WIND TURBINES INDUSTRY RENAISSANCE - Control Design

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WIND TURBINES INDUSTRY RENAISSANCE - Control Design

Volume 17, No. 5CONTENTSMAY 2013FEATURES24 Cover StoryBuilt In SafetyMachine Builders Include Preventive Safety Early in the Design—And Get Paid Back SoonerJim Montague, executive ditor35 Sensing and MeasurementFeedback Critical to Machining PrecisionVertical Turning/Grinding Machine Uses Optical and MagneticEncoders to Aid High-Accuracy Production of Wind Turbine BearingsPer Junskog, KMT Precision Grinding42 Product RoundupControllers: More of EverythingThe List of User Requirements Continues to Grow Longer24COLUMNS7 ControlDesign.comSocial Media Pulse9 Editor’s PageComing Soon23 Embedded IntelligenceTimeline Marches On41 TechFlashSensing When to Go Wireless46 SpecmateThree Specs, or So, for MotorChoice54 OEM InsightThe Renaissance RequiresAutomationHOT BUTTONS15 OEM SpotlightUsers’ Needs Inspire Builder’sInventions16 InDiscreteStrong Growth Forecast forDirect Drives48 Real AnswersShould M2M Scare Us?52 Product ShowcaseCONTROL DESIGN EXCLUSIVE51 Otek’s Display Shows the Power of the LoopCONTROL DESIGN, (ISSN: 1094-3366) is published 12 times a year by Putman Media, 555 West Pierce Rd., Suite 301, Itasca, Illinois 60143. (Phone 630/467-1300; Fax 630/467-1124.) Periodicalpostage paid at Itasca, IL, and at additional mailing offi ces. Address all correspondence to Editorial and Executive Offi ces, same address. Printed in the United States. ©Putman Media 2013. All rightsreserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or part without consent of the copyright owner. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Control Design, Post Offi ce Box 3430,Northbrook, Illinois 60065-3430. SUBSCRIPTIONS: To apply for a free subscription, fi ll in the form at www.ControlDesign.com/subscribemag. To non-qualifi ed subscribers in the Unites States and itspossessions, subscriptions are $96.00 per year. Single copies are $15. International subscriptions are accepted at $200 (Airmail only.) Putman Media also publishes CHEMICAL PROCESSING, CONTROL,FOOD PROCESSING, INDUSTRIAL NETWORKING, PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING and PLANT SERVICES. CONTROL DESIGN assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in items reported.Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40028661. Canadian Mail Distributor information: World Distribution Services, Inc., Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, Ontario,Canada N9A 6J5. Printed in the United States.May 2013 Control Design 5


Find Parts Fast and EasyWe make it easy to find the partsyou are looking for atExplore!Use our free and easy website tools@ alliedelec.com today!1.800.433.5700© Allied Electronics, Inc 2013. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc. An Electrocomponents Company.


©2013 Siemens Industry, Inc.Cross-overto the newsafetydimension!Safety? Naturally Integrated!One system, one engineering tool, one networkusa.siemens.com/safetySIMATIC ® S7-1500 – the newgeneration of controllers along withthe new fail-safe I/O – offers youthe ultimate plus in automationwith power, efficiency andsafety integrated.Your Plus in Power:+ Outstanding system performancefor shortest response times andhighest quality of control+ Technology integratedfor seamless integration ofdrives and other devices+ Security integrated consistentlyincorporated for highestinvestment protectionYour Plus in Efficiency:+ Innovative design and easyhandling for simple usage andcommissioning as well assafe operation+ Integrated system diagnosticsfor full transparency of the plantstatus, automatically generatedand consistent appearance+ TIA Portal for highest engineeringefficiency to reduce projectcosts – and naturally withSafety integratedYour Plus in Safety:+ Seamless integration with onesystem, one engineering tool+ Standard and fail-safecommunication via the samenetwork, to lower initial andoperating costs+ Consistent implementationof proven safety technologyto protect lives and increaseproductivity+ Machine safety lifecycle –savings up to 30% in Total Costof OwnershipAnswers for industry.


OEM SPOTLIGHTUsers’ Needs Inspire Builder’s InventionsSpartanics Celebrates 50 Years Providing Leading Solutions to CustomersFAST AND CAREFUL CUTTINGSpartanics’ L-Series laser die-cutting systems use mirrorgalvanometers,servomotors and drives, which are directedby its proprietary software, and optimized by its long-timeoptics expertise to achieve ideal geometries and achievehigh-speed cutting.MOST MACHINE BUILDERS try to meet the needs oftheir end users. Few are started by one guy bringing aproblem to two engineers, who solve it, and then starta company with their client that goes on to tackle problemsin a succession of industries over the next 50 years.But, that’s exactly what Spartanics Ltd. (www.spartanics.com)succeeds in doing.Located in Rolling Meadows, Ill., Spartanics buildshard-tool and laser die-cutting machines, screen printingand re-registration equipment, machine-visioninspection and inishing systems, which produceeverything from credit cards to automotive dashboardsand displays. The irm was established in 1963, shortlyafter entrepreneur John Linton asked engineers SamWillits and Bill Mohan to improve registration, andreduce frequent, costly manual errors when printing onand cutting metal nameplates. The two engineers wereoptical sensing experts at Chicago Aerial Industries, anddeveloped an optical registration shear with a 30-in.blade, sensing heads and a motorized back gate, whichimproved accuracy to 0.001 in.“The company started out in nameplates, but usersalso needed an optical, non-contact counter to go withthe initial printer and cutting machine,” says Tom Kleeman,CEO of Spartanics. “Next, the printed circuit boardmarket grew up in the 1970s, which could use shearingequipment. But, they also needed pilot holes, so we inventedpilot-hole punch presses with scanning sensorsand AC servomotors to center the circuit boards.”A second big shift for Spartanics grew out of its nameplateand registration efforts, which also found applicationsin printing and cutting plastic credits cards, andmore recently added optically registered punch pressfeeders. “Credit cards needed shearing and registrationdevices to return the sheets to square before cutting.However, the credit card irms’ strict auditing requirementsalso meant they needed accurate counters, whichwe still make today,” Kleeman explains. “Obviously,optics is a continuing theme for us, but over the yearswe’ve become very familiar with motors and controlsystems. We’ve also really listened to the needs of ourcustomers, and designed and provided solutions forthem to meet the demands of many industries.”Perhaps the biggest recent evolution for Spartanicsarrived about eight years ago when it implementedoptically-directed laser cutting to accelerate productionof digitally printed credit cards, labels, decorative productsand other die-cut items. These laser die-cuttingsystems use mirror-galvanometers to position theircutting beams, and are integrated with Spartanics’ registration,counting, feeding and material handling lines.The irm employs its own proprietary motion-controlcomponents and software for its laser cutters, includingelements that took 10 years to develop. However, it alsoadopted some off-the-shelf servomotors and drives, aswell as PLCs for high- and low-end control.“We’re also starting to use PC-based control softwarefor laser cutting, but we mainly write our programmingin Visual Basic V.6, move it into a Microsoft .Net environment,and use C# and C++,” Kleeman says. “We have thefastest laser cutters around because of how we’ve editedand optimized our software, which looks like CNC code.Laser cutting is lot like running an old X-Y plotter, but inthis case we’re using mirrors to steer a beam to differentpoints on a flat surface that’s moving. Interfacing withour users helps us develop and implement better softwarefor them, but our optics experience and knowingthe physics behind the lasers and galvanometers letsus achieve the highest cutting speeds by shortening ourdistances, inding the best geometries, and picking thebest start and stop times with the least oscillation.”controldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 15


INDISCRETEStrong Growth Forecast for Direct DrivesTHE GLOBAL MARKET for directdrivetorque motor modules grewfrom $98 million in 2008 to $195million in 2012, and is forecast to beworth nearly $300 million in 2016,according to a recently releasedreport, The World Market for Linear andTorque Motors, from IMS Research/IHS (www.imsresearch.com).Direct-drive torque motor modulesreduce the need for powertransmission components such asgearboxes, couplings and linkages,which reduces the eficiency lossesin machinery based on these components.These motors can operatewith higher speeds and greaterprecision than achieved by the establishedfluid or electromechanicaldrive technologies. High-end industrialmachinery in the machinetool,semiconductor equipment,electronics assembly and flat-panelproduction sectors, that place thegreatest value on highly precise motion,have been the biggest marketsfor torque motors.“Market growth is driven byThe World Market for Linear and Torque Motors by Product TypeRevenue Growth Profile - 2011 to 201615.0%Linear Motor ComponentsLinear Motor Modules10.0%Linear Motor SystemsTorque Motor Components5.0%–Torque Motor Modules0.0%Torque Motor Systems2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-5.0%-10.0%-15.0%MARKET GROWTH RETURNS IN 2013Growing number of applications for direct-drive linear and torque motors.increased penetration of new applicationsin industry, and by thereplacement of gear motors andhydraulic systems in industrialmachinery that demands increasedfunctionality and greater energyeficiency,”indicated Jim Dawson,senior analyst for motors and mechanicalpower research at IHS.In 2012, reported Dawson, themarket paused for breath; revenuesfrom sales of torque motor moduleswere flat due to a slowdown indemand for industrial machineryand a drop in torque motor pricesSource: IMS Researchcaused by falling rare-earth elementprices. IHS believes marketgrowth will return in 2013, drivenby the growing number of applicationsthat will be more thanmatched by the increasing numberof suppliers. “Indeed, manufacturersof conventional servomotors areadding direct-drive torque motorsto their range to tap into the growingmarket and ensure they do notlose customers to other suppliersthat can meet the full spectrum oftheir motor requirements.”ODVA Forms SIG for Machinery InformationODVA WILL FORM a new specialinterest group (SIG) for machineinformation for the purpose ofdeveloping standards for theexchange of information betweenmachines, and between machinesand supervisory systems. The resultingstandards will provide datamodels and network services tooptimize the exchange of machineinformation for purposes, such asproduction, energy or conditionmonitoring, business intelligence,batch and recipe management,and multi-machine line control.ODVA says the SIG is one outgrowthof its machinery initiative,which is aimed at optimization ofmachine integration (OMI). TheSIG’s major focus will be developmentof data models for logicalgrouping of machine attributesalong with services necessaryfor exchange of data betweenmachines and other machines orsupervisory systems. To simplifycommunication between heterogeneoussystems using EtherNet/IPand CIP, sercos III and/or OPC UA,whenever possible the approachwill be to adopt protocol-neutraldata models, which can be adaptedto any of the three technologies.“Without such standardreporting methods and tools,manufacturers must rely on customized,and often proprietary,solutions in order to exchangemachine information across systemsor transmit data back andforth with the machine,” saysKatherine Voss, president andexecutive director of ODVA. “Thetechnical output of the SIG willhelp to further the vision of OMI16 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


