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THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONGLIBRARIES


CAVERN AREA STUDYOFKOWLOONGEO REPORT No. 101K.J. Roberts & P.A. KirkThis report was originally produced in February 1998as GEO Geological Report No. GR 1/98


- 2 -© The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionFirst published, April 2000: :!B!:±fri22Prepared by:x;sZSiSGeotechnical Engineering Office,Civil Engineering Department,Civil Engineering Building,101 Princess Margaret Road,Homantin, Kowloon,Hong Kong.This publication is available from:Government Publications Centre,Ground Floor, Low Block,Queensway Government Offices,66 Queensway,Hong Kong.Overseas orders should be placed with:Publications Sales Section,Information Services Department,Room 402,4th Floor, Murray Building,Garden Road, Central,Hong Kong.Price in Hong Kong: HK$70Price overseas: US$12 (including surface postage)An additional bank charge of HKS50 or US$6.50 is required per cheque made in currenciesother than Hong Kong dollars.Cheques, bank drafts or money orders must be made payable toThe Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.


CONTENTSPageNo.Title Page 1PREFACE 3FOREWORD - 4CONTENTS 51. INTRODUCTION 72. THE STUDY AREA 82.1 General Description 82.2 Solid Geology 82.3 Photogeology 93. THE CAVERN AREA STUDY (CAS) MAP 103.1 Introduction 103.2 Existing and Proposed Surface Developments 113.3 Existing and Proposed Underground Installations 113.4 Engineering Geological Conditions 123.5 Topography 133.6 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 143.6.1 GIS Analysis for Digital Cavern Area Study Map 143.6.2 Digital Data Sources and Data Preparation 153.6.2.1 Surface Development 153.6.2.2 Underground Installations 153.6.2.3 Engineering Geological Data 153.6.2.4 Topographic Data 153.6.2.5 Study Boundary 163.6.3 Analysis 163.7 The Cavern Area Study (CAS) Map 163.8 Other Factors 173.9 Potential Portal Locations 18


6 -4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 185. REFERENCES 19LIST OF TABLES 23LIST OF FIGURES 25APPENDIX A: CHAPTER 11 OF HONG KONG PLANNING 28STANDARDS AND GUIDELINESLIST OF DRAWINGS 37PageNo.


- 71. INTRODUCTIONThis report considers the potential of the terrain in the Kowloon urban area (Figure 1)for the development of underground space using man-made rock caverns. Caverns are usedin many parts of the world to accommodate new developments, and to enable growth ofexisting developed areas (Subspace Associates, 1990), particularly those where terrainconditions are difficult for above-ground development. Summaries of experience in rockcavern applications are given by Hoek and Brown (1982), Sharp (1989), Ove Arup & Partners(1989a) and GEO (1992).In early 1988, the Hong Kong Government initiated the SPUN Study (SPaceUNderground) to investigate the feasibility of excavating rock caverns in Hong Kong (Pryor,1989). This was undertaken as part of the Planning Department's Metroplan Study. InDecember 1989 an international symposium on the applications of man-made rock cavernswas held in Hong Kong, with emphasis on land planning (Malone & Whiteside, 1989). InJuly 1990 the Planning Department established a "Working Group on DevelopmentGuidelines for Underground Rock Caverns" and the final guidelines were endorsed by LDPCin September 1991 and have been included in Chapter 11 of the Hong Kong PlanningStandards and Guidelines (Appendix A).The main purpose of a Cavern Area Study (CAS) is to classify the suitability of landfor rock cavern development based predominantly on general engineering geologicalinformation. A CAS is the first of a number of steps in the planning process suggested bythe Working Group on Development Guidelines for Underground Rock Caverns as shown inFigure 2. Once a possible use is identified by town planners using the CAS Map, theGeotechnical Engineering Office will carry out a Preliminary Engineering Geology Study(PEGS) to better define a suitable cavern location, propose alternative access arrangementsand to estimate the likely cost of cavern construction. Details of CAS and PEGS are givenin Roberts etal, (1997).The first Cavern Area Study was completed in August 1992 for the North Lantau Area(Choy & Styles, 1992). Subsequent studies for Hong Kong Island (Roberts, 1993, 1994)arose from the initiatives created by the SPUN Study and recognition of the potential benefitsof underground space in the Development Statement for the Central - Western Districts(Planning Department, 1992).This report is based on information from the following sources:(a) Allen and Stephens: Report and Map of the GeologicalSurvey of Hong Kong (Allen and Stephens, 1971).(b) Hong Kong Geological Survey: Geological Map, HongKong and Kowloon, Sheet 11, 1:20000. Solid andSuperficial Geology (GCO, 1986a).(c) Hong Kong Geological Survey: Geological Map, Sha Tin,Sheet 7, 1:20000. Solid and Superficial Geology (GCO,1986b).


(d) Hong Kong Geological Survey: Geological Map Sheets 11-NW-A, 11-NW-B, 11-NW-C, 11-NW-D & 11-NE-C,1:5 000. Solid Geology (GEO, 1996).(e) Geotechnical Control Office: Geology of Hong Kong Islandand Kowloon, Memoir No. 2 (Strange & Shaw, 1986).(f) Geotechnical Control Office: GASP Report I, Hong Kongand Kowloon (GCO, 1987).(g) Geotechnical Engineering Office: Geoguide 4: Guide toCavern Engineering (GEO, 1992).(h) Ove Arup & Partners (1989a): SPUN - Cavern EngineeringReport.2. THE STUDY AREA2.1 General DescriptionThe study area covers the Kowloon urban area (Figure 1) with its northern boundarybeing located within the foothills of Beacon Hill, Lion Rock and Tate's Cairn, generallyextending west to east from Lai Chi Kok to beyond Tsz Wan Shan. From Tsz Wan Shan thestudy boundary is generally south to southeast trending from Tate's Cairn through KowloonPeak and towards Yau Tong Bay. For simplicity, the limits of the study follow theboundaries of a number of Outline Zoning Plans (OZP's). The total area is approximately43.8 km 2 .The area of Kowloon is densely populated. Urban development in the study area isconstrained inland by steep terrain culminating in a hill chain extending eastwards fromBeacon Hill (452 m) to Lion Rock (494 m), Tate's Cairn (577 m) and Kowloon Peak (602 m).The coastal areas from Kwun Tong in the east to Kwai Chung in the west have beenextensively reclaimed.Information on the general characteristics of the terrain in the study area is provided inGASP Report I on Hong Kong and Kowloon (GCO, 1987).2.2 Solid GeologyThe first systematic geological mapping was carried out by Allen and Stephens (1971)at a scale of 1:50 000. The area is covered by Sheet 11 (GCO 1986a) and Sheet 7 (GCO,1986b) of the 1:20 000 scale, solid and superficial geology map series prepared by the HongKong Geological Survey (HKGS) of the Geotechnical Engineering Office. The geology isdescribed in the associated geological memoir for Hong Kong and Kowloon (Strange andShaw 1986). Recent detailed mapping of the solid geology has also been completed at ascale of 1:5 000 (GEO, 1996) for parts of the study area.


The study area is almost entirely underlain by granite of the Kowloon Pluton (namedby Strange, 1990). The Kowloon Pluton crops out in an almost circular area, about 10 kmdiameter, that extends from Lion Rock in the north of the Kowloon Peninsula to Wong NeiChung Gap on Hong Kong Island, and from Stonecutters' Island in the west to Lei Yue Munin the east. The study area coincides with much of the northern part of the pluton.The Kowloon granite is typically medium or fine-medium grained, and equigranular.Much of the area is characterised by lithological uniformity, and this is one of the key reasonsthat the area provides a predictable and usually favourable substrate for engineering works.Some textural variation does exist, for example, megacrystic fine-grained graniteoccurs in the King's Park area of Kowloon Peninsula. More significant for engineeringhowever, is the alteration or mineralisation that has been noted, locally, near the margins ofthe pluton. Mineralisation is best developed in the east (Lei Yue Mun to Rennie's Mill) andclay-rich altered zones have been encountered elsewhere at Stonecutters' Island and at Centralon Hong Kong Island. The most highly altered lithology has been worked as a kaolin mineat Cha Kwo Ling, East Kowloon, (Strange and Shaw, 1986).The Kowloon Pluton is one of the youngest intrusive rocks in Hong Kong, and istherefore little affected by later intrusions. Basalt dykes do intrude the granite however, andthese are not uncommon in the east of the study area.Only a few very small areas within the study area are not underlain by KowloonGranite. At the northwest edge of the study area, a narrow strip is underlain by coarsegrainedgranite of the Sha Tin Pluton. In the east there are several small areas underlain byvolcanic rocks of the Repulse Bay Volcanic Group. These occur on the high groundnorthwest of Kowloon Peak, and around Tai Sheung Tok. Lithologies are fine- or coarseashtuffs.The regional geological lineaments and fault systems, and their proposedclassification, have been described by Burnett and Lai (1985). The distribution of knownfaults is shown on Drawing No. EG 498. Two sets of faults are present, one trending NE-SW and the other NW-SE, although there is some range of trend directions. The faults areusually steeply-dipping (65 degrees or steeper), but shallower dipping structures have beendescribed. Faults are often concealed beneath superficial deposits, so descriptions of thematerials at faults are not common. "Typical" faults in this area probably have a crush orshear zone from one metre up to several metres thick. However, one fault may compriseseveral such zones, and the zone affected by intense jointing is likely to be thicker up to tensof metres thick. Alteration by hydrothermal processes and weathering occur preferentially infault zones. Valley systems and zones of deep weathering are commonly collinear withfaults (Strange and Shaw, 1986; Shaw, 1997).2.3 PhotogeologyA number of photolineaments have been previously defined in the study areaparticularly in GASP Report I (GCO, 1987b). This information was supplemented withaerial photographic interpretation to examine the lineaments in more detail.


10A lineament is a significant line in the landscape which reflects the underlying solidrock structure. These features show up well on aerial photographs and are known asgeological photolineaments when viewed in three dimensions using a stereoscope.Prominent geological photolineaments are usually the surface expression of majorfaults, but they can also result from the presence of zones of intense jointing, veins, dykes, orsills in Hong Kong (Burnett & Lai, 1985). Photolineaments that coincide with inferred oractual faults indicated by the Hong Kong Geological Survey mapping at 1:5 000 scale arerepresented as faults on Drawing No. EG 498. The photolineaments and faults identifiedhave dominant trends in a NE-SW and NW-SE direction.At this stage of the study little is known about the extent of these faults andphotolineaments with depth. To take account of a possible variation in dip angle with depth,as well as the possibility for zones of increased jointing and weathering in the vicinity of thesefeatures, all faults are assigned a buffer zone of 50 m either side of their mapped surfaceexpression. Detailed site investigation will be required to locate these features at caverndepth once specific cavern locations have been established during the subsequent PEGSstudies (Figure 2). Where photolineaments have not been confirmed as faults by the HKGS,a buffer zone is not considered necessary. However, the photolineaments are still shown onDrawing No. EG 498 and, if found to be present in an area identified as being suitable forcavern development, further investigation of these features is recommended in subsequentstudies.This study is for strategic planning purposes. The absence of any faulting orphotolineament on Drawing No. EG 498 does not necessarily mean that potentially adverseconditions are not present. Any proposal for development, for caverns or other purposes,would require further, more detailed, site investigation.3. THE CAVERN AREA STUDY fCAS) MAP3.1 IntroductionThe basic information considered in the preparation of the Cavern Area Study (CAS)Map are:(a) existing and proposed surface developments,(b) existing and proposed underground installations,(c) engineering geological conditions, and(d) topographic constraints.Table 1 defines the land classes used in this study. These are slight amendments ofthe classes used for the Cavern Area Studies for North Lantau (Choy & Styles, 1992) andHong Kong Island (Roberts 1993,1994) mainly because of the extensive surface developmentexisting in this area and the detailed geological mapping available at 1:5000 scale (GEO,1996).


