spear - ATV - Jord og Grundvand

atv.jord.grundvand.dk

spear - ATV - Jord og Grundvand

Case studyLilleSkensved, DKSkensved Å


Case study: Lille Skensved, DK


20102010 dataIn 2005 TCE up to 17 g/L


Hydromorphological conditionsDanish Habitat Quality Index (DHQI)ParameterSite1Skensved streamSite2Site3Site4Control sitesSite 5 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6Stones [%] 45 43 38 26 12 1 3 8 - - 12Pebbles [%] 13 12 22 23 6 3 46 5 - 17 28Gravel [%] 7 8 2 7 5 8 17 1 2 19 24Sand [%] 35 35 26 37 60 39 14 29 36 53 19Silt [%] 0 2 12 7 17 49 20 57 62 11 17Average width [cm] 249 267 256 214 241 185 250 200 160 15 130Average depth [cm] 15.9 13.7 12.7 15.4 17.5 7 4 18 3 14 3Average discharge, Q [L s -1 ] 45.5 39.5 44.0 41.3 50.5 41.4 43.9 34.1 39.7 - -Number of plant species 2 1 1 2 1 4 0 1 2 0 0Total plant coverage [%] 8.1 0.4 6.5 14.1 7 19.1 0 1.4 0.3 0 0DHQI score 27 36 39 44 37 40 18 35 26 41 46DHQI > 26 indicates good ecological statusPhysical conditions do not affect status


Water QualityParameterJune 2010 dataAugust 2010 dataSite 1 Site 3 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6Oxygen [mgL -1 ] - - 8.62 9.70 9.70 8.90 8.80 9.24 9.17 10.25 8.92 9.63 10.10BOD [mgL -1 ] 1.18 1.03 1.59 1.14 2.36 2.34 1.26 1.3 0.95 1.01 0.66 0.50 1.20Conductivity [µS cm -1 ] - - 584 580 585 591 610 - - - - - -pH - - 7.83 8.03 8.07 7.97 7.99 7.81 8.35 7.96 7.86 7.70 8.15Ammonium [mgL -1 ] a 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.01Nitrate [mgL -1 ] a 6.08 6.14 4.79 4.66 4.67 4.59 4.44 - - - - - -Phosphate [mgL -1 ] a 0.07 0.06 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.06Total-N [mgL -1 ] b 5.50 6.64 5.33 4.95 5.33 5.10 5.00 - - 1.15 - - -Total-P [mgL -1 ] b 0.12 0.12 0.25 0.25 0.29 0.30 0.23 - - 0.05 - - -Chloride [mgL -1 ] - - 30.04 31.68 30.72 33.22 37.33 - - 57.0 - - -Sulphate [mgL -1 ] - - 46.89 46.92 46.84 47.37 49.12 - - 21.80 - - -Calcium [mgL -1 ] 135.65 139.03 93.21 94.78 90.93 90.53 92.55 81.45Iron [mgL -1 ] 0.06 0.05 0.85 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.06 0.29 0.58 1.04 0.40 0.79 0.57Potassium [mgL -1 ] 5.17 5.63 7.07 7.41 7.30 7.35 7.12 - - - - - -Magnesium [mgL -1 ] 10.93 11.57 9.87 9.71 9.55 9.61 9.80 - - - - - -Manganese [mgL -1 ] 0.01 c 0.01 c 0.03 0.01 c 0.01 d 0.01 c 0.02 - - - - - -Sodium [mgL -1 ] 35.73 38.26 23.58 24.54 23.41 26.41 27.49 - - 31.18 - - -Maximum BOD 5 measured = 2.5 mg/LBOD 5 and nutrients do not affect the ecological status of stream


DSFI – Danish Stream Fauna IndexDSFI ranges from 1 (bad status ) -7 (high status)SiteDSFI#1 – March 4#2 – March 4#3 – March 4#4 – March 4#5 – March 4#1 – August 4#2 – August 4#3 – August 4#4 – August 4#5 – August 4C1 a (2004) 6C2 a (2004) 6C3 (2005) 7C4 (2004) 6C5 (2004) 5C6 (2004) 6DSFI moderate statusBOD 4 and nutrients concentrations lowso status reflects other stressors