INDISCRETEDigital Manufacturing MarketPoised for Global GrowthMANUFACTURERS IN developedeconomies have been at the forefrontof adopting digital manufacturingto streamline productionplanning and improve theirmanufacturing eficiency, accordingto Frost & Sullivan (www.industrialautomation.frost.com).The emerging global digitalmanufacturing market has immensepotential for growth overthe next decade. Frost & Sullivan’s,Analysis of the Global Digital ManufacturingMarket inds the marketearned revenues of $704 millionin 2012, and is estimated to reach$928 million in 2016. The researchcovers applications in automotiveand transportation, aerospace anddefense, hi-tech and electronics,and industrial machinery.Developed economies are anticipatedto dominate growth overthe forecast period with NorthAmerica leading the way. Theongoing economic crisis in Europe,however, is likely to deter investmentsin new automation and controlsolutions within the region,slowing growth.“The quest to reducecapital expenditure,shorten lead times,and boost productivityis expected to spurinvestments in digitalmanufacturing,” notedFrost’s & SullivanIndustrial Automationand Process Control’ssenior research analystKarthik Sundaram.“The heightened emphasison product innovationwill catalyzeenterprises to cultivateUtilities & Process,5.1%Consumer PackagedGoods, 7.3%Hi-Tech &Electronics,15.0%the digital manufacturingpath for ensuring consistentbusiness proitability.”At present, reported Sundaram,the digital manufacturing pursuitis more aligned toward large enterprises.Small and medium businessesdo not achieve adequatereturn-on-investments when theyadopt digital manufacturing.Nevertheless, Frost & Sullivanbelieves that the trend towardsproduct innovation across all endusersegments will boost marketprospects. Besides product design,the ability of manufacturers togenerate new products is greatlydetermined by manufacturing processplanning.“Digital manufacturing providesan able platform for discrete manufacturersto design and validatetheir manufacturing process in linewith new product design and engineeringrequirements,” Sundaramsurmised. “This helps provide considerablesavings on costs incurredby the trial-and-error method thatis popularly followed in the manufacturinglandscape today.”Percent Sales BreakdownDigital Manufacturing Market, Global, 2011Others*, 8.9%Machinery &Industrial,15.1%Aerospace &Defence, 25.9%Automotive &Transportation, 22%“Others” include pharmaceuticals, cosmetics,medical devices and so on.Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis.20 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


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Jeremy Pollard, CET • jpollard@tsuonline.comEMBEDDED INTELLIGENCETimeline Marches OnSO, THIS TIME, the year was 1977. I graduated fromRyerson University in Toronto. I was asked to join theteam at Allen-Bradley, which had this newfangleddevice called a programmable controller. I learned andobserved, and supported that technology.Right out of the gate, the battle cry was, “It will replacejobs,” as far back as 1955 with the lood of skilledimmigrants from the U.K., as I wrote about last month.Our response was, “It will create new jobs. Andeven more than have been displaced, which won’tbe many. It replaces hazardous occupations, andimproves consistency.” It really was never about themoney. At least, not then. Dick Morley’s companyBedford Associates developed the Modicon 084, andthe company became Modicon. That was in the 1970s,as well. Remembering that IBM introduced its PC in1981 will give you some perspective on the “tortoise”speed in the early days.The journalistic collaborations took some time toferment. And, in 1992, both Morley and I started towrite about automation. Jim Pinto also was writing,and these next two columns will share some of the issuesthat were at hand, which, hopefully, will explainsome of how we got to where we are, and why Indiawill get there faster.I dealt with the nuts and bolts of the technology—applications, code, tools, utilities, etc. Not terriblyexciting. Morley and Pinto were running more in thesocial and business side. This is where the treasure is.So, now we move to the 1990s.“We couldn’t call it a computer,” Morley laments.“It couldn’t have an off switch. It had to run forever.”Perception is everything. And, in this case, reality andperception were the same.In the ive or so years that Morley wrote for ManufacturingSystems, there were many facets of his contributions.He wrote of requests to enhance the ladderlanguage, adding communications, database functionalityand data-collection possibilities. This languagedidn’t change despite the wide acceptance globally,and the concept that anyone could program this toolwas very compelling.Global acceptance was swift because of this language,and because it wasn’t a “computer.” It remainedin the control realm, and not a part of the IT realm.Morley spoke of the future in terms of “a future ofappliances,” and “real time is fast enough.” Imaginethe thought processes of the innovators, who couldthink that they could take their factory to a level thatwould be fast and accessible for anyone. They weren’tthinking about job loss, but, rather, about solutions.Morley was and is a visionary. Nothing was moreprofound when he talked about point-of-sale manufacturing.Imagine that you go to a car dealership, orderyour car, and pick it up the next day. The assemblycould be done by the dealer. Whoa.Model-based manufacturing is scalable. Processmodels were changing because of the PLC. Every applicationin any plant had automation potential in it.Automation changed from being a tool to a solution.Once that happened, all hell broke loose. It wasMorley’s prose that allowed many worker bees to havea glimpse into the mind of an innovator and visionary.While a bit scary, I’m sure it gave some, if notmost, the conidence and enthusiasm to move forwardagainst the enemy, which, of course, is us.He drew a line between marketing and engineering.It gave the engineering crowd at all levels a sortof purpose. It’s OK to be one. He allowed the subjectof automation to be exciting, which created very innovativeapplications, such as a french fry vendingmachine that was PLC-controlled.Every application in any planthad automation potential in it.Automation changed from beinga tool to being a solution.These observations come from Morley’s book titled“Out of the Barn.” One of the funniest anecdotes, “AnEngineer’s Logbook,” details a project which takes on alife of its own. As a result of moving targets imposed bystandards, marketing and C-level inluences, an engineeringbudget was spiraling out of control. While thestory is about a product for sale, the project’s troublesindicate that no longer was the automation side ownedby the techies. It was company owned.They realized very quickly that we can be bigger,stronger and faster without much effort. All it takes isagile technology and automation. That’s how we gothere. It’s Morley’s fault. He gave different groups permissionto get involved in the process of automation.It had arrived as a tool to do things better.JEREMY POLLARD, CET, has been writing about technologyand software issues for many years, and was involved incontrol system programming and training for more than 25years before that.controldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 23


Machine BuildersInclude Preventive SafetyEarly in the Design—And Get Paid Back Soonerby Jim Montague, executive editor24 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


Machine safety must be morethan an afterthought.In the old days, machines werebuilt, and guards and other safetyfeatures were added later, whichwasn’t very eficient. More recently,many builders make safety an integralpart of their design process, andnew safe-speed and zone-controltechnologies and harmonizinginternational standards are helpingthem. And, not only does this proactive,preventive approach reduce thefrequency and severity of potentialaccidents and injuries, it pays addeddividends of increasing machine eficiencyand reducing downtime.“Validation of safety systems is aprocess that needs to be planned,”says Steve Zuberbier, engineeringtechnical leader for family care R&Eat Kimberly-Clark (www.kimberlyclark.com),which makes Huggies,Kleenex, Scott, Kotex and otherproducts. “If you don’t plan, youwill fail. Will validation cost yourcompany more effort? Yep. Will itcost you more time, resources andmoney? Yep. But, we’ve seen oursafety validation effort pay for itselfover and over again.”Zuberbier adds that safetyproblems occur because of people.“My safety controller will performconsistently,” he says. “My humanswill not. Using an engineered,controlled system provides a morereliable safety solution and keepsour people safe. The effort it takesto validate a safety PLC is muchgreater than it was with the oldhardware relays because we didn’thave to worry about programmingthe I/O points. However, we haven’tbought a single machine since2007 that doesn’t have a safety PLCsystem. And, we’ve taken validationfrom 48 to 72 hours down to six to12 hours now.”Savings Go With SafetySimilarly, Automatic HandlingInternational (AHI, www.automatichandling.com)in Erie, Mich.,makes roll-handling and packagingmachines for tissue, non-wovenmaterials, converting and otherapplications, and it recently begandesigning and integrating moresafety capabilities into its equipmentto eliminate hazards, but alsoto drive costs out of its engineeringand manufacturing processes bygetting them to work together in amore integrated fashion.Two of the main forcesenabling safety to be addedto machine designs earlierare controllers that combinesafety and control functions,and fieldbuses and Ethernetnetworks that require lesscabling and connectors.“We were still doing hardwiredsafety in 2007, but these are big systems,and so the question was howto protect everything because youmight not know where everythingis,” says Dan Pienta, AHI’s president.“What are the zones goingto be? Who’s going to enter thosezones? What do we want to keepsafe? We learned how to do a goodprocess to work with a hardwiredsafety system, but it was a challengebecause every system wasdifferent—everything was custom.”Pienta reports AHI moved toDeviceNet when Rockwell Automation(www.rockwellautomation.com) launched its GuardLogixcontrols, which combined PLC andsafety communications in one deviceand used the same network,but maintained two separate microprocessors.Later, AHI adoptedEtherNet/IP when that protocoloffered integrated safety, andstandardized on GuardLogix andSafety Point I/O.“It can be a tough transition toimplement a new technology,”Pienta explains. “I might not besure how to implement in a waythat I might need for the future, soyou have to kind of feel your waythrough it. It’s not that safety is socomplex, but we do 100 projects peryear. Safety is a small part of ourbusiness, but it impacts every partof it. So, when safety on Ethernetcame out, it made a lot of sense becauseit allows us to use standardhardware and stay flexible, but alsogive our customers the most reliablesystems. Safety has to be partof what you sell because it can helpcustomers be more productive,reduce risk and add value.”Update the Attitudesand CulturesNo doubt, the biggest roadblock tointegrating safety into machines,production lines and plants ischanging the minds of managersand operators from the old beliefthat safety is a drag on operationsand the bottom line to a newbelief that safety is a doublyworthwhile investment than canbe proitable and prevent injuriesand accidents.For example, research by theAberdeen Group (www.aberdeen.com) shows there are clear correlationsbetween success in reducinginjury rates with reducingunscheduled downtime and muchhigher overall equipment effectiveness(OEE) levels. Its studiesfound that best-in-class performershad 5-7% higher OEE, 2-4%less downtime, and less than halfthe injury rate, according to Stevecontroldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 25


Scrap material from the end user’s application dropped from 15% to less than 1%, andproductivity was maintained at less than 20 seconds per ring, while the safety system conformsto EN954-1, Category 3, and supports new ISO 13849 standards. “We still don’t know exactlyhow much longer the motors are lasting than before because none have required any repairs.”Ludwig, Rockwell Automation’sprogram manager for safety.However, altering the old,safety-is-a-burden mindset canbe devilishly hard. “I grew up inautomotive plants, so I’m awarethat safety and productivity havebeen at odds,” says George Schuster,senior industry specialist onthe automotive team at RockwellAutomation. “They knew the moresafety processes they put on theirsystems, the more they’d hindertheir productivity or proits. Theyknew it. It was almost in their DNA.”More recently, the productivityand safety ropes seem to bepulling in the same direction. ADecember 2012 Control Designsurvey on machine safety (www.controldesign.com/mir-machinesafety)found that, besides wantingto prevent personal injury or meetregulatory requirements, machinebuilders most often would changetheir safety implementation becauseof potential lost productionon the machine. In fact, about 90%of those surveyed list the preventionof personal injury as the keyreason for changing safety on theirmachines, which was higher thanthe 75% that make a change tomeet regulatory requirements.“The people who establishcorporate cultures are less andless conflicted about productivityand safety than they’ve been inthe past,” Schuster adds. “Safetyis a tool that machine builders useto improve productivity and yield.It’s a huge differentiator.”Simplicity Gets to Safety SoonerTwo of the main forces enablingsafety to be added to machinedesigns earlier are controllers thatcombine safety and control functions,and fieldbuses and Ethernetnetworks that require less cablingand connectors.Pienta adds that AHI cut the timeit takes to build and finish its rollhandlingand packaging systems byusing Ethernet, and combined controland safety components. “We’renot wiring as many distributedI/O and other connections back tothe main panel,” Pienta says. “It’sall going to the GuardLogix. Whenyou have fewer connections, ittakes less time when you powerthat panel up and start doing yourI/O checks. That has a lot of value.HARTING Han ®Be part of the evolution & revolutionHARTING is a world leader in industrial and electronic connectivity.Since the family owned company was founded in 1945, it has been marked by unparalleled revolutionary andevolutionary products. The invention of the rectangular connector and its continuous improvementis only one of many examples.Take advantage of working with HARTING who drives your vision beyond your present knowledge and discoversnew solutions for you.26 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.comFor more information please contact more.info@HARTING.com or call +1 (847) 741-1500 | 1370 Bowes Rd. | Elgin, IL 60123 | HARTING-usa.com


