Queensland Brain Institute 2010 Annual Report - University of ...


Queensland Brain Institute 2010 Annual Report - University of ...

QBI SupportersAll members of the Institute sincerely thank the individuals and organisations that supported QBI in 2010.OrganisationsIndividualsEditorDenise CullenGraphic DesignerDee McGrathPhotographersYan ChanStewart GouldDee McGrathJeremy PattenDavid SprouleBronlie Constructions Pty LtdCrommelin Family FoundationCooper Reeves Pty LtdDavid Merson FoundationHopgoodGanim LawyersIndex Group of CompaniesG James Australia Pty LtdLions Club of Emu Park Inc.Margjohn Pty LtdLadies of Legacy CareGroup, MoorookaNicol FoundationNucrush Pty LtdPerformance and Delivery OfficeSoroptimistInternational Brisbane SouthSouthern Districts RugbyUnion Football Club, Inc.The Estate of Dr Clem Jones, AOThe Estate of Mr Hunter H MillsThe Estate of Mr PeterGoodenoughThe Estate of DrSalvatore F VitaleHarry AhrensMilton ArmstrongGwen AshbrookeBrian and KayAtkinsonAnne C BachelardNaomi BaileyPerry F BartlettPauline A BeamesSue BoyceNick and LornaBurgerTracy M CampbellMargaret W ClarkeGillian J ColasimoneJohn and MarionCoulsonJohn CouttsColin V CrossMary A CrossMargaret M CryanSharon M CrightonDenise DarkenLynette E DavisMeg Davis, CarolineHarris and KateAhmelmanRichard L DicksonRoss B DicksonKarl DoddNorman B DodmanRay DonaldsonAlex DoyleErica DunhamDon and AnneDunstanRoscoe W ForemanJulie ForsythRonald H FullerElizabeth FyshTracey GaffneyMaureen GilmartinDonald andDaphne GrimleyRoss and KimGrimleyGregory B HenricksFrank HillsRobyn HiltonMark and JaineHolmesAdrian C HoltEileen L HowesGlenn HowellDesmond G JackDeborah KellyRuth S KerrSandra A LaceyPeter J LandyMax LennoxMary J LyonsBob and PamMacDonnellDaphne MacleanHamish R MacleanHilda MacleanAudrey andPhil MaltbyChris MartinVeronica O MasonGerard Mier andHelen WilkesDeborah MengemGraeme andDawn MoffettDavid MorrisonDane MoultonJudith M NeddermanG A NolanLinda, Melissa, Peter,Alan and Ian LevettLeah A PerryTimothy RohdeJoan SanfordGeoffrey H SattlerJoyce I SchmidtKevin and BeverleyStewartSteven and KatalinSzokolayGeorge A TaylorDavid and DebraThompsonAnthony B TooheyJennifer WhittakerMartine andLeigh WhittonNatalie WillsonAlison L WilsonFrank and PatsyYounglesonCover Image: Streams of consciousness. Tractography, a MRI technique measuringwater diffusion, showing the axonal connections of a mouse brain. Georg Kerbler.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Table of ContentsVice-Chancellor’s Report .......................................2Director’s Report..................................................... 4Development Board’s Report.............................. 6Discovery................................................................8All in the mind.........................................................10Lord of the flies.......................................................12Common scents approach...................................14Shining light on schizophrenia...........................16Navigating a path for improved diagnosis......18Research adds up to better understanding... 20Discovering creatures of the deep................... 22Research...............................................................24Professor Perry Bartlett....................................... 26Assoc. Professor Mark Bellgrove....................... 27Dr Timothy Bredy.................................................. 28Dr Thomas Burne................................................... 29Dr Charles Claudianos.......................................... 30Assoc. Professor Helen Cooper.......................... 31Dr Elizabeth Coulson............................................ 32Assoc. Professor Ross Cunnington................... 33Dr Darryl Eyles........................................................ 34Professor Geoffrey Goodhill............................... 35Dr Massimo Hilliard.............................................. 36Professor Joe Lynch............................................... 37Professor Justin Marshall..................................... 38Professor Jason Mattingley................................. 39Professor John McGrath.......................................40Assoc. Professor Frederic Meunier....................41Professor Bryan Mowry....................................... 42Mr Geoffrey Osborne............................................ 43Dr Judith Reinhard.................................................44Professor David Reutens..................................... 45Professor Linda Richards.....................................46Professor Pankaj Sah............................................ 47Professor Mandyam Srinivasan.........................48Assoc. Professor Bruno van Swinderen...........49Professor David Vaney......................................... 50Dr Robyn Wallace...................................................51Assoc. Professor Stephen Williams.................. 52Students...............................................................54Community........................................................58Events........................................................................60Conferences............................................................ 62Government Relations.........................................64International Partnerships.................................. 65Community Outreach..........................................66Australian Brain Bee Challenge......................... 67Recognition........................................................68Fellowships and Awards...................................... 70Commercialisation ............................................... 72Publications............................................................. 73Grants ....................................................................... 78Neuroscience Seminars.......................................80Professional Services............................................ 82Editorial Boards...................................................... 83UQ Appointments.................................................84Staff .......................................................................... 85In Appreciation ......................................................88PG | 1

PG | 2Vice-Chancellor’s Report

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Vice-Chancellor’s ReportThe University of Queensland is continuingto further its reputation as a researchcentre of global significance, and no partof the university more strongly reflectsthat standing than the Queensland BrainInstitute (QBI). With high-quality infrastructure,leading researchers from across the globeand a host of the country’s most talented andcapable students, QBI has truly taken its place onthe world stage since its inception in 2003.As you will see detailed in the pages that follow,innovative research is one of the hallmarksof the Institute – as is, increasingly, internationalcollaboration. In this year, perhaps morethan any other, QBI has built partnerships withother leading neuroscience research institutesacross the globe. Chief among these wasthe announcement of a partnership with theInstitute of Biophysics (IBP) at the ChineseAcademy of Sciences in Beijing, supported by a$1 million National and International ResearchAlliances Program (NIRAP) grant from theQueensland Government. This world-first jointlaboratory is intensifying efforts to identifywhat causes disorders such as ageing dementiaand depression, which remain among the mostsignificant health challenges of our time.As the major centre for neuroscience at TheUniversity of Queensland, QBI also helpedthe University to secure the top rating of fivein neurosciences in the recent Excellence inResearch for Australia (ERA) assessment, which isdesigned to assess research quality across manydifferent fields of research within Australia’shigher education institutions. The University ofQueensland was one of only three institutions toreceive the maximum possible rating for neurosciences.This result highlights QBI’s consistentlyhigh standard of neuroscience research, as therating is characterised by evidence of outstandingperformance well above world standards and isjudged on research quality, volume and activity,application and recognition.An independent review into operations at QBIundertaken during the year has further confirmedthe Institute’s outstanding performanceon a range of key targets. The review wasconducted as part of an agreement establishedin 2008 between the State Government andThe University of Queensland to fund QBI’soperational costs of $25 million over five years.The review panel described the growth of theInstitute, along with its positive contribution tothe reputation, status and economic standing ofQueensland, as “exceptional against most of themetrics”.During 2010, QBI maintained a substantial cohortof students undertaking PhD or MPhil degrees.Coming from a diversity of countries, 28 of themwere international students, attracted by theInstitute’s enviable reputation. QBI’s desire tonurture the next generation of neuroscientistscan also be demonstrated via its pivotal role inthe annual Australian Brain Bee Challenge, whichthis year attracted record numbers of high schoolentrants.In summary, it has been a year of outstandingdiscovery and real-world breakthroughs. Icongratulate Perry and all staff and studentson the accomplishments of this year, and lookforward to following them as they enter thenext exciting phase in their mission to betterunderstand the human brain.Professor Paul Greenfield AOVice-ChancellorLeft: Professor Paul Greenfield AO, Vice-Chancellor with Professor Deborah Terry,Deputy-Vice-Chancellor (Academic). Right: Screens in the QBI foyer displaying video footagetaken in the laboratories by artist Fiona Hall.PG | 3

Director’s ReportThough neuroscientific discovery can bea slow and, at times, painstaking process,2010 proved to be another productiveyear as QBI concluded its seventh yearof operation. Researchers have continuedto build upon findings of previous years,uncovering fresh insights into how brainfunction is regulated which is, in turn, expectedto lead to ground-breaking therapies for arange of neurological and mental illnesses. Inthese endeavours, we remain cognisant thatthe world-renowned research being conductedat the Institute is only possible because of theongoing financial support of funding councilsand governments, and through the generoussupport of donors. We appreciate thepartnership provided by our myriad supporters.Among the advances highlighted in this year’sreport are the discovery by Professor JohnMcGrath that babies with low vitamin D levelswere twice as likely to develop schizophrenia inlater life, a finding which may ultimately informpre-natal health care recommendations; investigationsby Assoc. Professor Bruno vanSwinderen into the attention span of fruit flies,the outcome of which may promote better understandingof attention-deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) and autism in humans; and,for the first time in humans, the pinpointingby Dr Oliver Baumann of a region of the brainthat is sensitive to navigation and directionPG | 4

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Director’s Reportand thus acts like a compass. In January, leadinginvestigator Professor Justin Marshall joined QBIfrom UQ's School of Biomedical Sciences, and hascontinued his fascinating work into how animalssuch as reef fish and birds communicate withcolour and signals outside the range visible tohumans.As part of our mandate to translate discoveriesinto practical applications, QBI established theScience of Learning Centre in June. The Centreis focussed on discovering the mechanismsunderlying learning, and translating thosefindings into effective strategies for teachingboth children in the classroom and adults inthe workplace. Eventually, up to 20 QBI neuroscientistswill work with educators, psychologistsand other scientists in the interdisciplinaryCentre, which is funded by the Institute and TheUniversity of Queensland. QBI is continuing toseek state and federal government funding forthe project.Plans for a Centre for Ageing Dementia Researchare also flourishing. The Centre, due to officiallyopen in 2011, will focus on developing revolutionarytherapies that regulate the death andregeneration of neurons within the adult humanbrain. Early animal research at QBI has shownpromising results which indicate that processeslike neurogenesis may reverse cognitive declineassociated with ageing. Within five years, QBIhopes to have defined the molecules andprocesses which regulate neurogenesis and beapproaching clinical trials and is currently seekingadditional funding support to facilitate suchdiscovery.Against this backdrop of continuing growth anddiscovery, I would like to take this opportunity tothank all QBI staff and, in particular, congratulatethose whose achievements throughout theyear have been outstanding. Linda Richardswas promoted to full Professor and to PrincipalResearch Fellow within the NHMRC system andformer postdoctoral fellows have established newlaboratories both here at UQ (Mike Piper) and atCharles Sturt University (James Crane, AndrewDelaney and Adam Hamlin) - I wish them greatsuccess. I also wish to farewell Professor DavidVaney who has spent 35 years researching thestructure and function of the retina. He hassubsequently been appointed Emeritus Professorof The University of Queensland, a title whichrecognises an academic’s long and distinguishedservice and expresses the hope that they willcontinue to contribute to university life. I wouldlike to take this opportunity to thank David, onbehalf of all QBI, for his support over the years.We wish him all the best for the new challengesthat await, as he pursues his long-standinginterest in photography – thus still exploringvision but from a different perspective.It is through the hard work of numerous peoplethat QBI has grown and thrived – from a smallgroup of investigators in 2003, through to adynamic neuroscience research facility with26 principal researchers today. All of them arecommitted to sharing their knowledge andtheir findings at regular Institute events, rangingfrom lectures and seminars through to opendays and specialist symposiums. I would liketo express my appreciation to everyone – ourFaculty, postdoctoral fellows, research assistants,students and support staff. I am particularlygrateful to my Deputy Directors for Research,Professor Pankaj Sah, and Operations, Mr JohnKelly, for their support and ongoing commitmentto the success of the Institute. I would also liketo acknowledge Vice-Chancellor Professor PaulGreenfield, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic)Professor Deborah Terry and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) Professor Max Lu for theircontinuing support, guidance and friendship.Professor Perry Bartlett FAADirectorLeft: QBI’s Director Professor Perry Bartlett. Right: Aerial view of UQ's St Lucia campus lookingNorth.PG | 5

PG | 6Development Board’s Report

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Development Board’s ReportDuring 2010, the Development Boardcontinued to raise awareness of the Instituteand promote the award-winning researchbeing conducted by QBI’s team of dedicatedneuroscientists. In all, it was a year in whichwe consolidated the developments of thepast seven years, with a view to furtherexpanding our vision for the future.Substantial progress was made during the yeartowards the establishment of a centre within QBIdedicated to the development of therapeuticapproaches to treat ageing dementia. In July,QBI hosted a visit by the Hon Mark Butler MP,who, at that time, was Parliamentary Secretaryfor Health, and is now Federal Minister forMental Health and Ageing. We updated himon the substantial existing financial support forthe Centre; and the urgent need to push aheadwith research into a condition that is projectedto affect more than 981,000 Australians by 2050.To formally establish the Centre for AgeingDementia Research, QBI is seeking a $17.5 millionFederal Government contribution, with furtherfunding being sought through philanthropy. Itwas encouraging to note that by the end of 2010,almost $4 million had been pledged by bothsmall and large donors. In particular, we wouldlike to acknowledge the substantial generosityof the Estate of Dr Clem Jones AO, The HelpfulFoundation and G. James Australia Pty Ltd.Behind the scenes, QBI was also engaged incompiling information for a Queensland StateGovernment Review, which was required in orderto ensure continued operational funding. It wasvery pleasing to note that QBI over-performedon every one of the indices and it is hoped thatthis will drive the necessary longer-term fundingfor operational costs.We particularly appreciate the efforts of JeffMaclean for continuing to actively promotefundraising activities throughout the year toraise funds for motor neuron disease throughthe Ross Maclean Fellowship.I thank my fellow Development Board membersfor their ongoing support and commitment tothe Queensland Brain Institute, and to ProfessorPerry Bartlett for his leadership and vision. I lookforward to the continued growth of the Institute,and the enhanced possibility for breakthroughsin our understanding of brain functioning thatthis will allow.David MersonChair, QBI Development BoardRight, Board Members from left to right, top down: David Merson, Paul Greenfield, Bob Atkinson,Mark Gray, Sallyanne Atkinson, John Lyons, Perry Bartlett, Jeff Maclean, Milton DickPG | 7

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010DiscoveryIn less than a decade, the Queensland Brain Institutehas positioned itself as one of the world’s leadingneuroscience research facilities. Working out ofa $63 million state-of-the-art centre, researchershandpicked from across the globe along with ahost of high calibre students have demonstratedthe Institute’s commitment to improving thelives and health of everyday Australians.Research at QBI aims to create an environmentof discovery that will ultimately lead to thedevelopment of much-needed therapeutictreatments for neurological disorders andneurotrauma. Indeed, the diverse discoveriesmade during 2010 have reaffirmed the valueof this approach, proving once again thededication of the Institute’s researchers.Christine Dixon undertakespatch clamping procedures.PG | 9

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010All in the MindNeuroscientistsat theQueensland BrainInstitute haveuncovered howantidepressantsstimulate thebrain to improvea person’s mood– however their research has also found thatnot all antidepressants work in the same way.They discovered the class of drugs thatincreases levels of a neurotransmitter knownas norepinephrine triggers neurogenesis in thehippocampus, which is the area of the brainresponsible for learning and memory.Neurogenesis, or the growth of new neurons,is seen as vital in warding off neurologicaldisorders such as dementia.Lead researcher Dr Dhanisha Jhaveri explained:“If you block hippocampus neurogenesis, antidepressantsno longer work. That suggestsantidepressants must up-regulate neurogenesisin order for them to actually have any effect onbehaviour.”However, the neuroscientists found the resultswere not mirrored with all antidepressants.Surprisingly, the class of antidepressants thatincrease levels of the neurotransmitter calledserotonin (Prozac is a common example) fails tostimulate neurogenesis.Dr Jhaveri explained: “Norepinephrine isbasically binding directly onto the precursorswhich then initiate a signal which leads to theproduction of more neurons.“Serotonin just doesn’t do that. Prozac doesn’twork by regulating the precursor activity – itmay work outside that region, but it isn’tregulating the hippocampus directly. Moreresearch is needed to find out what serotoninactually does.”The team, which is part of QBI’s neural plasticitylaboratory, used rodent models to establish thatselectively blocking the re-uptake of norepinephrinedirectly activated hippocampal stem cells.In turn, they discovered a much larger pool ofdormant precursors in the hippocampus thanwere previously thought to exist.Further, the research expanded existing understandingof the mechanisms by whichnorepinephrine activated the precursors in thehippocampus. It found that the expression ofβ3 (beta-3) adrenergic receptors is critical inmediating the effect.Armed with this information, the team cannow explore improved treatments for seriousneurological disorders, such as depression andageing dementia.“Since dementia – especially in the ageingpopulation – appears to be related to a decreasein neurogenesis this discovery opens up excitingnew ways to stimulate the production of newneurons to alleviate the devastating effects ofdementia in our society,” said Laboratory Headand QBI Director Professor Perry Bartlett.The findings will also allow researchers todevelop more specific – and therefore moreeffective – antidepressants.“Depression is a complex disorder, so we aregoing to test different behavioural outcomesto see whether the compounds that increasenorepinephrine levels or stimulate β3 adrenergicreceptors work only for certain aspects ofdepression. We just don’t know yet but it may,for example, improve learning and memory, orreduce anxiety,” Dr Jhaveri said.The research was conducted by Professor PerryBartlett, Drs Dhanisha Jhaveri, Sanjay Nandamand Adam Hamlin, and Eirinn Mackay (QBI)and Dr Vidita Vaidya and Swananda Marathe(Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India).The findings were published in the Journal ofNeuroscience in February.Left: A differentiated primary neurosphere derived from norepinephrine-treated adult hippocampal precursorculture contains a large number of βIII-tubulin-positive neurons (pink). Astrocytes are labeled with glial fibrillaryacidic protein (yellow) and cell nuclei with DAPI (blue). Above: A population of Hes5-GFP-positive neuralprecursors in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of adult mice display characteristic radial-glial likemorphology. Right: Dr Dhanisha Jhaveri in the laboratory.PG | 11

DiscoveryPG | 12

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Lord of the FliesThe worldaround us can beoverwhelming– just ask theQueensland BrainInstitute’s Assoc.Professor Brunovan Swinderenwho investigateshow the brain pays attention.The cognitive and behavioural neuroscientisthas discovered a way to measure the attentionspan of a fruit fly, which could lead to furtheradvances in the understanding of attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD) andautism in humans.Combining genetic techniques with brainrecordings, researchers found differentmutations can either increase or decrease afly’s attention span. Interestingly, all of thesemutations produce learning and memoryproblems.Using the genetic fruit fly model Drosophilamelanogaster, lead researcher Assoc. ProfessorBruno van Swinderen found that a fly’s level ofdistractibility is finely tuned to allow ‘normal’behavioural responses to a constantly changingenvironment.“We now have the two ends of an attentionspectrum in our model. We have a fly memorymutant that is hard to distract and another flymemory mutant that’s too distractible.“They both have the same result – they don’tlearn well but for completely different reasons,not unlike human patients afflicted with autismand ADHD,” Assoc. Professor van Swinderensaid.“You need a certain amount of distractibility tobe able to assimilate your world – concentratingtoo much or too little affects your ability toprocess and retain information.”Understanding the processes regulatingattention and memory in the fly brain will allowresearchers to better understand how memoryand attention work together to governbehaviour.“One question I’m really interested in is, howdo perceptual suppression mechanisms work?How does the brain ‘block’ you from seeing theworld – what are the actual mechanisms thatprevent you from responding to distractingstimuli, for example? I really think that’s beenoverlooked,” he said.Throughout the research, Assoc. Professor vanSwinderen fed the Drosophila methylphenidate,which is sold under the brand name Ritalin andused to treat children with ADHD. He found thedrug had similar affects on fruit flies as it didon people: it helped the distractible flies to payattention to visual stimuli.“It suggests there may be similar pathways in thebrains of fruit flies and humans, which meanswe now have a simple reductionist model, withall the genetic tools that go along with it, to tryto understand exactly what this drug is doing,”he said.“We know that this drug affects differentpathways. Now we can really try to ask howthat translates to other brain phenomena, suchas how neurons talk to one another. It will helpus form the bigger picture.”To help him build that picture sooner, QBIopened the first joint neuroscience researchlaboratory between Australia and China inSeptember. Assoc. Professor van Swinderenis collaborating with leading learning andmemory researcher Dr Li Liu to betterunderstand how attention and memory aremechanistically linked in the Drosophila model.The $3.7m laboratory will investigate braindisorders in fruit flies before advancing upthe evolutionary ladder to mouse models andeventually humans.Assoc. Professor van Swinderen’s learning andmemory research was published in the Journalof Neuroscience in January.Above: Assoc. Professor Bruno van Swinderen. Right: Two glass electrodes are implanted into the Drosophilamelanogaster fly brain to record brain activity. The fly is feeding on a morsel of Ritalin-laced food.PG | 13

