12.07.2015 Views

Draft Bill for the Act to amend the Civil Code and - Ministère de la ...

Draft Bill for the Act to amend the Civil Code and - Ministère de la ...

Draft Bill for the Act to amend the Civil Code and - Ministère de la ...

SHOW MORE
SHOW LESS

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisionsas regards adoption<strong>and</strong> parental authorityConsultation PaperMinistère <strong>de</strong> <strong>la</strong> Justice du QuébecOc<strong>to</strong>ber 2009


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisionsas regards adoption<strong>and</strong> parental authorityConsultation PaperMinistère <strong>de</strong> <strong>la</strong> Justice du QuébecOc<strong>to</strong>ber 2009


Avant-projet <strong>de</strong> loi modifiant le <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> civil et d'autres dispositionslégis<strong>la</strong>tives en matièred'adoption et d'au<strong>to</strong>rité parentaleThis document can be accessed on <strong>the</strong> website of Ministère <strong>de</strong> <strong>la</strong> Justice : www.justice.gouv.qc.ca.Legal <strong>de</strong>posit – 2009Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du QuébecLibrary <strong>and</strong> Archives CanadaISBN: 978-2-550-57486-6 (print version)ISBN: 978-2-550-57487-3 (PDF version)© Government of Québec2


Document <strong>de</strong> consultationForewordThe Québec government has tabled <strong>the</strong> <strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong><strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rlegis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regards adoption <strong>and</strong>parental authority in <strong>the</strong> National Assembly. Thegovernment’s aim is <strong>to</strong> adapt <strong>the</strong> <strong>la</strong>w <strong>to</strong> match <strong>the</strong>new social <strong>and</strong> family situations in which adoptiontakes p<strong>la</strong>ce, in or<strong>de</strong>r <strong>to</strong> provi<strong>de</strong> a better response<strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> current needs of children in Québec.All Quebecers are invited <strong>to</strong> express <strong>the</strong>ir views onthis key <strong>to</strong>pic during <strong>the</strong> parliamentary commissionhearings that will begin on January 13, 2010.Kathleen WeilMinister of Justice <strong>and</strong> At<strong>to</strong>rney General of QuébecQuébec, Oc<strong>to</strong>ber 20093


Avant-projet <strong>de</strong> loi modifiant le <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> civil et d'autres dispositionslégis<strong>la</strong>tives en matièred'adoption et d'au<strong>to</strong>rité parentale4


Avant-projet <strong>de</strong> loi modifiant le <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> civil et d'autres dispositionslégis<strong>la</strong>tives en matièred'adoption et d'au<strong>to</strong>rité parentale6


Consultation PaperIntroductionThe goal of this Consultation Paper is <strong>to</strong> exp<strong>la</strong>in<strong>the</strong> new rules that will apply <strong>to</strong> adoptions if <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisionsas regards adoption <strong>and</strong> parental authority ispassed.The Consultation Paper focuses, in particu<strong>la</strong>r, on• <strong>the</strong> confi<strong>de</strong>ntiality of adoption files;• open adoption;• adoption in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existing bond offiliation is not dissolved;• judicial <strong>de</strong>legation of parental authority.The new rules are not inten<strong>de</strong>d <strong>to</strong> diminish <strong>the</strong>importance of full adoption. Full adoption willcontinue <strong>to</strong> p<strong>la</strong>y a fundamental role as one of <strong>the</strong>options avai<strong>la</strong>ble in Québec, by meeting <strong>the</strong> needsof children <strong>for</strong> whom a new filiation must be establishedthat does not maintain significant bondswith <strong>the</strong>ir original family. Full adoption will remain<strong>the</strong> most appropriate mo<strong>de</strong>l <strong>for</strong> a <strong>la</strong>rge number ofchildren. However, since this mo<strong>de</strong>l alone cannotmeet <strong>the</strong> needs of all children in Québec, <strong>the</strong> new<strong>for</strong>ms of adoption will be introduced <strong>to</strong> increase<strong>the</strong> range of options avai<strong>la</strong>ble.The rules <strong>for</strong> open adoption <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong> rules governing<strong>the</strong> confi<strong>de</strong>ntiality of adoption files will apply <strong>to</strong> al<strong>la</strong>doptions, whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y take p<strong>la</strong>ce within Québecor internationally, subject <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> changes consi<strong>de</strong>rednecessary in <strong>the</strong> case of international adoptions.Adoptions in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existing bond of filiationis not dissolved will only be possible when <strong>the</strong>adoption takes p<strong>la</strong>ce within Québec.The goal of this Consultation Paper is <strong>to</strong> stimu<strong>la</strong>tediscussion about <strong>the</strong> proposed rules, which arenot yet in effect. Changes <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> rules can still bema<strong>de</strong> be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong>y are presented in <strong>the</strong> <strong>for</strong>m of alegis<strong>la</strong>tive <strong>Bill</strong>.7