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Pneumatic Solutions toComplete your Safety SystemROSS CONTROLS helps you addressANSI/PMMI B155.1-2011 requirementswith control reliable, energy isolation valvesDM 2® Series EPneumatic ValvesAir Dump/ReleaseCategory 3 & 4ApplicationsE-stopL-O-X ® Valves forEnergy Isolation (LOTO)SafetyMatsLightCurtainsAreaScanners“Electrical Interlocks” (gates, guards, etc.)Electrical/PneumaticEnergy Isolation(LOTO)Safety relaysSafety PLCsDale SeriesManifold Poppet ValvesHigh Flow with a Cv range of up to 100Leak Test Valves for Vacuum ApplicationsE-mail: sales.info@rosscontrols.comSAFER RING SPINNINGFigure 1: Eagle Technologies’ spin/friction welderfor plastics implemented servomotors and driveswith embedded software that stops motion to allowoperators to access the weld area, but doesn’t powerdown, which reduces motor strain and wear.We also get value from safetyvalidation, making sure our safetysystem works and documentingit. We want to show the insuranceguys that we’ve done our duediligence, and that our systemsare as safe as we can make them.This lowers our risk and reducesour liability.”Similarly, Eagle Technologies(www.eagletechnologies.com) inBridgman, Mich., needed to reducewaste and improve the safety capabilitiesof its spin/friction-weldingmachine for plastics, especially theluid-illed, 2-ft-diameter, plasticrings that balance loads in washingmachines (Figure 1). The rings aremade from two parts—one held inplace, while the second is spun andpressed down onto the irst, creatinga leak-proof weld in less than30 seconds.However, one appliance partsmaker was experiencing 15%material waste and scrapped partsfrom leaky welds, while its welders’low-speed, high-torque processstrained their motors so much thatthey needed annual rewiring. Thewelders had to be powered downand handle 480-Vac drops every 4-5minutes, so their operators couldreach in to remove parts and makeneeded adjustments.Eagle’s spin/friction welder redesignbegan with IndraMotion servoplatform, which uses Ethernetbasedsercos III to integrate themachine’s motion logic controldirectly in the drive without aseparate PLC. This motion andlogic controller from Bosch Rexroth(www.boschrexroth-us.com) workswith its digital, intelligent servodrives and synchronous servomotors to drive the spin/frictionwelder’s three-stage, planetarygearbox, which allows lessstressful,low-speed, high-torquemotion of the welding head on itsballscrew and rails.In addition, Eagle employedBosch Rexroth’s Safety on Board,which embeds programmable,safety-based logic directly in theservo drives to eliminate the needfor the lock-out/tag-out stoppagesthat were straining the motors, butwithout requiring external safetyhardware. Operator protection isfurther built into the welder byservo drives that respond to signalsfrom its light curtain via dual,redundant safety channels thatput the machine into one of twopause modes—Controlled Stop 1or Controlled Stop 2—which stopits motion, but still feed power toit, and allow easy restarts withoutcomplete resets.“Usually a weld machine designstarts with a PLC, and then thedesigner builds out from there,”says Earle Cooper, Eagle’s projectmanager. “IndraMotion let us startwith control of two axes alreadybuilt into the servo drive, so wecould focus on options for creatingdifferent types of welds andparts.” He adds that scrap materialfrom the end user’s balancering application dropped from 15%to less than 1%, and productivitywas maintained at less than 20seconds per ring, while the safetysystem conforms to EN954-1,Category 3, and supports new ISO13849 standards. “We still don’tEAGLE TECHNOLOGIES28 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.comwww.rosscontrols.com


know exactly how much longerthe motors are lasting than beforebecause none have required anyrepairs,” Cooper remarks.In Software, On the NetworkBeyond aiding individual machinesand production lines,safety principles and tools createdand deployed in software alsocan be integrated onto differentmachines, and even scaled up toentire facilities and multi-plantorganizations.For example, Baader-Johnson(www.baader-johnson.com) inKansas City, Kan., builds machinesfor processing and conveyingpoultry, ish and other meats,and uses PC-based controls andintegrated safety tools from BeckhoffAutomation (www.beckhoff.com). Baader-Johnson deploys anembedded PC, and then connectsdistributed EtherCAT safetyI/O terminals, with integratedTwinSafe safety PLC, to managesafety tasks at its clients’ plants,while also adjusting safety zonesby using TwinCAT as its standardTwinSafe programming tool.“TwinSafe helps us implementsafety functions for e-stops andin other areas,” says Ryan Foltz,SAFETY PAYS ITS WAYBefore integrating safety into machine designs and production plans, it’soften necessary to confront some misconceptions and rationalizationsagainst it. John McHale, engineering manager at ABB Jokab Safety (www.jokabsafetyna.com), a products and integrated solutions supplier, and ABBGroup member, in Westland, Mich., reports these common prejudices include:• There’s no place for safety in lean manufacturing. Safety will just impedeoperations, and all our processes will slow down.• Safety systems impede production.• Cost of safety solutions is too high. It would cost too much to upgradeevery one of our machines.• Safety systems stop people from doing their jobs, and so they will just getbypassed anyway.• Our process is too important to add safety systems. There’s no way I canshut this machine down because it makes the most money of any of ourmachines. If I shut it down, my bottom line and profits will be adverselyaffected.McHale counters that, “One of our largest customers had a fatality in itsfacility, and was fined $2.4 million by OSHA. Its experts also came in, rippedapart its production process, and gave them a government-mandated timelineto upgrade. It covered 180 machines, which cost $100,000 apiece, and had atwo-year deadline. This didn’t include morale issues, doctor bills, cleanup bills,etc. This incident cost a huge amount of money.”McCale adds that implementing safety doesn’t necessarily result in lostproduction, if it’s done properly with a well-formed team and effectivecommunication. For example, he says Jokab Safety recently upgradeda cardboard-box-making machine in Canada that prints, cuts and foldscorrugated blanks, but its press had to be split apart to change dies and printheads or to add inks, and it had no safeguarding. “Integrating safety not onlymet applicable safety standards and regulations, but also reduced machinesetup time significantly,” McHale says. “This machine averages six setups pershift, and at two shifts per day and 354 days per year, the 30 seconds saved persetup resulted in 35.4 hours of extra production per year.”30 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


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BigBreakthroughin DAQAT A SMALL PRICEHIGH-SPEED DAQFROM $ 99NEW USB-201• 12-Bit, 8 Analog Inputs• Up to 100 kHz Sampling• 8 Digital I/O• 1 Counter• Support for Windows ® ,Mac ® , and Linux ®• Only $ 99NEW USB-204• 12-Bit, 8 Analog Inputs• Up to 500 kHz Sampling• 8 Digital I/O• 1 Counter• Support for Windows ® ,Mac ® , and Linux ®• Only $ 149OEM Versions AvailableFree SoftwareFree Tech SupportSuperior Warrantiesmccdaq.com/200SeriesContact us1.800.234.4232©2013 Measurement Computing Corporation10 Commerce Way, Norton, MA 02766info@mccdaq.comsales project manager at Baader-Johnson. “On plantwide projects,it’s beneicial to use EtherCAT terminalsas the standard I/O system,but TwinSafe makes it possibleto shut down our machines andconveyors very quickly if anyoneon the plant floor enters anunsafe part of the machine. Ourformer e-stop methodology wasrather cumbersome, especially inlarge applications. TwinSafe cutsdown on wiring, and provides theflexibility to properly manage oursafety implementations.”Also, Teepack Spezialmaschinen(www.teepack.com), Meerbusch,Germany, says its new Perfectatubular teabag illing, bagging andTHE RISKASSESSMENTThe first steps in improvingmachine safety and gaining itsperformance benefits begin withconducting a risk assessment(RA), and the most up-to-datestandard that shows how is ENISO 13849-1. This process andrelated calculations are describedin ABB Jokab Safety’s “Safety inControl Systems According to ENISO 13849-1” located at www.tinyurl.com/bm6tnqa.While understanding EN ISO13849-1’s calculations isn’t toohard, there are software andonline tools that can help. Thefreely downloadable Sistemasoftware utility providesdevelopers and testers ofsafety-related machine controlswith comprehensive support inevaluating safety in the contextof ISO 13849-1. It’s availablefrom the German Social AccidentInsurance organization’sInstitute for Occupational Safetyand Health at www.tinyurl.com/bs8x5yh.TIME FOR TEA BAGSFigure 2: Teepack’s Perfecta machine can fill andproduce 400 bags per minute with thread andlabel or with outside paper protection, usingdecentralized servomotor control, and automaticsafety tests that run in the background to createprerequisites for 24/7 operations.packaging machine (Figure 2) runsa variety of products at about 400bags per minute with thread andlabel or with paper or foil packets.It achieves this 20% boost in itsperformance by combining Indra-Motion for Packaging software withdecentralized servomotor and controls,sercos III networking, Safetyon Board software and an IndraMotioncontroller from Bosch Rexroth.In fact, Perfecta even runs automatic,online safety tests in thebackground to create performanceprerequisites for its continuous 24/7operating schedule. To performthis job, Safety on Board usesseveral certiied safety tools, suchas safe stop/operation stop and safemovements in the form of reducedspeed, maximum torque or turningdirection. These tasks run directlyin the drive, which shortens theirreaction times to less than 2 msec,according to Teepack, while othersafety solutions have to interrupta machine cycle for coercive dynamizationof up to eight hours todetect “dormant bugs.”“We can activate the additionalmodules and necessary servodriveson the respective machinevia the user interface. This reducesthe variety of the softwareand allows quick, subsequentintegration of additional modules,”adds Andreas Meyering, Teepack’shead of electrical engineering andsoftware development.32 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.comTEEPACK


I need guarantees,not promises.Send what I need,when I need it.Or don’t bother.Scan this QR Code*to learn more about theNumatics Express program.* Requires QR Code readerNumatics Express. Onsite, on time. Right. Now.While other suppliers struggle with longer lead times and broken supplychains — delivering fewer and fewer products in a timely manner — Numatics leadsthe industry in comprehensive rapid shipping performance. Our Numatics Expressprogram lets you configure, order, and receive more than 1000 products and optionsso you get exactly what you want, when you want it. Including 2-day shipment of ourmost popular pneumatic valves, regulators, and actuators, plus 3-day shipment of tested,assembled valve manifolds. Get guaranteed shipment with Numatics Express. Right. Now.The Numatics trademark is registered in the U.S. and other countries. The Emerson logo is a trademark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co. © 2013 Numatics, Inc.1-888-NUMATICS (686-2842) | www.numatics.com/express | e-mail: insidesales@numatics.com


MEASUREMENT & SENSINGFeedback Critical to Machining PrecisionVertical Turning/Grinding Machine Uses Optical and Magnetic Encoders to AidHigh-Accuracy Production of Wind Turbine Bearingsby Per Junskog, KMT Precision GrindingTHE ACCURACY REQUIRED during the grinding ofbearing raceways is the most important parameterto obtain a minimum of friction, and thereby a longcomponent lifecycle and reduced energy consumption.A KMT customer that manufactures bearingsonce told us that if the friction of all the world’sbearings could be reduced by 10%, then energy consumptionwould decrease by what a country the sizeof Brazil consumes during a year.The wheels on cars and trains, turbines in powerstations, the compressor in your refrigerator, allcontain components that need to rotate with a minimumof friction, year after year, and often underheavy external pressure. The principle is a simpleone: less friction, less energy. The bearings play aconsiderable role at each rotation in order to reducefriction and guarantee stable rotation. The requirementsregarding the production process are respectivelyhigh, not least due to the inal shape of thebearings and the inish during grinding and polish.KMT Precision Grinding, a builder of precisiongrinding machines, knows the critical importanceof these machining issues well. The company is amerger of UVA International AB and KMT Lidköping,which were founded in 1928 and 1875, respectively.It has sales and aftermarket subsidiaries in the U.S.,China and Germany. Production sites for new machines,rebuilds and repair work are in Sweden, andrebuilds also are done in Gurgaon, India.“Blade pitch adjustment is one of the mostcritical functions of wind turbine operation,and the giant bearings in the adjustmentmechanism now can be manufacturedwith accuracy typically reserved for smallparts by using our new VTG4000.”KMT LIDKÖPINGBEARING THE FORCEOF THE WINDWind turbine rotor blades are connected to the turbine axesthrough a bearing assembly with a diameter of up to 4 m.Bearing rings of that size are ground by a Lidköping VTG4000vertical grinding machine.Adjust to the CustomerKMT Precision Grinding machines has been grindingcomponents for the bearing industry during thepast century, and during this time has continuouslydeveloped its technology to adapt to different customerapplications. Today, wind power is a growingindustry and an area KMT is focusing on.“We follow our customers’ development in newmarkets,” says Thomas Karlsson, CEO of KMT.“When our customer was expanding in the areaof wind power stations, new bearing types wereneeded. We were there with them, and developednew machines covering their needs.”Bearings are found in different locations in a windpower station turbine, such as on the itting of therotor blade, the turbine axes and the gearbox. Thecontroldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 35