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Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Common Scents ApproachEvery momentof every day thebrain is forcedto processthousandsof separateodorants fromthe world aroundus.Through the study of honeybees, scientists atthe Queensland Brain Institute have discoveredthe brain has an advanced ability to isolatespecific odorants and recollect smells.“There’s a lot of information coming into thebrain whenever a scent is detected and it wouldbe difficult to process it all.“We’ve found that honeybees pick only ahandful of so-called ‘key odorants’ out of everycomplex aroma that they really learn. They mayremember just six or seven odorants from acouple of hundred – the rest are ignored,” saidlead researcher Dr Judith Reinhard.“If you had to learn the hundreds of compoundsyour brain is subjected to every minute ofevery day you would be overwhelmed withinformation. By choosing the key odorants, youcan function more effectively without the brainbeing swamped,” added fellow researcher DrCharles Claudianos.The research has also allowed the scientists toexplore how the learning of odours is linkedto molecules that have been associated withautism and schizophrenia.Dr Claudianos explained: “These synapticmolecules connect neurons and help wire thebrain correctly. If the molecules are out ofbalance, as is the case in autism and schizophrenia,odour processing goes haywire. Peoplewith these neurological disorders perceivesmells differently, which can be used for earlydiagnosis.”During their studies, the researchers foundthat the honeybee brain responds to sensoryexperience.“The honeybee brain – like the human brain –adapts to its sensory environment by adjustingthe expression of molecules involved in odourdetection.“It is a complex process and we do not yet fullyunderstand it, but it seems that the brainincreases or decreases expression of thesemolecules, depending on what scents areout there, to optimise odour detection,” DrReinhard explained.The findings could also have an enormousimpact on Australian farming. Scientists will beable to isolate key odorants from the complexaromas of crops and then use these to trainhoneybees to pollinate specific harvests.“Farmers often have problems makinghoneybees focus on the crop – the bees goastray and go to nearby forests or nationalparks and the farmers don’t get a good yield,”Dr Reinhard said.“If we know the key odorants of the almondaroma, for example, we could use these totrain the honeybees in the hive to focus only onpollinating almonds. Then you’d have a muchhigher likelihood the honeybees would stay inthe crop and pollinate it.”The next step for scientists is to determinewhether humans use the same technique oflearning specific key odorants so our brain is notoverwhelmed by too much sensory information.Early research suggests we do.“If we can confirm that humans use the same keyodorant technique as honeybees, it would meanthat we have discovered a general strategy ofscent processing,” Dr Reinhard said.The findings were published by QBI’s DrsReinhard and Claudianos, Professor MandyamSrinivasan and Mr Michael Sinclair in PLoS Onein February.Above: Almond blossoms. Left: Dr Judith Reinhard tending to the bees. Right: Restrained honey bees.PG | 15

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Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Shining Light on SchizophreniaSunshine has longbeen seen as vitalfor healthy bones– now QueenslandBrain Instituteresearchershave found alink betweennewborn babieswith low levels of vitamin D and an increasedrisk of schizophrenia.Using tiny blood samples from Denmarknewborns, the team compared vitamin D concentrationsin babies who later developed schizophrenia,with healthy controls – and confirmedthose with low vitamin D were twice as likely todevelop the disorder.Vitamin D, or the ‘sunshine hormone’, isthe result of sunshine on the skin, howeverdeficiency is common in many countries.“Although we need to replicate these findings, thestudy opens up the possibility that improvingvitamin D levels in pregnant women andnewborn babies could reduce the risk of laterschizophrenia,” Professor John McGrath said.Schizophrenia is a poorly understood group ofbrain disorders that affects about one in 100Australians, and usually first presents in youngadults.Findings from the three-year study couldeventually inform public health messages, inmuch the same way that pregnant women areencouraged to increase folate to reduce the riskof spina bifida in their children.However, it is not just this research that isbeing heralded – the techniques used by theresearchers have also garnered internationalattention.As the blood samples available were exceptionallysmall, scientists had to develop a new way totest – or assay – vitamin D levels.“It took three years of hard work but we haveprobably developed the world’s most sensitiveassay for vitamin D,” fellow investigator DrDarryl Eyles explained.The assay has been so effective it is now beingused by scientists researching cancer, diabetes,multiple sclerosis, autism and asthma.Meantime, in a separate project, ProfessorMcGrath found that young adults who usecannabis from an early age are three times morelikely to experience psychotic symptoms.The study of more than 3,800 21-year-olds, bornat Brisbane’s Mater Hospital, revealed those whouse cannabis for six or more years have a greaterrisk of developing psychotic disorders or theisolated symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinationsand delusions.The research included the results of 228 sets ofsiblings.“Looking at siblings is a type of naturalexperiment – we found the same links withinthe siblings as we did in the entire sample, whichmakes the findings even stronger.“The younger you are when you start to usecannabis, the greater the risk of having psychoticsymptoms at age 21,” Professor McGrath said.The research appeared in the Archives of GeneralPsychiatry in March, with researchers fromQBI, UQ’s Department of Psychiatry, Centre forYouth Substance Abuse Research and School ofPopulation Health, the Queensland Centre forMental Health Research, the Royal Children’sHospital, Princess Alexandra Hospital, MaterChildren’s Hospital and the University of NewSouth Wales.The research into the increased risk of schizophreniain people with low prenatal vitamin Dwas carried out by QBI’s Professor McGrath, DrsEyles and Tom Burne, Mr Cameron Andersonand Ms Pauline Ko, with colleagues from theUniversity of Aarhus, Denmark, and the StatensSerum Institut, Denmark. It was published in theArchives of General Psychiatry in September.Above: Professor John McGrath. Left:Low doses of Vitamin D during pregnancy are twice as likelyto result in babies with schizophrenia. Right: Section of artwork by Glenn Brady. In one side andout the other.PG | 17

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Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Navigating a path for improved diagnosisIf you have everlost your senseof direction in anunfamiliar placethen QueenslandBrain Instituteresearchers maybe able to help.They havediscovered a neuronal population sensitive toheading direction in humans. Head directionsensitive cells have been found in rodents, butevidence for such cells in humans had beenlacking.Lead researcher Dr Oliver Baumann askedvolunteers to learn the directions to landmarksaround a computer-generated maze overseveral days. He then measured the volunteers’brain activity as they viewed each of thelandmarks in isolation.“The brain acts like a compass, with differentneurons firing depending on the directionpeople think they are heading. We certainly donot have a magnetic sense, but we have a brainregion that nevertheless codes the direction weare heading in,” Dr Baumann explained.“Our study provides not only the first evidenceof a brain region sensitive to heading directionin people, but also its precise location in thebrain.”The researchers used functional magneticresonance imaging to monitor people’s brainactivity as they carried out the computerisedtesting.They found that a small area in the parietalcortex, located toward the back of the brain,provides critical details for navigation andinformation about the direction in which aperson is heading.“Here we have evidence in a normal, healthyhuman population that there is a dedicatedcluster of neurons that encodes our sense ofdirection,” fellow researcher Professor JasonMattingley said.“If this brain region is damaged it can severelydisrupt a person’s ability to navigate in newsituations. Such damage is common in strokeand Alzheimer’s disease. People haven’t madethis link before – previously it was just aclinical anecdote.”Professor Mattingley predicted clinicianscould eventually use navigational tests, suchas those created for this study, as an earlyprobe for the onset of dementia.“Our research suggests that one of theimportant cognitive functions we should betesting in people with suspected dementia istheir sense of direction,” he said.Dr Baumann added: “The assessment ofnavigational skills in people with suspecteddementia could be more sensitive to earlysigns of Alzheimer’s disease than traditionalscreening tests. Furthermore, performanceon virtual reality navigation tasks could serveas a valuable behavioural marker of diseaseprogression.”There might even be scope to test whethermen’s sense of direction really is better thanwomen’s.It is often suggested that females are poorerat navigation than males, however superiorperformance by men is not found in all tasksinvolving spatial skills.Professor Mattingley said: “Most interestingly,there appear to be qualitative differencesin the environmental cues and strategiesthat women and men use during navigationand orientation. Women typically reportnavigating on the basis of local landmarksand familiar routes, whereas men report usingcardinal directions.”“Our approach could provide an objective testby revealing whether male and female brainsrespond differently during navigation tasks,”concluded Dr Baumann.The research was conducted by ProfessorMattingley and Dr Baumann and appeared inthe Journal of Neuroscience in September.Above: Dr Oliver Baumann. Right: First-person perspective of a passageway within a computergenerated,virtual maze. Healthy human volunteers learned the spatial layout of the maze over fivedays by navigating between landmarks (black symbols) using a joystick.PG | 19

DiscoveryPG | 20

ebral cortex is a complex but extremture. In adult, it is divided into many functionctareas (Fig. 1). The emergence of these areasevelopment is dependent on the expression ofgenes. Fgf8 at the anterior pole and gradients ofPax6, Coup-tfi and Sp8major role in specifyingidentity along theior-posterior axis (Fig. 2).. A Boolean modelM S1V1Figure 1: Some of the specialised areas ofthe adult cortex. F/M is frontal/motor cortex,S1 is primary somatosensory cortex, V1 is primaryvisual cortex.PLat about e8.Emx2 Pax6 Coup-tfi SpAL MWe examined the dynamics of all 2 24 ≈ 1.7 x 10 7 possible networkscreated by the five genes of interest in anterior-posterior patterning.The model had two compartments, one anterior and one posterior,each containing the same regulatory network (Fig. 4). There was nocommunication between compartments.Each network was translated into a set of logic equations that capturethe regulatory relationships between networks and dictate howthe system evolves in time (Fig. 4). Gene and protein levels can takeonly two values, zero and one, representing genes and proteins beinginactive or active.The difference between the two compartments was their initialstate.Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6Coup-tfiCoup-tfiSp8Sp8E8 starting state 1 1Desired steady stateComputationalneuroscientistsat theQueenslandBrain Institutehave done thesums – andfound that amathematicalmodel could help improve the understandingof brain development.The model addresses the development of acrucial region of the brain known as the cerebralcortex, which is responsible for functions suchas vision, touch and motor control.If the cerebral cortex fails to form correctlyin the embryo, a person can develop autism,epilepsy and learning difficulties.“In the adult, different areas of the cerebralcortex are defined by specific patterns of genesand patterns of connections, which makesthe cortical areas highly specialised and quitedifferent to each other,” lead author Clare Giacomantoniosaid.Anterior“We’re trying to understand how thosespecialised areas develop. We’re specificallylooking at one aspect of that development,which is how the patterns of gene expressionform.”0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1Every cell in an individual contains the same setof genes. Some of these genes are turned intoproteins that do work around the cell, a processcalled gene expression. Specialised cells indifferent areas of the body differ, in part, in thegenes they express.As cells specialise during development,expression becomes more complex so that byadulthood there are very specific patterns ofgene expression.“The genes make proteins but these proteinssometimes interact with other genes andcontrol whether or not they are expressed. Thisresearch was trying to understand that controlprocess,” explained Ms Giacomantonio.The research used a mathematical modelto systematically explore different possibleinteractions between the genes and proteinsinvolved in development of the cerebral cortex.The neuroscientists simulated a smallperiod of cortical development many timesin the presence of different combinationsof interactions and looked for interactionsPosteriorEach set of Boolean equations with asynchronous updating formeda Markov chain from which trajectories through state space were calculated.We were interested in networks that reliably went from the anteriorstarting state to the anterior steady state, as well as from the posteriorstarting state to the posterior steady state.Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6Coup-tfiCoup-tfiSp8Sp8that ensured either correct or incorrectdevelopment.0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0“Our modelling helps make it clear which geneinteractions are crucial for normal developmentto occur, which is very important information,”0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0Laboratory Head Professor Geoffrey Goodhillsaid.Left: Clare Giacomantonio. Right: Detail from Clare Giacomantonio’s 2010 poster entitledA computational model of the patterns of gene expression underlying cortical area development.Fgf8(t+1) = Sp8(t)Emx2(t+1) = NOT Fgf8(t) & NOT Pax6(t)= Fgf8(t) & NOT Coup-tfi(t)& NOT Pax6(t) & NOT Sp8(t)p-tfi(t)PFgf8Emx2Pax610Coup−tfi10Sp810101“If we can understand how normal developmentoccurs you can certainly get a better idea ofunderstanding how things can go wrong and,eventually, how you might steer developmentback in the correct direction,” Ms Giacomantonioadded.The computational neuroscientists will nowfocus on using the model to understand moreabout the effects of genetic mutations on0brain development. These mutations alter thepatterns of gene expression.“Data from mice on the changes in expressionpatterns can be used to refine our model andgive it greater power to understand whichinteractions between genes are critical forAnterior PosteriorEmx2 Emx2Fgf8 Fgf8 Pax6 Pax6Coup-tfi Coup-tfiSp8← Figure 5: Average expression in the anterior and posterior compartmentsfor the best performing network.Emx2 Emx2Fgf8 Fgf8 Pax6 Pax6Coup-tfi Coup-tfiSp8 Sp8↑ Figure 6: Some networks similar to the best network perform almas well. The dashed interactions can be off or on so that this figure de64 different networks.Emx2(t+1) = Emx2(t) & ...correct cerebral cortical development,” Ms Giacomantoniosaid.Professor Goodhill explained: “The predictionsof our model may be used by experimental neuroscientiststo guide future experiments.”Sp8 Sp8“The larger research effort to understanddevelopment of the normal cerebral cortexmay help us understand how the adult brainoperates and what can go wrong duringFgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6Coup-tfiCoup-tfiSp8Sp8Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6AnteriorPosteriort = 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0t = 1 0 0Desired steady state 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0Figure 7: Auto-induction leads to poor network performance as this example of Emx2 auto-indonstrates. With auto-induction, Emx2 is locked into its initial state of zero in both compartments. This mdesired steady state cannot be reached in the posterior compartment.development to give rise to developmentaldisorders.”The research was carried out by QBI’s ProfessorGoodhill and Ms Giacomantonio. It waspublished in PLoS Computational Biology inSeptember.Emx2 Emx2Fgf8 Fgf8 Pax6 Pax6Coup-tfi Coup-tfiQueensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Research adds up to better understandingFgf8(t+1) = Pax6(t) & Sp8(t) ...Pax6(t+1) = Fgf8(t) & ...Sp8 Sp8Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6Coup-tfiCoup-tfiSp8Sp8Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Anteriort = 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0t = 1 0 0/10Desired steady state 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1Figure 8: Inductive loops lead to poor network performance as this example of Fgf8/Pademonstrates. With this loop, in the anterior compartment Fgf8 cannot remain active and Paxif other regulatory requirements are not met. This means that the desired steady state cannot becompartment.Emx2(t+1) = Pax6(t)Pax6(t+1) = Emx2(t) & ...Fgf8Fgf8Emx2Emx2Pax6Pax6Coup-tfiCoup-tfiSp8Sp8AnteriorPG | 211 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0P

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Discovering Creatures of the DeepPushing theboundaries isan almost dailyrequirement forany scientist.Hence, it is nosurprise that neurobiologistsfromthe Queensland Brain Institute have delveddeep into the Coral Sea to learn more aboutocean life and, in turn, human vision.Using high-tech equipment and instrumentplatforms new to Australia, prehistoric six-gilledsharks, giant oil fish, swarms of crustaceans andmany unidentified fish were caught on camera1,400m below sea level at Osprey Reef, 350kmnortheast of Cairns.The team, led by Professor Justin Marshall,captured the sea creatures using speciallow-light sensitive, custom-designed remotecontrolled cameras, which sat on the seafloor. The Australian Research Council fundedthe equipment that was built at The HarbourBranch Oceanographic Institute in Florida.“Osprey Reef is one of the many reefs in theCoral Sea Conservation Zone, which has beenidentified as an area of high conservationimportance by the Federal Government.Therefore, it is paramount that we identify theecosystems and species inhabiting the area,”Professor Marshall said.“As well as understanding life at the surface,we need to plunge off the walls of Ospreyto describe the deep-sea life that lives downto 2000m, beyond the reach of sunlight. Wesimply do not know what life is down thereand our cameras can now record the behaviourand life in Australia’s largest biosphere, thedeep-sea.”Scientists working on the Deep AustraliaProject also collected amazing footage of theNautilus, a relative of squid or octopus that stilllives in a shell as they have done for millions ofyears.Researchers measured these living fossilsto find out more about their biology beforereturning them to the sea.“Learning about these creatures’ primitive eyesand brain could help neuroscientists to betterunderstand human vision,” research studentAndy Dunstan said.Professor Marshall explained most of ourknowledge on how nerve cells function andcommunicate was first pioneered throughwork on squid giant nerve cells.“We are now returning to these original modelsystems, both for their own intrinsic interestand also to better understand brain disorderswhich lead to conditions such as epilepsy,” hesaid.Deep Australia Project Manager Kylie Greigsaid the expedition helped shed light on howdeep-sea creatures had evolved over time.“This technology will help the discoveryof deep-sea creatures’ adaptations to thechallenges of living at crushing depths and infreezing, dark water. Here they must find foodand mates in the dark and avoid being eatenthemselves.“We are interested in the sensory systems usedfor this lifestyle,” she said.However, to explore the unknowns of thedeep sea, it is vital the creatures are protectedand currently oceans are under threat from avariety of human activities.Contributing to this effort, Professor Marshalljoined with educator Craig Reid, Coral WatchProject Officer Dave Logan and graphicdesigner Diana Kleine to author Coral Reefs andClimate Change: the guide for education andawareness. This book focuses on ways forwardfrom the detrimental effects of climate changeon reefs and details measures that can be takento reduce further damage, both on coral reefsand in the connected deep-ocean.Left: The deep sea anglerfish Bufoceratias wedli is covered with rows of vibration-detecting lateralline organs that enable such fish to detect neighbours in the lightless depths of the deep-sea.Above: Professor Justin Marshall. Right: The red jellyfish Atolla possesses a bright ring of bioluminescentorgans on its body to warn off potential predators.PG | 23

Laboratory GroupsResearchPG | 24

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010ResearchUnlike other research organisations which focus onparticular diseases or conditions, QBI is structuredto study the brain’s fundamental molecular andphysiological mechanisms. Research is conductedacross the seven key themes of cognition andbehaviour, computation and neuronal circuits,neurogenesis and neuronal survival, neurogeneticsand epigenetics, neuronal development andconnectivity, sensory systems and synaptic function.QBI neuroscientists use the world’s most advancedinvestigative technologies for their research, includingflow cytometry and mass spectrometry equipment.They use human volunteers in their research and alsostudy a range of animal models, including the mouse,honeybee, fruit fly, frog, zebrafish and flatworm.Developing visual circuit in a zebrafish brain(six days old). Labelling of nerve fibres in redreveals a 'neural skeleton' in the zebrafishbrain. During development, thousands ofnerves grow from the eye to the brain tomake up the main visual circuit in zebrafish.A few of these neurons can be seen here(green), growing into the optic tectum -a region of the brain which processesvisual information.PG | 25

Laboratory Head Professor Perry BartlettNeurogenesis, the production of new nerve cells in the adult brain bypopulations of resident stem cells, has been implicated in regulatinglearning and memory. Research to date has suggested that stimulatingthis production may be therapeutic for diseases such as dementia anddepression. To study how various factors released by nerve stimulationactivate stem cells in the hippocampus to produce new nerve cells,members of the Bartlett laboratory are using unique cell-sortingtechnologies to isolate stem cells and novel in vivo techniques.Above: Bartlett group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Debra Black, Daniel Blackmore, Lavinia Codd, Michael Colditz, Kirsty Dixon, Dhanisha Jhaveri,Vilija Jokubaitis, Masahiro Kameda, Tamara Koudijs, Li Li , Eirinn MacKay, Estella Newcombe, George Rigley, Gregory Robinson, Sumiti Saharan, JaySpampanato, Mark Spanevello, Sophie Tajouri, Chanel Taylor, Jana Vukovic, Tara Walker, Dianne Walker, Di Xia. Above right: Neurosphere from an aged(24 month) mouse demonstrating that neural stem cells within old animals retain the ability to produce neurons (in red) and astrocytes (green).PG | 26Stimulating neurogenesis in the brainDuring 2010, the laboratory continued toinvestigate the regulation of neurogenesis inthe brain, with the specific aim of discoveringmolecules that activate resident precursor cells.During the year, the team discovered a secondpopulation of precursors in the hippocampusthat are normally dormant, but can be activatedby the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE)to produce new nerve cells both in vitro andin vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated thatNE acted directly on the precursor populationthrough a beta-3 adrenergic receptor, definingfor the first time a mechanism of action for theclass of antidepressants that raise NE levels.Previously, it has been posited that antidepressantsthat raise NE or serotonin levels mayact by increasing neuronal production in thehippocampus. Our studies show that onlyNE directly regulates this, suggesting thatserotonin may act indirectly or through raisingNE levels. These discoveries present new opportunitiesfor developing antidepressantswhich target the beta-3 receptor.Also, the finding reveals that there is morethan one population of precursors in thehippocampus, since the NE-activatedpopulation is quite separate to the onewe previously described in 2008, whichwas activated by synaptic activity. Thus, itappears that there are discrete populations ofprecursors which respond to different stimuli,raising the possibility that they may give rise topopulations of neurons with subtle differencesin their synaptic machinery, which may explainwhy different stimuli lead to different hippocampal-dependentbehavioural outcomes. Thispossibility is now being investigated.Coronal section of a transgenicmouse brain showing Thy1 positiveneurons. Image Sophie Tajouri.