113.2 Existing and Proposed Surface DevelopmentsAs previously mentioned in Section 2.1 large parts of the study area are denselypopulated. In the early development stages of the CAS concept it was decided that caverndevelopment would be preferred in areas where land ownership would not become a majorissue. It was agreed with the Planning Department of the Hong Kong Government that theOutline Zoning Plans would provide the initial basis for evaluating suitable cavern sites(memo GCP 4/1C/86 dated 16.3.93 refers). Based on the Outline Zoning Plans, caverndevelopment would be preferred beneath areas designated as GB (Green Belt), G/IC(Government/ Institution/ Community) or O (Open Space) to avoid possible futurecomplications arising from land ownership and land resumption issues, in addition to thepossibly more difficult engineering techniques required. Due to intensive development insome parts of Kowloon, large areas can therefore be considered as having low potential forcavern sites due to proximity of overlying developments and these are indicated in DrawingNo. EG 498. The suitability of this class of land could be higher if the procedures forresumption of underground stratum beneath above-ground private development aresimplified.The locations of both fresh and salt water service reservoirs are indicated on DrawingNo. EG 498. Although these structures are located on government land, they could imposerestrictions on cavern development particularly due to limits placed on vibrations (peakparticle velocities, PPV) which are developed during blasting. Caverns could be developedbelow or in the vicinity of such structures but would require strict monitoring and controls toensure that the PPV's do not exceed the 13 mm/s limit imposed for the reservoir structure.Such issues would need to be addressed in the more detailed PEGS study.3.3 Existing and Proposed Underground InstallationsAn important aspect in planning subsurface space is identification of existing andproposed future underground installations such as tunnels or caverns (Gronfors, 1990). InKowloon, many underground tunnels exist (Vail, 1989), and most of these are welldocumented.Their general locations are shown on Drawing No. EG 498. Undergroundinstallations should be surrounded by a protective zone and any work which may threaten thesafety of these underground installations should not be carried out within this zone. Theextent of the protective zone should be determined from consideration of several factorsincluding the thickness of the rock cover, engineering geological conditions, maximum spanof the cavern, and the required safety standard. For example in Stockholm, once a protectionzone is determined for an underground installation, a risk zone is further imposed byexpanding the boundary of the protection zone by 50 m. Engineering works such asexcavation, sheet piling or pile driving and drilling/blasting within the risk zone require priorapproval (Jansson & Winquist, 1977).Variable protection limits have already been established for the existing tunnels.However, for simplification, a protective zone of 50 m extending from the centre line of theexisting underground installations is adopted for the purpose of this study as shown onDrawing No. EG 498. Existing underground installations include road tunnels such as theLion Rock, Junk Bay and Tate's Cairn tunnels, the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) andKowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) tunnels and the Strategic Sewage Disposal


12Scheme (SSDS) tunnels and associated excavations. Land within the protective zones isclassified as Cavern Land Class IB (see Table 1). This class of land is considered ofmedium suitability for cavern development as it would probably require more detailed siteinvestigation compared with Land Class I (as defined in Table 1), coupled with possiblyhigher excavation costs due to restrictions imposed on excavation techniques such as blastingin order to protect the existing underground installations from possible damage.There are a number of proposed tunnel schemes in the study area including theKowloon-Canton Railway Corporations West Rail Project, the Central Kowloon Route andpossible MTR and KCRC extensions. For the purpose of this study it is only possible toinclude projects which have been Gazetted and subsequently approved for-construction, andnone of the aforementioned projects had reached this stage at the time of completion of thisreport. Finally, the alignment of the Airport Railway has not been shown as this is locatedentirely on reclamation within the study area.3.4 Engineering Geological ConditionsThe importance of engineering geological information in underground planning hasbeen widely recognised (Stephansson, 1990; Jansson & Winquist, 1977). For example, inFinland, the country is divided into five separate regions on the basis of different rock qualityfor underground construction (FTA, 1988). Whilst it is possible to build caverns almostanywhere in rock with the use of appropriate construction techniques, development costs willincrease substantially as the engineering geological conditions of the site become moredifficult. Once suitable CAS areas have been identified a more detailed PEGS study shouldattempt to locate underground developments in areas which are favourable from anengineering geological point of view (Figure 2). However, this may not always be possibledue to the complicated nature of issues relating to the cavern scheme such as locationalconstraints, access requirements and traffic etc.The major engineering geological factors in planning underground development arequality of the rock mass, the existing stress regime and hydrogeology. Since rock massproperties are naturally variable, it is only practical to classify the rock mass into groups ofbroadly similar properties from the view point of rock construction techniques. Amongstthese rock mass classification systems, the more popular methods are the NGI TunnellingQuality Index (Barton, 1974; Hoek and Brown, 1982) and RMR classification (Bieniawski,1974; Hoek and Brown, 1982). Barton (1989) considered Hong Kong's granites and weldedtuffs to have Q Index values generally in the range of 7 to 20. This indicates that these rocksare generally of good quality for underground excavation. Barton stated that caverns of20 m to 30 m spans have been successfully excavated and safely utilized elsewhere in rockmasses of similar quality.In the study area, the solid geology is dominated by granitic rocks. Where theserocks are fresh to slightly decomposed they are assumed to have Q values in the range of 7 to20, i.e. similar to other Hong Kong granites classified by Barton (1989). While these freshto slightly decomposed rocks are generally suitable for the excavation of rock caverns, theconstruction of caverns within major fault zones should be avoided, as these zones are oftenmore weathered, mylonitised, crushed, sheared, altered or closely-jointed, and would havesignificantly lower Q values.


13Based on the 1:5 000 Scale HKGS Mapping (GEO, 1996), a number of faults in thestudy area have a northeast or northwest trend. Shaw (1997) concluded that contouring ofthe weathering front in urban Kowloon, has demonstrated a strong correlation between itstopography and both the main NE-SW trending and subordinate NW-SE structures. A clearrelationship between topographical lows in the weathering front (bedrock) and the main faultsand photolineaments was found. For planning purposes, the terrain within 50 m of a fault isclassified as Cavern Land Class IIA as shown in Drawing No. EG 498.As Cavern Land Class HA terrain is likely to be influenced by possible majorgeological defects, the suitability for cavern development is less favourable than Class I dueto the more extensive site investigation required to identify the exact location, extent andproperties of these potential weakness zones. In addition, higher construction costs are alsoanticipated for caverns which are sited across faults although the effects of these features maybe limited by careful orientation of the cavern. While the terrain near photolineaments is notincluded in Class HA, these features would need to be more closely examined during laterfeasibility studies (PEGS) and design stages of the cavern development. These stages aredescribed on the flow chart at Figure 2.3.5 TopographyThe construction of rock caverns is generally not constrained by topographicallydifficult terrain, such as the steep hillsides at Lion Rock or Tate's Cairn. The basic caverndesign should ensure that the caverns are located sufficiently deep to leave a reasonable layerof unweathered rock above the cavern roof. Geoguide 4 (GEO, 1992) suggests that as ageneral rule the minimum cover of strong rock should not be less than half the cavern spanand that in feasibility studies, based on limited information, it is prudent to assume a cover ofstrong rock of not less than the cavern span. For this study it is assumed that caverns willhave a maximum span of 20 m (height or width) which will require 20 m of strong rock abovethe cavern roof. Shaw (1997) states that weathering profiles 10-20m thick (to bedrock),occur over the Kowloon Peninsula, but thicken to about 40 m over hills and subsurface basinsin the weathering front. Allowing for general depths of weathering below surface of up to20 m, then a total cover of 40 m above the cavern roof is therefore assumed.The Cavern Land Class I areas (as defined in Table 1), are subdivided into twocategories, Class IA and Class IB according to the topography. If a 20 m span cavern isrequired with the cavern invert assumed to be located at sea level, suitable locations are areasof topography higher than the +60 mPD contour. The Cavern Land Class LA generallyoccupies the higher relief areas in the foothills behind the Kowloon urban area. Cavernsconstructed in this class of land, are unlikely to encounter serious water inflow problemduring construction. However, the potential for significant groundwater inflows, subsequentlowering of the water table and the potential for ground settlement will need to be evaluatedduring a PEGS Study. This class of land has the drawback that suitable access may not bereadily available and portal locations and road/tunnel access arrangements become criticalfactors in establishing a suitable cavern location.Cavern Land Class I (Drawing No. EG 498) is generally limited in extent as much ofthe area is already intensively developed. Within the urban area, the likelihood ofgroundwater inflows, subsequent lowering of the water table and potential for ground


- 14 -settlement will need to be evaluated during a PEGS Study. Also, in coastal areas of lowerrelief, a cavern of similar dimensions will need to be constructed below sea level, or theamount of overburden cover reduced following detailed investigation. The excavation ofcaverns beneath sea-level in the vicinity of coastal areas could lead to the ingress of sea wateralong permeable zones with continual recharge, giving rise to higher ground treatment ordewatering costs and consequent programme delays. Large span caverns which are plannedbelow sea level in coastal areas in Cavern Land Class IB will require careful investigation toensure that they can maintain water tightness during and after construction. However, thisclass of land is highly suitable for bulk chemical storage such as oil and gas, which require apermanent water jacket to contain the products in the cavern.It must be emphasized that both Cavern Land Class IA and IB are considered suitablefor cavern development. Despite the fact that caverns constructed in Cavern Land Class IBmay encounter serious water inflow on coastal areas, this technical problem can be avoided bycareful investigation during the detailed planning stage or overcome by grouting or otherground treatment methods during construction. Planners should realise that the arbitrarysubdivision of Cavern Land Class I into IA and IB is for general guidance since an essentialfactor which governs the choice of alternative sites is the cost of the entire scheme.Technical problems such as high water inflow during construction of a cavern are often smallwhen compared to the benefits of a suitable location with good marine or land access.It must also be emphasized that the subdivision into Class IA and IB is based on verysimple assumptions regarding cavern spans and overburden requirements. Theseassumptions will be more refined in a detailed PEGS (Figure 2) once the cavern usage isdefined and following more detailed geological appraisal.Drawing No. EG 498 shows some suitable areas within the limits of the existingreclamation. Whilst reclaimed areas are not excluded, this study assumes that any rockcavern development in such areas will be at considerable depths below the existingreclamation within bedrock. Previous discussion regarding increased water inflows incoastal areas is also relevant in this case. In addition, whilst caverns could feasibly bedeveloped under the sea at sufficient depths within rock, for the purpose of this study,undersea areas are excluded as potential sites for cavern development.3.6 Geographic Information Sygtenis (GIS)3.6.1 GIS Analysis for Digital Cavern Area Study MapThe Cavern Area Map is derived from a range of data from various sources, bothwithin Government and from Corporations. In the previous Cavern Area Studies (Choy &Styles, 1992; Roberts, 1993, 1994) compilation required time-consuming manipulation andredrawing. Noting that many of the relevant organisations use CAD or GIS technology tomanage their data, it was decided to produce the present map using GIS analysis.Bentley Systems' CAD software, MicroStation 95, was used to reformat the data sets,and to make the final map. GIS analysis was undertaken using Intergraph+s MGE software.


