (real orvisual)- Coconut Grove Waterfront & Spoil IslandsRequest for Qualifications
Community and Stakeholder Meetings• Residents• Coconut Grove Boards• Community Organizations• Waterfront Activities• Hoteliers• Merchants• Business Improvement Committee
Stakeholder Recurrent Issues• Parks isolated and not well connected• Existing uses need more upland space• Dangerous street crossings• Conflicting uses• Safety and security• Obstacles to continuous boardwalk• Not capturing thru traffic• Limited access to water – physical & visual• No connection between Grove and waterfront• Grove needs a facelift and better mix of tenants• Expo Center not contributing to waterfront/Grove• Unreliable circulator• No support services
Stakeholder Recurrent Goals• Visual/physical connection to the waterfront• Demolish Expo Center or redevelop into other use• Need for parking strategy• Minimize dominance of vehicles on Bayshore/McFarlane• Environmentally sensitive passive recreation on Spoil Islands• No commercial uses on waterfront that compete with CenterGrove• Limited commercial uses on the waterfront• Waterfront restaurants, cafes, kiosks• Improved safety and security• Natural amphitheater• Water-related equipment rentals
Recent Efforts/Current Projects
Recent Efforts• Peacock Park Charrette• Coconut Grove Market Analysis and StrategyReport• Seminole Boat Ramp and Kenneth Meyers Park• Coconut Grove Sailing Club Program Document• Dinner Key Convention Center FEMA FeasibilityStudy• Neighborhood Conservation District Studies• 1996 Coconut Grove Planning Study
Recent Efforts – Peacock Park Charrette• Open Forum lead by Friends ofPeacock Park, November 2004to develop a vision for thefuture of the Park• "Park should reflect the uniquecharacter of Coconut Grove"• Charrette concepts:– Enhance landscaped openspaces– Minimal service parking only– Trim and "window" mangroves– Connection to spoil islands– Tie into local history– Redesign street frontage andarticulate entrances– Redesign and seek alternativeuses for Glass House– Outdoor cultural facility(amphitheater, waterfront plaza)– Hardcourts ok, no expansion
Current Projects/Initiatives• Parks and Public Spaces Master Plan• Commodore Bike Trail• Miami 21• CIP Projects - locations– City Hall– Pan Am Drive– Miami Watersports Center– Dinner Key– Dinner Key Marina– Kennedy Park– Grand Avenue– Expo Center
Parks + Public Spaces Master PlanCity of Miami Parks & Public Spaces Master Plan Vision• A weekend pedestrian and bicycle zone at the waterfront• Enhanced connections along the waterfront• Safe streets for cyclists and pedestrians• Enhance miniparks for use as small neighborhood spaces
Commodore Bicycle Project• City of Miami Bicycle Route 1 since 1970s• 5-mile alignment from Cocoaplum Circle to Southern MiamiAvenue• Already exists along Main Highway and Bayshore Drive –wide curb lanes and adjacent bike paths• Safety concerns: car-bicycle conflict, bicyclepedestrian/joggerconflict, mature tree roots damaging thepath• Determined to be most feasible and beneficial of all theprojects in Bicycle & Pedestrian Facilities Plan
ZoningCS: Conservation• An essentially natural state; onlyactivities which reinforce thischaracter; minimum development;no negative effect to theenvironmentPR: Parks, Recreation, & Open Space• Public and private parks;recreational, educational, cultural,marina, entertainment, andsocial/health related facilities;public safety; and City of Miamiadministrative facilities• By Special Permit: performing artscenter, museum, art gallery, andexhibition space which change thecharacter of an existing park;conference facility; supportingsocial and entertainment services(restaurants, cafes, retailing)
Scenic Transportation Corridor• Intent: to preserve andprotect trees and othersignificant environmentalfeatures within the city• Requires all developmentbe consistent with thepreservation of trees• Vacant and undevelopedproperty, property to beredeveloped, public orprivate rights-of-way• Boundaries: right-of-way,established fronting yards,significant natural featuresnot in right-if-way, areasfrom which there is aunique scenic view of waterbodies or historicalstructures• Once designated, alldevelopment activity orremoval of trees must bereviewed by thepreservation officerthe missing link