Laboratory Head Dr Timothy BredyDr Timothy Bredy’s laboratory is interested in elucidating how the genomeis connected to the environment, and how this relationship shapes brainand behaviour across the lifespan. In contrast to the information conveyedby a static genome, the epigenome is very dynamic and can be modifiedby exposure to a variety of environmental stimuli, including learning,exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, dietary factors andsocial interaction.1Original Memory2Memory RetrievalNewInformationPG | 28Above: Bredy group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Kevin Dudley, Carlos Coelho, Wei Wei, Xiang Li , Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram Ratnu, RogerMarek, Zoran Boskovic, Maria Galeanos, Joanne Loh, Zhanzhi Yan. Above right: The transcription factor ATF4 is coexpressed with the histoneacetyltransferase PCAF within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex.Shaping scientific understanding of epigenetic mechanismsIn 2010, the Bredy group discovered that, inmice, the extinction of conditional fear (aform of inhibitory learning important for thetreatment of anxiety disorders) is regulated bymicroRNA activity in the prefrontal cortex. Wealso demonstrated that there are epigeneticregulatory proteins such as p300/CBP-associatedfactor (PCAF), which are unique to theextinction learning process. We have alsobeen performing genome-wide methylationprofiling experiments to determine whethersex-specific cortical DNA methylationpatterns are associated with sex differences infear-related learning and memory.The year has been a busy one in otherways. Laboratory members organised thefirst Epigenetics, Behaviour and Diseasesymposium, while Dr Bredy delivered invitedtalks at a range of neuroscience events. DrBredy and Dr Kevin Dudley, a postdoctoralfellow, published a review on epigeneticmechanisms mediating vulnerability andresilience to psychiatric disorders.In December, the group welcomed PhDcandidate Ms Danay Baker-Andresen, whoholds a National Science and EngineeringCouncil post-graduate scholarship, fromCanada. We were fortunate to host a summerresearch scholar, Mr Xiang Li, and we alsowelcomed two co-supervised PhD students –Mr Vikram Ratnu with Professor John Mattick,and Mr Roger Marek with Professor PankajSah.Our research associates, Drs Wei Wei and CarlosCoelho, continued to perform extraordinarilyin overseeing experiments and maintainingthe laboratory. Lastly, with the support of anARC LIEF grant, we began working towardsestablishing a mass spectrometry core facilityat QBI, and optimizing new technologyfor epigenetic profiling using the IlluminaHiSeq2000 platform.34Destabilization ofOriginal MemorymiRNAActivityNew, updated MemoryMiRNAs may regulate neural plasticityand memory by constraining ordestabilising memory upon retrievalin order to allow new learning ormemory updating to occur.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Dr Thomas BurneThe Burne laboratory studies brain development and behaviour in animalmodels to learn more about neuropsychiatric diseases. Researchersinvestigate the underlying biological basis for schizophrenia, with the aimof finding appropriate public health interventions. The group has beenexploring the impact of developmental vitamin D deficiency on braindevelopment, the impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on brain functionand behaviour, and the neurobiological effects of having an older father.The group is part of the Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research.Above right: Burne group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: James Kesby, Lauren Harms, Claire Foldi, Carlie Cullen, Natalie Groves, Karly Turner,Suzy Alexander, Meggie Voogt, Pauline Ko, Henry Simila. Above left: Claire Foldi analyses magnetic resonance images of a mouse brain.Dr James Kesby measuresneurotransmitters in samples frombrain tissueIn 2010, the Burne group, in collaborationwith QBI’s Dr Darryl Eyles and ProfessorJohn McGrath, built on its previous researchshowing that low levels of vitamin D (the‘sunshine hormone’) in the prenatal period isassociated with an increased risk of schizophrenia.This work was published in theArchives of General Psychiatry. We haveexplored the behaviour, brain neurochemistryand receptor profile associated with vitaminD deficiency in animal models. Now the collaborationis investigating the impact of DVDdeficiency on social and cognitive behaviours.Probing the roots of schizophreniaResearch into the impact of adult vitamin Ddeficiency on brain function has also started.The Burne group has also expanded itsresearch tools, with a suite of cognitivebehavioural tasks to assess attentionalprocessing in rodents. The goal now is toinvestigate the neurobiology of alteredcognition in animal models, by looking atselected cognitive domains – sensorimotorgating, working memory, attention andspeed of processing, learning and memory,and problem solving – that are known to bedisrupted in schizophrenia. In collaborationwith other neuroscientists at QBI, we havealso begun to incorporate other species, suchas zebrafish and fruit flies, to ask questions ofthe ‘small brain’. This research made the coverof Molecular Psychiatry.Further, the group published the first comprehensivestudy of the impact of advancedpaternal age in a mouse model on behaviourand brain structure. In collaboration withresearchers at the Queensland Instituteof Medical Research, explorations intobehavioural, genomic and brain imaging in amouse model are now underway.PG | 29

Laboratory Head Dr Charles ClaudianosDr Charles Claudianos’ laboratory examines how sensory experience changesnerve cell junctions called synapses that control information transfer in thebrain. There are literally hundreds of genes that encode or regulate proteinsthat contribute to development of synapses – but when these genes aredefective, the synapses fail to transfer appropriate signals and cognitivedisorders may result. To understand how this works in humans, researchersstudy the same molecules in simple insects such as fruit flies and honeybeeswhich have advanced genetic and behavioural toolsets.Above: Claudianos group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Zoran Boscovic, Alexandre Cristino, Maria Rondon Galeano, Nevitha Gunasekaran, Yeu LinLiu, Janelle Scown, Sarah Williams, Shan Shi Yang, Zheng-yang Zhao. Above Right: Fluorescent antibody staining of olfactory receptor proteins at the tipof the honeybee antennae.PG | 30Investigating molecular response to sensory experienceDr Claudianos’ team studies neurexin-neuroliginmolecules with regard to sensory acuity,learning and memory and with respect tothe greater network of genes that functionin the brain - the ‘neurome’. Togetherwith QBI colleague Dr Judith Reinhard, thelaboratory discovered neurexin-neuroliginmolecules found in the synapse are regulatedin specific patterns depending on the sensoryexperience. Their research, detailing howassociative memories of odours significantlychanged expression of these molecules in thehoneybee brain, was published in PLoS ONE in2010. Molecular changes occurred whenevera bee learnt new odours, showing that thesense of smell is not hard-wired but remainsplastic throughout adult life. The team alsodiscovered that the brain needs sensoryinformation to develop normally.During the year under review, the Claudianos’laboratory also built upon 2006 researchin which it helped publish the ‘honeybeegenome’. A principal discovery was that thehoneybee had far fewer genes than otherinsects, with Dr Claudianos and his colleagueshypothesising that gene shortfalls associatedwith environmental responses in the beewere due to the evolution of sociality in thebee. In 2010, members of his laboratory werepart of an international team that sequencedthe related ‘wasp genome’, with researchpublished in Science and Insect MolecularBiology. The results showed that the wasp hasa different complement of genes comparedto the bee, supporting the idea that socialbehaviour reduces molecular diversity – whichoffers a lesson for our own human evolution.Soluble honeybee neurexin 1 (Nrx1)protein (green) expressed in monkeyCOS-7 cells is purified and used todetermine biochemical interaction ofsynaptic proteins of neurons.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Assoc. Professor Ross CunningtonResearch in Assoc. Professor Ross Cunnington’s laboratory focuses on thebrain processes involved in planning and preparing for voluntary actionsand for perceiving and understanding the actions of others. Wheneverhumans plan, imagine, or observe others performing actions, representationsof those actions are encoded in the motor areas of the brain. In 2010,researchers explored brain imaging methods to examine how people formplans for action before initiating voluntary movement, and how our ownplans for action can influence the way we perceive others’ actions.Above right: Cunnington group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Marta Bortoletto, Pascal Molenberghs, Katharine Baker, Veronika Halasz, Kian Ng,Vinh Nguyen, Simmy Poonian. Above left: We examine brain processes involved in the perception of observed actions. There appear to be specialisedareas in the human brain that allow us to readily perceive and understand the actions and gestures of others.Using EEG, we can see brain activityincreasing over the mid-line motorareas of the brain as people plan andprepare voluntary movements.Members of the Cunnington laboratoryexamine the chain of brain processes thattransform our intentions into plans foraction that can be executed by the brain’smotor system. Our research has revealedhow activity in prefrontal regions of thebrain, beginning up to one second beforemovement, is important for deciding the rightmoment to initiate voluntary actions. Thisoccurs before activity starts in premotor brainareas involved in coding specific sequences ofmovement to make up complex actions.Researchers are also discovering how thesame brain processes involved in planning ourRevealing secrets of mirroring through brain imagingown actions are also important for our abilityto perceive and understand the observedactions of others. Known as mirroring, thisprocess is thought to underlie the way inwhich we can understand intentions andempathise with others.The laboratory also develops new methodsfor examining human brain activity and itsfunction. In a collaboration with the MedicalUniversity of Vienna, researchers in theCunnington laboratory are using ultra-highresolution brain imaging (7 Tesla humanMRI) to examine neural activity of themotor system during planning. We are alsodeveloping techniques for combining the highresolution of MRI brain imaging with the hightiming accuracy of brain activity recordingswith concurrent fMRI-EEG measurement –allowing us to visualise and examine humanbrain activity in more detail than ever before.The development of Brain-ComputerInterfaces – devices that can read and ‘decode’people’s brain activity as they make choicesbetween items on a computer screen – is afurther exciting extension of this research.With such devices, patients can learn to selectand control objects just by the computerdetecting changes in their brain activity.PG | 33

Laboratory Head Dr Darryl EylesDr Darryl Eyles’ laboratory is primarily focused on modelling non-genetic riskfactors for schizophrenia. This work has greatly enhanced understandingof the effect of vitamin D on a person’s likelihood to develop schizophrenia.Most noticeably, research in animal models has demonstrated that adevelopmental vitamin D deficiency in newborns increases the chances ofdeveloping the disorder in later life. Further, work from this group has firmlyestablished that vitamin D regulates brain development. The group is partof the Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research.Above: Eyles group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Xiaoying Cui, Trudi Flatscher-Bader, Isabel Formella, James Kesby, David Kvaskoff, Pauline Ko,Henry Simila, Suzy Alexander, Karly Turner, Ashley Liu, Maggie Voogt, Lauren Harms, Claire Foldi, Elizabeth Mason, Jennifer Goddard, Karthic Purushothaman,Jacqui Byrne, Ben Calcagno. Above right: Archived dried blood spots may provide early markers for serious psychiatric disease in later life.PG | 34Understanding the neurobiology of serious mental illnessWorking in close collaboration with QBI’sProfessor John McGrath’s and Dr ThomasBurne’s research groups, the Eyles laboratorycontinues to examine the consequences ofdevelopmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiencyon both the developing brain and brainfunction in the adult offspring. Research hasshown direct reductions in specification andmaturation factors for dopaminergic neuronsin foetal DVD-deficient brains, which correlatewith disturbances in brain function both at thelevel of locomotion and selective attention.The group is rewriting the paradigm thatdopamine may not represent a final commonpathway for schizophrenia. Rather, it maybe the initial common abnormality in braindevelopment that precipitates the multipledisturbances seen in other neurotransmittersystems in this disorder. Currentlyresearchers are modelling how alterations indopamine levels affect brain developmentand behaviour in models such as zebrafish,fruit flies and mosquitoes. The use of avariety of model animals continues to providea diverse and flexible research platform inunderstanding the neurobiology of seriouspsychiatric disease.In clinical research, the Eyles laboratoryhas developed possibly the world’s mostsensitive test for 25 hydroxyvitamin D, whichcan detect tiny amounts of this vitamin inpaediatric dried blood spots. Apart frombeing successfully used to indicate that lowvitamin D levels are associated with schizophreniain later life, this test is now being usedin the laboratory to assess the vitamin’s role inautism, cancer and multiple sclerosis.Dopamine neurites innervating thecentral complex and mushroombodies of a fruit fly (Drosophilamelanogaster).

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Professor Geoffrey GoodhillResearch in Professor Geoffrey Goodhill's laboratory uses a uniquecombination of experiments and theoretical modelling to develop acomputational understanding of how the nervous system becomes wiredup during development. For the brain to function properly, its neuronsmust be connected correctly. The laboratory’s guiding philosophy is thatbuilding mathematical models allows a much more precise understandingof the underlying phenomena than relying on purely qualitative reasoning.Above right: Goodhill group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Zac Pujic, Andrew Thompson, Jiajia Yuan, Clement Bonini, Jinjun Sun, Stanley Chan,Duncan Mortimer, Jonny Hunt, Clare Giacomantonio, Hugh Simpson, Richard Faville.Above left: Rat neurons growing in a microfluidic chamber.4000 photos grouped into clusterswhich share similar statistical properties,providing insight into the brain'svisual function.Using mathematical models to identify neural wiring defectsOne area of focus for the Goodhill laboratoryis how nerve fibres (axons) are guided bymolecular gradients to find appropriate targetsin the developing nervous system. Onesurprising result recently was that the responseof axons to shallow gradients is different fromtheir response to steep gradients – not onlyquantitatively but also qualitatively. Thishelps explain apparent anomalies betweenresults from different gradient assays and alsoprovides an insight into the way axons areaffected by gradients in vivo.Researchers have also investigated the formand shape of growth cones, the structures atthe tip of developing axons. This morphologyis complex and highly dynamic but thesignificance of these changes for either thesensory or motor roles of growth cones ismostly unknown. As such, sophisticatedmathematical techniques for characterisingshape in general are currently being adaptedin order to develop a more quantitative understandingof the role growth cone shape plays ineffective axon guidance.Further, the Goodhill laboratory is studyingvisual system development, particularly mapsin the primary visual cortex. Visual maps(and thus visual function) are affected by thestatistics of visual input during early life, butteasing apart the relative contributions of input-dependentmechanisms of developmenthas proved an extremely challenging task.Researchers have investigated the effect ofrestricting visual input early in life on visualdevelopment. Their theoretical predictionssuggest that a surprisingly large degree ofvisual map structure plasticity may be possible– a theory now being tested by experimentalcollaborators.PG | 35

Laboratory Head Dr Massimo HilliardDetermining how individual neurons develop is crucial for understandinghow highly complex neuronal structures, such as the brain and spinalcord, are formed. Dr Massimo Hilliard’s laboratory is interested inunderstanding how axons (nerve fibres conducting impulses from theneuron) and dendrites (nerve processes conducting impulses to theneuron) develop and how they are guided to their targets. The group alsoinvestigates how the axonal structure is maintained over time and how itcan be reconstituted after injury.Above: Hilliard group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Sean Coakley, Leonie Kirzsenblat, Jujiao Kuang, Casey Linton, Brent Neumann, DivyaPattabiraman, Katherine Truong, Nick Valmas. Above right: Neuronal polarity defects in C. elegans sensory neurons. Image Leonie Kirzsenblat.PG | 36Unlocking secrets of axonal growth and regenerationNeurons are among the most highly polarisedcells in the body, with their dendrites and axonsforming distinct morphological and functionaldomains. However, the understanding ofhow dendrites develop is poor, with only afew molecules known to play a role in thisprocess. Using the nematode – or roundworm- Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system, theHilliard group has identified two Wnt ligandsand two Frizzled receptors that regulatedendrite development in vivo.The axon protruding from a neuronal cell canextend extraordinarily long distances, withmechanisms in place to maintain the structuralintegrity of these long processes over theanimal’s lifetime. Failure in the maintenanceof the axonal process is one of the underlyingcauses of different neurodegenerativeconditions including motor neuron disease.Using forward genetic screens, researchersin the Hilliard group have identified mutantanimals in which the axons of C. elegansmechanosensory neurons and oxygen sensoryneurons spontaneously degenerate. Thegroup now seeks to identify the mutated genesresponsible for this condition, and to identifyaxonal degeneration phenotypes in motorneurons.A crucial question for neurobiologists is howsome axons can regenerate following nervedamage while others cannot. The answer willbe of great value in the treatment of neurodegenerativeconditions and traumatic nerveinjuries. Using a laser-based technology toaxotomy single neurons in living C. elegansanimals, the Hilliard laboratory has shown thataxonal regeneration can occur by a mechanismof axonal fusion, whereby the two separatedaxonal fragments can specifically re-attach andrestore the original axonal tract.Axonal degeneration in a C. elegansmechanosensory sensory neuron.Image Brent Neumann.

Laboratory Head Professor Justin MarshallThe Marshall laboratory seeks to understand how animals perceive theirenvironment. By taking an approach to sensory systems that is based aroundecology, but also includes physiology, anatomy, behaviour and neuralintegration, the laboratory aims to decode signals and their intention inanimals – and fathom the parallel implications for humans. Animals underinvestigation include stomatopods (mantis shrimps), cephalopods (such ascuttlefish and octopus) elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and freshwater fish,along with non-marine animals such as parrots, birds of paradise and lizards.Above: Marshall group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Mathilde Bue, Cassie Bryant, Connor Champ, Karen Cheney, Tsyr-Huei Chiou, Wen-Sung Chung,Fabio Cortesi, Angela Dean, Fanny DeBusserolles, Andy Dunstan, Adrian Flynn, Kerstin Fritsches, Alan Goldizen, Martin How, Diana Kleine, Yi-Hsin Lee, EvaMcClure, Amy Newman, Vincenzo Pignatelli, Chris Talbot, Shelby Temple, Rachel Templin, Hanne Thoe, Jack Pettigrew. Above right: The stomatopodcrustacean. This Odontodactylus scyllarus has 12-channel colour vision and polarisation vision more complex than any animal known. Photo Roy Caldwell.PG | 38Delving into mysteries of the deep seaThe Marshall laboratory, which joined QBIin 2010, undertakes research in five differentareas, all based around marine visual systemsand coral reefs. Collectively, the grouphas produced more than 25 publicationsthis year, including a book, contributionsto Current Biology and two major editedreviews. This output effort from laboratorymembers and international collaborators isoutstanding and several of our papers havealso been highlighted in Science, Nature andNew Scientist. Recognising the importanceof communicating science beyond scientists,the work of the laboratory has also featuredin international non-science media for workon visual systems and deep sea, including SirDavid Attenborough’s latest documentaryFirst Life and TIME Magazine.The way in which the ultraviolet (UV) region ofthe spectrum and other colours are used by avariety of animal communication systems is amajor component of the Marshall laboratory’swork. During 2010, research on vision instomatopods continued, with publications inCurrent Biology and a theme edition for ThePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Societyof London on polarisation vision. Publicationsin journals including Current Biology havebeen achieved by members of the laboratorywho are studying the evolution and diversityof colour vision in reef fish.With collaborators, the ‘Deep Downunder’team ran or participated in eight deep seaexpeditions in 2010, discovering new speciesof fish and cephalopod in the process.Meanwhile, researchers immersed in the‘Coral Watch’ project, commenced the yearwith the launch of the book Coral Reefs andClimate Change which has sold around 3,000copies and is currently being translated for aninternational readership.The camouflage of the reef anglerfish makes it look like a sponge.How visual systems of reef animalsevolved to view each other’s coloursand camouflage tricks is a majortheme in the Marshall laboratory.Photo Steve Parish.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Professor Jason MattingleyAttentional processes are crucial for virtually all cognitive functions inhumans, including learning and memory. A long-standing question is howthe brain selects just a few important inputs from myriad sensory datawhile filtering out irrelevant elements – in other words, how it regulatesmechanisms of attention. Professor Jason Mattingley’s team seeks toanswer this by using cutting-edge brain imaging and brain stimulationtechniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).Above right: Mattingley group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Oliver Baumann, Luca Cocchi, Marc Kamke, Pascal Molenberghs, Martin Sale, DavidLloyd, Edgar Chan, Michael Dwyer, Veronika Halasz, Will Harrison, Oscar Jacoby, Inga Laube, David Painter, Amanda Robinson, Daniel Stjepanovic,Lydia Hayward. Above left: Measuring attention in the brain. Red crosshairs indicate a brain region involved in attention.Dr Marc Kamke applies TMS to testthe involvement of different brainareas in selective attention.In 2010, researchers in the Mattingley laboratorycontinued to investigate the brain processesthat regulate selective attention in healthand disease. Mr David Painter, a PhD student,has recently developed a novel approach tomeasuring changes in brain activity that occurwhen attention is deployed over complex andrapidly changing visual displays. The protocoluses EEG recorded from the scalp to measuretiny fluctuations in the brain’s electrical activity.During these recordings, volunteers focustheir attention to locate coloured targetsamong flickering, multi-coloured distractors.By analysing precisely timed oscillations inthe brain’s activity, the researchers discoveredAnalysing and understanding attentional processesunique signatures for sensory events that areattended and ignored – effectively showinghow the human brain sorts the wheat from thechaff.Having learned more about how attention iscontrolled in the healthy brain, the researchersare now using their novel tests to examineimpairments of attention in patients with braindamage due to stroke. The same approachwill also be used to assess the efficacy of newbehavioural and pharmacological treatmentsfor perceptual and cognitive deficits in a rangeof neurological disorders.Other work being pursued by the team hasfocused on neural plasticity, the brain’s capacityto undergo functional alterations in responseto external stimulation or learning. Using TMS,work conducted by research fellows Dr MarcKamke and Dr Martin Sale discovered thatmechanisms of attention regulate plasticity inthe primary motor cortex in healthy volunteers.The next step for the team will be to determinewhether the influence of attention on plasticityholds for brain areas outside the motor system.Armed with this knowledge, they hope to beable to develop more effective approachesfor the rehabilitation of sensory and motorimpairments following stroke.PG | 39