MEASUREMENT & SENSINGbetter that bearing performs its job, says Karlsson,the smoother is the turbine rotation and the lowerthe energy loss of the mechanic parts.The rotating rotor blades are connected to theturbine axes through a bearing with a diameter ofas much as 4 meters. Bearing rings of that size areground by a Lidköping VTG4000 vertical grindingmachine, through which the material gets its shapewith the help of the optional combination of grindingand turning.Critical ProcessingKarlsson stresses how critical this process is, saying,“It is the grinding process that determines howaccurate the recess (in which the ball will be placed)has to be. The accuracy determines the friction and,consequently, the accuracy of the power generation.But well-ground bearings with high precision offer,not only the possibility to reduce energy consumption,but also to improve their reliability.”If the rotor blades are positioned in the wrongaxes under the stress of high wind forces, thismight lead to severe consequences, Karlsson explains.The enormous power could loosen the bladesand, in the worst case, the entire wind power stationmight collapse.“Blade pitch adjustment is one of the most criticalfunctions of wind turbine operation, and the giantbearings in the adjustment mechanism now can bemanufactured with accuracy typically reserved forsmall parts by using our new VTG4000,” says EiveJohansson, KMT Lidköping’s chief designer. “Themachine combines advanced motion systems withoptical and magnetic linear and angle encoders oncritical axes to achieve form deviation of less than1 µm on parts 4 m in diameter. This is hard turningand grinding, and it is very demanding.” Form deviationrefers to the variation from the desired proile.For example, in a ball bearing raceway, it is thevariation from a perfect circle sector. But it couldactually be the deviation from any form, includingstraight, circular, oval, etc.The reputation of Lidköping in the bearing machinerybusiness has always been on high-speedand high-metal-removal rates. These capabilitiesare realized by the rigidity of Lidköping machinedesigns, with recognition that the stiffness inherentin each element of a machine’s structure, whencombined, contribute to its productivity overall.KMT LIDKÖPINGHARD GRINDING/HIGH RESOLUTIONThe grinding system/left ram employs a linear-motor-drivenhydrostatic slide, has a vertical stroke of 860 mm, horizontal strokeof 2460 mm, and maximum acceleration of 1 m/s 2 with a maximumspeed of 1 m/s. The resolution of 0. 01 mm is enabled through linearmotors with servo-loop feedback from high-resolution encoders.Positioning and QualityPositioning accuracy is very important, with adirect relationship to the quality of the inishedbearings, Johansson states. Prior to the VTG4000,the company’s largest machine could accommodateparts up to 600 mm (24 in.) in diameter, but theVTG400 handles diameters in excess of 4000 mm(157 in.), the size of the largest wind turbine bearings,while providing much greater accuracy.Linear motors on the linear axes make the36 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


“We’ve used hydrostatic guide ways instead of linear rolleror ball guides since the 1970s, and combining them withlinear motors gives us a faster, more accurate machinecapable of far greater acceleration and deceleration. Whenyou see that you can move the 25,000 kg rotary axis withyour finger, you realize how good the hydrostatic system is.”VTG4000 fast, and irm hydrostaticguide ways increase accuracy.With hydrostatic guideways, pressurized oil injectedbetween the top and bottomslides floats the top slide, creatinga virtually friction-free andhighly responsive slide system.“A standard size machine, usingballscrews on the axes, maintainsabout a 3-µm form deviation,”Johannson explains. “Thismachine maintains form deviationof less than 1 µm with feedresolution in 0.1 µm steps.”Linear slides are at the heartof Lidköping machines, andthe combination of hydrostaticguideways, air seals and linearmotors creates a stiff, accurate,maintenance-free system. “Toachieve dynamic stiffness weneed high gain, which is linkedto the quality of the encoderscales,” Johansson adds. “It alsomakes a big difference that theangle encoders have the scaleintegrated directly onto the ring.”High Quality ImprovesControl of Turbine BladesPitch bearings allow wind turbineblades to optimize theirangle according to wind speed,or create a stall condition in highwinds, so the reliability of thesebearings is critical to eficient,safe operation.The multi-tasking VTG4000is designed to machine theselarge bearings in a single set up,performing both turning andgrinding with two separate heads.The two heads are coniguredas required, usually grinding/turning or grinding/grinding.The machine’s 4.5 m X-axis carriesthe two heads on oppositesides of the part, and allows bothgrinding and turning tools to accessthe outside of the part. Withsome components weighing morethan 35 tonnes, VTG4000 is veryresistant to distortion and thermalvariation, which is aided byclosely controlled hydrostatic oiland coolant temperatures.“We’ve used hydrostatic guideways instead of linear roller orball guides since the 1970s, andcombining them with linearmotors gives us a faster, moreaccurate machine capable of fargreater acceleration and deceleration,”says plant managerJörgen Möller. “When you seethat you can move the 25,000 kgrotary axis with your inger, yourealize how good the hydrostaticsystem is.” The four main slides’movement precision is establishedby Siemens’ linear motorswith servo-loop feedback fromhigh-resolution encoders. The hydrostaticslides with their closeto zero friction and none-whatsoeverslip-stick are what make theultra-high precision realizable.Johansson irst saw the encodersthat would end up on theVTG4000 at the EMO show in2007, and Lidköping put the sensorsthrough rigorous testing.“We compared different scalescontroldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 37• Durable Construction• Easy to Use Software• 100+ PLCs Supported• Free Tech Support• Best Value in HMIs!Scan Here toVisit Us OnlineVisit our website or callmaplesystems.com425-745-3229


XV Series HMI-PLCand SmartWire-DTMEASUREMENT & SENSINGThe encoders also help set the grinding spindle’sangle, an important function of the machine. However,any out-of angle will be fine-tuned when dressingthe grinding wheel, once again making use of thehydrostatic/linear motor slides’ ultra-precision.A PowerfulCombination.The more you know, themore you can increaseyour productivity. Thenew Eaton XV Series ofHMI-PLC with integratedSmartWire-DT TM connectscontrol panel componentswithout conventionalpoint-to-point wiring.Make your systems more productivewith smaller, smarter and fastercomponents:www.eaton.com/plcassembled on our reference slide,and selected the one with thebest performance,” Johanssonsays. “It was important that thelinear encoders have a continuouslength of at least 4.5 m, aswell as high dirt resistance, andRenishaw’s SiGNUM it these requirementsthe best. We have ittedthem to all four linear slides,and have had no problems. Ourrotary table has the same designprinciple, with hydrostatic radialand axial bearings, air seals andtorque motors. The rotary worktable’storque motor has a highresolutionencoder for the servoloop feedback. We did the sameanalysis and chose the SiGNUMangle encoders.”The encoders also help set thegrinding spindle’s angle, an importantfunction of the machine.However, any out-of angle willbe ine-tuned when dressing thegrinding wheel, once again makinguse of the hydrostatic/linearmotor slides’ ultra-precision.Renishaw’s LM10 magneticangle encoders are itted to theB-axes of the grinding heads.These encoders are exposedto the harsh conditions of themachine environment, but theirnon-contact, non-optical design,and sealing to IP68, protectsthem from the effects of coolantand swarf. The digital or analogoutput LM10 allows up to 100 mtravel and high-speed operationof up to 25 m/s (4 m/s at 1 µmresolution).The encoders feature anintegral set-up LED that speedsinstallation and removes theneed for complex set-up equipmentor oscilloscopes. “One ofthe best features of the Renishawencoders is how easy they are toset up,” Johansson adds. “Withthe scale attached and the readheadapproximately located, theindicator lights make it very easyto see how well the two elementsare aligned. Other brands couldwell have been used, however,we like the Renishaw product forits easy setup, precise resolutionand high durability in toughenvironments.”To accurately set the part inthe machine’s work-coordinatesystem, the VTG4000 uses aRenishaw RMP60 radio signaltransmission touch probe. Aftera raw part is placed on the bed,the RMP60 is loaded into the toolchanger, and used to locate theexact position of key features ina matter of seconds. This datais used to update the coordinatesystem in-cycle for quick, accuratemachining. The Renishawtouch probe is used for pre- andpost-process measuring of thework piece. Pre-process showsexactly where and how the workpiece is situated, as well as itsstock allowance, out of roundnessetc., and then post-processevaluates the result after hardturning and/or grinding.PER JUNSKOG is the product managerfor the bearing market at KMTPrecision Grinding in Lidköping,Sweden. Learn more about thecompany at www.kmtgrinding.com.38 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


The RSM2800 Magnetic Encoder counts turns,measures angles down to the last degree, andremembers shaft positions without powerDon’t try this with other encoders: imagine your machinewith the RSM2800 inside both lose power and are stillturning without power; when power is restored, theRSM2800 reports the correct position including thecounts that occurred with no power!RSM2800 magnetic encoders provide the level of reliabilityand accuracy sought in demanding applications like:• Material Handling• Forklifts• Overhead Doors• Agricultural Machines• Cable Extension Transducers• Medical EquipmentThe RSM2800 is based on Novotechnik’s patentednon-contact multi-turn for absolute5,760° (16 turns) measurement.This new wear-free technologycombines advanced capabilitieswith mechanical simplicity in avery compact and sturdy housing toprovide for longer life and lower costthan optical encoders.Competitively priced.Contact us for samples or for complete specs,visit www.novotechnik.com/rsmRSM2800 Specifications:■✔ Absolute multi-turn■✔ Up to 16 turns■✔ Up to 0.1° resolution■✔ Up to 0.1%independent linearity■✔ Outputs: 0.1 to 10Vor 4 to 20 mAor 0.25 to 4.75V■✔ Housing OD=30 mm■✔ IP rating options:IP54 or IP67■✔ No gears, no optics,no batteriesNovotechnik U.S., Inc. • 155 Northboro Road • Southborough, MA 01772Tel: 508-485-2244 Fax: 508-485-2430


the first self-containedwirelessphotoelectrics.sensing unplugged.®Wireless Range:+3000 ft line-of-sight*Battery Life: up to 5 years*Response: 250 ms*True Wireless: no cables, cordsetsor external powerRadio: secure 27-channelfrequency hoppingMultiple I/O: up to 47 sensorsper gatewayAntenna: built-inRating: IP67Four models: PolarizedRetrorefl ective, ConvergentVisible, Contact Closure,Fiber OpticsSelf-contained: Sensor,Proprietary Radio, PowerManagement and BatteriesThe world’s fi rst self-contained wirelessstandard photoelectric sensor solution,SureCross ® Q45 is designed for yourmost challenging data acquisition,control and monitoring applications:• Connect locations and applicationspreviously impractical or impossible• Eliminate cable runs and conduit, plusassociated labor, costs and downtime• Solve challenging remote, rotating ormoving applications, or add sensingto existing systems in minutesStandard SureCross Q45 Gatewayssupport up to six sensors* Performance subject to application,environment and configurationCustomers FirstIntegrity AlwaysQuality in EverythingNew Solutions – Every Day1-888-373-6767 | bannerengineering.com© 2013 Banner Engineering Corp., Mpls, MN USA