Avant-projet <strong>de</strong> loi modifiant le <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> civil et d'autres dispositionslégis<strong>la</strong>tives en matièred'adoption et d'au<strong>to</strong>rité parentale8


Consultation Paper1 New rules governing <strong>the</strong>confi<strong>de</strong>ntiality of adoptionfiles1.1 Who will be affected by <strong>the</strong> new rules?The new rules will apply <strong>to</strong> adopted persons, originalparents <strong>and</strong> adoptive parents in connectionwith adoptions pronounced after <strong>the</strong> new rulescome in<strong>to</strong> <strong>for</strong>ce.1.2 Will <strong>the</strong> new rules affect adoptionspronounced be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> rules come in<strong>to</strong><strong>for</strong>ce?No. The current rules governing <strong>the</strong> confi<strong>de</strong>ntialityof adoption files will continue <strong>to</strong> apply <strong>to</strong> adoptionspronounced be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> new rules come in<strong>to</strong> <strong>for</strong>ce.The current rules will also continue <strong>to</strong> apply <strong>to</strong>children who have not yet been adopted, but <strong>for</strong>whom a consent <strong>to</strong> adoption was given or a <strong>de</strong>c<strong>la</strong>rationof eligibility <strong>for</strong> adoption was ma<strong>de</strong> be<strong>for</strong>e<strong>the</strong> new rules came in<strong>to</strong> <strong>for</strong>ce. The current ruleswill continue <strong>to</strong> apply <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> original parents of<strong>the</strong>se children.1.3 New rules concerning adoptedpersons who wish <strong>to</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntify or find <strong>the</strong>iroriginal parentsUn<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> new rules, will adopted persons beentitled <strong>to</strong> obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation that will allow<strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntify or find <strong>the</strong>ir original parents?Yes, except if <strong>the</strong> original parents have registered ave<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> prevent this.Adopted children un<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> age of 14 must, in addition,have obtained <strong>the</strong> consent of <strong>the</strong>ir adoptiveparents be<strong>for</strong>e being given access <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation.What is a ve<strong>to</strong>?A ve<strong>to</strong> is a document registered by <strong>the</strong> originalparents <strong>to</strong> prevent• <strong>the</strong> disclosure of <strong>the</strong>ir i<strong>de</strong>ntity;• contact of any kind.I<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure ve<strong>to</strong>The original parents will be able <strong>to</strong> register ani<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> prevent <strong>the</strong>ir adoptedchild from obtaining in<strong>for</strong>mation that allows <strong>the</strong>m<strong>to</strong> be i<strong>de</strong>ntified.Contact ve<strong>to</strong>The original parents will be able <strong>to</strong> register a contactve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> allow <strong>the</strong>ir adopted child <strong>to</strong> receive all <strong>the</strong>in<strong>for</strong>mation contained in <strong>the</strong> adoption file, includingin<strong>for</strong>mation allowing <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> be i<strong>de</strong>ntified, butalso <strong>to</strong> state that <strong>the</strong>y refuse <strong>to</strong> be contacted by<strong>the</strong>ir adopted child.What ensures that an adopted person willcomply with a contact ve<strong>to</strong>?Dissuasive measures will be prescribed by <strong>la</strong>w,including a fine <strong>to</strong> punish adopted persons whofail <strong>to</strong> comply with a contact ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>and</strong> who contact<strong>the</strong>ir original parents. The amount of <strong>the</strong> fine willbe sufficient <strong>to</strong> ensure that adopted personscomply with <strong>the</strong> contact ve<strong>to</strong>.9