Laboratory Head Professor John McGrathResearchers in Professor John McGrath’s laboratory explore non-geneticrisk factors for disorders of brain development such as schizophrenia andautism. Using animal models, the group has forged productive crossdisciplinarycollaborations linking risk factor epidemiology with developmentalneurobiology. The McGrath laboratory has made several significantdiscoveries in recent years, including the importance of prenatal vitamin Don brain development. Professor McGrath has supervised major systematicreviews of the incidence, prevalence and mortality of schizophrenia.Above: McGrath group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Xiaoying Cui, Trudi Flatscher-Bader, Isabel Formella, James Kesby, David Kvaskoff, PaulineKo, Henry Simila, Suzy Alexander, Karly Turner, Ashley Liu, Maggie Voogt, Lauren Harms, Claire Foldi, Elizabeth Mason, Jennifer Goddard, KarthicPurushothaman, Jacqui Byrne, Ben Calcagno. Right: Section of painting by Craig Finn Reach sky to the. Acrylic. Queensland Centre for Mental HealthResearch.PG | 40Offering clues to halt development of schizophreniaSchizophrenia is associated with a substantialburden of disability. In the absence of majortreatment advances, interventions that offerthe prospect of reducing the incidence of thedisorder should be vigorously pursued.Professor John McGrath’s group, whichforms part of the Queensland Centre forMental Health Research, has discovered alink between early life vitamin D levels andrisk of schizophrenia. Working with Danishcollaborators, the McGrath group usedblood samples from newborn babies toconfirm a deficiency in neonatal vitamin Dlevels is linked to a higher risk of developingschizophrenia. If future studies confirm theassociation between developmental vitaminD deficiency and a higher risk of schizophrenia,than it could raise the prospect of primaryprevention – much like folate supplementationto prevent spina bifida.Based on a large US birth cohort, researchersin the McGrath laboratory also found that theolder the father, the more likely his childrenwere to have impaired brain development.The offspring of older fathers also have aslightly increased risk of schizophrenia andautism. While it has long been recognisedthat maternal age is linked to conditions suchas Down syndrome, paternal age has beensomewhat neglected. The researchers are nowpart of a collaboration further examining theissue in a mouse model. Group researchers DrTraute Flatscher-Bader and Claire Foldi havealso been exploring behavioural, genomicand brain imaging in a mouse model relatedto advanced paternal age. Dr Bart van Alphenhas collaborated with QBI’s Professor JasonMattingley and Assoc. Professor Bruno vanSwinderen to explore the attentional functionof the fruit fly model Drosophila melanogaster.Section of David Inigo Jones Red onGreen. Queensland Centre for MentalHealth Research

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Assoc. Professor Frederic MeunierNeurons are highly polarised cells that transport membrane compartmentscalled organelles. They underpin functions like neuronal communicationthrough the release of neurotransmitters at the synapse and carry importantsurvival factors from the synapse back to the cell body. The Meunierlaboratory is designing fluorescent probes and live cell microscopy which,when combined with proteomics, electrophysiology, structural biology andbiochemistry, will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanismsunderpinning different forms of neuronal membrane trafficking.Above right: Meunier group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Tam Nguyen, Shona Osborne, Sally Martin, Regine Low, Peter Wen, Rachel Gormal,Nancy Honesta T Malintan, Vanesa Tomatis , Callista Harper , Guillaume Maucort. Above left: Hippocampal neuronsstained with retrograde marker cholera toxin (B subunit).Scanning Electron Micrograph of aGlycera convoluta. This blood wormcan inject its prey with a highlypotent neurotoxin that stimulatesneurotransmitter release. EMBO Jwith permission.Resolving puzzles of neuronal trafficking and communicationIn 2010, the Meunier laboratory published alarge body of work involving bulk endocytosis– the engulfment of a large portion of theplasma membrane – in the maintenance ofneurotransmitter release.Despite decades of research, the molecularmechanism underpinning exocytosis remainspoorly understood. Emerging trends suggestthat the protein Munc18 acts as a chaperoneto promote the delivery of Syntaxin1 to theplasma membrane - an essential protein forexocytosis, via a trafficking pathway that is yetto be characterised.The Meunier laboratory and its collaboratorshave hypothesised that the Munc18 traffickingpathway is responsible for populating theplasma membrane with Syntaxin1. This isa highly significant trafficking pathway assecretory vesicles rely on Syntaxin1 to undergoregulated fusion. Researchers believe thefailure of this pathway at any stage completelyblocks neuroexocytosis in neurons, neurosecretorycells and insulin-releasing cells.They have also uncovered a novel form ofregulation helping secretory vesicles toacquire the competence to release theircontent by exocytosis. This provides the firstdemonstration of a link between calcium andPI3-kinase signalling pathways.This research provides the basis for a moredynamic view of the secretory mechanismof neurotransmitter release, with importantimplications for the treatment of conditionscharacterised by the diminished release of aneurotransmitter/hormone.PG | 41

Laboratory Head Professor Bryan MowryThe primary research goal of Professor Bryan Mowry’s laboratory is toidentify and functionally characterise susceptibility genes for schizophreniaand related disorders using a combination of clinical, molecular andstatistical genetic approaches. During 2010, the laboratory expanded toincorporate second generation sequencing in order to comprehensivelyinvestigate genetic variants and relevant gene expression to producereliable candidates for functional validation.Above: Mowry group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Joon An, Denis Bauer*, Cheryl Filippich , Jake Gratten, Chikako Ragan, Bill Mantzioris, KalpanaPatel, Vikki Marshall*, Heather Smith. Above right: Cheryl Filippich, Joon Yong An and Heather Smith perform qPCR as part of quality control for DNAlibrary preparation. *Affiliates (CBG).PG | 42Unravelling genetic underpinnings of schizophreniaThe Mowry group has a special interest in thestudy of ethnically homogeneous populationsin southern India and in Sarawak. We alsoactively participate in the internationalPsychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC), whichis conducting genome-wide association studies(GWAS) on the largest available populationsof European ethnicity. Additionally, we areinvolved in the continuing recruitment andanalysis of the Australian SchizophreniaResearch Bank (ASRB) cohort. In all studies, wefocus on identifying homogeneous sub-typesand dimensions for use in genetic analyses.Our lab group has grown over the year, gainingfurther expertise in statistical genetics (Dr JakeGratten) and psychiatry and immunology (DrBill Mantzioris). During 2010 QBI establishedthe Centre for Brain Genomics (CBG), thecore of which is a second-generation DNAsequencer (Illumina HiSeq 2000). This is thefirst installation of a HiSeq 2000 in an Australianresearch institute. Bryan Mowry is CBG Director,Ms Vikki Marshall is Centre Manager withexpertise in molecular genetics and Dr DenisBauer is the CBG bioinformatician consultantfor user groups. The HiSeq 2000 was installedtowards the end of 2010, paving the way for QBIto undertake its first sequencing projects.Work funded by National Health and MedicalResearch Council (NHMRC) grants has alsoprogressed this year, with the completion ofa GWAS in the Iban of Sarawak, the analysisof second-generation sequencing data in aschizophrenia candidate gene in the southernIndian population, and the ‘deep phenotyping’of a sub-set of schizophrenia patientswith documented copy number variations(structural genomic variants). We continue tobe involved in PGC analyses and to contributeto the growing ASRB sample size and analysesthereof.Plot showing pairwise linkagedisequilibrium values for sequencevariants in the schizophreniacandidate gene, DISC1

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Mr Geoffrey OsborneMr Geoffrey Osborne is unique among QBI researchers, in that hecombines his work as a neuroscientist with a facilities management role.As Director of Flow Cytometry for both QBI and the AIBN, Mr Osborneleads a team that provides crucial cell sorting and analysis services. Thelaboratory specialises in the analysis and separation of cells derived fromsources including solid tissue, blood and cultured cell lines. The laboratoryalso undertakes research into applications of this technology through thedevelopment and application of novel assays.10 510 510 410 4PE-APE-A10 310 310 210 2-650 0 650 10 3 10 4 10 5GFP-650 0 650 10 3 10 4 10 5GFPAbove: Osborne group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Virginia Nink, John Wilson. Above left: Identification of putative neural stem cells by comparingantigen expression profiles of control with test animal (left and right panel) and selection of sub-populationsidentified as falling in either purple or red boxed regions.Imaging cytometry of dissociatedhippocampal cells showingmorphological characteristics andassociated fluorescent protein andsurface marker expression.Mr Osborne is dedicated to developing novelflow cytometric technologies in neuroscienceprojects of his own – particularly as they relateto stem cell research, and the cells involvedin brain tumour research. During 2010, thelaboratory’s long-standing research intothe most aggressive form of brain tumour,Glioblastoma multiforme, intensified withthe continued exploration of the antigenicrepertoire found on the surface of tumourcells. It is hoped this work will ultimately helpfacilitate the development of immuno-basedtherapies for this form of brain tumour which,though rare – with an estimated prevalence ofLaying the groundwork for brain tumour therapies1 in every 10,000 people – has a low long-termsurvival rate.Another collaboration initiated in 2010involved the development of antibodiesagainst receptors expressed on putativeneural stem cells. The specificity and affinityof these antibodies to their targets and theirrelevance in a biological context is the subjectof further studies, with a long-term goal ofproviding pure populations of well-characterizedcells for trialling compounds whichincrease or rescue stem cell numbers.The year also saw the publication ofstudies on the role that particle size hason the yield obtained from cell sortingexperiments. This work on the fundamentalsof cell sorter function has implications forfuture experimental design and alters theexpectations of results from sorting large orirregular sized particles such as those typicallyfound in neural samples. It is now the basis forongoing research into cell sorting yield andcell recovery that seeks to identify the factorsthat contribute to variability in experimentaloutcome. The findings will be key to a numberof projects in the coming year.PG | 43

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Professor David ReutensThe Centre for Advanced Imaging (CAI) brings together the skills of acritical mass of researchers and research imaging instruments such ashigh-field human and animal MRI scanners, human and animal PETscanners and radiochemistry facilities. Equipment in the Centre includesNational Imaging Facility flagship instruments such as the combined PET/MR scanner, a cyclotron and radiochemistry facilities and a 7T human MRIscanner. The CAI received funding during 2010 to construct a new $40Mstate-of-the-art imaging facility.Above: Reutens group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Stacey Cole, Taracad Venkatachalam, Michael Vogel, Viktor Vegh, Irina Kharatishvilli, Dr NatalieAlexopoulos, Julia Hocking, Steven Yang, Giang Nguyen, Rebecca Williams, Nahla Al Fazio, Jiaxin Du, Samuel Foong, Nyoman Kurniawan, Quang Tieng.Above left: Track Density Imaging (TDI) of mouse brain, a novel image contrast which can reveal very fine structures down to 20 micron resolution.Three dimensional model of themouse hippocampus using highresolution MRI dataImaging techniques are now key platformresearch technologies for studying thestructure and function, in health and disease,of living organisms from laboratory mice tohumans. The ability of ultra high-field MRI tocharacterise the blood flow and structure ofliving systems, together with developments inMRI biomarkers, will allow researchers to betterphenotype animal models of disease and tomap the cognitive function of the brain.PET measures the distribution and fate ofmolecular markers using radiolabelled ligands,providing UQ researchers with the capacityCreating images to explore living organismsto perform, for the first time, in vivo studiesof metabolism, receptor-ligand binding andgene expression. The ability to study theliving organism enables longitudinal studiesof normal development, of the natural historyof disease and of responses to novel therapies.Consequently, in vivo imaging methodshave also become platform technologies fordrug discovery and validation. By providingsurrogate end points to assess the effectivenessof new therapies in clinical trials, a coherentimaging framework also speeds translation ofscientific discoveries to clinical realisation. MRIand PET are now core investigative modalitiesin virtually all clinical specialties, informingclinical diagnosis and prognosis and facilitatingthe goal of personalised medicine by bettercharacterising both disease and its response totreatment in the individual patient.Using these imaging tools, research in ourlaboratory in 2010 has involved creating newatlases of the mouse brain, developing newbiomarkers of epileptogenesis and strokeprogression and developing new methodsof mapping neural currents and using MRIinformation to map functional activity in thebrain.PG | 45

Professor Laboratory Perry Head Bartlett Professor Laboratory Linda RichardsResearchers in Professor Linda Richards’ laboratory investigate how thebrain forms connections during foetal development. The laboratory isfocussed on understanding the mechanisms regulating the formation ofthe cerebral cortex and the corpus callosum, which connects the left andright sides of the brain and is involved in higher-order cognitive processes.These processes include sensory and motor information processing as wellas speech, emotions, memory formation and storage, and many otherbrain functions.Above: Richards group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: John Baisden, Erica Little, Oressia Zalucki, Amber-Lee Donahoo, Sharon Mason, Ilan Gobius,Samantha Liu, Skyle Murphy, Guy Barry, Michael Piper, Randal Moldrich. Above Right: A sagittal slice through the cerebellum of a mouse brain.PG | 46Elucidating formation of foetal brain connectionsResearchers in the Richards laboratory havemade several important discoveries during2010. For several years, laboratory membershave been studying the role of a family of transcriptionfactors known as the nuclear factorone gene (Nfi) family in the development ofthe cerebral cortex. Until recently little wasknown about how Nfi genes regulated theseevents at a molecular or genetic level. Recentresearch has shown that Nfia plays a pivotalrole in regulating proliferation and differentiationof hippocampal neurons. It does thisby simultaneously turning off genes requiredfor proliferation, such as Hes1 and turningon genes required for differentiation, suchas mature glial markers. This represents aconceptual advance in understanding that, forcells to proceed to differentiation, they mustfirst cease proliferation.The group also published its landmark studyon the discovery of the mouse commissuralplate. Since the early 1900s, it has beenhypothesised that a specialised region ofthe brain might exist that is important forthe formation of all forebrain commissures,axonal tracts that connect the two sides of thebrain. The group identified that a commissuralplate exists in mice and is made up of fourdistinct regions, each with molecular andgenetically defined boundaries. This workwill help to identify whether disruption of thecommissural plate in humans might underlieagenesis of the corpus callosum, which occursat a rate of 1 in every 4,000 live births.During the year, the group also published workcomparing various tractography methods foroptimising our ability to study axon tracts inthe developing brain.Neurons labelled by in uteroelectroporation of a fluorescentprotein in the cortex send axonalprojections across thecorpus callosum.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Professor Head Thomas Professor Burne Pankaj Laboratory SahThe focus of the Sah laboratory is to understand how sensory informationreaches the amygdala, is processed, stored and retrieved. The amygdala is,in evolutionary terms, an ancient part of the brain that stores and retrievesemotional content to our sensory world. Dysfunction of the amygdalaleads to a range of disorders including anxiety, phobias and post-traumaticstress disorder. It is the long-term goal of the Sah laboratory to discovermolecular targets within the amygdala for the development of morespecific treatments for anxiety-related disorders.Above right: Sah group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Eleanora Autori, Sue Campbell, James Crane, Peter Curby, Andrew Delaney, Christine Dixon,Kathryn French, Helen Gooch, Robin Johnson, Sepideh Keshavarzi, Roger Marek, John Morris, John Power, Petra Sedlak,Jay Spampanato, Cornelia Strobel, Robert Sullivan, Tim Tatterstall, Francois Windels.Shown is a neurone in the medialamygdala in an acute brain slice.The image is a compressed stackimaged a Zeiss 710 two photonmicroscope. The neurone hasbeen loaded with Alexa 594 and iscolour coded for depth in the slices.Brighter (red) indicates greater depthin the slice. Nearby cell bodiesshown are neurones labelled withgreen fluorescent protein expressedunder the GAD-67 promoter to labelGABAergic interneurons.Until recently, work in the Sah laboratoryfocussed on recordings in acute brain slices tounderstand the anatomy and physiology of theinternal circuits within the region of the brainknown as the amygdala. Now researchersin the group have developed recordingtechniques using tetrodes implanted in awakebehaving animals in which the activity in theamygdala and other connected brain regionsis recorded as they undergo behavioural tasksthat engage the amygdala These recordingsallow researchers to follow the cellularactivity of different regions in the brain, inExploring learning and memory formationparticular the amygdala, as the animals learnand remember.Using two-photon imaging, researchers in theSah group have also examined how synapticinputs impinging on pyramidal neurons inthe basolateral amygdala initiate calciumsignalling mechanisms. This has led to thefinding that synaptic activity initiates calciumwaves in dendrites that propagate to thenucleus. These calcium waves also invadesome dendritic spines but do not enter others.Changes in calcium are likely to underlie howlearning takes place in the amygdala.NMDA receptors are activated by glutamateand initiate the molecular events that underlielearning and memory formation. Thesereceptors are made up of combinationsof different subunits that are thought toplay different roles during the learningprocess. Using a combination of molecularmanipulation and physiology in acute brainslices, the Sah group has also examined thedistribution of different subunits that make upNMDA receptors at different synapses in theamygdala.PG | 47

Laboratory Head Professor Mandyam SrinivasanFlying insects display remarkable visual agility, despite their relatively smallbrains and simple nervous systems. Professor Mandyam Srinivasan’s groupuses honeybees and budgerigars as models to understand how visualinformation is used to guide flight and facilitate navigation. Another aimis to explore whether some of these insights can be used to devise novel,biologically inspired strategies for the guidance of autonomous aerialvehicles.Above: Srinivasan group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Samuel Baker, Parthasarathy Bhagavatula, Daniel Bland, Natalie Bland, Brenda Campbell,Nikolai Liebsch, Tien Luu, Eliza Middleton, Richard Moore, Navid Nourani, Dean Soccol, Saul Thurrowgood, Gavin Taylor, William Warhurst. Above right:A tethered bee flying in a virtual-reality apparatus for investigating the visual mechanisms of flight control.PG | 48Translating flight findings into aeronautical applicationsAlthough research has revealed how insectsuse vision to guide their flight, little is knownabout whether flying insects actively avoidmid-air collisions and, if so, how they achievethis. The Srinivasan group’s recent study ofbees flying through narrow passages showsthat collisions occur at a much lower rate thanpredicted by chance, suggesting that beesactively avoid them. Three-dimensional reconstructionof the trajectories shows us howcollisions are avoided.Orchestrating a smooth landing is a challengingtask for any animal or machine, particularlyin the presence of wind. After establishingthat bees tend to land facing into the wind,we discovered in 2010 that bees do this evenwhen the substrate is devoid of visual texture,suggesting the direction of landing is guidedby cues additional to optic flow. We also foundthat bees are able to orient their landings atwind speeds as low as 0.8 m/sec, indicating ahigh sensitivity to this external disturbance anda remarkable ability to compensate for it.We filmed and analysed the flights ofbudgerigars to uncover strategies birds useto fly safely through dense and clutteredenvironments. Some findings parallel thosepreviously observed for flying insects,suggesting that certain principles of visualguidance may be shared by all diurnal, flyinganimals.In the area of biologically inspired robotics, wehave designed, developed and successfullytested vision systems that implementautomatic and efficient changes of aircraftaltitude and attitude, use horizon-basedinformation to perform a range of extremeaerobatic manoeuvres (such as loops) andenable a vehicle to detect the presence ofsalient landmarks in its environment fromthe patterns of image motion generated in acamera image.PhD student Samuel Baker with amulti-rotor aircraft that will embodybiologically inspired algorithms fornavigation.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Assoc. Professor Bruno van SwinderenThe van Swinderen laboratory uses the fruit fly model Drosophilamelanogaster to investigate perception and cognition. Combining moleculargenetic tools with high-throughput behavioural testing and electrophysiology,the group studies the underpinnings of complex phenomena suchas selective attention, memory and sleep in the more simple fly brain. Thishas important parallels to the human brain, which must suppress partsof the outside world in order to pay attention, learn and sleep. How thissuppression mechanism works is a key question of the laboratory.Above right: van Swinderen group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Angelique Paulk, Bart van Alphen, Ben Kottler, Oressia Zalucki, Thomas Pollak, BenCalcagno, Melvyn Yap, Oliver Evans, Joanne Daniels, Rebecca Morley. Above left: Dr Bart van Alphen and Dr Angelique Paulk in the laboratory.A tethered fruit fly prepared for brainrecordingsThe van Swinderen laboratory has uncoveredDrosophila memory mutants that also haveattention defects. These mutants, which forthe most part are involved in protein synthesisdependentmemory consolidation pathways,were found to be less distractible thanwild-type flies. Genetic rescue experimentssuggest that neural wiring during early braindevelopment is crucial for eventual attentionlikeprocesses in adult flies. These defectsare being examined as potential models forautism spectrum disorders in humans.Recently, a behavioural screen has uncoveredanother memory mutant, called radish, whichCreating fruit fly models of autism and ADHDdisplays behaviours characteristic of attentiondeficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)in humans. These ADHD-like symptomswere determined using behavioural testsas well as electrophysiology. Interestingly,radish attention deficits uncovered by theseparadigms were rescued by exposing flies tothe same drug used to treat ADHD in humans,Ritalin (methylphenidate). This suggests thatsimilar molecular pathways control attentionlikebehaviour in flies and humans, and thatthese pathways operate in the same neuronsalready known to be required for memoryformation. These results point the way tounravelling how memory and attentioninteract in a model brain.To better address neural mechanisms ofattention in the insect brain, the van Swinderenlab has recently set up a multi-channel brainrecordingparadigm for flies and honeybees.Neural dynamics (both spiking activity andlocal field potential) are analysed in responseto competing visual stimuli. The greater accessibilityof the bee brain combined with genetictools in Drosophila recordings provides asynergistic approach to understanding attention-likeprocesses in insect brains.PG | 49