153.6.2 Digital Data Sources and Data Preparation3.6.2.1 Surface DevelopmentThe Kowloon District Office of the Planning Department provided the Outline ZoningPlan information based on the results of a query from its database. The system isimplemented on Arc/INFO, however, the results were generated in AutoCAD's dxf format.Results comprised linework and text centroids. The data was readily imported intoMicroStation. Minor line cleaning and repositioning of centroids was required before validtopology could be recreated.3.6.2.2 Underground InstallationsThere were several sources of data regarding existing underground installations. TheMTR Corporation provided many data files in MicroStation format. For their recent projectsdigital data was comprehensive and a full outline of the MTR Protection Zone was included.However, for the current exercise using a 1:20 000 scale, only the simple axis of the MTRsystem was used. The MTRC CAD format differs from the Lands Department "standard"(origin and resolution), so data had to be rescaled prior to use.Data on the Kowloon Canton Railway tunnels, road tunnels, and the Drainage ServiceDepartment's new Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme tunnels are all relatively simple.These were converted or digitised from the Lands Department's Land Information Centre(LIC) maps, or other hard copy sources.3.6.2.3 Engineering Geological DataDigital geological data is available from the Geoscience Database of PlanningDivision, GEO. Fault lines were taken from both the 1:20 000 scale solid and superficialgeology map (GCO 1986a, 1986b) and where coverage was available, the latest draft 1:5 000solid geology maps (GEO, 1996). Faults on the former map were modified by extendingcoverage beneath superficial deposits.Photolineaments were taken from the 1:20000 scale Engineering Geology Map fromthe Geotechnical Area Study Programme Report (GCO, 1987). Though much of the GASPdata has been previously digitised, photolineaments have not. Therefore these had to bedigitised for this project. As discussed above, photolineaments are often caused by, and aretherefore collinear with, the faults. In cases where faults and photolineaments coincided thephotolineament was deleted.3.6.2.4 Topographic DataThe Lands Department (LIC) 1:20 000 digital topographic maps provided the coastlineand the 60 m contour. The 60 m contour on this map set is incomplete as the feature is notmapped through most urbanised areas. Additional data was digitised from the 1:5 000 scalebase maps (a set of raster coverage was provided by LIC in Intergraph RLE format), howevercontours are far from complete for this scale also. The most convenient elevation data


16available was from GEO's borehole database (Geoscience Database). The elevation data forground level for some 20 000 boreholes in the Kowloon area provided a satisfactory guide forcompleting missing segments of the 60 m contour.Areas of reclamation are not part of this classification scheme for Cavern AreaSuitability. However, cavern development under reclamation is discussed, and is thereforeshown as a shaded area on the map. A slightly generalised version was taken from the1:100 000 scale geology map.3.6.2.5 Study BoundaryWhen individual themes had been completed they were cut to match the study areaoutline. Several themes including the Outline Zoning Plan data, reclamation and coastlinehave near-parallel linework for some area boundaries, for example, along the coast. Thiswas resolved before further processing to reduce "sliver" problems i.e. the very smallpolygons generated when two nearly parallel lines are overlaid.3.6.3 AnalysisThe spatial analysis required to derive the Cavern Area Suitability Classification fromthe component datasets is quite straightforward. The classification, and the reasoning behindit, is described in Section 3.7 of this report.Intergraph GIS software MGE and MGA were used for analysis. Buffer zoning wasused to create areas around the line features (faults and tunnels) and area overlay functionswere used to classify different parts of the study area according to the criteria. Areapatteraerwas used to create the coloured or patterned output.Land not designated as G/IC, O or GB areas on the Outline Zoning Plans is classifiedas low suitability for cavern development (Class IE), irrespective of faulting, nearbyunderground installations, or elevation. This area is also the most complex topologicallycomprising a large area containing many complex "islands" and was therefore classified first,so it could be removed from further analysis.Classification of the G/IC, O or GB zoned land into the Suitability Classes LA, IB, IIA,DOB is based on technical criteria. To do this a single classification overlay was preparedfirst, and this was then used to subdivide the land into its respective classes.3.7 The Cavern Area Study TCAS) MapThe Kowloon Cavern Area Study (CAS) Map is shown on Drawing No. EG 498 alongwith the Cavern Land Class classification scheme (as shown in Table 1). The classificationunits are distributed as follows:(a) Cavern Land Class I - This class is defined in Table 1 and isgenerally of high suitability for cavern development. 30%


17of the study area is Class I where 13% is in the highertopography area (Class IA) and 17% is in the lowtopography area (Class EB).(b) Cavern Land Class II - This class occupies 5% of the studyarea, and is generally located within 50m of faults orunderground installations.(c) Cavern Land Class IE: This class occupies 65% of the studyarea, and has the lowest suitability for cavern developmentcompared with the other classes due to the presence "ofexisting or proposed surface development.The CAS Map is designed to provide the earliest input shown on the flow-chart inFigure 2. The CAS Map allows the town planner to consider the siting of possibleunderground facilities at the earliest stages of planning.Once a possible use is identified by the town planners using the CAS Map, theGeotechnical Engineering Office will carry out a Preliminary Engineering Geology Study(PEGS) to better define a suitable cavern location, propose alternative access arrangementsand to estimate the likely cost of cavern construction. An environmental review, financialviability and traffic impact assessment will also be carried out in a planning study coordinatedby the Planning Department (Figure 2). This planning study will be in parallel with thePEGS. If all the conclusions are favourable the possible cavern use would then be shown onthe Outline Zoning Plan for the area. The next stages will be detailed ground investigationsand design stage.The CAS map shown in Drawing No. EG 498 should be used only as a guide to thegeneral suitability of the terrain for cavern development for regional planning purposes andshould not be interpreted, reproduced or enlarged to scales larger than 1:20 000 (i.e. 1:0000 orlarger). It is based on general information and assumptions, and should only be used forgeneral planning purposes.3.8 Other FactorsThe CAS Map is intended to provide a general indication for planners of the potentialsuitability of the terrain for development of man-made rock caverns. However, there aremany other factors which must be considered in planning cavern developments in addition tothe land ownership and resumption issues which have to some extent been addressed in thisstudy through the definition of Land Class HI. These other factors include for example,environmental impact, traffic impact (land and marine) as well as the location of suitableportals and tunnel access to provide connections from the caverns to the ground surface.Detailed discussion of these factors is outside the scope of this study and would be examinedduring the later feasibility stage in PEGS, and in other planning studies (Figure 2). Usefulreferences can be found in Stauffer (1990), Jansson & Winquist (1977), Nissim (1989) andSubspace Associates (1990).


18In addition to the technical and land issues, the viability of a rock cavern schemeshould be considered in comparison with the costs of development of above ground options.In the SPUN Study, financial analyses were undertaken on seven schemes of variousapplications for rock caverns (Ove Arup & Partners, 1989b, 1989c, 1989d, 1990a, 1990b,1990c and 1990d). It was found in all cases, except for the oil and gas storage scheme, thatcavern facilities have higher capital, operating and maintenance costs than above-groundoptions. However, taking into account the value of land released for other uses, the schemesall become economically beneficial to varying degrees over the long term. In addition to therelease of high value land for other purposes, underground options offer substantialenvironmental benefits for many schemes, such as sewage treatment plants, refuse transferstations, and water treatment works, a number of such schemes being discussed by Malone(1993). Each scheme will have its own merits or benefits and all schemes should thereforebe treated separately.3.9 Potential Portal LocationsAs discussed previously in Section 3.8 there are many factors which must beconsidered in planning cavern developments. One aspect which needs further considerationis the location of suitable tunnel portals to provide connections from the underground cavernsto the ground surface. In previous PEGS undertaken by the Planning Division in GEO, amajor cavern location constraint has often been the identification of a suitable area for siteformation works and portals for cavern access tunnels. The identification of suitable portalareas will be included in the more site specific PEGS once the need for a specific cavernscheme is identified.4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONSUse of underground space in man-made rock caverns in the Kowloon urban area couldprovide accommodation for a range of facilities such as sewage treatment and refuse transferschemes amongst others. This study provides a general indication of areas in which manmaderock caverns could be sited, and is based solely on an assessment of terrain andgeological conditions.The study area is classified into three basic land classes according to the generalsuitability for cavern development. The classification is based on the location of surfacedevelopments, existing underground installations, engineering geological conditions andtopographic constraints. The Cavern Area Study Map indicates areas with potential for rockcavern development from a technical point of view. The CAS Map is presented in DrawingNo. EG 498, which generally indicates that there are a number of opportunities for caverndevelopment. Of the total study area (43.8 km 2 ), some 30% is considered highly suitable forcaverns, i.e. Cavern Land Class I, with an additional 5% classified as having mediumsuitability for cavern development.Clearly, the terrain of most interest to planners will be adjacent to areas of proposeddevelopment, although other factors such as environmental impact, traffic impact and theavailability of portal areas may impose constraints on cavern development and these issuesmust be considered in later planning stages.


19The Cavern Area Study is the first technical input to the planning process, and theCAS Map is designed to alert planners to the general potential for use of underground spaceand provide guidance on the suitability of land for cavern development based on simple andvalid assumptions. More detailed studies must follow once a possible cavern use has beenidentified by planners or related professionals.5. REFERENCESAllen, P.M. & Stephens, E.A., (1971).Hong Kong Government, 107 p.Report on the Geological Survey of Hong Kong.Barton, N. (1974). Engineering Classification for rock masses for the design of tunnelsupport. Rock Mechanics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 189-236.Barton, N. (1989). Cavern design in Hong Kong rocks. Proceedings of the Seminar RockCavern - Hong Kong, edited by A.W. Malone & P.G.D. Whiteside. The Institution ofMining and Metallurgy, pp. 179-202.Bieniawski, Z.T. (1974). Geomechanics classification of rock masses and its application intunnelling. Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Rock Mechanics.International Society of Rock Mechanics, Denver, vol. 11 A, pp 27-32.Burnett, A.D. & Lai, K.W. (1985). A review of the photogeological lineament and faultsystem of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the Conference on Geological Aspects of SiteInvestigation. Hong Kong, edited by I. McFeat -Smith. Geological Society of HongKong, Bulletin No. 2, pp. 113-131.Choy, H.H. & Styles, K.A. (1992). Cavern Area Study of North Lantau. (SPR 9/92).Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong.FTA (1988). The Rock Engineering Alternative, edited by K. Saari, Finnish TunnellingAssociation. Finland, 96 p.GCO (1986a). Hong Kong and Kowloon: Solid and superficial geology. Hong KongGeological Survey. Map Series HGM 20. Sheet 11, 1:20,000, Geotechnical ControlOffice, Hong Kong.GCO (1986b). Sha Tin: Solid and superficial geology. Hong Kong Geological Survey.Map Series HGM 20. Sheet 7, 1:20,000, Geotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong.GCO (1987). Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Hong Kong and Kowloon.Geotechnical Control Office. Hong Kong. GASP Report No. L 170 p.GEO (1992). Geoguide 4: Guide to Cavern Engineering. Geotechnical EngineeringOffice, Hong Kong, 156 p.


