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Accessible Tourism Marketing Strategies

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Accessible TourismMarketing StrategiesProfessor Dimitrios BuhalisBournemouth Universitywww.buhalis.com(With special thanks to Elina Michopoulou)www.bournemouth.ac.uk


IntroductionThe Disability Market• Between 5% and 20% of the population have some sort ofdisability (UNESCAP, 2000)• Worldwide: Over 600 million (Van Horn, 2002)• Europe: Over 120 million (Eichhorn et al, 2006)- Spending power• In the UK: £80 billion pounds per annum in 2004, (Spink,2004).• In the US: it was estimated around $200 billion in 1998(Burnett & Baker, 2001)• For travel in particular, American adults with disabilitiesspend $13.6 billion each year (Open Doors Organization,2005).www.bournemouth.ac.uk 2


Demand for accessibility inEurope (% of population)40353025Demand for accessibility in25 European countries:> 127 million*(46,6 million impaired citizens* (aged 16 to64) + nearly 81 million elderly people)2222.9 23.223.5 23.824.525.225.726.328.228.629.129.530.3 30.4 30.63232.43437.12017.618.6 18.619.420.415105Includes mild, moderate and severe impairments,long-standing health problems as well as the elderlypopulation having accessibility requirements0S K M T R O C Y L T L U H U IE E S IT N O AT G R D E D K C Z S I B E P T S E N L E E FR U K F Iwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 3* Eurostat 2003, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau 2005


The Disability MarketExtent of impairmentModerateMildType of ImpairmentMobility impairmentsVisual impairmentsSevereHearing impairmentsSpeech impairmentsMental/ Intellectual impairmentsHidden impairmentsElderly populationwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 4


Market RequirementsContent Requirements• The higher the degree of disability, the more informationrequired (Miller & Kirk, 2002)• Richness of information (Yau, McKercher and Packer, 2004).• Reliability (Cavinato and Cuckovich, 2002)• Objective measurements (Darcy, 1998)• Accuracy (Darcy, 1998; Darcy and Daruwalla, 1999; Stumbo & Pegg,2005)• Inclusive information focusing not only on mobility impairmentswww.bournemouth.ac.uk 5


Market RequirementsInterface Requirements1. Accessible design:(“Design for all” - “Universal” – “Barrier free”)“The design of products, services and environments to be usable of all people, to thegreatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design” (ICTSB2000)Examples of assistive technologiesMIVIHISIMI IHidAlternative keys with different characteristics (larger, more space between them)Electronic Braille displays, screen magnification, video magnifiersFlashing light ringerText to speech, pointing devicesQwerty Keypads, touchpads-2. Personalisation:to enable them to make decisions not only according toindividual dis /abilities but according to personal preferences aswell3. Content Integration:in one single repository to minimise the effort andtime in information gathering processwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 6


• Providing informationabout accessibility forthese groups decidewhether they engage inthe travel process or not• Able-bodied citizens alsohave accessibility needsthat have to be catered forwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 7


Supply of AccessibleTourism in Europe• Very small percentage of potential players explicitly address theneeds for accessible tourism• Specialised providers are already offering suitable informationabout accessible facilities for the market,• however only address small parts of the market and do notreach a pan-European level• Generic players are not yet concerned with accessibility• Often see suppliers see disability as liabilityThis clearly demonstrates the need for eTourismas a value added mechanism!www.bournemouth.ac.uk 8


Problem Statement• Small percentage of the total tourism supply is accessible• The market requiring accessibility is very diverse includingpeople with different needs and requirements according totype and severity of disability• Tourism related on-line content is often inaccessible todisabled users employing assistive technologies• accessibility Information is:-Difficult to retrieve-Often false and unreliable-Scattered in different players-Available in different formatswww.bournemouth.ac.uk 9