Laboratory Head Professor David VaneyProfessor David Vaney retired as a Professorial Research Fellow at theend of 2010, after a 35-year career studying the structure and function ofthe retina. He will continue to maintain an academic association with theQueensland Brain Institute, having being appointed Emeritus Professorfollowing his retirement. Professor Vaney will be based in ProfessorMarshall’s laboratory, occupying the same space where he worked for20 years as a foundation member of the Vision, Touch & HearingResearch Centre.Above: Vaney group photo. 2010 Laboratory Member: Ben Sivyer. Above right: Dye-filling of the newly discovered type of retinal ganglion cell shows thatits processes dive in and out of three layers of the inner retina, each represented by a different colour. Image Ben Sivyer.PG | 50Shining light on visual processing in the retinaAll photoreceptors in the retina respond tolight by decreasing neurotransmitter releasewith increasing brightness of light. By contrast,the retinal neurons that lie downstream maybe either excited or inhibited by light. Theretinal ganglion cells (RGCs), whose axonsconvey visual information from the eye tothe brain, fire nerve impulses when light isturned either On or Off. In addition, it has longbeen known that two types of RGCs fire atboth light On and Off, namely the directionselectiveganglion cells (DSGCs) and the localedge-detectors(LEDs).Ben Sivyer, a PhD student in the Vaneylaboratory, discovered that there is a third typeof On–Off RGC, which responds transiently toillumination, like the DSGCs but unlike theLEDs. However, this novel type of RGC showsno directional preference for moving visualstimuli, like the LEDS but unlike the DSGCs.Even though these ‘transient On-Off RGCs’receive similar excitatory inputs to the DSGCs,the two types branch at different levels in theinner retina, indicating that they receive theirinputs from different types of retinal bipolarcells.The transient On-Off RGCs are conservedacross diverse mammalian species, andthus represent an ancient channel for thetransmission of visual information. Howeverit is not clear why 3 types of On-Off RGCsare required for visual processing or, forthat matter, why there are 15-20 types of allRGCs. There must be much redundancy inthe information conveyed to the brain by thediverse populations of RGCs. Understandinghow the visual scene is represented by theirtotal activity is one of the major outstandingproblems in retinal neuroscience.This dye-filled rod amacrine cell iscolour-coded to show the differentbranching levels in the inner retina.Image David Vaney.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Laboratory Head Dr Robyn WallaceThe Wallace laboratory explores the genetics of neurological disorders suchas motor neuron disease (MND) and epilepsy. MND is a rare, incurabledisorder with late onset. Although only a small percentage of MND casesare due to genetic mutations, Wallace group researchers are exploringhow these genes cause MND and working towards potential treatments.Epilepsy is a common, complex disorder with a strong genetic component.Having successfully identified several human epilepsy genes, the groupcontinues to characterise the functional consequences of the mutations.Above right: Wallace group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Marie Mangelsdorf, Tim Butler, Ramesh Narayanan, Ajay Panwar. Above left: Visualisationof spinal cord degeneration in mice with motor neuron disease, using magnetic resonance imaging.Network analysis of genes thatbind to the motor neuron diseaseassociated protein, TDP-43, revealedthe genes have interconnectedfunctions.In 2010, the Wallace laboratory securedfunding from MND Australia, in collaborationwith researchers at the University of Sydneyand Griffith University, to study the role of anewly discovered MND gene, TDP-43. TDP-43is a protein involved in gene regulation but itsfunction in the nervous system is currentlyunknown and its role in the pathogenesisof MND remains unclear. We have identifiedgene targets of TDP-43 and are investigatingthe functional consequences of TDP-43mutations in MND patient stem cells.Potential outcomes of this project includeIdentifying functional consequences of gene mutationscrucial insights to understanding how motorneurons degenerate in MND and the identificationof novel therapeutic targets.The Wallace lab has also been analysing agenetic mouse model of MND, which carries amutation in another MND gene known as SOD1.In collaboration with the Centre for AdvancedImaging (CAI), we have demonstrated thatmagnetic resonance imaging is able to detectspinal cord degeneration in live mice. Thehigh resolution imaging technique developedis an important breakthrough, as mice nolonger need to be sacrificed to examine spinalcord pathology. This research has importantimplications for future drug trials as it has thepotential to reduce the number of animalsrequired.In addition to MND research, researchers arecontinuing to study the genetics of epilepsy.We recently discovered a new gene mutationthat causes a specific form of epilepsy knownas myoclonic astatic epilepsy. We are nowinvestigating exactly how this novel epilepsygene alters nerve cells in the brain to makethem susceptible to seizure activity.PG | 51

Laboratory Head Assoc. Professor Stephen WilliamsAssoc. Professor Stephen Williams joined QBI in 2010 to establish a SynapticPlasticity laboratory which investigates key questions of single neuron andneural network computation. Synapses connect networks of neurons andfacilitate information transfer between cells. A single neuron in the centralnervous system may receive thousands of synaptic inputs distributed widelyacross its dendritic arbor. Neurons must integrate such time-varying inputsignals to form an output signal, or action potential, which is communicatedto other neurons and/or effector systems like muscles.Above: Williams group photo. 2010 Laboratory Members: Arne Brombas, Ben Sivyer. Above right: Synaptically connected layer 1 inhibitory interneuronand layer 2/3 pyramidal neuron.Form and function of neural pathways in the neocortexResearchers in Assoc. Professor StephenWilliams’ laboratory are investigating keyquestions of single neuron and neural networkcomputation. They use advanced electrophysiologicaltechniques that allow simultaneousrecording from multiple dendritic sites of asingle neuron and computational modelling toexplore the synaptic integration mechanism inneurons of diverse morphology. The group’saims are focused on understanding the computationaloperations of the most numerousneuronal classes in the brain region calledthe neocortex (pyramidal neurons) and theirrelation to the physiological function ofneuronal networks.To explore this, members of the Williamslaboratory activate determined neuronalpathways in the neocortex using light-activatedion channels and measure how such inputsignals are integrated in the dendritic treeusing multi-site electrophysiological recordingtechniques. In September 2010, groupmembers participated in a Brain PlasticitySymposium at QBI, where Assoc. ProfessorWilliams spoke on the subject of synapticintegration in the first layer of the neocortex.The Williams laboratory is also involved in anactive collaboration with research groups at theHoward Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia FarmResearch Campus, in the USA. Through the useof multi-site two-photon glutamate uncagingtechniques, researchers are exploring thedeterminants of dendritic synaptic integration.This research will enable neuroscientists tobetter understand how networks of neuronsfunction in the neocortex and how theseprocesses are disturbed in disease.PG | 52Inhibitory neuronal classes inlayer 1 of the neocortex.

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StudentsStudents play a vital role in research effortsat QBI. Research higher degree students, inparticular, are the linchpins of our laboratories– accordingly, the Institute aims to maintain acohort of around 80 PhD and MPhil degreestudents each year.In 2010, QBI had 72 students enrolled at theInstitute, of which 28 were from a diversity ofcountries, including Canada, China, Germany,Iran, Malaysia, Taiwan and Bangladesh. Nineteenstudents commenced their candidature, andthree PhDs were conferred – Stacey Cole (CooperLab), Ben Sivyer (Vaney Lab) and Divya Unni(Richards Lab). Dr Unni is QBI’s first internationalstudent to graduate with a PhD. These graduateshave subsequently gone on to postdoctoral workor into research administration.The high calibre of students attracted to QBIis attested to by their success securing highquality, competitive scholarships. In 2010,two of our incoming international studentsreceived the top international scholarshipsavailable at UQ, comprising the InternationalPostgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) alongwith the UQ Centennial Living Allowance andthe UQ Advantage Top Up. These students wereShao-Chang Huang (Reinhard Lab) and ElizabethKita (due to commence in the Goodhill Lab in2011). Three of the twelve prestigious NHMRCPhD Scholarships awarded to UQ students in2010 went to QBI: Ben Kamien (Richards Lab),John Morris (Sah and Mattingley Labs) and HughSimpson (Goodhill Lab).Undergraduate students are also welcomed intothe Institute as part of the Summer Scholarsprogram and many pursue further studies withQBI as a result of this experience. For example,Aanchal Sharma, from New Zealand, is a formerSummer Scholar who is currently undertakinga PhD in the Coulson Lab. It is pleasing to notethe increasing popularity of this program, withQBI welcoming its largest number of SummerResearch Scholars since the program began in2008, with a total of 23 students in our labs overthe Christmas and New Year summer break.Student success storiesThe continuing progress of QBI students, bothpast and present, has confirmed that Institutegraduates are ones to watch.Dr Benjamin SivyerOne of those who continues to stand out fromthe crowd is PhD candidate Ben Sivyer, who in2010 was awarded a Dean’s Commendation forOutstanding Research Higher Degree (RHD) thesison the physiology and anatomy of a class of rarelyencountered ganglion cells in the mammalianretina. The UQ Graduate School instituted theDean’s Commendation for Outstanding RHDThesis in 1998, to give formal recognition tooutstanding PhD and MPhil graduates whoreceive unanimous commendations from theirexaminers for a substantial contribution to theirfield of research. No more than 10 per cent ofRHD graduates are recognised in this way and DrSivyer was the only QBI graduate to receive thisaward in 2010. This commendation follows onfrom a string of previous successes, including theMichael F Hickey Memorial Honours Prize (2006)for obtaining the highest overall percentage inthe Anatomy Honours Program and the IstvanTörk Prize (2009) for the best oral presentation bya Student Member of the Australian NeuroscienceSociety (ANS).Dr Adrian CarterDr Adrian Carter was one of the first studentsto complete his PhD through the QueenslandBrain Institute, graduating from The Universityof Queensland at the end of 2009, and was alsothe recipient of the Dean’s Commendation forOutstanding RHD Thesis in 2009. Dr Carter hassince continued a close association with QBIwith Professor Wayne Hall via his appointmentat the UQ Centre for Clinical Research. ThereAdrian continues to investigate the social andethical challenges of neuroscience research andemerging neurotechnologies for the treatment ofaddiction. This research includes an examinationof the impact that neuroscience has on understandingof addiction, including notions ofautonomy and responsibility, the use of coercionand the capacity to consent to addiction research,and the use of emerging technologies, such asdeep brain stimulation and drug vaccines, to treataddiction.PG | 56Above: Dr Hugh Simpson received anNHMRC PhD Scholarship in 2010.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010StudentsMaster of Neuroscience2010 saw the official launch of UQ’s flagshipMaster of Neuroscience program.The first cohort of six students, two of which wereinternational students, started in semester 1,2010. Brett Fisher, Hon Wai Yap, and Cheng-LiangChou were the first graduates of the 16-unit(two semester) program. The other three, whoare undertaking the 24-unit (three semester)program, will graduate in 2011. Brett Fisher hassince started a PhD in Neuroscience.The Master of Neuroscience coursework programis an initiative of QBI’s Professor Perry Bartlett andProfessor Deborah Terry, Deputy Vice-Chancellor(Academic).Suited to both international and domesticstudents who wish to shift their career focusto neuroscience, the Master of Neuroscience isdesigned to train highly-qualified individuals forindependent research and teaching careers. Theprogram also provides excellent theoretical andpractical grounding for those wishing to pursuePhD studies. Having a quota of only 12 ensuresthat students are well taken care of during theirprogram.The program is coordinated by QBI and theFaculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, butalso spans many other exceptionally strongcentres for neuroscience research at UQ. Providingresearch training and core professional skills,the program is a pathway to specialist streamsincluding molecular and cellular neuroscience,neural imaging and computational neuroscience,developmental neurobiology, cognitive andbehavioural neuroscience, visual and sensoryneuroscience and epigenetics.The compulsory courses are:• Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience(NEUR7006) which is concerned with cell andmolecular biology of the neuron.• Systems Neuroscience: Sensory and MotorNeuroscience (NEUR7004) uses a systemsapproach to explore the brain with respect tocircuits that integrate and process information.• Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience(NEUR7005) is concerned with the elucidationof the neural basis of cognitive and behaviouralphenomena.Among the projects that Master of Neurosciencestudents have undertaken in the past are:• Activation of adult mouse spinal cord neuralstem cells by in vitro depolarisation• Axonal degeneration in Caenorhabditiselegans motor neurons as a model of motorneuron disease (MND)• Understanding of actions and motorintentions in the parieto-frontal mirror circuitRight: Dr Benjamin Sivyer, recipient of the Dean's Commendationfor Outstanding Research Higher Degree Thesis, at work in the laboratory.PG | 57

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Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010CommunityQueensland Brain Institute researchers form anintegral part of the communities in which they workand live. They regularly discuss the latest researchdiscoveries with community groups, while alsoengaging with their peers at scientific conferences.In 2010, QBI hosted a series of high profile lecturesand conducted a range of community outreachevents. In addition to educating Australiansabout the latest research findings, staff alsoexpanded their efforts to encourage the nextgeneration to consider careers in neuroscience.A group from the Mental Illness Fellowship ofQueensland visits QBIPG | 59

QBI EventsPeter Goodenough Memorial LectureToshiya Yamada Memorial LectureDollars and SenseResearch Gene-iusQBI welcomed a leading philanthropiccampaigner to present the Peter GoodenoughMemorial Lecture in early April.Dr Sarah Caddick is the principal neuroscienceadvisor for the UK’s Lord David Sainsbury’s GatsbyFoundation. She has built her career advocatingthe importance of donating to science – and saidthere has never been a better time for the publicto become involved.“We’re going to figure out how the entire brain iswired up at some point. This is the future – whodoesn’t want to know why we think, how we thinkand where our memories come from?” she asked.The former neuroscientist explained thatinstitutes conducting fundamental studies – suchas QBI – are leading research efforts.“Basic science is where the answers are. There isno example of a discovery, therapy or a diagnosticthat has come from the translational end.”Dr Caddick predicted research funding wouldevolve in the future, with increased collaborationsbetween research laboratories and a greateremphasis on philanthropy.“It is extremely challenging for any system ofpublic grant making to take major risks. It’s alsochallenging for them to explore new areas,” shesaid.“Philanthropists are usually less burdened withbureaucratic controls and can take those risks.”During the lecture, she acknowledged thegenerosity of the late Peter Goodenough, whosesignificant bequest led to the establishment of amotor neuron disease laboratory at QBI.“The idea of funding basic research is exactlywhat we established this Institute for, so this idearesonates extremely well with us,” QBI DirectorProfessor Perry Bartlett said about the “veryrefreshing” lecture.There was a packed house for the ToshiyaYamada Memorial Lecture in June, hosted jointlyby UQ’s Queensland Brain Institute and theInstitute for Molecular Biosciences (IMB).Dr Yamada was an outstanding mid-careerscientist at UQ’s Centre for Molecular and CellularBiology (now the IMB) who died suddenly in 2001.Guest speaker for the annual lecture wasProfessor John Hardy from the Reta Lila WestonInstitute of Neurological Studies at UniversityCollege London.After starting his career researching Alzheimer’sdisease, Professor Hardy went on to lead thegroup that found the first mutation in theamyloid gene, which causes the condition. Hewas also part of the teams that discovered thegenetic mutations that lead to Parkinson’s andPick’s diseases.The geneticist used the lecture to give scientistsan update on the sequencing of both Alzheimer’sand Parkinson’s diseases.“As the number of people who are sequencedincreases, more and more variants are enteringthe databases. This is very powerful as we canpredict who has very rare mutations withoutsequencing them,” he said.A Fellow of the Royal Society, UK, ProfessorHardy also took the opportunity to inspire youngresearchers considering a career in genetics.“This is an amazing time to be a genomics-basedresearcher. It’s the beginning of a golden era.”IMB Director Professor Brandon Wainwright said:“Professor Hardy has demonstrated the power ofgenetics to impact all of our studies.”He went on to describe the lecture as a fittingtribute for “our much missed colleague, Toshi”.PG | 60Above: Dr Sarah Caddick.Above: Professor John Hardy(centre, white shirt).

QBI ConferencesEpigenomics, Behaviour and DiseaseSymposiumChanging BehaviourSummer of Spikes Lecture SeriesSpike up your LifeMotor Neuron Disease (MND)SymposiumMiND MattersIntroducing Addiction NeuroethicsConferenceThe Neuroethics of NeuroscienceResponding to increasing interest in thestudy of inherited changes in appearance andgene expression, QBI hosted the inauguralEpigenomics, Behaviour and DiseaseSymposium in March.“Many questions of adult behaviour in thenervous system have some component ofepigenetics – there couldn’t be a more excitingtopic,” said QBI Director Professor Perry Bartlett.Among the speakers was University of Zurich’sProfessor Isabelle Mansuy, who revealed thatchronic maternal deprivation leads to impulsiveand depressive behaviour in future generations.“The maternal environment is of greatimportance for the normal development ofchildren,” she said.“Some traits disappear in the fourth generation,but some stay … We’re testing the theory thatthese traits can be reversed by drugs or environmentalfactors.”The symposium organiser, QBI’s Dr TimothyBredy, said work presented at the conferencerepresented major advances in the understandingof gene-environment interactions in thecontext of human disease.“It’s clear that the epigenome is playing a centralrole in that,” he said.Better understanding the link betweenlearning, rhythm and computationalneuroscience was at the core of the Summerof Spikes lecture series organised by theThinking Systems Group and held at QBI overthe 2009-2010 festive season.By increasing the understanding of these keyareas, scientists hope to advance research intoneurological disorders.QBI’s Dr Angelique Paulk, who organised theseries with Dr Peter Stratton and ProfessorJanet Wiles said: “Direct interaction betweenscientists provides the ground-work for trulynovel research which would not otherwise occur.That’s why we decided to organise this courseand unite eminent researchers from the computationaland empirical neuroscience disciplines.”Guest speakers included Assoc. ProfessorJean-Mark Fellous, University of Arizona, USA,who researches the role of noise in neuralcomputations; and Professor Anthony Burkitt,University of Melbourne, and Assoc. ProfessorMichael Breakspear, University of New SouthWales, who use mathematical concepts to betterunderstand neurological functions.Neuroscientists from across the globegathered at QBI to learn more about the latestdevelopments in motor neuron disease (MND)research in February.The symposium gave researchers theopportunity to discuss advances across a rangeof areas, including the molecular and cellularmechanisms, genetics and diagnostic markersof MND, as well as treatment strategies andimaging.“This highly successful symposium broughtthe clinical, scientific and public communitiestogether for the exchange of ideas and newscientific knowledge on current issues in MND,”conference organiser Dr Robyn Wallace said.The Australian Neuroscience Society satellitemeeting also included a series of oral andposter presentations, illustrating the qualityand breadth of research that is currently beingconducted into MND across the country.Neuroscientists are committed to improvingdrug treatments for a range of illnesses – butit is important to consider the ethical, socialand policy implications of the treatments theydevelop.Addiction is a serious illness for many people,however research is only now starting to revealhow drugs act on the brain to cause dependenceand why some people are more prone todeveloping addiction than others. This researchcould lead to more effective treatments foraddiction and transform social policy.Many questions remain unanswered, includingwhether people are responsible for drug-inducedbehaviour that harms others and whetherpsychotropic drugs that enhance brain functionssuch as memory, concentration and moodshould be allowed.International speakers Professor Judy Illes fromthe University of British Columbia, Canada, andAssoc. Professor Eric Racine from Université deMontréal and McGill University, Canada, joinedthe conversation at the Introducing AddictionNeuroethics Conference in April.Conference organiser, QBI’s Professor WayneHall, said: “It is important that we consider theimpact of neuroscience research if we are tomaximise the benefits it offers.”PG | 62

