Ecosystem Approach for Sustainable Aquaculture - The ECASA ...

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Ecosystem Approach for Sustainable Aquaculture - The ECASA ...

Making aquaculture sustainableby using the Ecosystem Approach• Optimal Site Selection (industry)• Transparent EIA (planners, public)• Effective monitoring (regulators)• Based on robust science (researchers)• Good inter-communication (stakeholders)• Building public confidence


ECASA project•What was our approach•Wheredid we do it•Whowas involved• What are the outcomes• Where do we go next


ECASA Objectives• Identify indicators of effects of aquaculture on theenvironment & effects of environment on aquaculture& to assess their applicability• Develop operational tools, e.g. models, to describe therelationship between environmental conditions &aquaculture activities over a range of ecosystems &aquaculture production systems• Develop effective environmental impact assessment &site selection methods for coastal area management• Thus, to contribute to the sustainable developmentof aquaculture in Europe


Where were the indicators and modelstested?• In ECASA we have appliedand assessed thesuitability of a wide rangeof indicators and tools atfish and shellfish farmsacross Europe• The outcomes arepresented in Study SiteReports backed up byModel and Indicatordescriptions


WP2Indicators ofaquacultureinteractionWP6Interaction with stakeholders & thepublicWP4Testing &developingindicators & modelsWP5Field validation ofindicators & modelsWP3Indicators ofecosystem changeProjectOrganizationPrimary Deliverable:“Toolbox” of indicators and models


12345678Who is involved in ECASA?PartnerScottish Association for Marine ScienceCentre for the Economics and Management ofAquatic ResourcesNapier UniversityNational Institute of BiologyLeibniz-Institute of Marine ScienceAkvaplan NivaUniversity of HaifaUniversity of Crete16 partners from13 countriesSAMSUOPNNUENIBIFM-GEOMARAkvaplanHAIFAUOCCountryUKUKUKSloveniaGermanyNorwayIsraelGreece9Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPMLUK10Institute of Marine ResearchIMARPortugal11Central Institute for Marine ResearchICRAMItaly12Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation dela MerIFREMERFrance13Instituto Tecnológico Pesquero y AlimentarioAZTISpain14University of VeniceDCF_UNIVEItaly15Rudjer Boskovic InstituteRBICroatia16University of GöteborgUGOTSweden


The Three M’s (Bill Silvert)• An approach to managing environmentalimpacts based on the Three M’s:– Modelling, to show where the system is going– Monitoring, to see if it is on the right track– Mitigation, to fix things if they go wrong• Need indicators for use in each of the above forthe Environmental Approach for Aquaculture.


Scales: spatial extent and timescale(scale of ecosystem considered must be relevant to scale of industry and impact)regional impactt = monthszone B scalewater body;eutrophicationt = daysfarm sitezone A scalelocal to farm;benthic impactt = hours10 kmPaul Tett


AMBI - Benthic IndicatorAMBI (AZTI Marine Biotic Index) was designed to assess the ecologicalquality (benthic community ‘health’) of European coasts, investigating theresponse of soft-bottom communities to natural and man-induced changesin water quality.Based upon sensitivity/tolerance to disturbance, five ecological groups canbe established:Group I - Sensitive speciesGroup II - Indifferent speciesGroup III - Tolerant speciesGroup IV - Second order opportunistic speciesGroup V - First order opportunistic species© AZTI-TecnaliaAngel Borja


Calculation of the AMBI indexAMBI =((0 * %GI) + (1.5 * %GII) + (3 * %GIII) + (4.5 * %GIV) + (6 * %GV))/100BioticDominatingSite DisturbanceCoefficientAMBIBenthic Community HealthEcological GroupClassification0.0 < AMBIBC ≤ 0.2 I Normal0.2 < AMBIBC ≤ 1.2 ImpoverishedUndisturbed1.2 < AMBIBC ≤ 3.3 III Unbalanced Slightly disturbed3.3 < AMBIBC ≤ 4.3 Transitional to pollution4.3 < AMBIBC ≤ 5.0 IV-V PollutedMeanly disturbed5.0 < AMBIBC ≤ 5.5 Transitional to heavy pollution5.5 < AMBIBC ≤ 6.0 V Heavy pollutedHeavily disturbedAzoic Azoic Azoic Extremely disturbed© AZTI-Tecnalia


ECASAEuropean Aquaculture Stakeholder Conference18-19 September 2007Heraklion (Crete)TRIMODENA model in aquacultureObjective: To predict impact of tuna farmin Garrucha, Spain on macrobenthosJulien Mader, Manuel González, Angel BorjaMarine Research Divisionaborja@pas.azti.es


Study Area20 kmSPAINFRANCESpain15 km10 km4 km5 km0 km3 km2 km1 kmTuna farm0 kmCorrentímetrosCurrent time series between 4/4/2006 and 6/13/2006 at -30 m and between 4/4/2006 and 7/7/2006 at -10 mJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 2000 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 800 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 550 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 250 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 125 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 75 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 63 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 53 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 45 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Settled particles of 20 micronsJan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


Conclusions• Particles between 2000 - 250 microns settled under thecages.• Dispersion of particles 125 - 45 microns is parallel to thecoastline.• Dispersion of 20 micron particles is quite uniform in thestudy area.• High current velocity and dispersion: homogeneous lowAMBI values.Jan 2007© AZTI-Tecnalia


ECASAEcosystem Approach for Sustainable AquacultureDEPOMOD / MERAMOD / TROPOMOD modelsThese are “zone A” models that predict footprint ofwaste feed and faeces on sea bed and the associatedbenthic impactChris CromeySAMS, Oban,Scotlandchjc@sams.ac.ukParticlesCageCurrentSea bed