Open Space Network
Pedestrian ExperiencePath Disconnect
Ecological Connections - DistributionsMangrove Distribution Seagrass Distribution National Parks Adjacent"It is important to recognize the bay system for its richness. Seeing the larger ecological trends of mangroves andseagrass distribution helps to do this. It would also help build justification for proposing mangrove restoration workon the spoil islands. Being so close to the National Park also would help the spoil islands function as wildlifestopover and corridor movement vs. being small disconnected islands" (Mark Reaves, Biologist)
Spoil Islands• Spoil Islands– Currently supporting a high density of non-native invasiveplant species such as Australian Pine and Brazilian Pepper– Providing suitable habitat for mangroves and tropicalhardwood hammock species– Seaward shorelines have been stabilized with riprap– There is a high potential for recreational uses– The island shorelines capture a high volume of human debrisInvasive Plants Established (Aussie Pine, etc) MangrovesSmall and Large Debris
Spoil Islands - RestorationRestoration Process Overview• Initial Permitting• Restoration Design Development– Historical documents– Extensive field investigations(biological, topographical,hydrological, geo-technical, etc.)• Final Restoration Design• Cost Estimates• Final Permitting• Funding• Construction ContractsFlora/Fauna Community DevelopmentManaging Invasive Species
Regulations/PermitsMinimum permits required for construction activities in the Biscayne BayAquatic Preserve:• Federal– Federal Dredge and Fill Permit Program, (USACE, DEP)– NPDES Permit, (Section 403 CWA)• State– Environmental Resource Permit, (DEP, Watershed Management District)– Proprietary-Sovereign Submerged Lands, (DEP, Watershed Management District)– Authorization to Use State Owned Submerged Lands (DEP)– Mangrove Trimming and Alteration Permit (DEP)• Local– Class I Permit (DERM)– Class III Permit (DERM)– Tree Removal Permit (DERM)
Area DetailsUpper WaterfrontSouth Bayshore DriveMcFarlane RoadLower WaterfrontPeacock Park
Peacock Park HistoryPeacock Park Inn1884Peacock Park1977-The first non indigenous settlers to arrive in Miami settled in Coconut Grove, the oldest section ofwhat would become Miami, where fisherman from the Bahamas soon were joined by industrialistsfrom the north in 1870.-1884 the Peacock Inn was built in Peacock Park which became the 1 st hotel on the South Floridamainland.-Grapefruit plantations, Hayden Mango and the Trapp Avocado were developed in Coconut Grove.
Peacock Park - ActivitiesShuffleboardPicnic tables + NET officeIssues:-Existing building haslimited active communityservicesInline skating-Active recreational usageof skate park interfereswith adjacent parcels ofchurch, school-Boardwalk, shuffleboardare in need of repairPlay area at adjacentparcel of ChurchAsphalt area, basketballBaseball field+ open lawnPerformance area i.e. "Shakespeare in the Park"
Peacock Park - CirculationUncontrolled pedestrian +bike accesson sand surfacesUncontrolled car access and car circulationon top of existing tree root systemIssues:-No clear entrances intoPark-Disconnection to Kenneth MeyerPark, Library or Women'sClub-No water access!Boardwalk in disrepair, whichprovided only water access onsite-No continuous path connection,parts of park (only shaded area)are not accessible for wheelchairusers, strollers skaters etc.-Uncontrolled car access forfestival activities on top ofexisting tree root systemcreates long term destruction on200 year old trees-No physical connection to TheBarnacle or spoil islandsExisting wall separates playgroundsand disconnects the parkBoardwalkin disrepaironly wateraccess