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010QBI ConferencesBrain Plasticity SymposiumThe Flies Have ItComputational NeuroscienceWorkshopMaths and MysteryCharles Watson Short CourseForebrain basicsVision Down Under 2010Festschrift for David VaneyMark Twain rarely comes to mind when youthink of neuroscience.However he was central to a lecture by ProfessorRon Davis who tried to debunk the quote “thegood Lord didn’t create anything without apurpose – but the fly comes close” at the BrainPlasticity Symposium in September.Professor Davis, from the Baylor College ofMedicine, USA, spoke about the importanceof the fruit fly Drosophila in understandingmemory in humans.“In the past few years we have identified severalmemory traces. It appears that olfactorylearning is actually multiple memory phases inthe olfactory nervous system,” he explained.A plethora of national and international speakersspoke on a range of topics, covering neuralcircuit construction and function in sensorysystems, memory and psychopathology, acrossthe two-day symposium.QBI’s Deputy Director (Research) and symposiumco-organiser Professor Pankaj Sah said: “Thissymposium showcased new developments inthis exciting area of neuroscience. The postersession was particularly good and provided anopportunity for QBI students and staff to spendtime with leaders in the field.”Research leaders from Australia and overseasgathered at QBI in November for the AustralianWorkshop in Computational Neuroscience.First held at QBI in 2006, the two-day workshopgives computational neuroscientists theopportunity to learn more about the latestdevelopments in their field, while also discussingpotential collaborations with other researchers.Computational neuroscience is the study of theinformation-processing properties of nervoussystems, using a combination of mathematicaland experimental techniques.“A computational approach is essential for fullyunlocking the mysteries of brain function,” saidworkshop organiser and the head of QBI’s computationalneuroscience laboratory ProfessorGeoffrey Goodhill.Guest speakers also included Professor PeterDayan from University College London andDr Si Wu from the Institute of Neuroscience inShanghai.More than 50 people attended a short coursehosted at QBI in August by Professor CharlesWatson, Professor of Health Sciences at CurtinUniversity in Western Australia.Entitled ‘The forebrain tracts – histology andMR images’, the workshop focused on the fibresystems of the forebrain, first with histologicalsections, and then with MR scans of mousebrains.Formal lectures preceded related group projectsessions.Participants were provided with a review of theorganisation of the forebrain, an outline of themajor fibre systems of the forebrain as seen infibre-stained histological sections and interpretationof MR images of the mouse forebrain,including the thalamus, hypothalamus,subpallium and cerebral cortical areas.This was the third in what has become an annualshort course in neuro-anatomy.Professor Watson is a world-leading authority onfunctional anatomy of the nervous system. Hiscourses are always extremely popular and wellreceivedby those who attend them.On 1 December, QBI hosted the third ‘VisionDown Under’ meeting.The event marked the retirement of ProfessorDavid Vaney and provided an opportunity tocelebrate his many outstanding contributions tovisual neuroscience and to wish him well in thenext step of his life.VDU 2010 featured talks by Professor Vaney’spast and present collaborators and colleagues,on topics ranging from axon guidance inarthropods to the Bradshaw rock paintings ofthe Kimberley.Professor Vaney will retain close ties with theInstitute as he has been appointed EmeritusProfessor of The University of Queensland.Above: Professor David Vaney (centre, black shirt) with delegates from VDU 2010.PG | 63

Government RelationsFederal visitIn July, QBI was privileged to showcase itsresearch to Mr Mark Butler in his capacity asParliamentary Secretary for Health and MrSteven Miles, the Labor candidate for Ryan.The visitors met with Professor Perry Bartlett whoprovided them with an overview of QBI's unique“fundamental research” focus before walking themthrough a few laboratories. The final stop was atthe research benches of Drs Daniel Blackmore andDhanisha Jhaveri where the spotlight was on therecent developments in dementia research.Against a backdrop of Australia’s greyingpopulation, ageing dementia is emerging as oneof the country’s most pressing health problems.It is expected to present significant challengesto our health care system, which makes directedresearch programs aimed at preventing andtreating ageing dementia and preserving qualityof life for older Australians all the more urgent.State focusQueensland Education and Training InternationalThe Queensland Brain Institute took out the “BestPractice in International Collaborations” in theResearch category during the 2010 QETI Awardsfor Excellence ceremony in November.This award was in recognition of QBI's successfulcollaboration with the Institute of Biophysics inBeijing (further details on opposite page).The QETI awards occur on an annual basisand showcase Queensland’s international andtraining institutions’ best practice in internationalcollaboration and student services.The award was presented to Professor PerryBartlett by Mr Michael Choi MP, ParliamentarySecretary for Natural Resources, Mines andEnergy, and Trade and Investment Queensland.Professor Bartlett used the opportunity tobrief an interested Mr Butler on QBI's plans fora much-needed Centre for Ageing DementiaResearch. Professor Bartlett said that the visitwas an indication of the high level of importanceplaced on neurological health by the federalgovernment.The Hon Mark Butler MP currently holds theportfolio of Minister for Mental Health and Ageing,a position he took on in September 2010.PG | 64Above: Recipients of the 2010 QETI awards.(Professor Perry Bartlett in cream jacket).Right: (L-R) Dr Dhanisha Jhaveri, Dr DanielBlackmore, Mr Mark Butler,Mr Steven Miles.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010International PartnershipsNeuroscientists predict significant progressover the next decade or two when it comes toidentifying the causes and cures for disorderssuch as ageing dementia, depression and schizophrenia.Fortunately, the Queensland BrainInstitute is positioned at the forefront of suchdiscovery thanks to strategic partnershipsestablished across the globe.Joint Laboratory OpeningA growing research bond between theneuroscience communities of China andQueensland culminated in the opening at QBIin September of the world-first Joint Laboratoryof Neuroscience and Cognition with theChinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Institute ofBiophysics (IBP) in Beijing. A second openingtook place in November at the IBP.The laboratory is underpinned by a $1 millionNational and International Research AlliancesProgram (NIRAP) grant from the QueenslandGovernment, which brings together researchersfrom QBI, Griffith University, IBP as well as theChinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute ofPsychology.The aim of the program is to identify the keymechanisms regulating brain plasticity and totranslate this understanding into promotingnormal functions such as learning, memory andcognition, as well as ameliorating diseases suchas dementia, depression, schizophrenia andneurotrauma.“Beijing’s expertise in fruit fly behaviour andresearch, along with high resolution, functionalmagnetic resonance imaging facilities, alignsclosely with our own,” says Professor PerryBartlett.“Over the next decade or two, this part ofthe world, and China in particular, will play aleading role in making discoveries in the area ofbiological science.”Research AlliancesA second exciting alliance with researchers inChina was formed in June 2010 with colleaguesat the Shanghai Changzheng Hospital at theSecond Military Medical University.The Memorandum of Understandingestablishing the alliance was signed by ProfessorPerry Bartlett, with Queensland TreasurerAndrew Fraser present, during Queensland Weekat the World Expo being held in China.It underpins the development of a Human NeurogeneticsResearch Program which aims toimprove therapeutic outcomes for neurologicaldiseases such as motor neuron disease (MND),schizophrenia and epilepsy.“This is a wonderfully unique opportunity forus to collaborate with outstanding clinicalresearchers at the Shanghai ChangzhengHospital, to uncover the genetic basis of a rangeof devastating brain diseases,” Professor Bartlettsays.Meanwhile, a nano-neuroscience collaborationwith colleagues at Fudan University isprogressing well.The collaboration aims to develop a moreefficient drug delivery system based on a novelclass of hybrid inorganic neuroparticles.A further bilateral agreement with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität(LMU) in München, Germany,was established in October 2010.This has resulted in the planning of a jointsymposium to be held at QBI in 2011, which will beattended by researchers from the Munich Centrefor Neuroscience (MCN), a virtual centre in whichseveral faculties of LMU and other Munich-basedresearch centres participate to enable integrated,interdisciplinary neuroscience.The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) withthe Institute of Neuroscience (ION) in Shanghai,also a Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute,was extended for a further five years. This hasproved to be a most successful collaboration,with regular exchange of staff and studentswhich enhance the research programs and haveculminated in a number of joint publications.Right Top: Bart van Alphen (white coat) talks with Professor Jinghai Li Vice-President Chinese Academy of Sciences in the laboratory during theopening of the QBI-IBP Laboratory of Neuroscience and Cognition at QBI. Below right: Queensland Treasurer Andrew Fraser witnessed the signing ofthe research agreement between QBI and the Second Military Medical UniversityPG | 65

Community OutreachQBI’s community outreach program isdesigned to engage people interestedin discovering more about neurologicaldisorders. The program’s success is proof ofthe public’s thirst to learn more about thelatest developments in this area of research.In addition to regular tours through QBI’sworld-class facilities, the Institute’s researchersfrequently conduct lectures, talks and discussionsthat are the anchor of the outreach program.This interaction – in libraries, bookstores, schools,hospitals and other community settings acrossthe country – has continually proven beneficialfor the public and scientists alike.As the community learns more about theresearch being conducted at QBI, the lecturesprovide an unparalleled opportunity forscientists to meet people who, in many cases,know someone affected by a neurologicalcondition. Engaging with people who willpotentially benefit from QBI’s research in thelonger term provides an additional impetus forthe neuroscientists to advance their work.In 2010, QBI’s researchers were involved inmore than 35 outreach events, including:The University of Queensland’s CentenaryOpen Day in April attracted more than 300people to the Institute to view our state-of-theartfacilities and learn more about our researchDr Michael Piper spoke to membersof Probus in Albany CreekProfessor John McGrath updated membersof the Mental Illness Fellowship of Queenslandon the latest in schizophrenia researchDr Judith Reinhard presented a talk to theLogan West Library on her research with beesAssoc. Professor Helen Cooper and DrsDarryl Eyles, Judith Reinhard, DanielBlackmore and Randal Moldrichpresented a neuroscience symposiumat Embiggen Bookstore in NoosavilleDr Francois Windels delivered a talk onQBI’s research to the Friends of Ipswich LibraryDr Adam Hamlin delivered a lecture at theUniversity of the Third Age Winter SchoolDr Elizabeth Coulson gave a presentationon her work in Alzheimer’s diseaseto the VIEW Club at Chapel HillPG | 66Image right: Young medical students attenda QBI information evening.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Australia New Zealand Brain Bee Challengeout-smart, out-think, out-lastEstablished in 2006 to spark high schoolstudents’ interest in pursuing careers inneuroscience, the Australian Brain BeeChallenge (ABBC) went from strength tostrength in 2010. With neurological andmental illness accounting for almost half of thetotal disease burden in Australia, QBI views theABBC as one way of attracting the best youngminds to consider research careers.A record number of 4,526 Year 10 studentsfrom all around Australia and New Zealandparticipated in the 2010 competition, takingthe cumulative total number of participantssince the inception of the Challenge to 18,587.Designed to test students’ knowledge about arange of topics, including intelligence, memory,emotions, sleep, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke,the ABBC is the country’s largest neurosciencecompetition. It is affiliated with the InternationalBrain Bee (IBB), where the Australian and NewZealand Champions have the opportunity tocompete after their National win.held in Florence, Italy, during the InternationalBrain Research Organisation World Congress ofNeuroscience.Development of an ABBC Alumni program,designed to keep students connected to fellowalumni, organisers and, of course, the newestadvances in neuroscience, will be a focus for2011. Already, many former ABBC competitorshave taken up neuroscience careers within QBI.These include James Nightingale, CourtneyLanders, Katelin Haynes, Sophie Hill, CaseyLinton and Kristy Butler. Results such as thisdemonstrate that the ABBC is achieving itsgoals of stimulating and supporting students’fascination with science, and encouraging theircontinued interest throughout their highereducation and careers.The National Finals were held at the annualAustralian Neuroscience Society (ANS) meetingin Auckland. After a nail-biting two days ofcompetition, the 2010 Australian winner was BenThompson from Canberra Grammar School, nowstudying at Narrabundah College, with RachaelWiltshire from Samuel Marsden CollegiateSchool crowned as the New Zealand Champion.In July 2011, Ben and Rachael will compete atthe International Brain Bee Challenge beingLeft: 2010 ABBC winner Mr Ben Thompson.Above: Brain Bee competitors in the running.PG | 67

PG | 68Recognition

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010RecognitionThe Queensland Brain Institute boasts more than280 dedicated investigators working to elicit thefundamental mechanisms that regulate brainfunction. QBI researchers consistently shine in theneuroscience community, representing the Instituteon a number of pivotal scientific organisations andserving on prestigious editorial boards. QBI’s trackrecord in terms of publications, grants and awardsfurther attests to the high standard of researchbeing undertaken with the aim of discovering thefundamental mechanisms regulating brain function.Assoc. Professor Stephen Williamsin the laboratory.PG | 69

Fellowships and Awards2010 Nina Kondelos PrizeDeveloping ResearchProfessor Linda Richards was recognised forher research into how the brain developsbefore birth with the 2010 Nina KondelosPrize at the annual meeting of the AustralianNeuroscience Society (ANS) in January.The Nina Kondelos Prize is presented to a femaleneuroscientist for their outstanding contributionto basic or clinical research.“Linda has made a considerable mark in Australianneuroscience in the six years since she returnedto the country,” said QBI’s Professor David Vaney,President of the ANS at the time the prize waspresented.QBI PhD students Dana Bradford and Ben Sivyerwere also recognised at the ANS conference in2010, winning two of the five student posterprizes as part of the Sir Grafton Elliot-SmithAward.This was the second remarkable double achievedby the pair, who had both been awarded anIstvan Törk Prize for the best oral presentationby a Student Member of the ANS at the previousannual meeting in Canberra.In relation to the poster prize, Dr Bradford says,“It was great to see a friend win the same award –even if it did mean sharing the cash.”Schering-Plough SeniorResearch AwardRewarding ResearchTwo decades after he began researching thecauses of schizophrenia, Professor BryanMowry has been rewarded for his efforts.The psychiatric geneticist received the 2010Schering-Plough Senior Research Award for hiswork to identify the genes that make peoplesusceptible to developing schizophrenia and forinvestigating the illness’ genetic complexities.“It’s a great honour to receive this award,” saysProfessor Mowry.“It will hopefully engender, encourage andfacilitate a deeper interest in research, especiallyamong the younger generation of psychiatrists.”The judging panel from the Royal Australianand New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, whichpresented the award, said it was “thrilled” torecognise Professor Mowry as a joint winner withProfessor Ashley Bush from the Mental HealthResearch Institute of Victoria.QBI Director Professor Perry Bartlett congratulatedBryan on the accolade.“It's well-deserved recognition for his dedicatedwork in this field,” he says.Boycott PrizeEyes on the PrizeVisual neuroscientist Professor DavidVaney received the 2010 Boycott Prize forcareer achievement in the field of retinalneuroscience.The award, presented by Professor Vaney’scolleagues at the FASEB Summer ResearchConference on Retinal Neurobiology, recogniseshis research on visual processing in the retina.“The retina has been described as nature’sbrain slice because its structure and functionremain largely intact when studied in isolation,”Professor Vaney explains.“Many discoveries first made in the retina werelater shown to apply to other parts of the centralnervous system.”Professor Perry Bartlett said it was an honour forProfessor Vaney to be the first researcher fromAustralia to receive this prize, and its first solerecipient.The Boycott Prize was a fitting tribute forProfessor Vaney, who has played a leadingrole in neuroscience research, including atwo-year term as the President of the AustralianNeuroscience Society.PG | 70Above: Professor David Vaney, President of the Australian Neuroscience Society (ANS), presents the2010 Nina Kondelos Prize to Professor Linda Richards at the Annual Meeting of the ANS.Below: Professor Bryan Mowry is presented with the 2010 Schering-Plough award.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Fellowships and AwardsResearch FellowshipsFunding for FellowsUQ Research Excellence AwardsQBI ShinesQBI’s Dr Timothy Bredy has received acoveted Australian Research Fellowship whichcommenced in January 2010.His research will determine how the differencesbetween male and female brains contribute tothe formation and maintenance of long-termfear memories.Scientists have already identified that malesand females remember information in differentways – men primarily remember the gist, whilewomen focus on the details.Dr Bredy said improved understanding of thesex-specific differences could unlock the door tobetter treatments.“We’d certainly hope to be looking at newdirections in therapeutic approaches by the endof the grant,” he said.Meanwhile, QBI Faculty member and theDirector of UQ’s Centre for Advanced Imaging,Professor David Reutens, was awarded anNHMRC Practitioner Fellowship.The researcher, who uses functional magneticresonance imaging to learn more aboutneurological disorders, will use the five-year$500,000 grant to investigate nervous systemdisorders.The Queensland Brain Institute has again provenit is a rising star, with two of 11 University ofQueensland Research Excellence Awards beingpresented to QBI researchers in 2010.Dr Massimo Hilliard was recognised for his projectaimed at understanding nerve regeneration inthe roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whichcould eventually enable scientists to rebuildconnections in the nervous system after injury.“This prestigious recognition comes as a strongmotivation to our commitment to do goodscience and make important discoveries,” saysDr Hilliard.Dr Michael Piper was also rewarded for hisresearch studying the genes that regulate stemcell differentiation in the embryonic brain, whichis crucial for development.“It’s very humbling to get awards like these, asthey represent acknowledgement from yourpeers in the scientific community,” says Dr Piper.According to Professor Perry Bartlett, the raft ofawards secured in 2010 is further confirmationof the outstanding quality of the Institute’sresearch program.“QBI was extremely successful in snapping upthese awards – it’s a fantastic achievement,” headds.Right: Dr Massimo Hilliard in the laboratoryPG | 71

CommercialisationQBI’s commercialisation pipeline continuedto grow in 2010, with groundbreakingdiscoveries relating to the treatmentof glioma brain tumours and botulismpoisoning. However, the highlight of theyear came when an earlier discovery for thetreatment of neurodegenerative disease waslicensed to start-up company NuNerve PtyLtd.Neurodegenerative diseases are characterisedby the degeneration, and ultimately death,of neurons. In the seven years since QBI'sinception, researchers have identified factorswhich regulate both neuron survival (CoulsonLaboratory) and neurogenesis, the productionof new neurons (Bartlett Laboratory). Thebiotechnology company NuNerve Pty Ltdwas successful in raising $2 million and, in thefirst quarter of 2010, several patent familiesrelating to these breakthroughs were licensedto the company. The company’s focus is onthe development of novel technologies for thetreatment and prevention of progressive neurodegenerativediseases, particularly motorneuron disease (MND) and Alzheimer’s disease.In the second half of the year, QBI, partneredby NuNerve Pty Ltd, was successful in its bidfor ARC Linkage funding to further supportthe development of cell survival factors. WithNuNerve on board as a partner, we are lookingforward to further developing these promisingleads.Development of a treatment for acute spinalcord injury continues in collaboration withCSL Limited. QBI was successful in obtainingdevelopment funding from the National Healthand Medical Research Council (NHMRC) tosupport the development of this promisingprotein, EphA4, to treat acute spinal cord injury.Last year we completed proof-of-principlestudies in rats, demonstrating that treatmentwith EphA4 following spinal cord lesion notonly results in less scarring at the injury site andregeneration of the damaged cord, but also inrecovery of movement. We hope to progressthis treatment closer to the clinic in 2011.QBI’s commercialisation activities aresupported by UniQuest Pty Limited, the maincommercialisation company of The Universityof Queensland which provides access tocommercialisation expertise, processes andresources, and its Manager of Innovation andCommercial Development, Annita Nugent.PG | 72Image right: Neuronal production, in thenorepinephrine-stimulated adult hippocampalneurospheres, was visualized by Thy1-YFP (ingreen) and beta3-tubulin (in red). A fraction of theThy1-YFP positive cell population co-expressedboth markers.

