TRIALS BY FIRE - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

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TRIALS BY FIRE - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

ased on risk, although all states are still guaranteed a minimum percentageof funding through 2012. 267 The Urban Areas Security Initiative prioritizesfunding for ten ‘Tier One’ urban areas, which include Los Angeles, New York,Philadelphia, Washington DC and the San Francisco Bay area. 268There is also disagreement about how to measure DHS’s progress in meetingits overall mission. Some argue that DHS should spend more of the money itis appropriated on all-hazards management rather than on counterterrorismalone, since Americans face a greater risk from natural disasters than fromterrorism, and an all-hazards approach would allow government to preparefor both. 269 Others argue that DHS should utilize a cost-per-life-saved metricwhen distributing money and resources. 270 Since these remain unansweredquestions, DHS’s proper role in the domestic counterterrorism mission willlikely remain a source of contention among intelligence professionals, policymakersand the public.The Federal Bureau of InvestigationThe FBI retains primary authority to investigate anddisrupt terrorist activity in the United States, coordinatingcounterterrorism activities through its Joint TerrorismTask Forces (JTTFs). The first JTTF was establishedin New York City in 1980, but after 9/11, FBI DirectorMueller instructed all 56 FBI field offices to establish JTTFs, and today thereare over 100 operating in every major city in the United States. 271JTTFs bring together local representatives from up to 35 federal agencies, aswell as local law enforcement officers within a particular jurisdiction. Thefacilities are funded and managed by the FBI, and the FBI provides additionalfinancial support to detailees from other agencies by funding overtime workand reimbursing travel expenses, as well as sponsoring security clearances. 272JTTFs are primarily responsible for terrorism investigations and other terrorism-relatedoperations unrelated to ongoing prosecutions. 273JTTFs have been successful in disrupting terror plots and initiating terrorismprosecutions around the country, and the JTTF model continues to enjoy sup-104 Trials by Fire: Counterterrorism and the Law

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