Jim Montague • jmontague@putman.net TECH FLASHSense When to Go WirelessWIRELESS MIGHT BE FINE for gathering signals fromout in the middle of nowhere, but almost any machineor production line is going to have power handy. Thismeans a facility’s communication network is likely rightthere, too, so what’s the point of trying to add wirelesscapabilities to sensors and related components?First, end users have an insatiable desire for meaningfuldata—including video—to help optimize theirmachines and production lines, but this information isproduced in spots that are too numerous, costly, laborintensive and inaccessible—even if the wired infrastructureis nearby. Second, many machine buildersand system integrators could be unconsciously limitedby a mindset that dictates “you can’t secure a signal ifa cable isn’t there,” so they don’t begin to seek all thepotential data points they could collect and use.“Wireless temperature sensors and water metershave been around a long time, and can be retroittedwith 5- to 10-year batteries,” says Bob Gardner, wirelessproduct manager at Banner Engineering Corp. (www.bannerengineering,com). “So for the past few years,we’ve taken them into the industrial world with ourwireless I/O components or with wireless ieldbus devicessuch as data radios. And last year, we released ourQ45 wireless sensors, which bake our wireless I/O andphotoelectric eye technologies into one battery-powereddevice, which needs no coniguration other than a dipswitch to set speed, has a photo eye with a responsetime of 62 to 500 ms, and communicates wirelessly to agateway when it sees a light or senses an object.“The real sweet spot in wireless sensing is a responsetime of about one to two seconds and one to two yearsof battery life. It’s hard to get there because this is exceptionallylow-power sensing of about 250 µA at 3.6 V,which is 900 µW—or less than 1 mW. We’ve only beenable to do it by custom designing and optimizing the optics,sensor electronics, wireless components and everyother part of the device to run at the lowest power.”Justin Bessette, electrical engineer at Lord MicrostrainSensing Systems (www.microstrain.com), reports hiscompany’s wireless sensors use batteries and energyharvestingmethods, which gather power from solar,vibrations and thermal sources. “We’ve been buildinglow-power wireless sensors for about 10 years, but manycustomers also want time synchronization to preventlosing data,” Bessette says. “So last July, we launchedour Lossless eXtended Range Synchronization (LXRS)wireless protocol, which is based in IEEE 802.15.4, runsat 2.4 GHz, and offers 32 µs synchronization. Thismeans we can catch up to data that’s been delayed, andprecisely control time to reduce power consumption.For example, if a rotating machine is moving a sensorin and out of a wireless zone, we’ll still be able to pickup all the data packets.” Microstrain also released threeLXRS-compatible sensors in 2012, including a wirelessaccelerometer, analog input wireless sensor with sevenchannels and wireless thermocouple node for temperaturemonitoring. All three use batteries, but can switchto energy-harvesting mode.“ The real sweet spot in wireless sensing isa response time of about one to two secondsand one to two years of battery life.”Ironically, just as Power over Ethernet (PoE) canprovide some low-voltage power via data wires, thereare a few places where data can travel over power’sinfrastructure. “We’ve had short-range (5-25 mm), powerand signal transmission in our inductive couplers for 20years,” says Will Healy, network marketing manager atBalluff (www.balluff.com). “They transmit between baseand remote units via a reductive ield on a frequencywith the data encoded. Originally, we sent 50-100 mAacross the gap. Now, we’re up to 24 V and 0.5 A, andwe’re going to seek 2-5 A. A lot of automotive and assemblyapplications use inductive couplers in turntablesand dial tables to get simple on/off signals from theirsensors. However, a couple of years ago, we added IO-Link ieldbus to our couplers, which lets us get I/O blocksand analog signals from sensors on the other side. Now,we can get all kinds of status and operations data viaIO-Link, and we’re just about to launch the ability to irein outputs across the gap, too, to do jobs like drive valvesand collect more inputs.”Beyond gathering traditional sensor points in moreplaces, many users demand more frequent and dataintensiveinputs, such as video. “Our two-year-oldWirelessHART adapter hooks onto existing transmittersto get process and building equipment signalsonto their networks inexpensively, and gets powerfrom a 5- to 10-year battery or a local loop,” says JustinShade, product marketing specialist for wireless atPhoenix Contact (www.phoenixcontact.com). “We seea need for higher-volume data transfers for remote PLCprogramming and video surveillance, often from multipleInternet protocol (IP) cameras. So, this past January,we released WiFi radios that can run at 300 Mbpsinstead of the previous 56 Mbps.”controldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 41


PRODUCT ROUNDUPcdroundup@putman.netControllers: More of EverythingThe List of User Requirements Continues to Grow LongerTHE LATEST INFLUENCES on the design of programmablecontrollers go beyond the ever-present need forfaster and more powerful processing.“That means integration of Ethernet and protocols,integrated support of some IT functionality, morememory on the controller itself for data logging, andeasier handling of web-based HMIs,” says Dan Fenton,product marketing specialist for Phoenix Contact. “Inaddition, software is beginning to matter more, as IEC61131 is becoming more important in customer speciications,in particular for openness and flexibility.”Remote machine connectivity is becoming more important,whether for an OEM/SI to reduce maintenance/travel costs, or for the end user to reduce downtime/improvelogistics,” adds Cindy Hollenbeck, vice presidentsales/marketing at SoftPLC. “Low-cost, M2M cellularplans and cloud-based technology are making remoteconnectivity almost a no-brainer in terms of cost.”“For the past few years, the market has pushed onphysically downsizing PLCs and other control components,”argues Charlie Norz, product manager atWago. “Fortunately, advances in board-level electronicsenable PLC power and capabilities to grow. OurEthernet 2.0 PLC line up mirrors this trend as each PLCis up to ive times smaller than conventional devices.”Paul Marsden, global technology manager for HMI atKontron, says total sales of industrial PCs are projectedto rise to an estimated $3.8 billion by 2016, whichequates to a 8.5% CAGR. “Market trends demonstrate thereplacement of analog resistive displays for projectedcapacitive touch displays, Windows XP being displacedby Windows 7, a rapid removal of legacy products, a risein system reliability and reduced costs of ownership,”Marsden says.“Builders of standalone machines want world-classmicro PLCs with flexible, ‘just-enough’ control that helpsthem differentiate their machines from the competition,”argues Thomas Sugimoto, product marketingmanager for Micro800 at Rockwell Automation. “Butthose PLCs must be economical from a holistic perspective.Machine builders know better than anyone thetrue, total cost of designing, developing and deliveringmachines. Their holistic perspective includes flexiblehardware conigurations, like USB; up to six serial portsand Ethernet for communications; up to 3-axes of embeddedmotion; plug-ins and 2085 expansion for I/O USB;and single programming software that eases installation,coniguration, connectivity and maintenance.”LADDER TRAININGPLC Professional Training Boxis a tool for learning ladderlogic programming in realisticapplications. The ladderlogic language is very similaramong different brands ofPLCs and the WinProLadderdevelopment environmentis similar to RSLogix. Itcontains FBs-24MCT main unit, FBs-CM25E Ethernetmodule, digital input socket, simulated switches anddigital output socket.Rohtek; 425/318-2179; www.rohtek.comTALKS WITH MANYSnap-PAC-S1 programmableautomationcontroller (PAC) communicateswith remoteEthernet I/O andsupports Modbus TCP,Modbus RTU/ASCII,EtherNet/IP, BACnetand OptoMMP. FreePAC control programmingsoftware is included.Opto 22; 951/695-3000; www.opto22.comONE ENVIRONMENTIndraLogic XLC(eXtended LogicControl) PLCsuse planning,coniguration,programming anddiagnostic functionsstandardized in one engineering environment,with motion control functions integrated. It connectsinto different communication networks via sercos IIIreal-time and other common interfaces. Functions includeconvenient editor tools, object orientation as anextension to IEC 61131-3, and comprehensive functionlibraries, as well as fast compilers for eficient generationof machine codes.Bosch Rexroth; 630/654-0170; www.boschrexroth-us.com42 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


YOU LOAD 16 AXESCompact rack-style Model5300 PAC with up to 512 I/Oand 16 axes of advancedmotion control and datalogging can be used standalone,or can be networkedvia its serial and LAN connections. Built-in web serverprovides Internet or intranet access fast. Programmingis handled in QuickBuilder state language, oradvanced applications can use C/C++.Control Technology; 888/818-2600; www.ctc-control.comSTUDIO SUPPORTApax-5620 with Intel XScale PXA270CPU supports Microsoft Visual Studio.Net for PC-based users to developapplications. Two CAN bus interfacessupport CANopen stack, and twoRS-485 ports connect to remote I/Odevices and support up to 32 I/O modules.It’s compatible with IEC-61131-3 based MultiprogKW languages and supports WinCE.Advantech Industrial Automation; 800/205-7940;www.advantech.com/eaVARIABLE CONTROLUniversal 535 ¼ DIN, single-loopPID process controller monitorsand controls temperature,pressure, level, low and otheranalog variables. It provides anisolated analog (4-20 mA or 0-20 mA) control signaloutput and alarm trip outputs that can be used for on/off control or to warn of unwanted conditions.Moore Industries-Int’l; 818/894-7111; www.miinet.comSOFT UPGRADESSmart SoftPLC and SmartGateway support two channelsof A-B remote I/O. As a remoteI/O master, users can upgradeA-B PLCs by exchanging thePLC CPU with a Smart SoftPLC.Users can reuse most existing logic and program documentationwith automated conversion utilities.SoftPLC; 800/softplc; www.softplc.comDUAL RESETSTCN Seriestemperaturecontrollers havedual presetindicators, newly developed PID control algorithm and100 ms high-speed sampling. They have eight typesof input sensors, built-in relay output or SSRP outputselectable, and 2EA alarm outputs. SSRP output makesphase control and cycle control possible (AC power).Autonics; 847/680-8160; www.autonics.comVERSATILE SAFETYVAS-2A8L-KE4-8SE programmablesafety controller providesfour redundant safe inputs andtwo independent safe electronicoutputs. It runs on standard 24 Vdc,and works with any safe devicewith dry contacts or electronic safe outputs. Removableterminals simplify installation and ield service. Anintuitive drag-and-drop application interface makes iteasy to conigure complex safety operations.Pepperl+Fuchs; 330/486-0001; www.sensing.net/safetyBACKUP IN PLACEEthernet 2.0 750-885 PLC hastwo redundant networksbacked by dual, independentEthernet interfaces and 1MBof data memory. SD Card providesup to 32 GB of memoryfor back-up-and-restore, iletransfer and time-stamping/data-logging. Via SD Card,users can transfer programs, bootiles and parametersfrom PLC to PLC. Extended Temperature variant (-20 to60 °C) is available; all 750-885 models carry UL 508.Wago; 800/din-rail; www.wago.usTWO OR MORE IN ONEOmniClient runs real-timecontrol and visualizationsimultaneously on onecomputer. It uses an IntelCore i3/i5/i7 processor, andincludes WiFi, Bluetoothand RFID. It’s shock and vibration resistant, thermallystable, has an IP65 front panel, and is EMC compliant.Kontron America; 858/677-0877; us.kontron.comcontroldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 43