Peacock Park - Lighting/SeatingIssues:Seating-Not enough seating provided!only one bench at the bus stopalong McFarlane Rd-Up to five picnic tables inpeacock park which are not allaccessible for wheelchair users,strollers, skaters etc.-No seating is provided aroundskate park, baseball field, oralong the waterfrontLighting-The park does not have enoughlight fixtures to give a secure andcomfortable feeling at night. Nolight fixtures in upper shadedpart of park. A series of newlyinstalled blue light fixtures alongexisting path, which sometimesface the wrong direction-No consistent design of lightfixtures. Three different kindsalong McFarlane Rd. + blue lightsalong path in Peacock Park +spotlights of baseball field
Peacock Park - Green AnalysisPeacock Park has 4 green habitats:- Hardwood Hammocks(live oak, red maple, mahogany,gumbo limbo, and cocoplum)-Coconut Palm Trees-Mangroves-LawnIssues:-Root system of Hardwood Hammocksdisturbed through uncontrolled cartrafficHardwood HammockLawnPalm Trees-Mangroves block water views,capture debris and smell but have animportant role in the ecologicalmarine system and are protected-Palm trees do not provide shade butoffer aesthetic valuesMangroves
Pan Am Terminal HistoryPan American Seaplane Base andTerminal Building, built 1931 -1938, Architects Delano & Aldrich- Known as the "Air Gateway between the Americas" the Pan Am Seaplane Base andTerminal Building at Dinner Key linked the United States with Latin America. At the timeof its construction the Art Deco style building was the largest and most modern marine airterminal in the world.- The famous Pan Am "Clipper" Flying Boats opened major trade and passenger routes andmade Miami a center of international air transportation.
Lower Waterfront - ActivitiesIssues:123 46578 91. Coconut Grove Sail Club feels secluded and isfenced in, not an inviting environment2. Physical public access to water only possible atSeminole Boat Ramp3. Few seating elements along waterfront, often withparking lots behind4. Majority of site is occupied by parking usage, verylittle green space5. City Hall feels secluded and fenced in6. Expo Center in need of repair, takes up largeamount of space without offering any amenities7. Grove Key Marina does not offer public walkwayalong waterfront8. Fresh Market does not address the waterfront oroffer outdoor seating space with views of the water9. Shake A-Leg walkway is disconnected to publicwater promenade by temporary construction fence
Lower Waterfront - Green Analysis4132434211 Mangroves2 Canopy TreesLive Oak, Red Maple,3 Palm Trees323424 LawnIssues:-Mangroves block water views, capture debris and smell, but have an important role in theecological marine system and are protected-Palm trees do not provide shade but offer aesthetic values-Canopy trees in parking lot do not have ideal condition and show signs of drought and poormaintenance
Upper Waterfront - ActivitiesIssues:12 36451. Access along waterfront stops at Monty's2. Private Yacht Clubs fenced in, secluded,provide no public water access3. Parking lot feels private4. Poor location of benches and picnictables5. Existing boardwalk in disrepair, onlywater access and water view in park6. Mangroves block view and water access
Upper Waterfront - CirculationSurface ofwaterfront accesschanges from concreteto wooden boardwalkNo sidewalk connection alongSouth Bayshore DriveMontysBiscayne BayYacht ClubCoral ReefYacht ClubUS SailingCenterKennedy ParkExisting waterfront connection stopsBoardwalkin disrepaironly wateraccess inKennedy Park
Upper Waterfront - Lighting/SeatingIssues:-No seating opportunities along South Bayshore Drive-Seating elements in Kennedy Park need to be updated, replaced and placed better along pathway-No light fixtures along walkway on South Bayshore Drive-No light fixtures in Kennedy Park-Some the existing blue light fixtures are poorly placed
Upper Waterfront - Green Analysis1 Mangroves134323Canopy TreesLive Oak, Red Maple,Palm Trees124 Lawn1Issues:-Mangroves block water views, capture debris and smell, but have an important role in theecological marine system and are protected-Palm trees do not provide shade but offer aesthetic values-No continuous and recognizable planting scheme along waterfront