- 20GEO (1996). Hong Kong Geological Survey. Map Series HGP5B, Map Sheets 11-NW-A,11-NW-B, 11-NW-C, 11-NW-D & 11-NE-C, Solid Geology, 1:5,000, GeotechnicalEngineering Office, Hong Kong (in draft).Gronfors, J. (1990). Underground mapping and digital information systems. Proceedingsof the TFHP International Conference on Urban Underground Planning - Stockholm &Helsinki. International Federation for Housing and Planning (preprint).Hoek, E. & Brown, E.T. (1982). Underground Excavation in Rock (Second edition). TheInstitution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 527 p.Jansson, B. & Winquist, T. (1977). Planning of subsurface use. Swedish Council ofBuilding Research. Stockholm, Sweden, 166 p.Malone, A.W. & Whiteside, P.G.D. (Editor) (1989). Rock Cavern - Hong Kong(Proceedings of the seminar on rock cavern - Hong Kong, December, 1989). TheInstitution, of Mining and Metallurgy. 362 p.Malone, A.W. (1993). Prospects for rock caverns in Hong Kong. Tunnels and Tunnelling.January 1993.Nissim R. (1989). Land administration for rock caverns in Hong Kong. Proceedings of theSeminar Rock Cavern - Hong Kong, edited by A.W. Malone & P.G.D. Whiteside.The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp 323-328.Ove Arup & Partners (1989a). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Cavern Engineering Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong Government.Ove Arup & Partners (1989b). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Sewerage Treatment Works Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong KongGovernment.Ove Arup & Partners (1989c). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Refuse Transfer Station Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong KongGovernment.Ove Arup & Partners (1989d). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Government Supplies Department Warehouse Final Report for Geotechnical ControlOffice, Hong Kong Government.Ove Arup & Partners (1990a). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Storage of Oil and L.P. Gas Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong KongGovernment.Ove Arup & Partners (1990b). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Tractor and Trailer Park Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong KongGovernment.


• 21OveArup& Partners (1990c). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Container Freight Station/Warehouse Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office,Hong Kong Government.OveArup& Partners (1990d). SPUN: A Study of the Potential Use of Underground Space -Commercial/G.LC. Final Report for Geotechnical Control Office, Hong KongGovernment.Planning Department (1992). Development Statement for Central - Western Districts(December 1992) Inception Report. Planning Department, Hong Kong Government.Pryor, E.G. (1989). The underground city: An introductory statement. Proceedings of theSeminar Rock Cavern - Hong Kong, edited by A.W. Malone & P.G.D. Whiteside.The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 23-34.Public Works Department (1979). Mass Transit Railway: Railway Protection Plans,Drawing Nos MT/RP/1 - 42. 1:1 000 scale. Public Works Department, Hong KongGovernmentRoberts, KJ. (1993). Cavern Area Study of Hong Kong West. Special Project Report No.SPR 9/93, Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong, 34 p, unpublished.Roberts, KJ. (1994). Cavern Area Study of Hong Kong East. Special Project Report No.SPR 2/94, Geotechnical Engineering office, Hong Kong, 51 p, unpublished.Roberts, K.J., Choy, H.H. & Martin, R.P. (1997). Preliminary geotechnical aspects of thepotential for underground space development in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 30thInternationa] Geological Congress. Beijing. China. 1997. (in print).Sharp, J.C. (1989). Design of major caverns in granitic rocks based on precedent practice inHong Kong and elsewhere. Proceedings of the Seminar Rock Cavern - Hong Kong.edited by A.W. Malone & P.G.D. Whiteside. The Institution of Mining andMetallurgy, pp. 247-270.Shaw, R. (1997). Variations in sub-tropical deep weathering profiles over the KowloonGranite, Hong Kong. Journal of the Geological Society. London (In Press).Stauffer, J. (1990). Ownership and development negotiations for underground premises.Proceedings of the TFHP International Conference on Urban Underground Planning -Stockholm & Helsinki. International Federation for Housing and Planning (Preprint).Stephansson, O. (1990). Geological conditions for underground construction inFennoscandia. Proceedings of the IFHP International Conference on UrbanUnderground Planning - Stockholm & Helsinki. International Federation for Housingand Planning (preprint).


22 -Strange, PJ. & Shaw, R. (1986). Geology of Hong Kong Island and KowloortGeotechnical Control Office, Hong Kong, 134p. (Hong Kong Geological SurveyMemoir No. 2).Strange, P J. (1990). The classification of granitic rocks in Hong Kong and their sequence ofemplacement in Sha Tin, Kowloon and Hong Kong. Geological Society of HongKong Newsletter, vol 8. pp. 18-27.Subspace Associates (1990). A mined underground space master plan for Minneapolis,Minnesota - Part I. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 5, no. 3,pp 233-243.Vail, AJ. (1989). Underground work in rock in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the SeminarRock Cavern - Hong Kong, edited by A.W. Malone & P.G.D. Whiteside. TheInstitution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 1 to 6.


23LTST OF TABLESTableNo.PageNo.1 Cavern Suitability Classification 24


24Table 1 - Cavern Suitability ClassificationCAVERNLAND CLASSIAIBIBBmSUIT ABILITYHighHighMediumMediumLowDESCRIPTIONLand generally above 60 mPD and atleast 50 m from major undergroundinstallations or geological faults.Land generally below 60 mPD and atleast 50 m from major undergroundinstallations or geological faults.Land within 50 m of geological faults.Higher excavation and support costsassociated with more difficult groundconditions may occur. May requiremore detailed site investigation thanLand Class I.Land within 50 m of majorunderground installations.Higher construction costs expecteddue to constraints on excavation andconstruction techniques. Mayrequire more detailed siteinvestigation than Land Class I.Low suitability due to the presence ofexisting or proposed surfacedevelopment which may causecomplicated land ownership andresumption issues and may requiremore difficult cavern engineeringtechniques.


- 25 -LIST OF FIGURESFigureNo.PageNo.1 Location of the Study Area 262 Planning Process for Rock Cavern Development 27


Figure 1 - Location of the Study Area


. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT STAGESPRE-FEASIBIUTY & FEASIBILITY STAGESITE IDENTIFICATION, PRE-FEASIBILITY & PLANNING STUDIESPLANNING PROCESS STAGESPLANNINGPROCEDURES'". DETAILED SITE INVESTIGATION & DESIGN STAGE -.PROJECT PLANNING..LAND DISPOSAL.CONSTRUCTIONSTAGEPROJECTIMPLEMENTATIONCAS MAPI PRE-FEASIBiLITYAND |I PLANNING STUDIES .PRIORITY ESTABLISHED '| BY SUB-REGIONAL 1i PLANS AND OTHERI PLANNING STUDIESPEGSPRE-FEASIEHLITYSTUDIES TO ESTABLISHTHE GEOTECHNtCALASPECTS BY GEOPLANNING STUDIESINCLUDING TRAFFIC,SAFETY, ENVIRONMENTALREVIEW AND FINANCIALVIABILITY COORDINATEDBY PLAN DPRE-FEASIBILITYSTUDIES, PLANNINGSTUDIES ANDENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWBY PRIVATE DEVELOPERS^PRIVATE DEVELOPERS| SUBMIT DEVELOPMENTAPPLICATIONS TO BLDjPOTENTIALCAVERNDEVELOPMENTSITES ANNOTATEDON ODP/LP FORDPC* APPROVALSUITABLE LANDUSE ZONING FORCAVERNDEVELOPMENTSITES ANNOTATEDON02PFOLLOWING TPORD. PROCEDURES'"DEVELOPMENT PRIORITY"^| FOR GOVT. PROJECTS I. ACCORDING TO RASCAPRODETAILED SITEINVESTIGATION BYGEO OR CONSULTANTSPROJECT PLANNINGBY WORKS AGENTIN CONSULTATIONWITH CLIENT DEPT.PLANNING 1 OTHERREQUIREMENTS BYPLAN D ACCORDING TOPLANNING STUDIESPLANNININQ BRIEFS PREPAREDBY PLAN D TO DETERMINEDEVELOPMENT PARAMETERSACCORDING TO PLANNING STUDIESAND OTHER TECHNICALREQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TOPRE-F EASIBR.ITY STUDIES1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/CIASTUDY TO BE CARRIED OUT ASPART OF THE DETAILED____FEASIBILITY STUDY, IF NECESSARY[DEVELOPMENT PRIORITY FORI PRIVATE PROJECTS SUBJECT. -JENGINEERINGCONDITIONSPREPAREDBY BLDLEASE CONDITIONSPREPARED BY BLDTO INCLUDEREQUIREMENTSSUCH ASGEOTECHNICAL/ENVIRONMENTALINVESTIGATION^LANDALLOCATIONTO CLIENTDEPARTMENTSLANDDISPOSALTHROUGH)»,- TENDER ORPRIVATETREATYGRANTDEVELOPMENT*" PROCEEDSDEVELOPMENTPROCEEDS1 NQtES:1. CAS (CAVERN AREA STUDY)2. PEGS (PRELIMINARY ENGINEERINGGEOLOGY STUDY)a CAPRO (CAVERN PROJECT)toFigure 2 - Planning Process for Rock Cavern Development


28APPENDIX ACHAPTER 11 OF HONG KONG PLANNING STANDARDSAND GUIDELINES


29CHAPTER 11MISCELLANEOUS PLANNINGSTANDARDS AND GUIDELINESCONTENT1. Introduction2. Underground Rock Cavern Development3. Petrol Filling StationSection 2 Approved by LDPC on 10.9.91 (LDPC Paper No. 24/91)Section 3 Approved by LDPC on 17.10.91 (LDPC Piper No. 28/91)


30MISCELLANEOUS PLANNINGSTANDARDS AND GUIDELINES1. IntroductionLl The purpose of this chapter is to provide planning standards and guidelinesfor those land uses or facilities which do not fall within the purview ofother chapters. These facilities and land uses are not at present related toeach other. However, some of them may be expanded or combined in future toform new chapters of their own. As such, this chapter may be expanded orcurtailed to suit new requirements.2. Underground Rock Cavern Development2.1 Rock Cavern Development Opportunities2.1.1 Underground rock cavern developments refer to developments insidelarge man-made underground spaces in rock Hong Kong's geologicalconditions offer excellent* opportunities for this type ofdevelopment. The igneous rocks which underlie much of- themetropolitan area and the New Territories are excellent excavationmedia bdow the weathered mantle and are ideal for forming man-madecaverns. Caverns are designed on the principle of utilizing thestrength of the rock mass to form the roof arch and sidewalls.Detailed guidance on site investigation, design and construction ofcavenis would be given in Geoguide 4 - Guide to Cavern Engineering.2.1.2 Although most cavern developments incur higher capital costs thansimilar developments above-ground, the use of cavern space in highlydeveloped and overcrowded areas of Hong Kong can be an economicproposition under certain circumstances. Examples of such cases aregiven in the detailed reports of the Study of the Potential Use ofUnderground Space (SPUN).2.1.3 Underground cavern developments can also be an attractive alternativedevelopment form, in terms of potentially significant environmentalbenefits. These benefits include the potential to mitigate adverseenvironmental impacts associated with conventional surfacedevelopments of certain polluting uses and the provision of a verystable environment, which can achieve savings in running costs.2.2 Possible Uses in Rock Caverns2.2.1 Table 1 shows the possible uses of rock caverns suggested by the SPUNstudy consultants and recommended by the inter-departmental WorkingGroup on Underground Rock Cavern Developments. The table is notexhaustive and should be used for general guidance only. Eachapplication has to be considered on its own merits.2.2.2 It must be recognised that changes in technology may help prevent oralleviate problems associated with the intended undergrounddevelopment. The suitability of each case should therefore beassessed on the basis of a pre-feasibility study and planning studydescribed below.