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regardsadoption <strong>and</strong> parental authorityIf <strong>the</strong> original parents register an i<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosureve<strong>to</strong> or contact ve<strong>to</strong>, does this mean that<strong>the</strong> adopted child will receive no in<strong>for</strong>mationabout his or her original parents?No. Original parents who register a ve<strong>to</strong> will beencouraged <strong>to</strong> provi<strong>de</strong>• a summary of <strong>the</strong>ir family his<strong>to</strong>ry;• a summary of <strong>the</strong>ir medical his<strong>to</strong>ry;• <strong>the</strong>ir reasons <strong>for</strong> registering a ve<strong>to</strong>.1.4 New rules <strong>for</strong> original parents whowish <strong>to</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntify or find <strong>the</strong>ir adoptedchildUn<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> new rules, will <strong>the</strong> original parentsbe able <strong>to</strong> obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation allowing <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong>i<strong>de</strong>ntify or find <strong>the</strong>ir adopted child?Yes, on two conditions:• <strong>the</strong> adopted child must be aged 18 or over;• <strong>the</strong> adopted child must not have registered a ve<strong>to</strong>.If no ve<strong>to</strong> has been registered, <strong>the</strong> youth centrewill contact <strong>the</strong> adopted child <strong>to</strong> obtain his or herconsent, <strong>and</strong> <strong>to</strong> give him or her an opportunity <strong>to</strong>register a ve<strong>to</strong>. This additional step is necessary<strong>to</strong> protect <strong>the</strong> rights of adopted persons who areunaware that <strong>the</strong>y have been adopted.What is a ve<strong>to</strong>?Adopted persons will be able <strong>to</strong> register a ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong>prevent• <strong>the</strong> disclosure of <strong>the</strong>ir i<strong>de</strong>ntity;• contact of any kind.Contact ve<strong>to</strong>Adopted persons will be able <strong>to</strong> register a contactve<strong>to</strong> allowing <strong>the</strong>ir original parents <strong>to</strong> receive all<strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation contained in <strong>the</strong> adoption file, includingin<strong>for</strong>mation that allows an adopted person<strong>to</strong> be i<strong>de</strong>ntified, but also <strong>to</strong> refuse all contact with<strong>the</strong>ir original parents.What ensures that original parents will complywith a contact ve<strong>to</strong>?Dissuasive measures will be prescribed by <strong>la</strong>w, includinga fine <strong>to</strong> punish original parents child whofail <strong>to</strong> comply with a contact ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>and</strong> who contact<strong>the</strong>ir adopted child. The amount of <strong>the</strong> fine will besufficient <strong>to</strong> ensure that original parents complywith <strong>the</strong> contact ve<strong>to</strong>.Will people won<strong>de</strong>ring whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y wereadopted be able <strong>to</strong> ask someone apart from<strong>the</strong>ir adoptive parents?Yes. Adopted persons aged 14 or over will be able<strong>to</strong> contact <strong>the</strong> Direc<strong>to</strong>r of Youth Protection (DYP)directly <strong>to</strong> ask whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>y were adopted.If a person is unaware that he or she wasadopted, will <strong>the</strong> DYP be able <strong>to</strong> release <strong>the</strong>in<strong>for</strong>mation?Yes. If <strong>the</strong> original parents make a request <strong>to</strong> find<strong>the</strong>ir adopted child aged 18 or over, as permittedby <strong>la</strong>w, <strong>the</strong> DYP will be able <strong>to</strong> reveal <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>adopted child that he or she was adopted, <strong>and</strong>in<strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong> adopted child of his or her right <strong>to</strong>register an i<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure ve<strong>to</strong> or contact ve<strong>to</strong>.I<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure ve<strong>to</strong>Adopted persons will be able <strong>to</strong> register an i<strong>de</strong>ntitydisclosure ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> prevent <strong>the</strong>ir original parentsfrom obtaining in<strong>for</strong>mation allowing <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> bei<strong>de</strong>ntified.10