PRODUCT ROUNDUPLIGHT CONTROLEnsemble Lab controlplatform, with 64-bit,loating point DSPto automate laboratoryand light industrial manufacturing applications,includes full-color, touchscreen display and tabbedinterface for single-press access to setup and operationscreens. It’is programmed in readable Basic-like syntax,off-line with a graphical user interface in Windows.Aerotech; 412/967-6854; www.aerotech.comALWAYS DO MOREDo-more H2 Series PLCsupports all base units withdiscrete and analog I/Omodules available for theDL205 PLC. The CPUs offerfour times more programmemory, nine times moredata memory, and operateup to 20 times faster than current DL205 CPUs. The I/Oconiguration window performs auto-discovery of allI/O modules in the local base, simplifying coniguration.AutomationDirect; 800/633-0405;www.automationdirect.com/do-more-plcsSIBLING CONTROLMicro850 and enhancedMicro830PLCs have embeddedmotion capabilitiesfor three axes of motion. Micro850 has same form factor,plug-in support, instruction/data size and motioncapabilities as the 24-pt and 48-pt Micro830 controllers,but with Ethernet and expansion I/O. Micro850controller has an embedded Ethernet port for higherperformance connectivity to HMIs, and supports up tofour 2085 expansion I/O modules.Rockwell Automation; 414/328-2000; www.ab.comCOMPACT CONTROLLERILC 1x1 compact controllersfor small to medium-sizedsystems support ModbusTCP, have an SD card slot toincrease lash memory to 2GB, and include PC Worx Suite 1.70, Project+ I/O conigurator,WebVisit programming software and ReSy+/AX ODP Server remote control solution.Phoenix Contact; 800/322-3225;www.phoenixcontact.comEXPRESS FASTCX2000 embedded PCshave multi-core processorsfor multi-axismachinery and powerfulgraphical interfaces.Basic CPU module has one DVI port, four USB portsand two independent Ethernet ports. Fieldbus masterand slave implementations are possible for EtherCAT(slave), Proinet, EtherNet/IP, Proibus, CANopen andDeviceNet, as well as serial RS232/RS422/RS485.Beckhoff Automation; 952/890-0000; www.beckhoffautomation.com/cx2000/RIO MULTIPLIERRIO-47142 Pocket PLC includesan internal switchwith two Ethernet portsfor daisy-chaining multipleRIO units. Each RIO unit isself-contained, and provides32 optically isolated digitalinputs and outputs and 16 analog inputs and outputs.The controller can be programmed using company’sstandard two-letter language. Software is available forconverting relay Ladder Logic into code for input intothe RIO controller.Galil Motion Control; 800/377-6329; www.galilmc.comA LOT IN ONEAKD PDMM combines a multiaxismotion controller, completeIEC61131-3 soft PLC, EtherCATmaster and AKD servo drive in asingle, compact package to reducepanel space and simplify wiringand integration, while increasinglexibility, scalability and performance.Device is fully programmablethrough KAS Integrated Development Environment,and solution is scalable from a single axis to 128axes with a single controller.Kollmorgen; 540/633-3545; www.kollmorgen.com44 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


HIGH-END CONTROLSimatic S7-1217Ccontroller for thehigh-end performancerange hasline driver inputsand outputs toswitch stepping motorcontrols. New irmware v 4.0 supports all S7-1200CPUs, and provides Proinet iDevice functionality andextended access protection.Siemens Industry; 800/333-7421; www.siemens.comBIG MACNJ-Series Machine AutomationController (MAC)integrates multiple, specializedcontrollers with systemsynchronization. Sysmac Studiosoftware integrated development environment (IDE)supports programming, coniguration, simulation andmonitoring.Omron Industrial Automation; 866/88-omron;www.omron247.comL OF A CONTROLLERL Series PLCs have rackfreedesign, single-CPU architecture withbuilt-in Ethernet andMini-USB interfaces, SD/SDHC memory card slot and24 I/O. CC-Link V2 master/local station connects theopen ield network. iQ Works software suite includesMelsoft Navigator network coniguration setup.Mitsubishi Electric Automation; 847/478-2100;www.meau.comCUSTOM OPTIONSNI Single-Board RIOembedded devices havea real-time processor,Spartan-6 FPGA, analogand digital I/O and builtinperipherals for custom control and monitoring.Off-the-shelf FPGA and processor use LabView, whilekeeping the custom I/O through a RIO mezzanine cardconnector for direct access to FPGA digital input/outputlines and certain processor-speciic functions.National Instruments; 800/258-7022; www.ni.comPC INTEGRATED WITH DRIVEAPC820 integrates drive and PCwith Core 2 Duo processors. WithSmart Display Link, four automationpanels can be connectedover a distance of up to 160 m.Real-time communication betweenAPC820, I/Os and drives via Powerlink achievescycle times to 200 µs and ultra-precise timing


SPECMATEHank Hogan • hank@hankhogan.comThree Specs, or So, for Motor ChoiceWHEN IT COMES to electric motors, there’s a seeminglybewildering array of choices to the uninitiatedeye. Machine builders can pick among brushless dc,cored and coreless dc, and stepper motors, and that canjust be the offerings of a single vendor. Throw in theentire universe of motor makers, and it’s enough to leadto a speciication nightmare.Not to worry, says Matt Lecheler, motion controlspecialist at Beckhoff Automation (www.beckhoff.com).“Generally, we boil it down to three specs,” he says.“And that would be speed, torque and inertia.”One of the three usually is the dominant criteria, headds. Satisfying it will be the prime objective, and thatwill drive everything else. Often, it’s inertia that’s mostimportant, or, more precisely, the inertia ratio betweenthe motor and the load. The closer the total inertiais to an even split between motor and load, the moreresponsive the overall system will be. To see why, considertwo cases, Lecheler says. In one, imagine pushinga car in neutral. In the other, picture doing the same toa baby stroller with the brakes off. In the irst scenario,you can move the car, but not quickly. And once you getit moving, it can be hard to stop. In the second situation,you can start and stop on a dime.A cruder, more-inexact profile will leadto an oversized motor. This means theenergy consumption will be higher,resulting in excess heat generation.An analogous example in machine terms might berotating the fuselage of an airplane versus the pickand-placeof chips going into a printed circuit board. It’sa case of tons of inertia versus grams.The ideal ratio is 1:1. However, in practical terms, mostapplications can function perfectly well with the loadhaving eight times the inertia of the motor, Lecheler says.He adds that iguring out the inertia of the systemcan be a complicated affair. There could be gearboxesand other mechanical linkages involved that alter theload’s inertia as seen by the motor. Usually, the bestsolution is to have a software package calculate theperceived inertia of the load, but this might not be necessaryfor very simple setups.Commonly, an engineer designing a system needsto achieve a given torque at a particular speed, saysDave Beckstoffer, project manager at Portescap(www.portescap.com). The company makes a line ofminiature motors.Establishing the torque-speed working point canserve to eliminate a whole host of possible motors.Some could be too slow or not be able to exert enoughtorque. Occasionally, there might be only one motorthat its the requirements. Typically, though, therewill be several. Then, other factors can come into play,such as cost or lifetime.“Life is going to be very important. If you’re a machinebuilder in the medical ield, then obviously motorlife is going to be critical for you,” says Beckstoffer.A motor that’s only projected to last six months in ahospital/bedside application would not work, he adds.Often, medical end users would like systems to havelifespans of ive or 10 years.Other possible secondary requirements beyond thespeed-torque minimum are feedback, heat and theneed for microprocessor control. Feedback involveswhether or not it’s necessary to know with certainty ifthe device moved from point A to B. As for heat, lesseficientmotors might generate too much waste heat.The controller issue results in the need of some types ofmotors to be controlled. That implies a microprocessoris managing the motor’s operation, and the processorcould already be too busy handling other chores.It’s the entire motion proile that is important, notjust speed and load, says Abdulilah Alzayyat, productmanager at Bosch Rexroth USA (www.boschrexrothus.com).Having a detailed and accurate proile ofneeded motion can pay dividends.Typically, a cruder and more-inexact proile will leadto an oversized motor, Alzayyat says. This means thatthe energy consumption of the system will be higherthan needed, resulting in excess heat generation. Thatcould age components, reducing the lifetime of thesystem. Thus, there can be a double penalty: higheroperating expense due to greater energy usage andsooner-than-necessary component replacement.Key to getting the motion proile right is calculatingcontinuous versus peak torques. The proile can be furtherreined by accounting for cycle times. How long doesthe system have to move from one point to the next, andhow long can it take to complete the entire trajectory?Armed with that knowledge, designers calculate theeffect of various movement options, and thereby gain anadvantage, Alzayyat says. “We can do some optimizationthat enables you to maybe use a smaller sized motor.”An added beneit of an accurate motion proile isthat it can help mitigate technology-speciic issues. Forinstance, permanent magnet (PM) motors tend to maintaineficiency over a broader range of speeds and loadsthan do induction motors. As a result, if speed and load46 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


BOSCHREXROTHvary over a wider range, a PM motor might be a betterchoice. But, the full operating range will be known only ifthe motion proile is detailed and accurate.After speed, torque and inertia ratio are satisied,then other considerations come into play, says MarcusHermann, manager of research and developmentat Johnson Electric (www.johnsonelectric.com). Forinstance, a growing concern is motor eficiency. This isparticularly true for battery-powered applications. Inthat case, an end user might want the system to run—and do useful work—for an entire day or its lifetimewithout having to recharge or change batteries. Thus,the motor’s energy consumption is important andwould need to be speciied.A second trend involves noise. Motors that generatea lot of noise might be less eficient, since they wasteenergy on something other than work. Vibrations dueto friction and mechanical motion also can disturbnearby people and systems.So, there could be a push to reduce the noise a motorgenerates. That would join longstanding efforts toimprove eficiency, thereby resulting in two secondarymotor specs of increasing importance.As Hermann says, “Energy and the noise issuesreally are something that I believe will get more andmore attention over the next couple of years.”Get Up toSpeed QuicklyWith the Control Design Essentials SeriesEssentials ofMachine HMIMade possible byWritten by the editors of Control Design, our new Control DesignEssentials series is designed to provide industry professionals withan up-to-date, top-level understanding of a range of key machineautomation topics. Our intent is to present essential engineeringconcepts in a practical, non-commercial fashion, together with a reviewof the latest technology and marketplace drivers—all in a form factorwell suited for onscreen consumption. Get in and get out quickly withjust the information you need.To download your complementary copy,visit ControlDesign.com/EssentialsEssentials ofPresenceSensingMade possible byNow available atControlDesign.com/Essentials


REAL ANSWERScontroldesign@putman.netShould M2M Scare Us?SEVERAL OF THE ENGINEERS implementing devicelevelnetworks and Ethernet in our machines wantmore machine-to-machine communication capabilitiesto supposedly help our customers. Some of our managersare concerned that M2M trafic could quickly growbeyond our customers’ ability to monitor and controlit, and so M2M might actually hinder machine controlperformance instead of help it. Does anyone have someadvice on monitoring and controlling, so we can all geton the same page and help our customers?—From March ’13 Control DesignSupervisory System PreferableThere are certainly scenarios for which M2M communicationis the most effective coniguration to help monitormachine performance. With lines requiring two orthree machines to be close coupled, for example, hardcoding is generally the best way to ensure they act as asingle unit. When it comes to trafic for machines usingM2M in this way, the limitation we see isn’t related tothe network—engineers using Ethernet to transfer datasimply aren’t running out of bandwidth. Instead, weind the dificulties experienced are associated withthe ease of use of the system. With M2M, everything ishard-coded, which often causes cascading oscillations.One small bump up front cascades through the line andcauses more signiicant problems.An alternative—especially for multi-machine andmulti-cell applications—is to deploy a conigurable,line-control application that uses a supervisory systemto control and analyze the performance of an entireline, allowing it to operate as a single unit. Not onlydoes this approach lower the total cost of deploying andoptimizing equipment, it also provides a platform thatinterfaces with production machines and operationsmanagement systems in a consistent manner.A supervisor-based system offers features that extendbeyond what traditional M2M offers for coniguration,control and performance reporting:• Conigurable upstream/downstream interlocksand start/stop behaviors;• Ability to manage each line coniguration on aproduct type/SKU basis;• Display of real-time status and performanceinformation;• Display of line-level key performance indicators(KPI) and root-cause analysis;• Reason reporting for equipment downtime byduration and frequency;• Programmatic creation of reason code descriptionsfrom event messaging structure; and• Ability to create and organize ad hoc reportsagainst SKU, shift, work order, user, etc.For machine builders, the main beneit of an enduser implementing a line-control solution is that itcan be done without impacting an individual machinebuilder’s control system or changing how they program.The application reconciles customization at theequipment level, so that all line control functions andsystems connected to it can be standardized and madehighly conigurable. Industry standards are leveragedwhen they exist, but the end user isn’t dependent onthem to achieve consistent results.RYAN LEPP, business manager,Rockwell Automation, www.rockwellautomation.comTaste This Flavor of EthernetThere are certainly software solutions or services avendor would happily sell you to help manage a chaoticsituation with M2M trafic. Rather than opening upyour wallet a second time, the best solution is to selectthe right device-level network, which also happens tomean the right Ethernet solution. You can avoid theintroduction of negative M2M trafic to the networkusing EtherCAT because its take on industrial Ethernethas several advantages in cabling and diagnostics thatprevent M2M headaches in the irst place.For example, networks such as EtherNet/IP or Modbusare designed to be switched network environments,but these protocols by nature are inherently noisy, andthis noise must be mitigated using expensive, managedswitches. Beyond the inancial burden, this cancause the kinds of monitoring and control issues thereader speaks of. On the other hand, EtherCAT does notrequire switches, and has a functional principle calledprocessing-on-the-ly, which means that each individualEtherCAT device—from controllers to drives toI/O terminals—process the EtherCAT frame as it passesthrough the network.With EtherCAT, there is no broadcasting/polling ofthe network from the master controller to slave devicesas you see in other iterations of industrial Ethernet.Because one EtherCAT master can control 65,535devices, it can easily control an entire machine line,negating the need for M2M communication within thatline. EtherCAT also features a vast array of diagnosticfeatures built in with no added fee to the system. Forexample, users can view the real-time health status of48 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