31Table 1 : Possible Uses for Rock Cavern Development1. Residential(Inci. residential institution)Use Possible^1)Unsuitable ®2. CommercialOffice *Retail *Entertainment *HotelAncillary Parking *3. Commercial/ResidentialCommercial elements *Residential elements4. IndustrialIndustry *Storage/Warehousing *Oil bulk storage *LPG bulk storage *5. Education6. Vehicle Parking *7. Open Space8. Governmew/Institution/CommwityAbattoir *Civic centre/Community centre *Hospital/Polyclinic/ClinicIncinerator *Indoor games/Sports hall *Market (wholesale and retails) *Refuse transfer facilities *Sewage/Water treatment *Service reservoir *Transport connections & networks *Cemetery/CrematoriumColumbarium/Mausoleum/Mortuary *9. UtilitiesPower stations/Hectricity *sub-stationsSPUN's and Working Group's recommendationsUses under this column are subject to pre-feasibility studies and planningstudies to establish their suitability for development on a case by casebasis.Uses under this column are usually considered unsuitable for underground rockcavern development


322.3 Planning Process for Rock Cavern Development2.3.1 The planning process for handling rock cavern development isillustrated in the flow chart at Figure 1. It indicates the role ofthe Planning Department (Plan D), the Geotechnical Engineering Office(GEO) of the Civil Engineering Department (CED), the Buildings andLands Department (BID) and other relevant departments/agencies in theplanning and development of underground rock caverns.Site Identification23.2 Possible underground rock cavern sites should be identified assolution spaces mainly in the formulation of the sub-regional planningstrategies. Other special strategic studies may also identifysuitable cavern sites to meet their objectives or requirements. Siteidentification is through systematic geological mapping by the GEO orother study agents, who should work closely with the Plan D toestablish the need for cavern development and the intended uses,Pre-feasibiUty and Planning Studies2.3.3 The purpose of conducting pre-feasibility and planning studies is toprovide basic technical and planning information about the sites andan estimate of capital costs of development. The pre-feasibilitystudies will be carried out by the GEO and the planning studiesco-ordinated by the Plan D. Such studies will safeguard againstwastage of manpower and resources at the project planning stage andshould normally be conducted before projects axe proposal forinclusion in Cat. C of the Public Works Programme.2.3.4 Pre-feasibility studies are the initial appraisal of the geotechnicaland engineering aspects of the cavern site for the proposal use. Thestudy should produce preliminary design of cavern accommodation andan estimation of rock excavation and support costs,2.3.5 The purpose of planning studies is to assess the viability anddevelopment parameters for the scheme which include: -(a) UseThe study should provide justifications for the intended use. Anypotential conflicts between the schemes and their immediateenvironment should be properly addressed in the planning study.(b) EnvironmentFor projects which are likely to cause a significant impact on theenvironment (see para. 1.7, tables 1.1 & 1.2 of Chapter 9 forreference), the Environmental Protection Department should beconsulted. The necessary procedures to be followed are discussedin Chapter 9 of the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelinesand summarized in a L&WB Technical Circular No. 9/88"Environmental Review of Major Developments 11 for public worksprojects and in the Environmental Protection Department AdviceNote no. 2/90 H Application of the Environmental Impact AssessmentProcess to Major Private Sector Projects" for private cavern


33development The necessary preventive measures to mitigate theadverse environmental effects of the projects should beidentified. In some cases quantitative environmental assessmentmay be required to determine the magnitude and* severity ofpotential impacts, prior to any in-pnntiple decision on theproject(c) SafetyThe safety aspect of the cavern site should be adequately assessedin the initial planning stage. The study should take into accountthe overall size of a cavern which would have a direct effect onthe ease of evacuation and on the safe use of the development.(d) TrafficA traffic impact study should be conducted to address the effectof the intended development at both construction and operationstages. Interfaces and connections with the existing and plannedroads, railway and other forms of transportation system should beexamined.(e) FinancialPlanning ProcedureFor government projects, the user department, in consultation withrelevant departments, will be required to submit a cost/benefitanalysis of the scheme talcing into consideration the additionalcosts, if any, of development underground and the potentialfinancial and other benefits including the release of spaceabove-ground for other uses. For private projects, a statementgiving the development costs and appraisal on the financialviability will be required as part of the submission for planningapproval.2.3.6 Once the viability of a cavern development has been ascertained, sitereservation can be made on the relevant Outline DevelopmentPlans/Layout Plans and Outline Zoning Plans in accordance with thenormal planning procedures. Suitable zonings should be annotated onthese plans to indicate the above-ground and underground developmentintentions as there may be different developments occupying the samesite. At this stage, only the approximate boundaries of theunderground rock cavern sites can be annotated,Project Planning2.3.7 Project planning for public sector works usually starts when theproposed development has been upgraded to Cat. B of the Public WorksProgramme. At this stage, detailed geotechnical investigation isrequired. For government projects, the user department or its worksagent will proceed with detailed studies in accordance with &eplanning requirements previously identified and the projectrequirements. Detailed guidance on investigation and design of caverndevelopments would be given ill Geoguide 4 - Guide to CavernEngineering and the Code of Practice on Fire Engineering for Caverns.Both documents are under preparation. Relevant issues to beconsidered include:-


34(a) Fire, Hazard and Public Safety IssuesLand DisposalFire/hazard prevention, means of escape and other public safetyissues are of crucial importance to the design of caverndevelopments. The Director of Fire Services and the PrincipalGovernment Building Surveyor should be consulted on theirrequirements.(b) Radon Emission and Gas IncidenceIt is standard practice in the design of all underground space toprovide adequate ventilation in order to avoid the accumulation ofgas. The Director of Environmental Protection, the Director ofFire Services, the Commissioner for Labour and the Director ofHealth should be consulted on their requirements.(c) Blasting Noise, Vibration and SubsidenceSome cavern schemes may require blasting in close proximity tobuilding structures and transport lines. When such operations arelikely to be involved, advice on the stability "of adjoiningstructures and requirements for preventive measures wherenecessary should be sought from the Mines Divison of GEO andrelevant authorities/ departments.(d) Drainage, Servicing and Other Utility ProvisionsConsultation with the Director of Drainage Services, the Directorof Water Supplies and. other utility companies should be made ontheir requirements on the provision of utility facilities to thecavern development.For private projects, a planning brief will be prepared by the Plan Dto fist the development parameters and the above technicalrequirements. The planning brief will be used as the basis fordrawing up the lease conditions.2.3*8 The disposal of land for underground cavern development will followcurrent procedures either as a land allocation for public projects ora land sale/grant for private projects. Land sold/granted for privatecavern projects would be counted towards the annual land sale quota.2.3.9 Due to the complexity of space which cavern developments usuallyincur, there are practical difficulties in defining plot ratio andsite coverage. The development content and relevant control on thecubic content of the development should ideally be specified in theform of^ a three dimensional development 'envelope 1 on thelease/engineering conditions. This Envelope 1 should be developed inconsultation with the GEO and should define an inner space withinwhich cavern construction is-permitted, and an outer surrounding space(for maintenance of cavern support) within which excavations or otherworks should not be permitted apart from access tunnels, drainageadits, and ventilation shafts. Relevant departments should beconsulted on the maintenance requirements of the proposed developmentfor incorporation in the engineering/lease conditions.


Project Implementation352.3.10 All private cavern projects should follow the normal works approvaljro^ures as surface developments. Relevant submissions and approvals.are to be co-ordinated by the Building Authority in consultation withother departments. Caverns or any underground space adopted orconstructed for occupation for any purpose, including associatedaccess tunnels and access shafts, are considered to be buildings underSection 2(1) of the Buildings Ordinance* For public prefects, theworks agent would be required to comply with the EngineeringConditions for the land allocation.23.11 To secure the operation and structural safety of the rock caverndevelopment, a protection zone covering an area surrounding thedevelopment would be defined by the private developer or Government'sworks agent following detailed design and construction of the cavern.The GEO should be consulted on the proposed extent of the protectionzone. The protection zone would be annotated on the ODP/LP andrelevant departments, in particular GEO and BOO, should be consultedfor anyfixturedevelopment proposals traversing this zone.


SITE IDENTIFICATION, PRE-fEASlBILITY AND PLANNING STUDIES | PLANNING PROCEDURES |i (PROJECT PLANNINGLAND DISPOSALPROJECTIMPLEMENTATIONi Pre-feaslbWty and ,' planning studies priority)j established by Sub- }I Regional Plans «nd |' other planning studies II Development priority for ji Government projects i( according to RASL. _ —.....Potential caverndevelopment sitesannotated onODP/LP forDPC's approvalSuitable land usezoning for caverndevelopment sitesannotated oft OZPfollowing TP OflD.proceduresU>I Private developers ji submit development IOPCPlan DBLOCEOIPOOPOZ?RASTP ORDANNOTATIONDevelopment Progress CommitleePlanning DepartmentBuildings and lands DepartmentGeolechnica! Engineering OfficeUyout PlanOutline Development PUnOutline Zoning PlanResource Allocation SystemTown Planning Ordinancej Development priority forI private projects subject to Ij Land Sa/es Programme JFIGURE 1 : PLANNING PROCESS FOR ROCK CAVERN DEVELOPMENT


- 37LIST OF DRAWINGSDrawingNo.EG 498General Suitability for Cavern Development - Kowloon'A-


GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFTICE PUBLICATIONSGeotechnical Manual for Slopes, 2nd Edition (1984), 300 p.(English Version), (Reprinted, 2000).> 308Guide to Retaining Wall Design, 2nd Edition (1993), 258 p.(Reprinted, 1998).Geoguide 1 •HKS70(US$14.5)HK$90(US$20)HKS60(US$13)Guide to Site Investigation (1987), 359 p. (Reprinted, 1996). Geoguide 2Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions (1988), 186 p. (Reprinted, Geoguide 31997).Guide to Cavern Engineering (1992), 148 p. (Reprinted, 1998). Geoguide 4Guide to Slope Maintenance, 2nd Edition (1998), 91 p. Geoguide 5(English Version), (Reprinted, 1999).' H-JEQ998)Layman's Guide to Slope Maintenance, 2nd Edition (1998),54 p. (Bilingual).HKS83(US$17.5)HKS58(US$12.6)HK$60(US$13)HK$50(US$9.5)HK$50(US$9.5)FreeModel Specification for Prestressed Ground Anchors, 2ndEdition (1989), 164 p. (Reprinted, 1997).Model Specification for Reinforced Fill Structures (1989),135 p. (Reprinted, 1997).Mid-levels Study : Report on Geology, Hydrology and SoilProperties (1982), 265 p. plus 54 drgs. (Reprinted, 1997).Prediction of Soil Suction for Slopes in Hong Kong, by M.G.Anderson (1984), 242 p. (Reprinted, 1996).(Superseded by GCO Publication No. 1/85)Geospec 1Geospec 2GCO PublicationNo. 1/84GCO PublicationNo. 2/84HK$62(US$11)HK$58(US$10.5)HK$534(US$86)HK$132(US$24)


(Superseded by Geospec 1 )GCO PublicationNo. 3/84Review of Superficial Deposits and Weathering in Hong Kong, GCO Publication HK$40by J.D. Bennett (1984), 58 p. (Reprinted, 1993). No. 4/84 (US$8)Review of Hong Kong Stratigraphy, by J.D. Bennett (1984), GCO Publication HK$2586 p. No. 5/84 (US$5.5)Review of Tectonic History, Structure and Metamorphism of GCO Publication HK$20Hong Kong, by J.D. Bennett (1984), 63 p. No. 6/84 " (US$5)(Superseded by GCO Publication No. 1/88)GCO PublicationNo. 1/85Groundwater Lowering by Horizontal Drains, by D.J. Craig & GCO Publication HK$74I. Gray (1985), 123 p. (Reprinted, 1990). No. 2/85 (US$12)(Superseded by GEO Report No. 9)GCO PublicationNo. 1/88Review of Design Methods for Excavations (1990), 187 p. GCO Publication HK$40(Reprinted, 1996). No. 1/90 (US$10)Foundation Properties of Marble and Other Rocks in the Yuen GCO Publication HK$58Long - Tuen Mun Area (1990), 1 17 p. No. 2/90 (US$10)Review of Earthquake Data for the Hong Kong Region ( 1 991 ), GCO Publication HK$42115 p. No. 1/91 (US$11.5)Review of Granular and Geotextile Filters (1993), 141 p. GEO Publication HK$32No. 1/93 (US$19)Pile Design and Construction ( 1996), 348 p. (Reprinted, 1997). GEO Publication HK$62No. 1/96 (US$13.5)Report on the Kwun Lung Lau Landslide of 23 July 1994, 2 - FreeVolumes, 400 p. (English Version), (Reprinted, 1996).Report on the Fei Tsui Road Landslide of 13 August 1995, - Free2 Volumes, 156 p. (Bilingual). ^||. n


Report on the Shum Wan Road Landslide of 13 August 1995,2 Volumes, 123 p. (Bilingual).H a'FreeWhat to Do When You Receive a Dangerous Hillside Order(1996), 32 p. (Bilingual).' 32Free(Hong Kong) Rainfall and Landslides in 1984, by J. Premchitt GEO Report HK$ 118(1991), 91 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 1 (US$17.5)(Hong Kong) Rainfall and Landslides in 1985, by J. Premchitt GEO Report HK$ 126(1991), 108 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 2 (US$20)(Hong Kong) Rainfall and Landslides in 1986, by J. Premchitt GEO Report HK$ 126(1991), 113 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 3 (US$20)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1987, by J. Premchitt GEO Report HK$122(1991), 101 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 4 (US$19.5)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1988, by J. Premchitt GEO Report HK$106(1991), 64 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 5 (US$16)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1989, by K.L. Siu GEO Report HK$126(1991), 114 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 6 (US$20)Aggregate Properties of Some Hong Kong Rocks, by T.Y. GEO Report HK$120Irfan, A. Cipullo, A.D. Burnett & J.M. Nash (1992), 212 p. No. 7 (US$19.5)(Reprinted, 1995).Foundation Design of Caissons on Granitic and Volcanic GEO Report HK$62Rocks, by T.Y. Irfan & G.E. Powell (1991), 85 p. (Reprinted, No. 8 (US$ 10.5)1995).Bibliography on the Geology and Geotechnical Engineering of GEO ReportHong Kong to December 1991, by E.W. Brand (1992), 186 p. No. 9(Superseded by GEO Report No.39)Bibliography on Settlements Caused by Tunnelling, by E.W. GEO Report HK$48Brand (1992), 50 p. (Reprinted, 1995). (Superseded by GEO No. 10 (US$8.5)Report No.51)Direct Shear Testing of a Hong Kong Soil under Various GEO Report HK$136Applied Matric Suctions, by J.K. Gan & D.G. Fredlund (1992), No. 11 (US$21.5)241 p. (Reprinted, 1995).


Rainstorm Runoff on Slopes, by J. Premchitt, T.S.K. Lam, J.M. GEOReport HK$121Shen and H.F. Lam (1992), 211 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 12 (US$19.5)Mineralogical Assessment of Creep-type Instability at Two GEO Report HK$87Landslip Sites, by T.Y. Wan (1992), 136 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 13 (US$15)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1990, by K.Y. Tang GEOReport HK$112(1992), 78 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 14 (US$17)Assessment of Stability of Slopes Subjected to Blasting GEOReport HK$75Vibration, by H.N. Wong & P.L.R. Pang (1992), 112 p. No. 15 " (US$12)(Reprinted, 1995).Earthquake Resistance of Buildings and Marine Reclamation GEO Report HK$48Fills in Hong Kong, by W.K. Pun (1992), 48 p. (Reprinted, No. 16 (US$8.5)1995).Review of Dredging Practice in the Netherlands, by S.T. GEOReport HK$76Gilbert & P.W.T. To (1992), 112 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 17 (US$12)Backfilled Mud Anchor Trials Feasibility Study, by C.K. Wong GEO Report HK$50& C.B.B. Thorley (1992), 55 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 18 (US$9)A Review of the Phenomenon of Stress Rupture in HDPE GEO Report HK$56Geogrids, by G.D. Small & J.H. Greenwood (1993), 68 p. No. 19 (US$9.5)(Reprinted, 1995).Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1991, by N.C. Evans GEO Report HK$111(1992), 76 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 20 (US$16.5)Horizontal Subgrade Reaction for Cantilevered Retaining Wall GEO Report HK$50Analysis, by W.K. Pun & P.L.R. Pang (1993), 41 p. (Reprinted, No. 21 (US$9.5)1998).Report on the Rainstorm of 8 May 1992, by N.C. Evans (1993), GEO Report HK$ 126109 p. plus 2 drgs. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 22 (US$20)Effect of the Coarse Fractions on the Shear Strength of GEOReport HK$126Colluvium, by T.Y. Wan & K.Y. Tang (1993), 223 p. No. 23 (US$20)(Reprinted, 1995).The Use of PFA in Reclamation, by J. Premchitt & N.C. Evans GEO Report HK$52(1993), 59 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 24 (US$9)Report on the Rainstorm of May 1982, by M.C. Tang (1993), GEO Report HK$135129 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 25 (US$21)


Report on the Rainstorm of August 1982, by R.R. Hudson GEO Report HK$118(1993), 93 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 26 (US$17.5)Landslips Caused by the June 1983 Rainstorm, by E.B. Choot GEO Report HK$83(1993), 124 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 27 (US$13)Factors Affecting Sinkhole Formation, by Y.C. Chan (1994), GEO Report HK$4037 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 28 (US$7.5)Classification and Zoning of Marble Sites, by Y.C. Chan GEO Report HK$40(1994), 37 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 29 " (US$7.5)Hong Kong Seawall Design Study, by P.M. Aas & A. Engen GEO Report HK$68(1993), 94 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 30 (US$11)Study of Old Masonry Retaining Walls in Hong Kong, by Y.C. GEO Report HK$ 130Chan (1996), 225 p. No. 31 (US$21)Karst Morphology for Foundation Design, by Y.C. Chan & GEO Report HK$118W.K. Pun (1994), 90 p. plus 1 drg. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 32 (US$17.5)An Evaluation of the Suitability of Decomposed Granite as GEO Report HK$38Foundation Backfill for Gravity Seawalls in Hong Kong, by No. 33 (US$7)E.B. Choot (1993), 34 p. (Reprinted, 1995).A Partial Factor Method for Reinforced Fill Slope Design, by GEO Report HK$50H.N. Wong (1993), 55 p. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 34 (US$9)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1992, by P.K.H. Chen GEO Report HK$167(1993), 201 p. plus 2 drgs. (Reprinted, 1995). No. 35 (US$25.5)Methods of Test for Soils in Hong Kong for Civil Engineering GEO Report HK$22Purposes (Phase I Tests), 1996 Edition, by P.Y.M. Chen, 90 p. No. 36 (US$5.5)Creep, Stress Rupture and Hydrolysis of Polyester Reinforced GEO Report HK$38Geogrids, by J.H. Greenwood (1995), 67 p. No. 37 (US$7.5)Skin Friction on Piles at the New Public Works Central GEO Report HK$97Laboratory, by J. Premchitt, I. Gray & K.K.S. Ho (1994), 158 p. No. 38 (US$16.5)(Reprinted, 1995).Bibliography on the Geology and Geotechnical Engineering of GEO Report HK$ 118Hong Kong to May 1994, by E.W. Brand (1994), 202 p. No. 39 (US$19)(Reprinted, 1995). (Superseded by GEO Report No.50)Hydraulic Fill Performance in Hong Kong, by C.K. Shen & GEO Report HK$90K.M. Lee (1995), 199 p. No. 40 (US$ 16)


Mineralogy and Fabric Characterization and Classification of GEO Report HK$70Weathered Granitic Rocks in Hong Kong, by T.Y.Irfan( 1996), No. 41 (US$13.5)158 p.Performance of Horizontal Drains in Hong Kong, by R.P. GEO Report HK$65Martin, K.L. Siu & J. Premchitt (1995), 109 p. No. 42 (US$17.2)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1993, by W.L. Chan GEO Report HK$110(1995), 214 p. plus Idrg. No. 43 (US$18.5)General Report on Landslips on 5 November 1993 at GEO Report HK$64Man-made Features in Lantau, by H.N. Wong & K.K.S. Ho No. 44 (US$17)(1995),78p.plus Idrg.Gravity Retaining Walls Subject to Seismic Loading, by Y.S. GEO Report HK$40Au-Yeung & K.K.S. Ho (1995), 63 p. No. 45 (US$8)Direct Shear and Triaxial Testing of a Hong Kong Soil under GEO Report HK$65Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions, by J.K.M. Gan & D.G. No. 46 (US$12.5)Fredlund(1996),217p.Stability of Submarine Slopes, by N.C. Evans (1995), 51 p. GEO Report HK$46No. 47 (US$8.5)Strength Development of High PFA Content Concrete, by GEO Report HK$60W.C.Leung&W.L.Tse(1995),84p. No. 48 (US$10.5)AAR Potential of Volcanic Rocks from Anderson Road GEO Report HK$58Quarries, by W.C. Leung, W.L. Tse, C.S. Mok & S.T. Gilbert No. 49 (US$ 10)(1995), 78 p.Bibliography on the Geology and Geotechnical Engineering of GEO Report HK$45Hong Kong to March 1996, by E.W. Brand (1996), 111 p. No. 50 (US$9)Bibliography on Settlements Caused by Tunnelling to March GEO Report HK$311996, by E.W. Brand (1996), 70 p. No. 51 (US$6.5)Investigation of Some Major Slope Failures between 1992 and GEO Report HK$441995, by Y.C. Chan, W.K. Pun, H.N. Wong, A.C.O. Li &K.C. No. 52 (US$8.5)Yeo(1996),97p.Environmental Aspects of Using Fresh PFA as Fill in GEO Report HK$30Reclamation, by K.S. Ho & P.Y.M. Chen (1996), 46 p. No. 53 (US$5.5)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1994, by W.L. Chan GEO Report HK$70(1996), 161 p. plus 1 drg. Na 54 (US$13.5)