SPEAR resultsSite SPEAR organics SPEAR pesticidesSPEAR pesticideswater qualityclass#1 – March -0.50 11.05 2#2 – March -0.35 12.64 2#3 – March -0.39 14.67 2#4 – March -0.45 19.95 2#5 – March -0.39 16.59 2SPEAR Water qualityclasses range from 1-5#1 – August -0.52 4.32 1#2 – August -0.51 6.85 1#3 – August -0.36 12.56 2#4 – August -0.32 12.84 2#5 – August -0.39 8.23 1C1 a (2004) -0.36 34.67 4C2 a (2004) -0.14 49.69 5C3 (2005) -0.30 46.48 5C4 (2004) -0.18 43.60 4C5 (2004) -0.46 32.21 3C6 (2004) -0.24 38.35 4• SPEAR organics indicates no impact• SPEAR pesticides indicates poor status in Marchand poor to bad status for August• Unimpacted streams should NOT show seasonal differences


Toxic Units/Hazard quotientFor Daphnia magnaDetected surfacewater contaminants2,4-D (H)4-CPP (H)BAM (H)Bentazone (H)Desethylatrazine (H)Dichlorprop (H)Diflufenican (H)Dinoseb (H)Diuron (H)DNOC (H)Hydroxyatrazine (H)Isoproturon (H)MCPA (H)Metamitron (H)Simazine (H)Terbutylazine (H)Trichloroacetic acid (H)Boscalid (F)Epoxiconazole (F)Hexachlorobenzene (F)Chlorpyrifos (I)Deltamethrin (I)Lambda-cyhalothrin (I)HCH-ɣ (lindane) (I)TCEcis-1,2-DCEMeasured aqueous concentrations far below level forecological impactButSediment TU largest ever reported in DenmarkUp to 39 μg/kg Diflufenican detected TU two orders of magnitude above levels for impactSeveral EU priority pollutants detected


Indicator species matterConcentrations needed for HQ=1CompoundD. magnathreshold[mg L -1 ]Chironomidthreshold[mg L -1 ]Stoneflythreshold[mg L -1 ]Browntroutthreshold[mg L -1 ]TCE 18.0 42.0 70.0 16.5Benzene 59.6 34.0 130.0 44.8PCE 9.1 1.3 3.6 4.3Naphthalene 2.2 2.8 0.011 1.4MCPA 11.0 0.4 0.023 300.0Metamitron 101.7 40.2 1.1 247.5Glyphosate 3.0 55.0 6.2 7.6Daphnia magna is a slow moving waters species!


AQUATOXDischargeChironomid biomassMost important factor in ecosystem is stream discharge


AQUATOX prediction of ecosystem impactsTCEThreshold point source loading150 – 1500 g/day


Evaluating ecological risk – summaryDanish Stream Fauna Index – DSFI results−−−Skensved overall assessment: “moderate”Linked to WFD classesSeasonal changes NOT capturedSpear Index— Skensved overall assessment: “poor” to “bad”— Linked to WFD classes— Captured seasonal trends— Can distinguish stressor effects for organic xenobiotics and pesticidesAquatox−−−Can identify contaminants of concern (threshold values)Can identify ecosystem community shiftsNo direct linkage to WFD classesHazard Quotient Index−−−Can identify contaminants of concern (threshold values) – compare AquatoxCannot identify ecosystem community shiftsNo direct linkage to WFD classes


ConclusionsEcological impact of TCE: seem to be minimal atSkensved. Caution: Spear organics result!!SPEAR pesticides suggests an ecological impactSPEARSPEAR impact is seasonal, suggesting that pesticidescausing impact are not from groundwaterOther ecological assessment methods predict noimpactSediment TU at site is highTo evaluate ecological risk: – typically havemultiple stressor environments!AQUATOX shows stream flow is most important


AcknowledgmentsNational EnvironmentalResearch InstituteÅRHUS UNIVERSIYDanish Research Council (RiskPoint Project,grant no. 2104-07-0035)Jonathan Clough, Dr. Richard Park &Marjorie C. Wellman (AQUATOX support)Field data collected & supported by:— Stine B. Christensen & Kristian D. Raun— Simon Bruun & Jonas Rose— Anna J. Clausen, Mette F. Petersen & Eva M.R.Hedegaard— Prof. Poul L. Bjerg— Assoc. Prof. Peter Bauer-Gottwein— Assoc. Prof. Anders Baun— Nanna I. Thomsen & Maria L. Loinaz— Uffe Mensberg & Henrik Stenholt (NERI)

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