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010PublicationsAird RL, Scott JG, McGrath J, Najman JM, Al MamunA (2010) Is the new age phenomenon connected todelusion-like experiences? Analysis of survey data fromAustralia. Mental Health, Religion and Culture 13: 37-53Ambermoon P, Carter A, Hall WD, Dissanayaka NN,O'Sullivan JD (2010) Impulse control disorders inpatients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminereplacement therapy: evidence and implicationsfor the addictions field. Addiction 106: 283–293Anderson RJ, Osborne SL, Meunier FA, Painter GF(2010) Regioselective approach to phosphatidylinositol3,5-bisphosphates: syntheses of the nativephospholipid and biotinylated short-chain derivative.Journal of Organic Chemistry 75: 3541–3551Azhar M, Wang PY, Frugier T, Koishi K, DengC, Noakes PG, McLennan IS (2010) Myocardialdeletion of Smad4 using a novel α skeletal muscleactin Cre recombinase transgenic mouse causesmisalignment of the cardiac outflow tract. InternationalJournal of Biological Sciences 6: 546-555Balansa W, Islam R, Fontaine F, Piggott AM, Zhang H,Webb TI, Gilbert DF, Lynch JW, Capon RJ (2010) Ircinialactams:subunit-selective glycine receptor modulatorsfrom Australian sponges of the family Irciniidae.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 18: 2912-2919Baumann O, Chan E, Mattingley JB (2010)Dissociable neural circuits for encoding andretrieval of object locations during active navigationin humans. NeuroImage 49: 2816-2825Baumann O, Mattingley JB (2010) Medial parietalcortex encodes perceived heading direction inhumans. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 12897-12901Baumann O, Mattingley JB (2010) Scaling of neuralresponses to visual and auditory motion in the humancerebellum. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 4489-4495Biswas S, Reinhard J, Oakeshott J, Russell R,Srinivasan MV, Claudianos C (2010) Sensoryregulation of neuroligins and neurexin I inthe honeybee brain. PLoS ONE 5: e9133Bor W, McGee TR, Hayatbakhsh R, Dean A, NajmanJM (2010) Do antisocial females exhibit poor outcomesin adulthood? An Australian cohort study. Australianand New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 44: 648-657Bortoletto M, Cook A, Cunnington R (2010)Motor timing and the preparation for sequentialactions. Brain Cognition 75: 196-204Bradford D, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Cooper HM(2010) Characterization of the netrin/RGMareceptor neogenin in neurogenic regions ofthe mouse and human adult forebrain. Journalof Comparative Neurology 518: 3237-3253Bredy TW, Sun YE, Kobor MS (2010)How the epigenome contributes to thedevelopment of psychiatric disorders. DevelopmentalPsychobiology 52: 331-342Brown AS, McGrath JJ (2010) The preventionof schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletinpublished online doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq122Burne T, Scott E, van Swinderen B, Hilliard M,Reinhard J, Claudianos C, Eyles D, McGrath J (2010)Big ideas for small brains: what can psychiatrylearn from worms, flies, bees and fish? MolecularPsychiatry published online doi:10.1038/mp.2010.35Burne THJ, O'Loan J, Splatt K, Alexander S, McGrathJJ, Eyles DW (2010) Developmental vitamin D(DVD) deficiency alters pup retrieval but notisolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations inthe rat. Physiology & Behavior 102: 201-204Callaghan B, Adams DJ (2010) Analgesicα-conotoxins Vc1.1 and Rg1A inhibit N-type calciumchannels in sensory neurons of α9 nicotinicreceptor knockout mice. Channels 4: 51-54Carter A, Ambermoon P, Hall WD (2010)Drug-induced impulse control disorders: aprospectus for neuroethical analysis. Neuroethicspublished online doi:10.1007/s12152-010-9071-7Carter A, Bell E, Racine E, Hall W (2010) Ethicalissues raised by proposals to treat addictionusing deep brain stimulation. Neuroethicspublished online doi:10.1007/s12152-010-9091-3Chapman HL, Eramudugolla R, Gavrilescu M,Strudwick MW, Loftus A, Cunnington R, MattingleyJB (2010) Neural mechanisms underlying spatialrealignment during adaptation to optical wedgeprisms. Neuropsychologia 48: 2595-2601Chasserot-Golaz S, Coorssen JR, Meunier FA, VitaleN (2010) Lipid dynamics in exocytosis. Cellularand Molecular Neurobiology 30: 1335-1342Chédotal A, Richards LJ (2010) Wiring the brain:the biology of neuronal guidance. Cold SpringHarbor Perspectives in Biology 2: a001917Chen AP-J, Müller CC, Cooper HM, WilliamsCM (2010) Synthetic neovibsanes and theirability to induce neuronal differentiation inPC12 cells. Tetrahedron 66: 6842-6850Cheung A, Vickerstaff R (2010) Finding the way with anoisy brain. PLoS Computational Biology 6: e1000992Cheung A (2010) The fourth moment of the radialdisplacement of a discrete correlated/persistent randomwalk. Journal of Theoretical Biology 264: 641-644Chuang N, Mori S, Yamamoto A, Jiang H, Ye X, Xu X,Richards LJ, Nathans J, Miller MI, Toga AW, SidmanRL, Zhang J (2010) An MRI-based atlas and database ofthe developing mouse brain. NeuroImage 54: 80-89Chung S-K, Vanbellinghen J-F, Mullins JGL, RobinsonA, Hantke J, Hammond CL, Gilbert DF, FreilingerM, Ryan M, Kruer MC, Masri A, Gurses C, Ferrie C,Harvey K, Shiang R, Christodoulou J, AndermannF, Andermann E, Thomas RH, Harvey RJ, Lynch JW,Rees MI (2010) Pathophysiological mechanisms ofdominant and recessive GLRA1 mutations in hyperekplexia.Journal of Neuroscience 30: 9612-9620Clark RJ, Jensen J, Nevin ST, Callaghan BP,Adams DJ, Craik DJ (2010) The engineering ofan orally active conotoxin for the treatmentof neuropathic pain. Angewandte ChemieInternational Edition 49: 6545-6548Coelho CM, Wallis G (2010) Deconstructingacrophobia: physiological and psychologicalprecursors to developing a fear of heights.Depression and Anxiety 27: 864–870Coelho CM, Cloete S, Wallis G (2010) Theface-in-the-crowd effect: when angry facesare just cross(es). Journal of Vision 10: 1-14Coelho CM, Lipp OV, Marinovic W, WallisG, Riek S (2010) Increased corticospinalexcitability induced by unpleasant visualstimuli. Neuroscience Letters 481: 135-138Coelho CM, Gonçalves DC, Purkis H, Pocinho M,Pachana NA, Byrne GJ (2010) Specific phobias in olderadults: characteristics and differential diagnosis.International Psychogeriatrics 22: 702–711Cossec J-C, Simon A, Marquer C, Moldrich RX, LeterrierC, Rossier J, Duyckaerts C, Lenkei Z, Potier M-C (2010)Clathrin-dependent APP endocytosis and Aβ secretionare highly sensitive to the level of plasma membranecholesterol. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1801: 846-852Cristino AS, Nunes FMF, Barchuk AR, Aguiar-CoelhoVM, Simões ZLP, Bitondi MMG (2010) Organization,evolution and transcriptional profile of hexamerin genesof the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae). Insect Molecular Biology 19: 137-146Cui X, Pelekanos M, Burne TH, McGrath JJ, EylesDW (2010) Maternal vitamin D deficiency altersthe expression of genes involved in dopaminespecification in the developing rat mesencephalon.Neuroscience Letters 486: 220-223Da Silva L, Simpson PT, Smart CE, Cocciardi S,Waddell N, Lane A, Morrison BJ, Vargas AC, HealeyS, Beesley J, Pakkiri P, Parry S, Kurniawan N, Reid L,Keith P, Faria P, Pereira E, Skalova A, Bilous M, BalleinePG | 73

PublicationsRL, Do H, Dobrovic A, Fox S, Franco M, ReynoldsB, Khanna KK, Cummings M, Chenevix-Trench G,Lakhani SR (2010) HER3 and downstream pathwaysare involved in colonization of brain metastasesfrom breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 12: R46Dacks AM, Reisenman CE, Paulk AC, Nighorn AJ(2010) Histamine-immunoreactive local neuronsin the antennal lobes of the hymenoptera. Journalof Comparative Neurology 518: 2917-2933Dalton BE, Cronin TW, Marshall NJ, Carleton KL(2010) The fish eye view: are cichlids conspicuous?Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 2243-2255Dean AJ, Walters J, Hall A (2010) A systematic reviewof interventions to enhance medication adherencein children and adolescents with chronic illness.Archives of Disease in Childhood 95: 717-723Delaney AJ, Esmaeili A, Sedlak PL, Lynch JW,Sah P (2010) Differential expression of glycinereceptor subunits in the rat basolateral and centralamygdala. Neuroscience Letters 469: 237-242Dell L-A, Kruger J-L, Bhagwandin A, JillaniNE, Pettigrew JD, Manger PR (2010) Nuclearorganization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergicand serotonergic systems in thebrains of two megachiropteran species. Journalof Chemical Neuroanatomy 40: 177-195Dunstan A, Alanis O, Marshall J (2010) Nautiluspompilius fishing and population declinein the Philippines: a comparison with anunexploited Australian Nautilus population.Fisheries Research 106: 239-247Eramudugolla R, Driver J, Mattingley JB(2010) Biased figure-ground assignmentaffects conscious object recognition in spatialneglect. Cognitive Neuroscience 1: 155-164Eramudugolla R, Henderson R, Mattingley JB(2010) Effects of audio-visual integration on thedetection of masked speech and non-speechsounds. Brain and Cognition 71: 60-66Eramudugolla R, Boyce A, Irvine DRF, MattingleyJB (2010) Effects of prismatic adaptation on spatialgradients in unilateral neglect: a comparison ofvisual and auditory target detection with centralattentional load. Neuropsychologia 48: 2681-2692Eramudugolla R, Kamke MR, Soto-Faraco S,Mattingley JB (2010) Perceptual load influencesauditory space perception in the ventriloquistaftereffect. Cognition published onlinedoi:10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.009Evangelista C, Kraft P, Dacke M, Reinhard J,Srinivasan MV (2010) The moment before touchdown:landing manoeuvres of the honeybee Apis mellifera.Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 262-270Eyles DW, Morley R, Anderson C, Ko P, BurneTHJ, Permezel M, Mortensen PB, Nørgaard-Pedersen B, Hougaard DM, McGrath JJ (2010)The utility of neonatal dried blood spots for theassessment of neonatal vitamin D status. Paediatricand Perinatal Epidemiology 24: 303-308Faber ESL (2010) Functional interplay between NMDAreceptors, SK channels and voltage-gated Ca² +channels regulates synaptic excitability in the medialprefrontal cortex. Journal of Physiology 588: 1281-1292Flatscher-Bader T, Harrison E, Matsumoto I, WilcePA (2010) Genes Assoc.d with alcohol abuse andtobacco smoking in the human nucleus accumbensand ventral tegmental area. Alcoholism-Clinicaland Experimental Research 34: 1291-1302Foldi CJ, Eyles DW, McGrath JJ, Burne THJ(2010) Advanced paternal age is associated withalterations in discrete behavioural domainsand cortical neuroanatomy of C57BL/6J mice.European Journal of Neuroscience 31: 556 - 564Gebhardt FM, Mitrovic AD, Gilbert DF, VandenbergRJ, Lynch JW, Dodd PR (2010) Exon-skipping splicevariants of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2)form heteromeric complexes with full-length EAAT2.Journal of Biological Chemistry 285: 31313-31324Giacomantonio CE, Goodhill GJ (2010) ABoolean model of the gene regulatory networkunderlying mammalian cortical area development.PLoS Computational Biology 6: e1000936Giacomantonio CE, Ibbotson MR, Goodhill GJ(2010) The influence of restricted orientationrearing on map structure in primary visualcortex. NeuroImage 52: 875-883Greene CM, Robertson IH, Gill M, Bellgrove MA (2010)Dopaminergic genotype influences spatial bias inhealthy adults. Neuropsychologia 48: 2458-2464Grishin AA, Wang C-IA, Muttenthaler M, AlewoodPF, Lewis RJ, Adams DJ (2010) α-conotoxin AuIBisomers exhibit distinct inhibitory mechanismsand differential sensitivity to stoichiometry ofα3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Journalof Biological Chemistry 285: 22254-22263Guez D, Zhu H, Zhang SW, Srinivasan MV (2010)Enhanced cholinergic transmission promotes recall inhoneybees. Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 1341-1348Hall WD, Mathews R, Morley KI (2010) Beingmore realistic about the public health impact ofgenomic medicine. PLoS Medicine 7: e1000347Haines C, Goodhill GJ (2010) Analyzing neuriteoutgrowth from explants by fitting ellipses.Journal of Neuroscience Methods 187: 52-58Han GA, Malintan NT, Collins BM, Meunier FA,Sugita S (2010) Munc18-1 as a key regulator ofneurosecretion. Journal of Neurochemistry 115: 1-10Harvey L, Burne THJ, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW (2010)Developmental vitamin D 3deficiency inducesalterations in immune organ morphology andfunction in adult offspring. Journal of SteroidBiochemistry and Molecular Biology 121 239–242Hester R, Murphy K, Brown FL, Skilleter AJ(2010) Punishing an error improves learning: theinfluence of punishment magnitude on errorrelatedneural activity and subsequent learning.Journal of Neuroscience 30: 15600-15607Hofmann CM, O'Quin KE, Marshall NJ, Carleton KL(2010) The relationship between lens transmissionand opsin gene expression in cichlids fromLake Malawi. Vision Research 50: 357-363Hu SH, Christie MP, Saez NJ, Latham CF, JarrottR, Lua LH, Collins BM, Martin JL (2010) Possibleroles for Munc18-1 domain 3a and Syntaxin1N-peptide and C-terminal anchor in SNAREcomplex formation. PNAS published onlinedoi:10.1073/pnas.0914906108/-/DCSupplementalJhaveri DJ, Mackay EW, Hamlin AS, Marathe SV,Nandam LS, Vaidya VA, Bartlett PF (2010) Norepinephrinedirectly activates adult hippocampalprecursors via β3-adrenergic receptors.Journal of Neuroscience 30: 2795-2806Kanjhan R, Sivyer B (2010) Two types of ONdirection-selective ganglion cells in rabbitretina. Neuroscience Letters 483: 105-109Kanjhan R, Pow DV, Noakes PG, Bellingham MC(2010) The two-pore domain K+ channel TASK-1 isclosely Assoc.d with brain barriers and meninges.Journal of Molecular Histology 41: 315-323Kerr MC, Wang JT, Castro NA, Hamilton NA, TownL, Brown DL, Meunier FA, Brown NF, Stow JL,Teasdale RD (2010) Inhibition of the PtdIns(5)kinase PIKfyve disrupts intracellular replicationof Salmonella. EMBO Journal 29: 1331-1347Kesby JP, Cui X, O'Loan J, McGrath JJ, BurneTH, Eyles DW (2010) Developmental vitamin Ddeficiency alters dopamine-mediated behaviorsand dopamine transporter function in adultfemale rats. Psychopharmacology 208: 159-168Kim J, Matthews NL, Park S (2010) An eventrelatedfMRI study of phonological verbal workingmemory in schizophrenia. PLoS ONE 5: e12068Klimis H, Adams DJ, Callaghan B, Nevin S, AlewoodPF, Vaughan CW, Mozar CA, Christie MJ (2010) A novelmechanism of inhibition of high-voltage activatedcalcium channels by α-conotoxins contributes toPG | 74

PublicationsOsborne GW (2010) A method ofquantifying cell sorting yield in "real time".Cytometry Part A 77A: 983-989Pettigrew JD, Bhagwandin A, Haagensen M,Manger PR (2010) Visual acuity and heterogeneitiesof retinal ganglion cell densities and the tapetumlucidum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).Brain, Behavior and Evolution 75: 251-261Pignatelli V, Champ C, Marshall JN, VorobyevM (2010) Double cones are used for colourdiscrimination in the reef fish, Rhinecanthusaculeatus. Biology Letters 6: 537-539Pignatelli V, Marshall JN (2010) Morphologicalcharacterization of retinal bipolar cells in themarine teleost Rhinecanthus aculeatus. Journalof Comparative Neurology 518: 3117-3129Piper M, Barry G, Hawkins J, Mason S, Lindwall C,Little E, Sarkar A, Smith AG, Moldrich RX, BoyleGM, Tole S, Gronostajski RM, Bailey TL, Richards LJ(2010) NFIA controls telencephalic progenitor celldifferentiation through repression of the Notcheffector Hes1. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 9127-9139Polepalli JS, Sullivan RK, Yanagawa Y, Sah P(2010) A specific class of interneuron mediatesinhibitory plasticity in the lateral amygdala.Journal of Neuroscience 30: 14619-14629Prescott J, Gavrilescu M, Cunnington R, O'BoyleMW, Egan GF (2010) Enhanced brain connectivityin math-gifted adolescents: an fMRI study usingmental rotation. Cognitive Neuroscience 1: 277-288Proctor DT, Coulson EJ, Dodd PR (2010) Reductionin post-synaptic scaffolding PSD-95 and SAP-102protein levels in the Alzheimer inferior temporalcortex is correlated with disease pathology.Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 21: 795-811Reinhard J, Sinclair M, Srinivasan MV, ClaudianosC (2010) Honeybees learn odour mixtures via aselection of key odorants. PLoS ONE 5: e9110Sanders AR, Levinson DF, Duan J, Dennis JM, Li R,Kendler KS, Rice JP, Shi J, Mowry BJ, Amin F, SilvermanJM, Buccola NG, Byerley WF, Black DW, Freedman R,Cloninger CR, Gejman PV (2010) The internet-basedMGS2 control sample: self report of mental illness.American Journal of Psychiatry 167: 854-865Scott J, Varghese D, McGrath J (2010) As thetwig is bent, the tree inclines: adult mentalhealth consequences of childhood adversity.Archives of General Psychiatry 67: 111-112Shan Q, Lynch JW (2010) Chimera constructionusing multiple-template-based sequential PCRs.Journal of Neuroscience Methods 193: 86-89Shan Q, Storm DR (2010) Optimization of a cAMPresponse element signal pathway reporter system.Journal of Neuroscience Methods 191: 21-25Siebeck UE, Parker AN, Sprenger D, MäthgerLM, Wallis G (2010) A species of reef fishthat uses ultraviolet patterns for covert facerecognition. Current Biology 20: 407-410Silk TJ, Bellgrove MA, Wrafter P, Mattingley JB,Cunnington R (2010) Spatial working memory andspatial attention rely on common neural processesin the intraparietal sulcus. NeuroImage 53: 718-724Stavenga DG, Leertouwer HL, Marshall NJ, Osorio D(2010) Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradisecaused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules.Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciencespublished online doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2293Sivyer B, Vaney DI (2010) Dendritic morphology andtracer-coupling pattern of physiologically identifiedtransient uniformity detector ganglion cells inrabbit retina. Visual Neuroscience 27: 159–170Sivyer B, van Wyk M, Vaney DI, Taylor WR (2010)Synaptic inputs and timing underlying the velocitytuning of direction-selective ganglion cells in rabbitretina. Journal of Physiology 588: 3243-3253Sivyer B, Taylor WR, Vaney DI (2010) Uniformitydetector retinal ganglion cells fire complexspikes and receive only light-evoked inhibition.Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences of the USA 107: 5628-5633Smith AR, D'Annunzio L, Smith AE, Sharma A,Hofmann CM, Marshall NJ, Carleton KL (2010)Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in thecichlids of Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology publishedonline doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04935.xSpampanato J, Polepalli J, Sah P (2010) Interneuronsin the basolateral amygdala. Neuropharmacologypublished online doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.11.006Srikanth V, Phan TG, Chen J, Beare R, StapletonJM, Reutens DC (2010) The location of whitematter lesions and gait - a voxel-basedstudy. Annals of Neurology 67: 265-269Srinivasan MV (2010) Honeybee communication: asignal for danger. Current Biology 20: R366-R368Stratton P, Wyeth G, Wiles J (2010) Calibrationof the head direction network: a role forsymmetric angular head velocity cells. Journalof Computational Neuroscience 28: 527-538Stratton P, Wiles J (2010) Self-sustained non-periodicactivity in networks of spiking neurons: thecontribution of local and long-range connectionsand dynamic synapses. NeuroImage 52: 1070-1079Talbot CM, Marshall J (2010) Polarization sensitivityand retinal topography of the striped pyjamasquid (Sepioloidea lineolata - Quoy/Gaimard 1832).Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 3371-3377Talbot CM, Marshall J (2010) Polarization sensitivityin two species of cuttlefish - Sepia plangon(Gray 1849) and Sepia mestus (Gray 1849) -demonstrated with polarized optomotor stimuli.Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 3364-3370Temple S, Hart NS, Marshall NJ, Collin SP (2010)A spitting image: specializations in archerfisheyes for vision at the interface between airand water. Proceedings of the Royal Society ofLondon: Biological Sciences 277: 2607-2615Thomas P, Kenny N, Eyles DW, Moreira LA, O'NeillSL, Asgari S (2010) Infection with the wMel andwMelPop strains of Wolbachia leads to higher levelsof melanization in the hemolymph of Drosophilamelanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Aedes aegypti.Developmental and Comparative Immunologypublished online doi:10.1016/j.dci.2010.11.007Ullmann JF, Cowin G, Collin SP (2010) Magneticresonance microscopy of the barramundi (Latescalcarifer) brain. Journal of Morphology 271: 1446–1456Ullmann JFP, Cowin G, Collin SP (2010)Quantitative assessment of brain volumesin fish: comparison of methodologies. Brain,Behavior and Evolution 76: 261-270Underwood CK, Kurniawan ND, Butler TJ, CowinGJ, Wallace RH (2010) Non-invasive diffusion tensorimaging detects white matter degeneration inthe spinal cord of a mouse model of amyotrophiclateral sclerosis. NeuroImage published onlinedoi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.12.044van Swinderen B, Brembs B (2010) Attention-likedeficit and hyperactivity in a Drosophila memorymutant. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 1003-1014Vickerstaff RJ, Cheung A (2010) Which coordinatesystem for modelling path integration? Journalof Theoretical Biology 263: 242-261Vetter I, Pujic Z, Goodhill GJ (2010) Theresponse of dorsal root ganglion axons to nervegrowth factor gradients depends on spinallevel. Journal of Neurotrauma 27: 1379-1386Walterfang M, Chanen AM, Barton S, Wood AG, Jones S,Reutens DC, Chen J, Velakoulis D, McGorry PD, PantelisC (2010) Corpus callosum morphology and relationshipto orbitofrontal and lateral ventricular volume inteenagers with first-presentation borderline personalitydisorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 183: 30-37Wan CY, Wood AG, Reutens DC, Wilson SJ (2010)Early but not late-blindness leads to enhancedauditory perception. Neuropsychologia 48: 344-348PG | 76