Conventional and CRS Rowe Cell Consolidation Test on SomeHong Kong Clays, by J. Premchitt, K.S. Ho & N.C. Evans(1996), 93 p.Application of Prescriptive Measures to Slopes and RetainingWalls, 2nd Edition (1999), by H.N. Wong, L.S. Pang, A.C.W.Wong, W.K. Pun & Y.F. Yu, 73 p.Study of Rainfall Induced Landslides on Natural Slopes in theVicinity of Tung Chung New Town, Lantau Island, byC.A.M. Franks (1998), 102 p. plus 3 drgs. (Reprinted, 1999).Appraisal of Performance of Recompacted Loose Fill Slopes,by K.T. Law, C.F. Lee, M.T. Luan, H. Chen & X. Ma (1999),86 p.Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1995, by C.K.L. Wong(1997), 125 p. plus 1 drg.Assessment of Geological Features Related to RecentLandslides in Volcanic Rocks of Hong Kong Phase 2A - ChaiWan Study Area, by S.D.G. Campbell & N.P. Koor (1998),78 p. plus 6 drgs.Factual Report on the November 1993 Natural TerrainLandslides in Three Study Areas on Lantau Island, by H.N.Wong, Y.M. Chen & K.C. Lam (1997), 42 p.Areal Extent of Intense Rainfall in Hong Kong 1979 to 1995,by A.W. Malone (1997), 85 p.A Review of Some Drained Reclamation Works in HongKong, by J.S.M. Kwong (1997), 53 p.A Study of Hydraulic Fill Performance in Hong Kong -Phase 2, by C.K. Shen, K.M. Lee & X.S. Li (1997), 265 p.Seismic Hazard Analysis of the Hong Kong Region, by C.F.Lee, Y.Z. Ding, R.H. Huang, Y.B. Yu, G.A. Guo, P.L. Chen& X.H. Huang (1998), 145 p. (Bilingual).'* TM*»?8i3(|(1998)GEO ReportNo. 55GEO ReportNo. 56GEO ReportNo. 57GEO ReportNo. 58GEO ReportNo. 59GEO ReportNo. 60GEO ReportNo. 61GEO ReportNo. 62GEO ReportNo. 63GEO ReportNo. 64GEO ReportNo. 65HK$35(US$7)HK$30(US$7)HK$264(US$39.5)HK$34(US$7.5)HK$70(US$14.5)HK$296(US$43.5)HK$92(US$13.5)HK$43(US$8.5)HK$36(US$6.5)HK$150(US$25)HK$80(US$15.5)Mineralogical and Fabric Characterization and Classification of GEO ReportWeathered Volcanic Rocks in Hong Kong, by T.Y. Man (1998), No. 66113 p.HK$106(US$17)


Assessment of Geological Features Related to RecentLandslides in Volcanic Rocks of Hong Kong Phase 2B -Aberdeen Study Area, by C.A.M. Franks, S.D.G. Campbell &W.W.L. Shum (1999), 106 p. plus 8 drgs.The New Priority Classification Systems for Slopes andRetaining Walls, by C.K.L. Wong (1998), 1 17 p. (Reprinted,1999).Diagnostic Report on the November 1993 Natural TerrainLandslides on Lantau Island, by H.N. Wong, K.C. Lam &K.K.S. Ho (1998), 98 p. plus 1 drg.Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1996, by C.K.L. Wong(1998), 84 p. plus 1 drg.Site Characterisation Study - Phases 1 and 2, by N.P. Koor(1999), 207 p.Long-term Consolidation Tests on Clays from the Chek LapKok Formation, by D.O.K. Lo & J. Premchitt (1 998), 89 p.The Natural Terrain Landslide Study Phases I and H, by N.C.Evans, S.W. Huang & J.P. King (1999), 128 p. plus 2 drgs.Natural Terrain Landslide Study the Natural Terrain LandslideInventory, by J.P. King ( 1 999), 1 27 p.Landslides and Boulder Falls from Natural Terrain : InterimRisk Guidelines, by ERM-Hong Kong, Ltd (1998), 183 p.(Reprinted, 1999).Report on the Landslides at Hut No. 26 Kau Wa Keng UpperVillage of 4 June 1997, by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd.(1998), 100 p. (Bilingual).x^ E3 B ^GEO ReportNo. 67GEO ReportNo. 68GEO ReportNo. 69 "GEO ReportNo. 70GEO ReportNo. 71GEO ReportNo. 72GEO ReportNo. 73GEO ReportNo. 74GEO ReportNo. 75GEO ReportNo. 76HK$358(US$54.5)HK$68(US$12)HK$90(US$17)HK$1 12(US$20)HKS292(US$43)HK$34(US$7.5)HK$308(US$45)HK$208(US$32)HK$94(US$17.5)HK$ 140(US$21.5)Report on the Landslide at Ten Thousand Buddhas' Monastery GEO Reportof 2 July 1997, by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1998), 96 p. No. 77(Bilingual).- A fttr^t: H - B >HK$ 1 40(US$21.5)


Report on the Ching Cheung Road Landslide of 3 August1997, by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1998), 142 p.(Bilingual).H 0 >GEO ReportNo. 78HK$256(US$38.5)Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997(Volume 1), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1998), 142 p.Feasibility Study for QRA of Boulder Fall Hazard in HongKong,byERM-HongKong,Ltd(1998),61p.Slope Failures along BRDL Roads : Quantitative RiskAssessment and Ranking, by ERM-Hong Kong, Ltd (1999),200 p.Contaminated Mud Disposal at East Sha Chau : ComparativeIntegrated Risk Assessment, by EVS EnvironmentConsultants (1999), 138 p.Testing of Dredged Material for Marine Disposal, by EVSEnvironment Consultants (1999), 74 p.December 1995 Investigation of Benthic Recolonization atthe Mirs Bay Disposal Site, by Binnie Consultants Limited(1999), 89 p.The Use of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers to MeasureSuspended Sediments, by Dredging Research Ltd (1999),34 p.Report of the Independent Review Panel on Fill Slopes, byJ.L. Knill, P. Lumb, S. Mackey, V.F.B. de Mello, N.R.Morgenstem & E.G. Richards (1999), 36 p.Strategic Re-assessment of Disposal Site Selection andManagement of Contaminated Mud, by EVS EnvironmentConsultants (1999), 50 p.Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997(Volume 2), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1999), 202 p.Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997(Volume 3), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1999), 145 p.Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997(Volume 4), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1999), 147 p.GEO ReportNo. 79GEO ReportNo. 80 "GEO ReportNo. 81GEO ReportNo. 82GEO ReportNo. 83GEO ReportNo. 84GEO ReportNo. 85GEO ReportNo. 86GEO ReportNo. 87GEO ReportNo. 88GEO ReportNo. 89GEO ReportNo. 90HK$192(US$30)HK$58(US$10.5)HK$76(US$15)HK$52(US$12)HK$36(US$8)HK$178(US$26)HK$108(US$17)HK$30(US$5.5)HK$32(US$6)HK$278(US$41.5)HK$200(US$31)HK$232(US$35.5)


Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997 GEO Report HK$208(Volume 5), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1999), 141 p. No. 91 (US$32)Investigation of Some Selected Landslide Incidents in 1997 GEO Report HK$218(Volume 6), by Halcrow Asia Partnership Ltd. (1999), 181 p. No. 92 (US$33.5)Seabed Ecology Studies : Composite Report, by ERM-Hong GEO Report HK$220Kong, Ltd (1999), 182 p. No. 93 (US$34)Report on the Rock Slope Failure at Cut Slope 11NE-D/C7 GEO Report HK$88along Sau Mau Ping Road on 4 December 1997, by B.N. No. 94 " (US$14.5)Leung, S.C. Leung & C.A.M. Franks (1999), 69 p.The Lai Ping Road Landslide of 2 July 1997, by H.W. Sun & GEO Report HK$264S.D.G. Campbell (1999), 140 p. plus 2 drgs. No. 95 (US$39.5)Review of Fill Slope Failures in Hong Kong, by H.W. Sun GEO Report HK$58(1999), 87 p. No. 96 (US$10.5)Hong Kong Rainfall and Landslides in 1997, by T.W.K. Lam GEO Report HK$338(1999), 271 p. plus 2 drgs. No. 97 (US$49)Preliminary Quantitative Risk Assessment of Earthquake- GEO Report HK$42induced Landslides at Man-made Slopes in Hong Kong, by No. 98 (US$8.5)H.N. Wong & K.K.S. Ho (2000), 69 p.A Review of Downhole Geophysical Methods for Ground GEO Report HK$40Investigation, by K.C. Lau (2000), 69 p. No. 99 (US$8.5)Methods of Assessment and Monitoring of the Effects of Gas GEO Report HK$90Pressures on Stability of Rock Cuts due to Blasting in the No. 100 (US$15)Near-field, by Blastronics Pty Ltd (2000), 55 p.Cavern Area Study of Kowloon, by KJ. Roberts & P.A. Kirk GEO Report HK$70(2000), 37 p. plus 1 drg. No. 101 (US$12)Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Hong Kong and GASP I HK$240Kowloon (1987), 170 p. plus 4 maps.(US$40)Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Central New GASPnTerritories (1987), 165 p. plus 4 maps.HK$150(US$25)Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - West New Territories GASP ffl HK$ 150(1987), 155 p. plus 4 maps. (US$25)Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - North West New GASP IV HK$150Territories (1987), 120 p. plus 3 maps.(US$25)


Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - North New Territories(1988), 134 p. plus 3 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - North Lantau (1988),124 p. plus 3 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Clear Water Bay(1988), 144 p. plus 4 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - North East NewTerritories (1988), 144 p. plus 4 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - East New Territories(1988), 141 p. plus 4 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Islands (1988), 142 p.plus 4 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - South Lantau (1988),148 p. plus 4 maps.Geotechnical Area Studies Programme - Territory of HongKong (1989), 346 p. plus 14 maps.Geology of Sha Tin, by R. Addison (1986), 85 p.Geology of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, by P.J. Strange &R. Shaw (1986), 134 p.Geology of the Western New Territories, by R.L. Langford,K.W. Lai, R.S. Arthurton & R. Shaw (1989), 140 p.Geology of Sai Kung and Clear Water Bay by P.J. Strange, R.Shaw & R. Addison (1990), 111 p.Geology of the North Eastern New Territories, K.W. Lai,S.D.G. Campbell & R. Shaw (1996), 144 p.Geology of Lantau District by R.L. Langford, J.W.C. James, R.Shaw, S.D.G. Campbell, P.A. Kirk & RJ. Sewell (1995),173 p.Geology of Yuen Long by D.V. Frost (1992), 69 p.GASPVGASP VIGASPVnGASPVmGASP DCGASPXGASP XIGASPXEGeologicalMemoir No. 1GeologicalMemoir No. 2GeologicalMemoir No. 3GeologicalMemoir No. 4GeologicalMemoir No. 5GeologicalMemoir No. 6Sheet ReportNo. 1HK$150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HKS150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HK$150(US$25)HK$50(US$9)HK$78(US$12.5)HK$97(US$17)HK$87(US$13)HK$98(US$17.5)HK$136(US$28.2)Free