McFarlane Road- Existing ConditionExisting ConditionIssues:- Currently McFarlane Road is a 7 lane road (4 driving lanes, 2 parking lanes, 1 turning lane)- No pedestrian-friendly crossing areas- No visible connection from Cocowalk to McFarlane Road- No pedestrian amenities along McFarlane (seating areas, restaurants)- No water views- Cars dominate the road- Existing sidewalk does not connect towards Kenneth Mayer Park
McFarlane Road - Possible Design SolutionPossible Design Solutions:Proposed Condition- Reduce driving lanes to two lanes- Turn McFarlane into pedestrian-oriented zone, like the "Ramblas", Barcelona or Lincoln Road, South Beach- Provide amenities like restaurants, outdoor cafes, water + light features, shade + seating areas alongMcFarlane Road- Physically connect "Cocowalk" with McFarlane Road- Create strong view corridor towards waterfront- Pier extension of McFarlane creates physical access towards the water, allowing fishing, water taxi stop etc.Lincoln Road, South BeachThe Ramblas, BarcelonaLincoln Road, South Beach
South Bayshore Drive - Existing ConditionGateways into Park/Conflict PointsExisting ConditionIssues:- Currently South Bayshore Drive is a 4 lane road with a pedestrian sidewalk on either side- Green median feels disconnected to park and does not offer any amenities, seating etc.- No pedestrian-friendly crossing areas are provided- No traffic signal to coordinate pedestrian crossing- No seating areas along South Bayshore Drive- Bus stops are difficult to find and do not provide shelter- Entrances to parking lots create a conflict with sidewalks along South Bayshore Drive
South Bayshore Drive - Possible Design SolutionPossible Design Solutions:Proposed Condition- Reduce traffic lane to two lanes- Turn other two lanes into pedestrian-oriented promenade and provide space for biking, skating, walking, jogging- Integrate existing median into new park design- Provide amenities like kiosks, light features, shade and seating areas along South Bayshore Drive- Create secure pedestrian crossing areas at intersections- Create strong view corridors towards waterfront- Reduce existing car entrances to parking lotsCopacabana, Rio de Janeiro WalkingInline Skating, Biking Horse Carriage
Economic Objectives• Conduct market/economic/financial analyses of various potentialwaterfront uses that will:– Identify appropriate park uses– Explore potential park enhancements that a provide a range ofactivities– Serve community needs, existing and potential markets– Strengthen connectivity between commercial center and waterfront– Provide recommendations for potential revenues to support neededcapital investment and operating costs over time
Demographic Overview, 20052005BirdGroveAvenueEastBirdGroveAvenueWestEastGroveGroveCenterNorthGroveSouthBaysideSouthGroveWestGroveDemographic CharacteristicsPopulation 4,011 1,438 1,398 1,315 1,462 827 3,079 3,428Households 2,205 673 562 813 752 308 1,338 1,263Average Household Size 1.8 2.1 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.7 2.3 2.7Median Age 35 40 45 39 40 44 44 35RaceWhite 3,343 571 1,328 1,176 1,348 777 2,796 240Black 306 785 12 46 35 21 182 3,067American Indian, Eskimo 8 2 5 2 1 - 4 4Asian or Pacific Islander 79 11 8 27 19 6 21 4Tw o Races 127 30 26 33 37 15 42 103Other 148 38 19 31 22 7 34 10Income CharacteristicsMedian Household Income $60,388 $30,748 $108,695 $74,902 $75,468 $207,807 $123,801 $31,477Average Household Income $81,112 $45,039 $157,513 $131,183 $102,336 $275,878 $186,203 $45,524Housing CharacteristicsOw ner-occupied Units 934 197 457 463 494 275 1,125 457As % of Total 42.3% 29.4% 81.2% 57.0% 65.8% 89.3% 84.1% 36.2%Renter-occupied Units 1,271 475 106 350 257 33 213 805As % of Total 57.7% 70.6% 18.8% 43.0% 34.2% 10.7% 15.9% 63.8%Total Housing Units: 2,205 673 562 813 752 308 1,338 1,263Source: ESRI Business Information Solutions; Economics Research Associates, December 2006.