any given node at any time. Users can see bad connectionsor cable breaks right at the ASIC of any EtherCATdevice. The design of EtherCAT also implements cablingredundancy, so that if a node drops because of someexternal event, the entire line won’t go down and mostof the network will continue to run. This can make asigniicant positive impact, not just on M2M communications,but on machine uptime in general.NATHAN EISEL, technical support manager,Beckhoff Automation, www.beckhoffautomation.comNo, Taste This FlavorAs plant floors evolve away from ieldbus toward moreopentechnologies such as Ethernet, questions ariseregarding how to manage the trafic on the network.When it comes to M2M, many solutions are available.However, not all solutions are created equal. Traditionally,machine-to-machine communications requiredan interface between the machines. That interfacecould be software programming blocks that sent andreceived data. It also could be a hardware device, suchas a network coupler, which acted as a slave to bothmachines and where data was exchanged. Nonetheless,the traditional solution of M2M communication typicallyrequired manual communication block programmingor the added cost of physical hardware to act asthe interface.CPU1CPU2 as I-Deviceor additional hardware. The iDevice functionality is asimple check box and a table where inputs and outputsare mapped. Once a controller is conigured as an iDevice,it can be assigned to another Proinet controller asan I/O drop. All communication happens at I/O speeds,and therefore requires less overhead and managementthan traditional TCP/IP trafic. The iDevice functionalityeliminates the need to monitor and manage TCP/IP trafic, and reduces the potential complexity of M2Mcommunication.MING NG, Profinet technology manager,Siemens Industry, www.siemens.comConsider BluetoothBluetooth M2M communication/coordination could bea viable option for this application. Security is ensuredvia device-matching technology, data encryption, andup to a 16-character, case-sensitive access code (95bits of entropy). Bluetooth is also familiar, reliable andindustry-proven to work in metallic-intensive applications,such as foundries or high-bay warehouses.M2M via Bluetooth can shed a lot of costs upfront byeliminating large runs of cabling, and save down-theroadbecause the cabling won’t require maintenance ortroubleshooting.Also, assigning wireless M2M trafic to drop-in I/O,such as Wago’s Bluetooth RF-Transceiver, won’t bogdown your customer’s Ethernet network. This aloneOperational SystemApplication /User programIO process imageInputaddr.Outputaddr.IE/PROFINET(IO device 1/10controller 2)Operational SystemApplication /User programIO process imageInputaddr.Outputaddr.JULY’S PROBLEMOFFERING CUSTOMERS THE latest technologiesis one way we try to make a name for ourselves, andimprove their operations. We’ve normally been prettytraditional with our sensor technology, but suppliersare pushing imaging solutions more aggressively sincecost is becoming less of an issue. We like the addedversatility an image sensor might offer. The machinesoperate in an environment that varies significantlyin temperature and humidity, so we’re unsure howprecision and accuracy will compare. Anyone haveobservations, experiences to share?PROFINET IOBy moving toward Ethernet, engineers expect bettersolutions for M2M communications challenges. This iswhere Proinet has taken the lead. With Proinet iDevice(intelligent device), a controller can map part of itsprocess image table as addressable I/O for another controller.As a result, this system can have two controllersexchanging data without the need for programmingSEND US YOUR COMMENTS, SUGGESTIONS ORSOLUTIONS FOR THIS PROBLEM. We’ll include it inthe July ’13 issue, and post it on ControlDesign.com.Send visuals if you’d like—a sketch is fine. E-mail us atRealAnswers@putman.net. Please include your company,location and title in the response.HAVE A PROBLEM YOU’D LIKE TO POSE to the readers?Send it along, too.controldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 49


REAL ANSWERSshould allay any long-term concerns about managingnetwork trafic because it won’t be Ethernet-based. Infact, advanced Ethernet controllers with integrated webservers can put everyone on the same web page. Forexample, information exchanged between machinesvia Bluetooth can be used to develop OEE reporting. OurBluetooth RF-transceivers can route select machine/production metrics to a Wago PLC. The PLC’s web servercan prep the OEE data for a web page that’s accessibleto entire departments or even the whole organization.Both you and the end-customer can get comprehensivemonitoring capabilities that are not resource-intensive,and conserve Ethernet network bandwidth.CHARLIE NORZ, product manager—Wago-I/O-System,Do Your HomeworkWago, www.wago.usA lot of this has to do with machine control architecture,hardware being used, application requirements (especiallyrelated to response time), etc. I can make someassumptions though, and provide a general answer. I assumeeach machine has its own controller, and also usesa network for local machine peripheral devices.The local networks for the machines have a high levelof determinism, and are real-time networks. Most oftenCUSTOM REPRINTSREPRINTS ARE IDEAL FOR:n New Product Announcementsn Sales Aid For Your Field Forcen PR Materials & Media Kitsn Direct Mail Enclosuresn Customer & ProspectCommunications/Presentationsn Trade Shows/Promotional Eventsn Conferences & Speaking Engagementsn Recruitment & Training PackagesUse reprintsto maximizeyour marketinginitiatives andstrengthen yourbrand’s value.For additional information, please contact Foster Printing Service,the official reprint provider for Control Design.Call 866.879.9144 orsales@fosterprinting.comthey are cyclic in function. The M2M data must be analyzed,and a determination must be made if it also mustbe real-time cyclic data, or if it can be event-driven.For M2M data that can be event-driven, this shouldnot be used in a message type that is cyclic with fastintervals. Many industrial networks today can supportmultiple message types designed for cyclic andevent-based data. CIP protocols are an example. In bothDeviceNet and EtherNet/IP, implicit polled messaging(cyclic) and explicit messaging (event-driven) can coexiston the same cable. These two examples are deviceleveland Ethernet-based, respectively, but have similarmechanisms for this purpose. Putting event-drivenmessaging in an appropriate message type reduces theburden on bandwidth, and will be less likely to disruptmachine performance. This type of M2M data might befor monitoring machine levels, maybe reporting a caseif a temperature is exceeded or that a queue is full.If the M2M data must be in real time, the networkmust have the bandwidth necessary to support the localtrafic plus M2M trafic. This is very dependent on thehardware used. Most Ethernet-based industrial protocolswith a proper infrastructure (i.e., managed switches)have the necessary bandwidth to manage control andmonitoring data, including M2M trafic. Device-levelnetworks have less bandwidth, but might have othermechanisms like change-of-state that optimize performance,so they can also handle the combined trafic.My advice would be to do your homework irst.Analyze the application data, and decide which datais cyclic and which can be event-driven. Does yourhardware have the bandwidth to carry your data? Doesit support functions needed to optimize the bandwidth,such as putting non-critical data in an event-triggeredmessage or a very slow cycle? By doing this properly inthe beginning, I’m sure M2M trafic can be managed,and will not hinder machine control performance.We have a real example that uses our valve terminalwith EtherNet/IP. The I/O data on the terminalis implicit-type polled data, and the cycle could beevery 10 ms, for example. The terminal also could beconigured to report that the supply pressure is out ofrange. If this event happens, the controller could pullthe speciic data out of the terminal, and report this toother machines, HMIs throughout the machine, or anoperator station. Other machines might beneit fromthis information, but the impact to the bandwidth isnegligible because this event might happen only rarely,so the message is rarely sent.FRANK LATINO, product manager,Festo, www.festo.us


EXCLUSIVEDisplay Shows the Power of the LoopYOU CAN MAKE a case that there’s not muchdifference in the science behind a loop-powereddisplay today compared with the device inventedby Sir Edward Weston in 1893. Just like Weston’s devices,a contemporary version uses minute amountsof energy in a current loop for power.While the science is the same, it’s the productenhancements over the years that will cause onebrand to differentiate itself from others.Otek says its been doing that all along, and itslatest example is the new LPD Series loop-powereddisplay, built—as the latest successor to the originalanalog voltmeter—to brightly and consistently illuminateits 51 automatic tricolor (R/G/Y) bargraphand four digits.“But that’s not all,” says Dr. Otto Fest, founderand president of Otek, which has been designingand building these devices since 1974. “The LPDis 100% DCS/SCADA/Ethernet-compatible with itsSerial I/O capabilities, all of it loop-powered. Inaddition, it tells the operator if and when the loopfails by flashing its display message ‘Loop Fail,’ andtransmits the distress message via serial with ID,date and time stamp for about 20 seconds beforegoing dark.” Fest says these features eliminate theneed for finger tapping on an analog meter to decidewhether its meter needle is dead (stuck) or thatthe signal is absent.“Now the operators can’t ignore the meter asprobably could have happened in Fukushima, Chernobylor Three Mile Island,” Fest says, “or as a causein the Carnival Triumph cruise ship fiasco or inmany airplane accidents that have been blamed onoperator error.”“ It tells the operator if and when the loopfails by flashing its display message “LoopFail,” and transmits the distress messagevia serial with ID, date and time stamp forabout 20 seconds before going dark.”How does it work? The LPD uses less than 12 mWat 4 mA (


