TRIALS BY FIRE - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

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TRIALS BY FIRE - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

Headquarters of the the NSA at Fort Meade, Maryland. (source NSA)and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes to supportnational and departmental missions.” 69Given this wide range of collection requirements, the overall US endeavorto collect, analyze and disseminate SIGINT is truly a massive one, utilizingspace- and aerial-based platforms, surface ships, submarines, and a networkof listening posts in overt and covert US facilities scattered throughout theworld. 70 This effort also costs the US taxpayer billions of dollars annually.The Intelligence Community’s invasive SIGINT collection outside the US ispermitted under American law as long as the government does not collect onUS persons or entities for intelligence-gathering purposes. SIGINT collectionwithout a US nexus has historically generated little controversy withinthe American political discourse because it doesn’t affect US citizens. In theevent US persons are the electronically targeted for intelligence purposes (andnot, for example, a criminal investigation), US authorities are first required toprocure FISA warrants in order to proceed with the surveillance.46 Trials by Fire: Counterterrorism and the Law

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