Consultation PaperFor this reason, it is advisable <strong>for</strong> adoptive parents<strong>to</strong> let <strong>the</strong>ir child know that he or she was adopted,at a time <strong>the</strong>y consi<strong>de</strong>r suitable.Do adopted persons always need <strong>to</strong> registera ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> prevent <strong>the</strong>ir original parents fromobtaining in<strong>for</strong>mation about <strong>the</strong>m?Adopted persons un<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> age of 18Adopted persons un<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> age of 18 do not need<strong>to</strong> register a ve<strong>to</strong>, because <strong>the</strong>ir original parentswill not be able <strong>to</strong> obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation allowing<strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> be i<strong>de</strong>ntified or contacted be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong>yreach <strong>the</strong> age of 18.Adopted persons aged 18 or overIf no ve<strong>to</strong> has been registered, <strong>the</strong> DYP will contact<strong>the</strong> adopted person <strong>to</strong> obtain consent or <strong>to</strong> give<strong>the</strong> adopted person an opportunity <strong>to</strong> register ani<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure ve<strong>to</strong> or contact ve<strong>to</strong> <strong>to</strong> blockcontact by <strong>the</strong> original parents.1.5 New rules governing <strong>the</strong> disclosureof i<strong>de</strong>ntity following <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>ath of <strong>the</strong>person whose i<strong>de</strong>ntity is soughtWhat happens if <strong>the</strong> original parent has diedwhen an adopted child makes a request <strong>to</strong>obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>to</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntify or contact <strong>the</strong>original parent?The answer <strong>de</strong>pends on <strong>the</strong> situation:• if <strong>the</strong> original parent had not registered a ve<strong>to</strong>, <strong>the</strong>parent’s i<strong>de</strong>ntity may be obtained immediately;• if <strong>the</strong> original parent had registered a ve<strong>to</strong>, <strong>the</strong>parent’s i<strong>de</strong>ntity may be obtained two years after<strong>the</strong> parent’s <strong>de</strong>ath, except if <strong>the</strong> file containsreasons that justify an extension of <strong>the</strong> ve<strong>to</strong>. Thetwo-year period gives <strong>the</strong> family time <strong>to</strong> grieve<strong>and</strong> <strong>to</strong> settle <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>ceased parent’s successionwithout having <strong>to</strong> <strong>de</strong>al with <strong>the</strong> emotional impac<strong>to</strong>f a request <strong>for</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure.What happens if an adopted child, aged 18 orover, has died when <strong>the</strong> original parent makesa request <strong>to</strong> obtain in<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>to</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntify orcontact <strong>the</strong> adopted child?The answer <strong>de</strong>pends on <strong>the</strong> situation:• if <strong>the</strong> adopted child had not registered a ve<strong>to</strong>, <strong>the</strong>child’s i<strong>de</strong>ntity may be obtained immediately,but <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents must be in<strong>for</strong>med;• if <strong>the</strong> adopted child aged 18 or over had registereda ve<strong>to</strong>, <strong>the</strong> child’s i<strong>de</strong>ntity may be obtainedtwo years after <strong>the</strong> child’s <strong>de</strong>ath, except if <strong>the</strong>file contains reasons that justify an extension of<strong>the</strong> ve<strong>to</strong>. The two-year period gives <strong>the</strong> familytime <strong>to</strong> grieve <strong>and</strong> <strong>to</strong> settle <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>ceased child’ssuccession without having <strong>to</strong> <strong>de</strong>al with <strong>the</strong> emotionalimpact of a request <strong>for</strong> i<strong>de</strong>ntity disclosure.The adoptive family will be notified of <strong>the</strong> fact thatin<strong>for</strong>mation allowing <strong>the</strong> adopted child <strong>to</strong> be i<strong>de</strong>ntifiedhas been disclosed <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> original parents.If, two years after a person’s <strong>de</strong>ath, <strong>the</strong> youthcentre refuses <strong>to</strong> disclose <strong>the</strong> person’s i<strong>de</strong>ntitybecause of reasons contained in <strong>the</strong> file, is arecourse possible?Yes, an application can be ma<strong>de</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> court <strong>to</strong>settle <strong>the</strong> matter.The court will weigh <strong>the</strong> importance of <strong>the</strong> opposingrights <strong>and</strong> interests. The court may <strong>de</strong>ci<strong>de</strong> that <strong>the</strong><strong>de</strong>ceased person’s i<strong>de</strong>ntity will be disclosed, bu<strong>to</strong>n certain conditions. For example, <strong>the</strong> court may<strong>de</strong>ci<strong>de</strong> whe<strong>the</strong>r or not contact with members of <strong>the</strong><strong>de</strong>ceased person’s family will be permitted.11


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regardsadoption <strong>and</strong> parental authority1.6 New rules concerning requests <strong>for</strong>in<strong>for</strong>mation about <strong>the</strong> medical antece<strong>de</strong>ntsof <strong>the</strong> original parents of an adoptedpersonWho is affected by <strong>the</strong> new rules?The new rules concerning requests <strong>for</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mationabout <strong>the</strong> medical antece<strong>de</strong>nts of original parentsapply <strong>to</strong> persons adopted be<strong>for</strong>e or after <strong>the</strong> newrules come in<strong>to</strong> <strong>for</strong>ce, <strong>and</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> close re<strong>la</strong>tives ofadopted persons.What are <strong>the</strong> new rules?At <strong>the</strong> request of an adopted person, <strong>the</strong> court willbe able <strong>to</strong> or<strong>de</strong>r that <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation be <strong>for</strong>war<strong>de</strong>dconfi<strong>de</strong>ntially <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> medical authorities concerned,if <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation is nee<strong>de</strong>d <strong>to</strong> prevent damage <strong>to</strong><strong>the</strong> health of <strong>the</strong> adopted person or a close re<strong>la</strong>tive.A close re<strong>la</strong>tive of an adopted person will also beable <strong>to</strong> exercise this right if <strong>the</strong> in<strong>for</strong>mation isnee<strong>de</strong>d <strong>to</strong> prevent damage <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> health of <strong>the</strong>adopted person or a close re<strong>la</strong>tive.12