FLOW OF INFORMATION THROUGH MERAMODMERAMOD MODULES (I)INPUTINPUT•CAGE POSITIONS• CAGE POSITIONS•STATION • POSITIONSSTATION POSITIONS•BATHYMETRY• BATHYMETRYGRID GENERATION MODULEGRID GENERATION MODULEsea surface sea surfaceINPUT•FEED INPUT/SPECIES CAGE BYCAGE; HYDROGRAPHIC DATA;SETTLING VELOCITY DATA•VARYING LEVELS OFSCENARIO COMPLEXITYWILD FISH MODULE•Input pelagic/benthic feedingeffects by wild fishPARTICLE TRACKING MODULE•DIFFERENTIAL SETTLING OF PARTICLES•ADVECTION OF PARTICLES BY CURRENTS• REPRESENTATION OF CURRENT SHEAR• TURBULENCE (RANDOM WALK)watercolumn


MERAMOD MODULES (II)INPUT• VALIDATED RESUSPENSIONMODEL PARAMETERS(e.g. critical resuspension, depositionshear stress; erodibility constant)watercolumnFLUX/DEPOSITION MODULERESUSPENSION & CARBON DEGRADATION• FLUX/DEPOSITION ON BED• RESUSPENSION FROM BED• CARBON DEGRADATION - G MODEL• CARBON DEGRADATION - G MODELBENTHIC MODULEBENTHIC MODULE• BENTHIC COMMUNITY• BENTHIC COMMUNITY SUCCESSION SUCCESSION LINKED LINKEDTOQUANTITATIVE INPUTS OFTO QUANTITATIVE INPUTS SOLIDS OF SOLIDSbed surfaceunderlyingsedimentlayercarbon/ solidscarbon/ accumulation solidsaccumulationg m -2 yr -1g m -2 yr -1


Outcome - advice to policy makers and producerson cage spacing, feeding strategy, etc.Contour map of waste fluxN-2 -1grams solids m bed dBenthiccommunity75Heavily impacted(no animals)14Intermediate(some effect)1Limit of benthicimpactScalee.g. Is the effected areacontained within the“allowable zone of effect”0 100 200 300 400 500 600


Tony Hawkins, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK


MGCC: Mytilus galloprovincialis Carrying Capacity ModelRoberto Pastres & Daniele Brigolin, University of Venice, ITSolar RadiationSTATE VARSomaticand gonadicdry weightMODEL NAMEMG-IBM(M.galloprovincialisgrowth model )Water TemperatureChl-aPOCMODEL NAMETRANSP(transportsub-model)+PELADRI(reactionsub-model)STATE VARNitrateAmmoniaSilicatesReactive phosph.DOCPOCPhytoplankton(2 groups)ZooplanktonPOC, AmmoniaCurrentvelocity- The model was applied at Vi.S.Ma study site, in Chioggia, in order tostudy the impact of the mussel farm on the water column at a local scale


12000 m12000 m12000 m1.2fa1.0ebd0.8c0.60.40.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 a0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 b1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 d 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 f1 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 012000 m0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 a0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 b1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 f1 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mussel biomassmussel dry weight [g]Scenario #1Mussel biomass0.0Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep1.41.21.00.80.6dry weight [g]0.40.2Scenario #20.0Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep“f” Scenario #2“f” Scenario #1“b” Scenario #2“b” Scenario #1“d” Scenario #2“d” Scenario #1Conclusion: spatial distribution of mussel farms along thenorthern Adriatic coastline may affect their biomass yield


One of the products of ECASA is a modified EIAthat includes an assessment of the models usedat our study sitesECASA Study Site ReportDALMAR - PakoštaneCroatiaRuđer Bošković InstituteJasminka Klanjšček, Marko Jusup, Tarzan Legović andDonat Petricioli


Table of Contents• 1 Introduction to the aquaculture operation• 1.1 Introductory background statement• 1.2 Summary statement of key site specific environmental issues• 1.3 Information of farmer’s environmental strategy• 2 Site specific regulatory and management background• 2.1 The regulatory status of proposed location with respect to fish farming developments• 2.2 Site description• 2.3 Detailed description of the farm• 2.4 Proposed management strategy: biomass, medicines, chemicals, cycle, feed inputs, growth measurements• 2.5 Physical farm logistics• 2.6 Production and Processing• 3 Description of the site and quantification of effects on the environment• 3.1 Land use, landscape and visual quality• 3.2 Hydrography and water quality• 3.2 Bathymetry, geology and habitats• 3.3 Benthos and sediments• 3.4 Marine mammals; seals, cetaceans, otters• 3.5 Birds• 3.6 Fisheries and wild fish populations• 3.7 Noise• 3.8 Transport• 3.9 Socio-economic impact• 4 Results of ECASA field studies: Indicators and Models applied and evaluated• 4.1 Background to field program• 4.2 Sampling methods and materials, analytical methods.• 4.3 Models used and their parameterization• 4.4 Results• 4.5 Evaluation of indicator performance• 4.6 Evaluation of model performance• 4.7. Site specific conclusions• 5 Acknowledgements• 6 References• Appendix A: Tables of bulk data• Appendix B: Analysis of ADP current measurement• Appendix C: Diver’s inspection of seabed


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What next?• Refine the ECASA Toolbox• Enhance the visibility of these tools• Engage stakeholders to assess the utility ofthe Toolbox and what needs improvement• Test ECASA indicators and models in moresouthern European (Mediterranean, N.African) and Asian sites• Explore socio-economic aspects ofaquaculture and incorporate these into ourecosystem modelswww.ecasa.org.uk


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