Place oforigin Tourist/customer:• individualtravellers(blind, partiallysighted, deaf,hard ofhearing,wheelchairusers, etc.)• travellerswith a personalassistant/companion• seniorsLeisureTravelOther(health,study)Business TravelINTERMEDIARIES:AVAILABLE TOURISM PACKAGESTravelAgenciesPersonalisation& communityOSSATETOURISM SYSTEMInformation Communication TechnologyTourOperatorsO S S A T EValue addedservicesIncomingAgenciesAVAILABLE TOURISM INFORMATION:Destination Management Organisations/ DMSsAVAILABLE ACCESSIBILITY INFORMATION:Disability OrganisationsA C C E S S I B I L I T YCertificationPrimarysuppliers:DestinatioHoliday CentresHotels Campinn regionShoppingAccommodation g B&B centres Retailing MarketFarmhouses CottagDepartment s storesApartmen esGift shopsRestaurants AMENITIESts FastCateringfacilitiesCafes Casino TheatreFoodPubsTerraces/EntertainmentbeerClubs CinemagardenssMonumenFestival Music Architecturts ArchaeologyHeritage s Events Arts Museum eSpasMan madeStatelySportinhomes HistoricReligioussgConferenceArchaeologicBuildingal sites GalleriesActivity Wild life ATTRACTIONSsWaterfalls Beachcentres parksRiversPurpose builtNatural LakeDisneyThemeGardens Landscap sObservatorie ArtificialparksWoodlandeParksWaxworksMuseum PrivateHospitals &ANCI- healthother healthPost institutions Travelinstitutions LLARY offices Tour insurancePublic SER- Banks guidesPrivateEmbassie RTO VICES CurrencyPolice sNTOssexchange TimetableLTOs FishingPaintinsBikinggHealthSailing GolfingWalkin ACTIVITIESgPhotographySwimmingNatureexplorationCustomers’GenericinformationProduct information BookingTransit On site informationinformationneeds:informationPre tripAfterDuring trip: During trip: on sitewww.bournemouth.ac.uk triptransit10Boat – Car/ Taxi – Coach/ Bus – Train -Airlines


Technical ChallengesDisabilitySchemesDestination AVisualImpairedTravelAgentsTourOperatorsDMOAMENITIESANCILLARYSERVICESACCESSIBILITYATTRACTIONSAVAILABLESERVICESACTIVITIESSPECIAL NEEDS MARKETMotorImpairedHearingImpairedMentallyImpairedPERSONALISATIONACCESSIBLEDESIGNACCESSIBILITYGUIDELINESAccessibilitySpecific ContentCONTENTINTEGRATIONTourismGenericContentINTEROPERABILITYGDSsCRSse-TAsDMODestination BAMENITIESANCILLARYSERVICESACCESSIBILITYATTRACTIONSAVAILABLESERVICESACTIVITIESOtherSpecialCategoriesGENERICMARKETTRANSPORTATIONENTER 2007 Taxi Private Car Train Airplane Boatwww.bournemouth.ac.uk Rented CarACTIVITIES 11e-TOsHotelAggregatorsDMOsDMODestination CAMENITIESANCILLARYSERVICESACCESSIBILITYATTRACTIONSAVAILABLESERVICES


From Deal BreakersTo Deal Makers•Recognise architecturalconstraints•Appreciate economic realities• Realise stakeholder’s needs andbalancing act•Be upfront about needs andrequirements• realise the fear of serviceproviders• extra help may be required• evangelical vs realistic approach•Law and legislation•Understanding of a viable market•Considerable buying power• good for seasonality•Accessibility improves efficiencyoverall•It is mainly about information andattitude•Attitude, soft aspects•Accurate, objective measurements• it is ok if you cannot serve theentire marketwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 12


Like any matchmaking itneeds to work for allwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 13


Conclusion The disability/aging population market is considerable with asignificant spending powerThe fundamental requirement of this market is accessibility in terms ofbuilt environment but more importantly with regards to informationTo address these requirement both demand and supply need to havea better understanding of each others priorities and constraints and worktogetherLike any other matchmaking it needs to work for both sidesa system is needed, designed to allow interoperability amongstdifferent industry players and integrate and distribute relevant content inan accessible manner, enabling personalised service provisionwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 14


Professor Dimitrios BuhalisDeputy DirectorInternational Centre for Tourismand Hospitality Research (ICTHR)School of Services ManagementBournemouth University,Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow,Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UKTel: +44 1202 961517Fax: +44 1202 515707Email: dbuhalis@bournemouth.ac.ukhttp://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/Dimitrios: www.buhalis.comDimitrios Blog: buhalis.blogspot.comwww.bournemouth.ac.uk 15


Thank youfor your attention!www.bournemouth.ac.uk 16

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