Consultation Paper2 An innovation: open adoptionWhat is open adoption?Open adoption is a <strong>for</strong>m of adoption that allows<strong>the</strong> original parents <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents <strong>to</strong>agree <strong>to</strong> remain in communication with each o<strong>the</strong>r<strong>and</strong>, possibly, with <strong>the</strong> adopted child, during <strong>the</strong>p<strong>la</strong>cement <strong>and</strong> following <strong>the</strong> adoption. An opennessagreement must be signed <strong>for</strong> this purpose.An openness agreement <strong>de</strong>pends not only on <strong>the</strong>goodwill of <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents <strong>and</strong> original parents,but also on <strong>the</strong>ir willingness <strong>to</strong> give <strong>for</strong>malconsent <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> agreement.What is an openness agreement?An openness agreement is an agreement signed by<strong>the</strong> adoptive parents <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong> original parents, orby <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong> tu<strong>to</strong>r or personhaving parental authority. The agreement allows<strong>the</strong> parties• <strong>to</strong> disclose or exchange in<strong>for</strong>mation concerning<strong>the</strong> adopted child;• <strong>to</strong> maintain personal re<strong>la</strong>tions between <strong>the</strong>mselves<strong>and</strong> with <strong>the</strong> adopted child, during <strong>the</strong>p<strong>la</strong>cement or after <strong>the</strong> adoption.For example, <strong>the</strong> original family <strong>and</strong> adoptivefamily may agree <strong>to</strong> exchange letters or pho<strong>to</strong>s,or p<strong>la</strong>n a schedule of phone calls <strong>and</strong> visits.The Direc<strong>to</strong>r of Youth Protection (DYP) will berequired <strong>to</strong> in<strong>for</strong>m <strong>the</strong> original parents, tu<strong>to</strong>r orperson having parental authority, as well as <strong>the</strong>adoptive parents, of <strong>the</strong>ir right <strong>to</strong> sign an opennessagreement, <strong>and</strong> of <strong>the</strong> content <strong>and</strong> effects of suchan agreement. The DYP must also, if nee<strong>de</strong>d,encourage <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> consult an advocate or notary<strong>to</strong> help <strong>the</strong>m make an enlightened <strong>de</strong>cision.Is <strong>the</strong> consent of <strong>the</strong> adopted child necessarybe<strong>for</strong>e an openness agreement is signed?Yes, if <strong>the</strong> adopted child is aged 14 or over.No, if <strong>the</strong> adopted child is un<strong>de</strong>r 14. However, <strong>the</strong>child’s opinion may be taken in<strong>to</strong> consi<strong>de</strong>ration.When should an openness agreement besigned?An openness agreement must be signed be<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong>or<strong>de</strong>r of p<strong>la</strong>cement or adoption judgment is pronouncedby <strong>the</strong> court. For <strong>the</strong> agreement <strong>to</strong> haveeffect, it must be confirmed by <strong>the</strong> court when itpronounces <strong>the</strong> or<strong>de</strong>r of p<strong>la</strong>cement or adoptionjudgment. The agreement will <strong>the</strong>n have <strong>the</strong> same<strong>for</strong>ce as a judgment.What is an or<strong>de</strong>r of p<strong>la</strong>cement?An or<strong>de</strong>r of p<strong>la</strong>cement is a step that occurs be<strong>for</strong>ean adoption judgment is ma<strong>de</strong>. The court or<strong>de</strong>rsthat <strong>the</strong> child be p<strong>la</strong>ced un<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> responsibility of<strong>the</strong> adoptive parents <strong>for</strong> a specified time <strong>to</strong> ensurethat <strong>the</strong> child adapts <strong>to</strong> his or her adoptive family.13


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regardsadoption <strong>and</strong> parental authorityWhat happens if <strong>the</strong> people who sign <strong>the</strong>openness agreement cannot agree on how <strong>to</strong>apply it?If <strong>the</strong> parties <strong>to</strong> an openness agreement cannotagree on how <strong>to</strong> apply it, <strong>the</strong>y can request mediation.They can also apply <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> court, which willsettle <strong>the</strong> dispute in <strong>the</strong> best interests of <strong>the</strong> child.What happens <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> consent <strong>to</strong> adoption, or<strong>de</strong>rof p<strong>la</strong>cement or adoption judgment if <strong>the</strong> court<strong>amend</strong>s or cancels <strong>the</strong> openness agreement?Nothing. The <strong>amend</strong>ment or cancel<strong>la</strong>tion of <strong>the</strong>openness agreement by <strong>the</strong> court does not invalidate<strong>the</strong> consent <strong>to</strong> adoption, or<strong>de</strong>r or p<strong>la</strong>cemen<strong>to</strong>r adoption judgment.Can anyone apart from <strong>the</strong> original parents, tu<strong>to</strong>ror person having parental authority sign anagreement with <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents?People who are not party <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> openness agreement(<strong>for</strong> example, a member of <strong>the</strong> exten<strong>de</strong>dfamily) may also, with <strong>the</strong> consent of <strong>the</strong> adoptiveparents, agree <strong>to</strong> remain in communication with<strong>the</strong> adoptive parents or <strong>the</strong> adopted child.However, <strong>the</strong>se agreements do not have <strong>the</strong> sameeffect as an openness agreement. Each party <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong>agreement can terminate <strong>the</strong> agreement without<strong>the</strong> consent of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r party or parties.14