Demographic Overview, 2010Bird AvenueBirdGroveEastBird AvenueBirdGroveWestEastGroveGroveCenterNorthGroveSouthBaysideDemographic CharacteristicsPopulation 4,376 1,531 1,508 1,452 1,556 879 3,314 3,683Households 2,393 712 604 892 796 325 1,432 1,352Average Household Size 1.8 2.2 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.7 2.3 2.7Median Age 35 42 47 40 43 45 46 37RaceWhite 3,625 653 1,427 1,289 1,424 824 2,996 278Black 321 782 12 48 36 23 196 3,263American Indian, Eskimo 8 2 5 3 1 - 4 5Asian or Pacific Islander 92 12 9 34 22 7 25 5Tw o Races 145 36 31 38 44 18 49 120Other 185 46 24 41 29 7 43 122010SouthGroveWestGroveIncome CharacteristicsMedian Household Income $79,782 $36,745 $128,829 $98,138 $94,054 $261,741 $155,990 $37,070Average Household Income $108,944 $52,408 $194,587 $178,716 $133,658 $370,920 $244,673 $55,660Housing CharacteristicsOw ner-occupied Units 941 196 492 509 518 292 1,214 507As % of Total 39.3% 27.5% 81.4% 57.1% 65.0% 89.9% 84.8% 37.5%Renter-occupied Units 1,452 516 112 383 278 33 218 844As % of Total 60.7% 72.5% 18.6% 42.9% 35.0% 10.1% 15.2% 62.5%Total Housing Units: 2,393 712 604 892 796 325 1,432 1,352Source: ESRI Business Information Solutions; Economics Research Associates, December 2006.
Summary of CurrentRevenue Generating Uses• Leasehold use rents have increased 17 percent, from $1.3million in 2001 to $2.9 million in 2005.– Grove Harbor Marina/Fresh Market lease generated the highestrevenue in 2005 with $1.5 million.• Facilities net revenues (Dinner Key Marina and CoconutGrove Expo Center) have increased from $1.5 million to$2.3 million.– Dinner Key Marina generated almost $2.5 million in revenuesin 2005.– Coconut Grove Expo Center continues to operate at a loss,losing more than $100,000 in 2005.
Current Revenue Generating Uses% CAGR2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2001-2005Leasehold RentsU.S. Sailing Center $ 7,077 $ 7,720 $ 8,534 $ 8,812 $ 9,0165.0%Grove Key Marina 321,776 327,891 316,344 388,180 382,383 3.5%Grove Harbor Marina/Fresh Market - - 64,721 564,717 1,537,304 187.5%Monty's Restaurant 851,235 601,689 728,241 718,921 778,285 -1.8%Shake-a-Leg, Miami, Inc. 100 500 500 500 500 38.0%Biscayne Bay Yacht Club 5,069 5,069 5,069 5,069 5,069 0.0%Chart House Restaurant 108,067 117,961 104,384 113,463 121,644 2.4%Coconut Grove Chamber of Commerce 3,600 2,700 3,600 3,600 3,600 0.0%Coral Reef Yacht Club 22,162 23,270 24,433 25,655 26,938 4.0%Coconut Grove Sailing Club 45,148 52,199 84,857 80,480 88,485 14.4%Subtotal - Leaseholds: $ 1,364,236 $ 1,138,999 $ 1,340,684 $ 1,909,397 $ 2,953,224 16.7%Facilities-Net RevenuesDinner Key Marina $ 1,540,742 $ 1,636,812 $ 1,927,629 $ 2,209,931 $ 2,486,522 10.0%Coconut Grove Expo Center $ - $ - $ (94,326) $ (173,075) $ (129,184) 11.1%Subtotal - Facilities: $ 1,540,742 $ 1,636,812 $ 1,833,303 $ 2,036,856 $ 2,357,3388.9%TOTAL - WATERFRONT REVENUES: $ 2,904,977 $ 2,775,811 $ 3,173,987 $ 3,946,253 $ 5,310,562 12.8%Source: City of Miami Department of Public Facilities, Asset Management Division; City of Miami Department ofPlanning; Economics Research Associates, March 2006.