PRODUCT SHOWCASE controldesign@putman.netTERMINAL CHOICECT-S time relays and CMmeasuring and monitoringrelays have termination options.Double-cage connectionterminals use screw technology,and can be connected with two wires of differingdiameters up to 14 AWG, solid or stranded, with orwithout wire-end ferrules. Push-in terminals featurespring clamp, Easy Connect technology, which allowsthe devices to be wired without any tools. Push-interminals are suitable for solid or stranded wires upto 20–16 AWG.ABB Low Voltage Products; 888/385-1221;www.abb.us/lowvoltageDUAL OR QUADSPiiPlusUDMlc compact Ether-CAT dual/quad axis drive canrun servo, stepper and voicecoil motors from 10-200 W. Itsupports motor bus voltagesfrom 15-48 Vdc, and has inputsfor four digital incremental and up to two absoluteencoders. It offers high linearity power stage, full sinusoidalcommutation with ield-oriented control, andadvanced position, velocity and current-loop servoalgorithms at 20kHz sampling and update rate.ACS; 763/559-7669; www.acsmotioncontrol.comDRY DATAOM-CP-PR140 pressure data logger for usein autoclave validation and mapping isIP68 completely submersible. The devicehas accuracy of ±0.03 Bar over a 20–140°C range. It can take readings at 1 Hz, andhas non-volatile memory to store 32,700measurements. Graphical, tabular and summary datais provided in psia, mmHg, bar, Torr and kPa.Omega Engineering; 800/tc-omega; www.omega.comDIRECT TO THE HARTYHC5150X FieldMate handheld communicatorallows HART ield devices to beconigured, polled and trimmed using aWindows Embedded CETM-based system.It is full function, DD Direct, and supportsUniversal, Common Practice and DeviceSpeciic commands for commissioning, coniguration,and maintenance operations. It reads manufacturers’DDs in native format without need for translations.Yokogawa; 800/888-6400; www.yokogawa.com/usMISSES NOTHINGW27 MultiPac photoelectricproximity sensor usesredundant receiver arrays todetect dificult targets, suchas bundled bottles. With twoindependent receiver arrays, continuous detection isensured when diffused light is misdirected from bundledsurfaces. One high-intensity, visible red-emittingLED aids in alignment and provides reliable detection,while a simple teach button adjusts the sensing rangeup to 500 mm.Sick; 800/325-7425; www.sickusa.comSEE WHAT IT SEESVisionView 900 industrialoperator panel for In-Sightvision systems and Ethernet-readyDataMan barcode readers has a 9-in. displaywith IP65-rated touchscreen, allowing users to viewimages and overlay graphics for up to nine In-Sight orDataMan systems simultaneously without requiring aPC on the factory floor. Operators can modify inspectionparameters, adjust camera focus, and load andsave jobs previously conigured on the vision system.It can also save images for subsequent troubleshootingand process optimization.Cognex; 508/650-3000; www.cognex.com/visionviewFROM THE TOPTopView software suite includesTopView 6.15 with notiicationalarm acknowledge links.TopView’s alarm notiication messages(email, SMS) can include awebpage link that allows recipientsto acknowledge alarm directlyfrom smartphones or desktops. TopView includes anembedded web server used by the TopView MobileWeb App. The app supports security, so users can berequired to enter a username/password before theycan see and acknowledge the alarm.Exele Information Systems; 585/385-9740; www.exele.com52 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


ON THE LISTThese UL 489-listed components include 9B1N DIN-rail miniaturecircuit breakers, 9B1H thermal overload relays, 9B1E deinite-purposecontactors, 9B1A deinite-purpose contactors, 9M1 moldedcasecircuit breakers, Ex9C IEC contactors, Ex9R overload relays andEx9C deinite-purpose contactors.Noark Electric; 414/304-8189; www.noark-electric.comGET YOUR CNC DATAFASOPC, designed for retrieval of CNC machine production data, is an OPC server forcommunicating with FOCAS-enabled Fanuc CNCs to read and write data. The conigurationutility’s intuitive user interface has wizards to guide the processes of setting up allcontrols. FASOPC supports OPC DA speciication 3.0, 2.0 and 1.0.Fanuc FA America; 888/326-8287; www.fanucfa.comis the only magazine exclusivelydedicated to the original equipmentmanufacturing (OEM) market forinstrumentation and controls—thelargest market for industrial controls.555 W. Pierce Rd., Suite 301Itasca, Illinois 60143630/467-1300Fax: 630/467-1124PUBLISHING TEAMGROUP PUBLISHER & VP, CONTENTKEITH LARSON klarson@putman.netDIRECTOR OF CIRCULATIONJACK JONES jjones@putman.netSALES TEAMNORTHEASTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL MANAGERSPECIFY SENSORSIndustrial OEM pressure sensor catalog includes various sensor, transducerand transmitter products with detailed information regardingproduct performance and tools for selecting the best options. Two-pagedimensional data section helps specify the mechanical process connectionand electrical connector dimensions of various pressure sensors.American Sensor Technologies; 973/448-1901; www.astsensors.comDAVE FISHER dfisher@putman.net508/543-5172 Fax: 508/543-306124 Cannon Forge Dr.Foxboro, Massachusetts 02035MIDWESTERN AND SOUTHERN REGIONAL MANAGERGREG ZAMIN gzamin@putman.net630/551-2500 Fax: 630/467-1124555 W. Pierce Rd., Suite 301Itasca, Illinois 60143WESTERN REGIONAL MANAGERTAKE ONE OR MORE TURNSModel AMS22U and Model AMM20B non-contacting rotary positionsensors use magnetic Hall Effect (HE) technology. Single-turn ModelAMS22U has a rotational life to 100 million cycles with a 1/8-in. shaftsupported by dual ball bearings and a factory programmable 10-360ºelectrical angle. Multiturn Model AMM20B has a rotational life to 50million cycles, 12-bit resolution and a factory programmable 1080-3600º electrical angle.Bourns; 951/781-5500; www.bourns.comAD INDEXLAURA MARTINEZ lmartinez@putman.net310/607-0125 Fax: 310/607-0168218 Virginia, Suite 4, El Segundo,California 90245DIGITAL SALES SPECIALISTJEANNE FREEDLANDjfreedland@putman.net805/773-4299 Fax: 805/773-0451INSIDE SALES SPECIALISTPOLLY DICKSON pdickson@putman.net630/467-1300 Fax: 630/467-1124EXECUTIVE STAFFAllied Electronics................ 8AutomationDirect............... 56Autonics ..................... 18AVG Automation ................ 2B&R Industrial Automation ........ 27Baldor Electric .................17Balluff ...................... 20Banner Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Beckhoff Automation ............. 6Bimba .......................19CSA Group ................... 22Eaton ....................... 38Harting...................... 26Intertek ......................31Maple Systems ................ 37Measurement Computing ......... 32National Instruments ............. 4Novotechnik .................. 39Numatics..................... 34Opto 22 ...................11–14Otek ....................... 33Phoenix Contact ................ 3Rohtek Automation ............. 30Ross Controls ................. 28SEW-Eurodrive .................21Siemens Industry................10Wago ....................... 29Yaskawa America............... 55PRESIDENT & CEOJOHN M. CAPPELLETTICFOJANE B. VOLLANDVP, CIRCULATIONJERRY CLARKVP, CREATIVE SERVICESSTEVE HERNERREPRINTSFOSTER REPRINTS www.fosterprinting.comJILL KALETHAjkaletha@fosterprinting.com866-879-9144 ext. 168controldesign.com May 2013 Control Design 53


OEM INSIGHT Paul J. Galeski • paul.galeski@mavtechglobal.comThe Renaissance Requires AutomationIF YOU HAVEN’T BEEN following the great debateover the status of American manufacturing, rest assuredit’s as heated as ever. Some argue the sector isinally on its way back after decades of shrinking. Othersfeel the recent gains still fall short of a true rebirthon American soil. I’m in the irst camp. I hope to haveyou convinced by the time you inish reading this,but until then, let’s all agree that this is an extremelyexciting time in the U.S. manufacturing ield—a ieldthat will only continue to grow as more manufacturersrealize everything the United States has to offer.So what’s generating all the excitement? Capital isbecoming more readily available. The cost of importscontinues to rise. Demand for custom-manufacturedproducts is surging. Our land, energy and telecommunicationcosts are lower than in most other advancedcountries. Our business infrastructure and intellectualproperty rights are signiicantly more developed. Andwe’re one of the world’s lowest-cost producers of rawmaterials—including oil and gas. Add the fact that itcreates jobs, increases competitiveness and improvedmanufacturing environment, and you have plenty ofreasons to consider this a rebirth, not a fad.Today’s U.S. manufacturers already aretechnology leaders, but long-term successwill require these companies to alsobecome automation leaders.So why the skeptics? Despite all the beneits andsubstantial investment in manufacturing processes,the U.S. still is losing some of its manufacturing base.While that’s a legitimate struggle, it’s a struggle noone in this industry has to face alone. We can continueto be frustrated in our efforts to keep and growjobs, or we can take control of our own destiny, andwork together to invest in technology and developour workforce, which will subsequently preserve ourmanufacturing base.The irst thing business leaders must understand isthat a real manufacturing renaissance will need to bedriven by industrial automation and applied technology.Automation initiatives often have the largestreturn on investment, and can impact the bottom linemost quickly. The opportunities are abundant—butonly if we can ind the manpower to build businesscases, develop and design solutions, and implementprojects on budget and on time. Today’s U.S. manufacturersalready are technology leaders, but long-termsuccess will require these companies to also becomeautomation leaders. In order to make this transition,manufacturers must recognize that technology is atool used in the production process.In my opinion, the shortage of skilled professionalscontinues to be the biggest hurdle in reshoring.Forty percent of today’s automation professionals areexpected to retire in the next ive years, and we’re notprepared to replace them. There are very few formaleducation programs for students to receive the trainingthey would need to pursue careers in automation.Perhaps our greatest challenge is that many aspiringengineers perceive the ield of automation as less desirablethan other seemingly more impressive vocationssuch as software development or medical technology.It will take some time to overcome our limitedgrowth factors in the automation ield, but the futureof our manufacturing base depends on it. And it is upto us as leaders in automation to bring new blood intothe workforce. I strongly urge you to consider some ofthe following ways to do it:Encourage young people. We need to be role modelsfor the next generation. Talk to students at local schools.Get them thinking about possible careers in automation—weknow it’s a rewarding and exciting ield.Recruit new blood. Don’t limit yourself to traditionalrecruiting methods. Seek out new opportunities. Startishing in new lakes.Retain the professionals you have. The averageautomation career tops out quickly. A fast climb ofthe ladder can lead automation professionals to beginlooking outside the ield for new opportunities. Weneed to offer innovative ways for workers to continueto grow and develop within the automation ield.As industry leaders, we hold the key to the future ofmanufacturing automation in the U.S. No one else isgoing to develop our ield if we don’t. We need to startearly, telling our youth about careers in automation.We need to recruit young talent right out of college.And once we have skilled professionals on our teams,we need to keep them by continually challenging andrewarding them. These are the people who will driveinnovation—not just for us, but for our nation.The opportunities are all around us. It is time toseize them before it’s too late.PAUL J. GALESKI, P.E., CAP, is CEO and Founder of MaverickTechnologies (www.mavtechglobal.com), an engineering andsystem integration firm based in Columbia, Ill.54 Control Design May 2013 controldesign.com


WHAT YOUALWAYS WANTEDOur customers tell us that quality means no product hardware failures. Now, that’s a gift thatkeeps on giving.When you take Yaskawa drives out of the box, you can count on them to work. In fact, Yaskawaproducts have a meantime-between-failure rate (MTBF) of up to 28 years. That means yourengineers can spec Yaskawa and never have to worry. Just program, plug and play.Get what you want, every time. Call Yaskawa.YASKAWA AMERICA, INC.DRIVES & MOTION DIVISION1-800-YASKAWA YASKAWA.COMFollow us:For more info:http://Ez.com/yai458©2013 Yaskawa America Inc.


DomoreTMhelpful control system testingwith the new Do-more PLC2013WINNERThe NEWprogrammablecontroller withThe FREE Do-more Designersoftware for Do-more H2 seriesPLCs gives you advanced toolsthat can cost thousands fromothers.Download at www.do-moreplcs.com and check it out.Built-in simulatorThe built-in simulator creates a virtual PLC so you can testyour logic without the hardware present. The Windowsapplication runs on your PC and uses the same code as theCPU firmware for the most accurate simulation. Test partof your logic or whole programs quickly and conveniently.Insightful monitoring andtroubleshooting toolsUse these tools for real-time tuning and testing:• Debug View window can suspend each task andprogram separately.• PID View window allows precise tuning of yourPID loops• Data View window monitors your chosen programelements - discrete or analog I/O, and systemparameters• View Trend Data in its own view as well as withinspeciic ladder instructions like PID, RAMPSOAK,and High/Low Alarm.• Simulates discrete and analog I/O with access to timers,counters, control bits, etc.• Simulate PID - use the Simulator coupled with the Trend Viewfor outstanding visibility into your PID processes.Each Do-more CPU comes with a coupon for a 30-day free trialof online video training. So visit www.do-moreplcs.com forthe details, watch overview videos, and download the freesoftware to take it for a spin.www.automationdirect.comGo online or call to get complete information,request your free catalog, or place an order.1-800-633-0405

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