Consultation PaperWhy establish a new <strong>for</strong>m of adoption?3 An innovation: adoption inwhich <strong>the</strong> pre-existing bondof filiation is not dissolvedThe <strong>la</strong>w will be <strong>amend</strong>ed <strong>to</strong> allow <strong>the</strong> courts, incertain cases, <strong>to</strong> pronounce an “adoption in which<strong>the</strong> pre-existing bond of filiation is not dissolved”.What is an adoption in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existingbond of filiation is not dissolved?This is a <strong>for</strong>m of adoption that creates a new bondof filiation between <strong>the</strong> adopted child <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong>adoptive parents, while maintaining <strong>the</strong> bond offiliation between <strong>the</strong> adopted child <strong>and</strong> his or heroriginal parents. Only <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents willhave parental authority.ExamplePierre <strong>and</strong> Chantale are <strong>the</strong> original parents ofJulie. Julie lives in a foster family with Nathalie, butknows her original parents. Nathalie wishes <strong>to</strong>become Julie’s adoptive mo<strong>the</strong>r. Julie wants <strong>to</strong> beadopted, but also wants <strong>to</strong> retain her original filiation,which is significant <strong>for</strong> her <strong>and</strong> <strong>for</strong>ms part ofher i<strong>de</strong>ntity. <strong>Act</strong>ing in Julie’s best interest, Nathalie<strong>the</strong>re<strong>for</strong>e obtains an adoption in which <strong>the</strong> preexistingbond of filiation is not dissolved. Juliebecomes Nathalie’s child, but retains a bond offiliation with her original parents, Pierre <strong>and</strong>Chantale. Julie’s act of birth will show her originalfiliation, plus her adoptive filiation.The new <strong>for</strong>m of adoption will meet <strong>the</strong> needs ofchildren <strong>for</strong> whom full adoption, <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong> dissolutionof bonds it entails, does not appear <strong>to</strong> be <strong>the</strong>best solution. An adoption in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existingbond of filiation is not dissolved will ensure <strong>the</strong>survival of bonds that are significant <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> childrenadopted, <strong>and</strong> will make it easier <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong>m <strong>to</strong> becomepart of <strong>the</strong>ir new family without turning <strong>the</strong>ir backon <strong>the</strong> past. The new <strong>for</strong>m of adoption will be useful,<strong>for</strong> example, when one spouse in a coupleadopts <strong>the</strong> child of <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r spouse, when a childis adopted within <strong>the</strong> exten<strong>de</strong>d family (<strong>for</strong> example,by <strong>the</strong> gr<strong>and</strong>parents), or when an ol<strong>de</strong>r child isadopted.Will adoptive parents still be able <strong>to</strong> request afull adoption?Yes. The proposed <strong>amend</strong>ments will not abolishfull adoption as it exists <strong>to</strong>day, which dissolves all<strong>the</strong> bonds between <strong>the</strong> adopted child <strong>and</strong> his orher original parents. Full adoption will still be anoption when it is <strong>the</strong> legal mechanism that provi<strong>de</strong>s<strong>the</strong> best guarantees <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> needs <strong>and</strong> rights of <strong>the</strong>child concerned.What are <strong>the</strong> features of adoption in which <strong>the</strong>pre-existing bond of filiation is not dissolved?In this <strong>for</strong>m of adoption,• <strong>the</strong> adopted child’s act of birth will contain <strong>the</strong>child’s original filiation <strong>and</strong> adoptive filiation;• <strong>the</strong> adopted child will keep his or her originalfamily name <strong>and</strong> will add <strong>the</strong> adoptive familyname, unless <strong>the</strong> court <strong>de</strong>ci<strong>de</strong>s o<strong>the</strong>rwise;• <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents will have all <strong>the</strong> rights <strong>and</strong>all <strong>the</strong> duties of parents with regard <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> child;however, <strong>the</strong> original parents will have a subsidiaryduty of support, meaning that <strong>the</strong>y willhave <strong>to</strong> provi<strong>de</strong> support if <strong>the</strong> adopted child isunable <strong>to</strong> obtain support from his or her adoptiveparents.15