Geology of Chek Lap Kok by R.L. Langford (1994), 61 p. Sheet Report FreeNo. 2Geology of Tsing Yi by R.J. Sewell & J.A. Fyfe (1995), 43 p. Sheet Report FreeNo. 3Geology of North Lantau Island and Ma Wan by RJ. Sewell Sheet Report Free&J.W.C.James(1995),46p. No. 4Geology of Ma On Shan by RJ. Sewell ( 1 996), 45 p. Sheet Report FreeNo. 5Geological Landscapes of Hong Kong (1998), 61 p. - HK$130(Bilingual).> BlGeochemical Atlas of Hong Kong (1999), 1 10 p. - HK$200(US$34)San Tin : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20000 map) MapHGM20, HK$80(1989), 1 map. Sheet 2Sheung Shui : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map) Map HGM 20, HK$80(1991), 1 map. Sheet 3Kat O Chau : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map) Map HGM 20, HK$80(1992), 1 map. Sheet 4Tsing Shan (Castle Peak) : Solid and Superficial Geology Map HGM 20, HK$80( 1 :20 000 map) ( 1988), 1 map. Sheet 5Yuen Long : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map) Map HGM 20, HK$80(1988), 1 map. Sheet 6Sha Tin : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20000 map) Map HGM 20, HK$80(1986), 1 map. Sheet?Sai Kung Peninsula : Solid and Superficial Geology ( 1 :20 000 Map HGM 20, HK$80map) (1989), 1 map.SheetsTung Chung : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map) Map HGM 20, HK$80(1994),! map. Sheet 9Silver Mine Bay : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 Map HGM 20, HK$80map) (1991), 1 map. Sheet 10


Hong Kong and Kowloon : Solid and Superficial Geology(1:20 000 map) (1986), 1 map.Clear Water Bay : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000map) (1989), 1 map.Shek Pik : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20000 map)(1995), 1 map.Cheung Chau : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map)(1995), 1 map.Hong Kong South and Lamma Island : Solid and SuperficialGeology (1:20 000 map) (1987), 1 map.Waglan Island: Solid and Superficial Geology (1:20 000 map)(1989), 1 map.San Tin : Solid Geology (1 : 20 000 map) (1994), 1 map.Lo Wu : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map.Lo Wu : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map.MapHGM20,Sheet 11MapHGM20,Sheet 12Map HGM 20,Sheet 13Map HGM 20,Sheet 14Map HGM 20,Sheet 15Map HGM 20,Sheet 16Map HGM20S,Sheet 2Map HOP 5A,Sheet 2-NE-DMap HOP 5B,Sheet 2-NE-DHK$80HK$80HK$80HK$80HK$80HKS80HK$80HK$100HKS100Deep Bay: Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HGP 5A,Sheet 2-SW-CDeep Bay : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HGP 5B,Sheet 2-SW-CShan Pui: Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HGP 5A,Sheet 2-SW-DHK$100HKS100HKS100Shan Pui: Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map.Map HGP 5B,Sheet 2-SW-DHK$100Mai Po : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map. Map HGP 5A, HK$100Sheet 2-SE-AMai Po: Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map.Map HGP 5B,Sheet 2-SE-AHK$100Lok Ma Chau : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), Map HGP 5A, HK$1001 map. Sheet 2-SE-B


Lok Ma Chau : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map. Map HOP 5B, HK$100Sheet 2-SE-BMan Kara To : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), MapHGPSA, HK$100Imap.Sheet 3-NW-CMan Kam To : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map. Map HOP 5B, HK$100Sheet 3-NW-CTin Shui Wai : Superficial Geology (1:5000 map) (1989), MapHGPSA, HK$1001 map. Sheet 6-NW-ATin Shui Wai: Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HOP 5B, HK$100Sheet 6-NW-AYuenLong:SuperficialGeology(l:5000map)(1989), 1 map. MapHGP5A, HK$100Sheet 6-NW-BYuen Long: Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HGP 5B, HK$100Sheet 6-NW-BHung Shui Kiu : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), Map HGP 5A, HK$1001 map. Sheet 6-NW-CHung Shui Kiu: Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1989), 1 map. Map HGP 5B, HK$100Sheet 6-NW-CMuk Kiu Tau : Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), MapHGPSA, HKS1001 map. Sheet 6-NW-DMuk Kiu Tau : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1990), 1 map. Map HGP 5B, HK$100Sheet 6-NW-DTsuen Wan (Part): Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) Map HGP 5, HK$ 100(1995), Imap. Sheet6-SE-DMa On Shan : Solid Geology (1:5 000 map) (1996), 1 map. Map HGP 5B, HK$ 100Sheet 7-NE-D,C(part)Chek Lap Kok : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) Map HGP 5, HK$100(1993), Imap. Sheet9-NE-C/DTung Chung Wan: Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) Map HGP 5, HK$100(1995), Imap Sheet9-SE-A


Pok To Yan : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5000 map)(1997), 1 map.Lantau Peak : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5000 map)(1996), 1 map.Sunset Peak : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5000 map)(1996), 1 map.Yam O Wan : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map)(1995), 1 map.Siu Ho : Solid & Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1994),1 map.Chok Ko Wan (Penny's Bay) : Solid & Superficial Geology(1:5 000 map) (1994), 1 map.Ma Wan: Solid and Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1994),1 map.Tsing Yi: Solid & Superfical Geology (1:5 000 map) (1995),1 map.Pa Tau Kwu : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map)(1994), 1 map.Tai Ho : Solid and Superficial Geology (1:5 000 map) (1995),1 map.MapHGP5,Sheet 9-SE-BMap HOP 5,Sheet 9-SE-CMap HOP 5,Sheet 9-SE-DMapHGP5,Sheet 10-NW-BMapHGPS,Sheet 10-NW-CMapHGPS,Sheet 10-NW-DMapHGPS,Sheet 10-NE-AMapHGPS,Sheet 10-NE-B/DMap HOP 5,Sheet 10-NE-CMapHGPS,Sheet 10-SW-AHKSIOOHK$100HK$100HKSIOOHKSIOOHKSIOOHKSIOOHKSIOOHKSIOOHKSIOOORDERING INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON THE NEXT PAGE


Copies of GEO publications (except Sheet Reports, 1 :5 000 maps and other reports which are free of charge) may be ordered bywriting to::5 flWKtffO :Publications Sales Section,Information Services Department,Room 402, 4th Floor, Murray Building,Garden Road, Central,Hong Kong. WC (852) 25987482Fax (852) 2598 7482The Information Services Department will issue an invoice upon receipt of a written order.' 'In Hong Kong, publications may be directly purchased from:Government Publications Centre,If ^3feGround Boor, Low Block,Queensway Government Offices,RjfffUSStHil66Queensway, VK (852) 25237195Hong Kong.Fax (852) 2523 7195Requests for copies of Geological Survey Sheet Reports and other reports which are free of charge should be directed to:' :Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Special Projects,Geotechnical Engineering Office,Civil Engineering Department,Civil Engineering Building,101 Princess Margaret Road,Homantin,Kowloon, i»K (852) 2714 0275Hong Kong.Fax (852) 2714 02751 :5 000 maps may be purchased from:Map Publications Centre/HK,Survey & Mapping Office,Lands Department,23th Floor, flfR (852) 25218726North Point Government Offices,333 Java Road, North Point,Hong Kong.Fax (852) 2521 8726All prices given in this List are for information only and may be changed without notice. The US$ prices shown are for overseasorders and are inclusive of surface postage to anywhere in the world. An additional bank charge of HK$50 or US$6.50 is requiredper cheque made in currencies other than Hong Kong dollars. Cheques, bank drafts or money orders must be made payable toTHE GOVERNMENT OF THE HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION.» • >- > 5jc'Latest information on the list of GEO publications can be found at the website http://www.info.gov.hk/ced/pub.htm on the Internet.Abstracts for these documents can also be found at the same website.


— 824000- 820000CAVERNLANDCLASSSUITABILITYHighHighDESCRIPTIONLand generally above 60 mPD and at least 50 m frommajor underground installations or geological faults.Land generally below 60 mPD and at least 50 m frommajor underground installations or geological faults.IIAMediumLand within 50 m of geological faults. Higher excavationand support costs associated with more difficult groundconditions may occur. May require more detailed siteinvestiaation than Land Class I.


820000)AVERNLANDCLASSSUITABILITYHighHighDESCRIPTIONLand generally above 60 mPD and at least 50 m frommajor underground installations or geological faults.Land generally below 60 mPD and at least 50 m frommajor underground installations or geological faults.MAMediumLand within 50 m of geological faults. Higher excavationand support costs associated with more difficult groundconditions may occur. May require more detailed siteinvestigation than Land Class I.MBMediumLand within 50 m of major underground installations.Higher construction costs expected due to constraintson excavation and construction techniques. May requiremore detailed site investigation than Land Class I.LowLow suitability due to the presence of existing orproposed surface development which may causecomplicated land ownership and resumption issuesand may require more difficult cavern engineeringtechniques.


840000


LEGENDStudy Area BoundaryI60m contourService ReservoirFaultPhotolineamentta\ KMOZP (QIC, O and GB areas)boundaryMTR alignment and stationRoad tunnelKCR tunnelSSDS tunnel (Proposed)Cavern Land ClassesReclamation AreaClass IAClass IBClass MAClass MBsee table for)- explanationof ClassesClass IIIREVISIONdescriptionsurveyeddesignedK.J. Roberts P.A. KirkY.M. Tarn11/9711/97contract no.job no.projectCavern Area Study (CAS)Kowloon Districtdrawing titleGeneral Suitability forCavern Development - Kowloondrawing no.


FaultPhotolineamentOZP (QIC, O and GB areas)boundaryMTR alignment and stationRoad tunnelKCR tunnelSSDS tunnel (Proposed)Cavern Land ClassesReclamation AreaClass IAClass IBClass MAClass MBsee table forexplanationof ClassesClass IIIREVISIONdescriptionsurveyeddesignedK.J. Roberts P.A. KirkY.M. Tarn11/9711/97job no.projectCavern Area Study (CAS)Kowloon Districtdrawing titleGeneral Suitability forCavern Development - Kowloondrawing no.EG 498 1 :20000PLANNING DIVISIONGEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFFICECIVILENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT


This book is due for return or renewal -on the date shownunless previously recalled. Fines may be incurred for Satereturn.DATE DUE

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