Status of ERA Analysis by Component• Coconut Grove Expo Center:– Projected to close for public use on June 1, 2006– Not competitive with Miami Beach facility, operates at a deficit.– Potential for interim uses, but long term purpose and viability are yetto be determined• Mooring Fields:– Lease abstracts under review– ERA analyzing other mooring facilities to determine relevant pricingrates, operating costs/characteristics and management approaches.– Analyze proposed mooring fields, governance, current uses, costs,revenues etc.• Dinner Key Marina– ERA to provide recommended improvements (such as proposed DockMasters building and it’s relationship to moorings field).• Coconut Grove Sailing Club:– ERA will analyze costs, revenues and operating characteristicsincluding required building maintenance costs, area upgrades andimprovements, and competitive position.
Status of ERA Analysis by Component• Parking and Transportation– Transportation sub-consultant will review study and recommendeduses to determine adequacy of existing and potential supply anddemand– Recommendations for projected parking revenues and appropriatemanagement approaches• Park Programming– Goals and objectives include recommended uses that provideimproved connectivity, activation of public spaces and streets andenhanced level of park amenities– Program will explore opportunities to create compatible venues forevents for enhanced public programs in the parks and serve aspotential source of revenue
Case Study: Pinellas County ParksERA has conducted thorough research on revenue generators for parksacross the United States. The following slides summarize that researchand focus on work conducted for Pinellas County, FL.ERA analyzed revenue generation potential and the currentmanagement structure associated with the following uses at a series ofCounty-owned and operated parks:•Food and Beverage Concessions(temporary/seasonal to permanent)• Gift Shop Concessions• Special Events/Rentals in County-owned facilities
Park Concessions - Trends SummaryAn analysis of national contract concession agreements for foodservice in public venues reveals the following:• Operating terms:– Generally five years with two- to five-year renewal options; termsbased on performance, operating standards and capital investmentmade by the operator.• Capital investment requirements:– Vary greatly by jurisdiction and required level of control.– Tenant fit-out solely the responsibility of the operator (less control/lesspublic investment).– Local jurisdiction provided facilities and equipment with concessionerworking under an operating contract (maximum control/highest publicinvestment).• Revenue splits:– Usually based on annual license or rental fee, plus a percentage ofannual gross revenues.• Concession offerings:– Range from snack food to full-service dining, gift and equipment rentalshops, and venues available for public events (picnics to parties).
Park Concessions – Trends Summary• In all cases, operators required to provide surety bonds, fullliability insurance, and meet minimum revenue and performancestandards.• Seasonal adjustments to operating hours allowed based on usepatterns, requests by the operators and jurisdiction approval• Among “lessons learned” from national examples, options toextend operating agreements were based on performance andrevenues, and operator investment in improvements to publicproperty.• Concession operations in public venues are often independentlyowned and operated, with few exceptions in unique locations• Market density can attract branded products (like Chart Houseand Fresh Market) or national operators (usually for multiplevenues and facilities)
Park Retail ShopAn analysis of park gift shop operations in the southern U.S.reveals the following:• The park gift shop retail season:– Most active from October until the end of May, with March andApril having the highest sales.• Sales volumes:– For retail-oriented shops, sales increase over holiday periodswhere gift shopping is traditionally strong. April tends to beparticularly strong due to partial-year residents preparing toreturn home for the summer months.• Store concepts:– Vary depending on park characteristics – activity-orientedparks may sell more equipment and rentals/services; arts andcultural park shops are more gift and book oriented
Park Special Events/Rentals• Themed Festivals – permanent and temporary facilitiesrequired• Weddings – Venue(s), permitting standards, costs and fees• Private “Life Cycle” Parties, including receptions,graduation, family reunions, picnics, etc.• Cultural/Art Performances – Compatibility and facilitiesrequired• Educational events• Catering facilities -- On grounds or off-site• Connections to Coconut Grove downtown• Suggested new activities and supporting facilities in park
Next Steps• Determine priorities for current and future uses• Recommend use mix, management approach and otherfactors affecting implementation• Project sales/public revenues, operating costs and netrevenues by recommended use• Address parking needs, requirements and management• Prepare design alternatives• Solicit public input on design alternatives
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