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regardsadoption <strong>and</strong> parental authorityThe DYP will be required <strong>to</strong> in<strong>for</strong>m all <strong>the</strong> parties of<strong>the</strong> effects of an adoption in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existingbond of filiation is not dissolved, compared <strong>to</strong> anadoption in which <strong>the</strong> bond is dissolved.Will <strong>the</strong> original parents be kept in<strong>for</strong>med of<strong>the</strong>ir adopted child’s progress?Not necessarily. If <strong>the</strong> original parents want <strong>to</strong> besure that <strong>the</strong>y will be able <strong>to</strong> remain in communication,exchange in<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>and</strong> maintain personalre<strong>la</strong>tions with <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents or adoptedchild, <strong>the</strong>y will have <strong>to</strong> sign an openness agreementbe<strong>for</strong>e <strong>the</strong> adoption takes p<strong>la</strong>ce.Will <strong>the</strong> original parents have any parentalresponsibilities <strong>to</strong>ward <strong>the</strong> adopted child?No. All <strong>the</strong> parental responsibilities <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> adoptedchild will be taken over by <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents.However, <strong>the</strong> original parents will have <strong>to</strong> provi<strong>de</strong>support if <strong>the</strong> adopted child is unable <strong>to</strong> obtainsupport from <strong>the</strong> adoptive parents.For an adoption in which <strong>the</strong> pre-existing bondof filiation is not dissolved, will <strong>the</strong> child need <strong>to</strong>consent <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> adoption?Yes. The current rules governing consent by <strong>the</strong>child <strong>to</strong> a full adoption will also govern an adoptionin which <strong>the</strong> pre-existing bond of filiation is notdissolved. In o<strong>the</strong>r words, if <strong>the</strong> child is aged 10 orover, <strong>the</strong> adoption can only take p<strong>la</strong>ce with <strong>the</strong>child’s consent. However, <strong>the</strong> court has discretion<strong>to</strong> pronounce an adoption even if <strong>the</strong> child refuses<strong>to</strong> give consent, except if <strong>the</strong> child is aged 14 orover.16


Consultation Paperperson of all rights <strong>and</strong> duties with respect <strong>to</strong> achild, except <strong>the</strong> obligation <strong>to</strong> provi<strong>de</strong> support <strong>and</strong><strong>the</strong> right <strong>to</strong> consent <strong>to</strong> adoption.The bond of filiation between <strong>the</strong> parent <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong>child is not broken in such a case.4 An innovation: judicial <strong>de</strong>legationof parental authorityWhat is parental authority?Parental authority consists of a series of rights <strong>and</strong>duties that parents have <strong>to</strong>ward <strong>the</strong>ir minor children.More specifically, <strong>the</strong> parents have rights <strong>and</strong> dutiesre<strong>la</strong>ting <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> cus<strong>to</strong>dy, supervision <strong>and</strong> educationof <strong>the</strong>ir children. They must feed <strong>the</strong>m, support<strong>the</strong>m <strong>and</strong> ensure <strong>the</strong>ir health <strong>and</strong> safety. Parenta<strong>la</strong>uthority is exercised jointly by <strong>the</strong> fa<strong>the</strong>r <strong>and</strong>mo<strong>the</strong>r.Because of <strong>the</strong>ir parental authority, parents have<strong>the</strong> power <strong>to</strong> make all <strong>the</strong> necessary <strong>de</strong>cisions <strong>to</strong>ensure <strong>the</strong> wellbeing of <strong>the</strong>ir children until <strong>the</strong>yreach <strong>the</strong> age of 18.Currently, can parental authority be <strong>de</strong>legatedcompletely?No, only <strong>the</strong> cus<strong>to</strong>dy, supervision or education of achild may be partially <strong>and</strong> temporarily <strong>de</strong>legated.What is <strong>the</strong> judicial <strong>de</strong>legation of parenta<strong>la</strong>uthority?The judicial <strong>de</strong>legation of parental authority allowsone parent <strong>to</strong> share parental authority over a childwith a spouse who is not <strong>the</strong> fa<strong>the</strong>r or mo<strong>the</strong>r of<strong>the</strong> child. It also allows <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>legation <strong>to</strong> ano<strong>the</strong>rThe judicial <strong>de</strong>legation of parental authority willoffer an alternative <strong>to</strong> adoption in certain situationswhen, in <strong>the</strong> child’s best interests, a <strong>de</strong>legation ofparental authority offers a better solution than achange in filiation.ExampleNicole <strong>and</strong> Patrick are <strong>the</strong> parents of Sarah. For <strong>the</strong><strong>la</strong>st five years, Nicole has been bringing up herdaughter with <strong>the</strong> help of her new spouse, Marc.Patrick looks after Sarah from time <strong>to</strong> time, <strong>and</strong>she visits him occasionally. Nicole wants <strong>to</strong> exerciseher parental authority jointly with Marc, whichwould allow him, <strong>for</strong> example, <strong>to</strong> enrol Sarah inschool, consent <strong>to</strong> medical care <strong>for</strong> her, etc. Nicolemust submit an application <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> court, but mustfirst obtain Patrick’s consent.What are <strong>the</strong> effects of a judicial <strong>de</strong>legation ofparental authority?A judicial <strong>de</strong>legation will allow <strong>the</strong> parent of a child<strong>to</strong> share <strong>the</strong> exercise of parental authority with hisor her spouse. In this case, <strong>the</strong> consent of <strong>the</strong> child’so<strong>the</strong>r parent will be necessary.It will also be possible <strong>to</strong> <strong>de</strong>legate <strong>to</strong> ano<strong>the</strong>r personall of a parent’s rights <strong>and</strong> duties <strong>to</strong>ward <strong>the</strong>ir child.The parent will be <strong>de</strong>prived of <strong>the</strong> exercise of all<strong>the</strong> rights, <strong>and</strong> will no longer be able <strong>to</strong> make <strong>de</strong>cisionsconcerning <strong>the</strong> child. However, <strong>the</strong> parentwill still have a duty of support <strong>to</strong>ward <strong>the</strong> child,<strong>and</strong> will retain <strong>the</strong> right <strong>to</strong> consent <strong>to</strong> <strong>the</strong> child’sadoption. Parental authority may be <strong>de</strong>legated <strong>to</strong>one of <strong>the</strong> following people:• <strong>the</strong> child’s gr<strong>and</strong>mo<strong>the</strong>r, gr<strong>and</strong>fa<strong>the</strong>r, uncle, aunt,bro<strong>the</strong>r, sister, <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir respective spouses;• <strong>the</strong> spouse of one of <strong>the</strong> child’s parents.17


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong> <strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisions as regardsadoption <strong>and</strong> parental authorityA judicial <strong>de</strong>legation of parental authority will notbe consi<strong>de</strong>red as an ab<strong>and</strong>onment of responsibility<strong>and</strong>, as a result, will not create an entitlement <strong>to</strong>apply <strong>for</strong> a <strong>de</strong>c<strong>la</strong>ration of eligibility <strong>for</strong> adoption.What effect will <strong>de</strong>cisions by <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>legatee havewith regard <strong>to</strong> third parties?When <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>legatee (<strong>the</strong> person <strong>to</strong> whom <strong>the</strong> rights<strong>and</strong> duties are <strong>de</strong>legated) uses parental authority<strong>to</strong> make a <strong>de</strong>cision, <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>cision will be consi<strong>de</strong>red<strong>to</strong> have been ma<strong>de</strong> with <strong>the</strong> agreement of <strong>the</strong>child’s parents.For example, if <strong>the</strong> <strong>de</strong>legatee enrols <strong>the</strong> child inschool, <strong>the</strong> school principal will be required <strong>to</strong>accept <strong>the</strong> enrolment as if it had been ma<strong>de</strong> by<strong>the</strong> parents.18


Consultation Paper5 O<strong>the</strong>r <strong>amend</strong>mentsUn<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> new rules, in <strong>the</strong> event of a disagreement,<strong>the</strong> court will be able <strong>to</strong> <strong>de</strong>ci<strong>de</strong> whe<strong>the</strong>r or notpersonal re<strong>la</strong>tions with an adopted child should bemaintained, <strong>and</strong> on what conditions. However,be<strong>for</strong>e imposing a solution, <strong>the</strong> court must facilitateconciliation between <strong>the</strong> parties <strong>to</strong> help <strong>the</strong>mreach an agreement.In addition, un<strong>de</strong>r <strong>the</strong> new rules, a person who hasp<strong>la</strong>yed a parental role in <strong>the</strong> life of his or her exspouse’schild will be able <strong>to</strong> adopt <strong>the</strong> child inaccordance with <strong>the</strong> rules governing <strong>the</strong> various<strong>for</strong>ms of adoption.19


Avant-projet <strong>de</strong> loi modifiant le <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> civil et d'autres dispositionslégis<strong>la</strong>tives en matièred'adoption et d'au<strong>to</strong>rité parentale20


<strong>Draft</strong> <strong>Bill</strong> <strong>for</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Act</strong><strong>to</strong> <strong>amend</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Civil</strong> <strong>Co<strong>de</strong></strong> <strong>and</strong>o<strong>the</strong>r legis<strong>la</strong>tive provisionsas regards adoption<strong>and</strong> parental authority

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!