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010PublicationsWan CY, Wood AG, Reutens DC, Wilson SJ (2010)Congenital blindness leads to enhanced vibrotactileperception. Neuropsychologia 48: 631-635Wang Y, Yao M, Zhou C, Dong D, Jiang Y, WeiG, Cui X (2010) Erythropoietin promotes spinalcord-derived neural progenitor cell proliferation byregulating cell cycle. Neuroscience 167: 750-757Wang Q, Pless SA, Lynch JW (2010) Ligand- andsubunit-specific conformational changes inthe ligand-binding domain and the TM2-TM3linker of α1β2γ2 GABA-A receptors. Journal ofBiological Chemistry 285: 40373-40386Welham J, Scott J, Williams GM, Najman JM, Bor W,O'Callaghan M, McGrath J (2010) The antecedentsof non-affective psychosis in a birth-cohort, witha focus on measures related to cognitive ability,attentional dysfunction and speech problems.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 121: 273-279Wen PJ, Osborne SL, Meunier FA (2010) Dynamiccontrol of neuroexocytosis by phosphoinositides inhealth and disease. Progress in Lipid Research50: 52-61Werren JH, Richards S, Desjardins CA, Niehuis O,Gadau J, Colbourne JK, Beukeboom LW, DesplanC, Elsik CG, Grimmelikhuijzen CJP, Kitts P, LynchJA, Murphy T, Oliveira DCSG, Smith CD, van deZande L, Worley KC, Zdobnov EM, Aerts M, AlbertS, Anaya VH, Anzola JM, Barchuk AR, Behura SK,Bera AN, Berenbaum MR, Bertossa RC, Bitondi MM,Bordenstein SR, Bork P, Bornberg-Bauer E, BrunainM, Cazzamali G, Chaboub L, Chacko J, Chavez D,Childers CP, Choi J-H, Clark ME, Claudianos C, ClintonRA, Cree AG, Cristino AS, Dang PM, Darby AC, deGraaf DC, Devreese B, Dinh HH, Edwards R, Elango N,Elhaik E, Ermolaeva O, Evans JD, Foret S, Fowler GR,Gerlach D, Gibson JD, Gilbert DG, Graur D, GrunderS, Hagen DE, Han Y, Hauser F, Hultmark D, HunterHC IV, Hurst GD, Jhangian SN, Jiang H, Johnson RM,Jones AK, Junier T, Kadowaki T, Kamping A, KapustinY, Kechavarzi B, Kim J, Kim J, Kiryutin B, Koevoets T,Kovar CL, Kriventseva EV, Kucharski R, Lee H, Lee SL,Lees K, Lewis LR, Loehlin DW, Logsdon JM, Jr., LopezJA, Lozado RJ, Maglott D, Maleszka R, MayampurathA, Mazur DJ, McClure MA, Moore AD, Morgan MB,Muller J, Munoz-Torres MC, Muzny DM, NazarethLV, Neupert S, Nguyen NB, Nunes FM, Oakeshott JG,Okwuonu GO, Pannebakker BA, Pejaver VR. Peng Z,Pratt SC, Predel R, Pu L, Ranson H, Raychoudhury R,Rechtsteiner A, Reese, JT, Reid JG, Riddle M, RobertsonHM, Romero-Severson J, Rosenberg M, Sackton TB,Sattelle DB, Schluns H, Schmitt T, Schneider M, SchulerA, Schurko AM, Shuker DM, Simoes ZL, Sinha S, SmithZ, Solovyev V, Souvorov A, Springauf A, StafflingerE, Stage DE, Stanke M, Tanaka Y, Telschow A, TrentC, Vattathil S, Verhulst EC, Viljakainen L, Wanner KW,Waterhouse RM, Whitfield JB, Wilkes TE, WilliamsonM, Willis JH, Wolschin F, Wyder S, Yamada T, Yi SV,Zecher CN, Zhang L, Gibbs RA. (2010) Functional andevolutionary insights from the genomes of threeparasitoid Nasonia species. Science 327: 343-348Windels F, Crane JW, Sah P (2010) Inhibition dominatesthe early phase of up-states in the basolateralamygdala. Journal of Neurophysiology 104: 3433-3438Wong Y, Markham K, Xu ZP, Chen M, Max Lu GQ,Bartlett PF, Cooper HM (2010) Efficient deliveryof siRNA to cortical neurons using layered doublehydroxide nanoparticles. Biomaterials 31: 8770-8779Woodruff TM, Ager RR, Tenner AJ, Noakes PG, TaylorSM (2010) The role of the complement system andthe activation fragment C5a in the central nervoussystem. Neuromolecular Medicine 12: 179-192Wu CC, Fairhall SL, McNair NA, Hamm JP, Kirk IJ,Cunnington R, Anderson T, Lim VK (2010) Impairedsensorimotor integration in focal hand dystoniapatients in the absence of symptoms. Journal ofNeurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 81: 659-665Yanpallewar SU, Fernandes K, Marathe SV, VadodariaKC, Jhaveri D, Rommelfanger K, Ladiwala U, JhaS, Muthig V, Hein L, Bartlett P, WeinshenkerD, Vaidya VA (2010) α 2-adrenoceptor blockadeaccelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, andbehavioral effects of chronic antidepressanttreatment. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 1096 –1109Zalucki YM, Jones CE, Ng PSK, Schulz BL, JenningsMP (2010) Signal sequence non-optimal codonsare required for the correct folding of maturemaltose binding protein. Biochimica et BiophysicaActa - Biomembranes 1798: 1244-1249Zivraj KH, Tung YC, Piper M, Gumy L, Fawcett JW, YeoGS, Holt CE (2010) Subcellular profiling reveals distinctand developmentally regulated repertoire of growthcone mRNAs. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 15464-15478Books and Book ChaptersOsborne GW (2010). Practical considerationsfor flow cytometric sorting of stem cells.In Application of Flow Cytometry in StemCell Research and Tissue Regeneration, eds.A. Krishan, H. Krishnamurthy, S. Totey, 13-23.Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Magnussen S, Greelee M, Baumann O, Endestad T(2010). Visual perceptual memory - anno 2008. InMemory, Aging and the Brain, eds. L. Backman, L.Nyberg, 53-70. Hove, Sussex: Psychology Press.Marshall JN, Johnsen S (2010). Camouflage in marinefish. In Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function,eds. M. Stevens, S. Merilaita. Oxford: Academic Press.Reinhard J (2010). Taste: invertebrates. InEncyclopedia of Animal Behaviour, eds. M. D. Breed,J. Moore, 379-385. Oxford: Academic Press.Srinivasan MV, Thurrowgood S, Soccol D (2010).From visual guidance in flying insects to autonomousaerial vehicles. In Flying Insects and Robots, eds.D. Floreano, J.-C. Zufferey, M. V. Srinivasan, C.Ellington, 15-27. Heidelberg & Berlin: Springer.Srinivasan MV, Thurrowgood S, Soccol D (2010).MAV guidance inspired by principles of insect vision InEncyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, eds. R. Blockley,W. Shyy, 4363-4374. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.van Swinderen B (2010). Visual Learningand Perception in Drosophila. In DrosophilaNeurobiology: A Laboratory Manual, eds. Z.Zhang, M. R. Freeman, S. Waddell, 411-427.Refereed Conference PapersBall DM, Lehnert CF, Wyeth GF (2010). Apractical implementation of a continuousisotropic spherical omnidirectional drive. InIEEE International Conference on Robotics andAutomation, 3775-3780. Anchorage, Alaska.Glover AJ, Maddern WP, Milford MJ, WyethGF (2010). FAB-MAP + RatSLAM: appearancebasedSLAM for multiple times of day. In 2010IEEE International Conference on Robotics andAutomation, 3507-3512. Anchorage, Alaska.Moore RJD, Thurrowgood S, Bland D, Soccol D,Srinivasan MV (2010). UAV altitude and attitudestabilisation using a coaxial stereo vision system.In IEEE International Conference on Roboticsand Automation, 29-34. Anchorage, Alaska.Stratton P, Wiles J (2010). Complex spiking models: arole for diffuse thalamic projections in complex corticalactivity. In 17th International Conference on NeuralInformation Processing, 41-48. Sydney, Australia.Stürzl W, Srinivasan MV (2010). Omnidirectionalimaging system with constant elevational gain andsingle viewpoint. In OMNIVIS 2010, 1-7. Zaragoa, Spain.Thurrowgood S, Moore RJD, Bland D, Soccol D,Srinivasan MV (2010). UAV Attitued control usingthe visual horizon. In Australasian Conference onRobotics and Automation 2010. Brisbane, Australia.Winter K, Hayes IJ, Colvin R. (2010). Integratingrequirements: the behavior tree philosophy. In IEEEInternational Conference on Software Engineeringand Formal Methods, 41-50. Pisa, Italy.PG | 77

GrantsANZ Trustees/Mason FoundationA Hamlin & EJ Coulson. A new animalmodel of Alzheimer’s disease, $48,500Australian Research CouncilDiscovery ProjectsBredy, T. Epigenetic mechanisms regulatingsex differences in fear-related learningand memory, 2010-2014, $802,830.Harding, A. Multiscale stochiastic modelling oftumour robustness, 2010, $240,000. [Transferredto UQ Diamantina Institute in 2010]Lynch, J. Activation mechanisms of Cys-loopion channel receptors, 2010-2012, $348,000.Paulk, A. Neural mechanisms of attentionin the honeybee and Drosophilamelanogaster, 2010-2012, $275,000.van Swinderen, B. Presynapticmechanisms of general anaethesia inthe fly brain, 2010-2012, $415,000.Large Infrastructure and Equipment GrantsReutens, D., Mackay-Sim, A., Bartlett, P.,Paxinos, G., Halliday, G., Watson, C. Facilitiesfor automated high-throughput slidescanning and stereology, 2010, $520,000.The Cancer Council VictoriaEnglish, D., Eyles, D., Baglietto, L. Vitamin D andrisk of cancer and mortality in the MelbourneCollaborative Cohort Study, 2010-2012.$322,339. [Awarded to Dallas English andadministered by University of Melbourne]Go8 Australia - Germany Joint ResearchCo-operation scheme, Group of Eight Australia- Germany joint research co-operation schemeMattingley, J., Baumann, O., Greenlee,M., Raabe, M. Visual-Vestibular interactionfor active navigation and spatial objectlocationmemory, 2010-2011, $20,000.Motor Neurone Disease Research Instituteof Australia Inc., Grants-in-Aid forresearch into motor neurone diseaseWallace, R., Blair, I., Mackay-Sim, A., Nicholson,G. Identifying genes that are affected byMND-causing TDP-43 mutations, 2010. $38,962.National Health and Medical Research CouncilPhD ScholarshipsKamien, B. Investigating the geneticaetiology of Aicardi syndrome,2010-2012. $107,750. [Relinquished]Morris, J. The neural basis of the partial reinforcementextinction effect, 2010-2012, $107,750.Simpson, H. Mechanisms of retinotectalmap development, 2010-2012. $107,750.Practitioner Fellowship level 2Reutens, D. NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship,2010-2014. $504,875. [Transferred to UQCentre for Advanced Imaging in 2010]Program GrantLewis, R., Alewood, P., Adams, D., Christie,M. Venom peptide modulations ofpain pathways, 2010-2014. $6,360,000.[Awarded to and administered by UQInstitute of Molecular Bioscience]Project GrantsCapon, R., Lynch, J. Developing novel selectiveglycine receptor potentiators as a means tocontrol pain, 2010-2012. $533,997. [Administeredby UQ Institute of Molecular Bioscience]Goodhill, G. Cyclic-nucleotide-dependentregulation of axon guidancesensitivity, 2010-2012. $508,500.Hilliard, M. Discovering moleculesand mechanisms regulating dendriteformation, 2010-2012. $499,500.Hilliard, M. Membrane fusion inaxonal regeneration: molecules andmechanisms, 2010-2012. $445,125.Meunier, F., Collins, B. Control of neurosecretionby Munc18, 2010-2012. $475,125.Meunier, F. Modulating neuronal secretion bythe PI3-kinase pathway, 2010-2012. $498,500.Mowry, B., Holliday, E. Identifying eQTLsand endophenotyping known CNVs in alarge Australian schizophrenia sample,2010-2012. $876,750. [Awarded to UQ Schoolof Medicine but transferred to QBI]Mowry, B., Thara, R., Jorde, L. Nyholt, D.Studying the molecular basis of schizophreniain a large, globally competitive Indiansample, 2010-2014. $945,563. [Awarded to UQSchool of Medicine but transferred to QBI]Osborne, S. The neuronal PIKfyve complexregulates neurotransmission and neurodegeneration,2010-2013. $359,750.Richards, L. DCC-Robo interactionscooperate to regulate callosal axonguidance, 2010-2012. $369,750.Richards, L., Rubenstein, J. Fibroblast growthfactors in the development of forebraincommissures, 2010-2012. $480,125.Queensland State GovernmentNational and International Research Alliances ProgramBartlett, P. Utilising brain plasticityto promote function and amelioratedisease, 2010-2013. $100,000.Smart Futures PhD scholarshipPanwar, A. Molecular genetics of MotorNeuron Disease, 2010-2012. $24,000.Queensland International Fellowship ProgramCunnington, R. The planning and readinessfor voluntary movement, 2010-2011. $18,500.Flatscher-Bader, T. Abberations in the genome ofoffspring born to older fathers, 2010-2011. $15,000.Smart Futures Fellowship Level 2Vukovic, J. Reversing the cognitivedecline associated with age-relateddementia, 2010-2013. $150,000.PG | 78

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Nicola Marks at work in the laboratory.PG | 79

Neuroscience SeminarsThe Queensland Brain Institute conducts aweekly seminar program giving neuroscientistsan opportunity to learn more about thelatest developments, often before research ispublished. The series is designed to challengeresearchers in their thinking, promoteexcellence through the exchange of ideas andlead to future collaborations in neuroscience.Dr Derek ArnoldSchool of Psychology, The University of QueenslandRetinal motion generates conflicting visual signalsDr Richard AndersonDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology,The University of MelbourneEnteric neural crest cell migrationDr Guy BarryQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandTranscriptional control of embryonichippocampal developmentDr Oliver BaumannQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandBehavioural and neural correlates ofhuman spatial navigationProfessor Tim BlissNational Institute for Medical Research, London, UKLTP: past and futureDr Sarah CaddickThe Gatsby Charitable FoundationPeter Goodenough Memorial Lecture 2010Philanthropy and the brain: making connectionsProfessor Bruce CarterVanderbilt University Medical School, USAMechanisms of neuronal and phagocytic clearancein the developing peripheral nervous systemProfessor Jim CohenKing’s College London, UKBorder controls at the developing spinal cordMs Stacey ColeQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandThe role of Neogenin during neurogenesisand migration in the embryonic forebrainAssoc. Professor Helen CooperQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandDiverse roles for guidance receptorsin CNS developmentMs Amber-Lee DonahooQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandMolecular mechanisms regulating thedevelopment of the corpus callosumDr Kenji DoyaOkinawa Institute of Science and Technology, JapanTemporal discounting and serotoninProfessor Sarah DunlopSchool of Animal Biology, Universityof Western AustraliaTranslating basic science into clinicaltrials for spinal cord injuryProfessor G. Bard ErmentroutUniversity of Pittsburgh, USAWhen the noise is the signal: stochasticsynchrony in olfactionProfessor Richard EvansThe University of Leicester, UKExtracellular ATP as a transmitter; physiologicalrole, regulation and molecularpharmacology of P2X1 receptorsAssoc. Professor Jean-Marc FellousUniversity of Arizona, USAEvidence for the involvement of the dopaminergicsystem in post-traumatic stress disorderDr Tom FothergillQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandRegulating axon attraction and repulsion at themidline during corpus callosum developmentProfessor Giovani GaliziaUniversity of Konstanz, GermanyHoneybee odor coding and learning costs –neural networks and circadian intelligenceProfessor Geoffrey GoodhillQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandHow do axons detect and respondto molecular gradients?Professor Jürgen GötzBrain and Mind Research Institute, University of SydneyModelling Alzheimer’s disease – To be abaptist, a tauist or a baptised tauistDr Jake GrattenQueensland Statistical Genetics Laboratory,Queensland Institute of Medical ResearchStatistical genetics for neurobiologists:what can we learn from sheep?Professor Benedikt GrötheLudwig-Maximilian University of Munich, GermanySound localization in mammals: unexpectedmechanisms, unexpected dynamicsMs Lauren HarmsQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandEffects of developmental vitamin D deficiencyon brain development and behaviour in miceDr Julian HengAustralian Regenerative Medicine Institute(ARMI), Monash UniversityGene expression during brain development and diseaseMr Jonathan HuntQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandPatterns, preferences and the primary visual cortexProfessor Judy IllesThe University of British Columbia, CanadaAdvanced neuroimaging: ethical, social and legalchallenges for basic research and clinical translationPG | 80

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Neuroscience SeminarsMr Timothy LynaghProfessor Nancy IpThe Hong Kong University of Science& Technology, Hong KongFrom understanding neural plasticity todiscovery of novel neuroactive compoundsDr Dhanisha JhaveriQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandMechanisms underlying neurogenic and antidepressantactions of norepinephrineProfessor Kozo KaibuchiGraduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, JapanDISC1 acts as a cargo adapter for neuronaltransport of specific proteins and mRNAsProfessor Nigel LaingCentre for Medical Research, University ofWestern Australia, and Western AustralianInstitute for Medical Research (WAIMR)Gene discovery, pathobiology, therapy andresearch translation in genetic muscle diseasesProfessor Julio LicinioJohn Curtin School of Medical Research,Australian National UniversityApproaches to pharmacogenomics: The casesof monogenetic and polygenic diseasesProfessor Andreas LüthiFriedrich Miescher Institute forBiomedical Research, SwitzerlandDefining the neuronal circuitry of fearQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandIvermectin: a successful antiparasiticdrug and a neuroscience toolDr Marie ManglesdorfQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandThe genetics of motor neuron disease:identifying new candidate genesDr Christine MitchellSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Monash UniversityEmerging role for the inositol polyphosphate5-phosphatases in embryonic developmentProfessor Fujio MurakamiOsaka University, JapanIntracortical migration of GABAergicinterneurons and morphological changesduring early stages of maturationProfessor John O’KeefeUniversity College London, UKHow the hippocampal cognitive map developsProfessor Noriko OsumiTohoku University School of Medicine, JapanAsymmetrical inheritance of Cyclin D2 andfate determination of neuroepithelial cellsProfessor Christos PantelisMelbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre,The University of MelbourneUnderstanding brain changes in early psychosis:a brain maturational perspectiveAssoc. Professor Steven PetrouHoward Florey Institute and The Centre forNeuroscience, The University of MelbourneFunctional origins in genetic epilepsiesProfessor Michael PierceUniversity of Georgia, USASpecific glycans are markers for stem and neural celldifferentiation and regulate the tumor initiating cellcompartment of her-2-induced mammary tumorsProfessor Linda RichardsQueensland Brain Institute & School of BiomedicalSciences, The University of QueenslandRegulation of midline glial development bynuclear factor one genes in the cerebral cortexProfessor Perminder SachdevSchool of Psychiatry, University of New South WalesYipping tiger and other tales fromthe neuropsychiatric clinicMs Sumiti SaharanQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandModulation of adult mammalianneurogenesis by Sirtuin1 proteinsProfessor Charles SchwartzGreenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood S.C. USAThe landscape of x-linked intellectualdisability: dilemmas and insightsDr Quenten SchwarzCentre for Cancer Biology, AdelaideNeuronal migration in the CNS and PNSDr Alex SykesQueensland Brain Institute,The University of QueenslandEvidence for a new model of the TrkA andp75NTR high-affinity NGF receptor complexAssoc. Professor Shubha ToleTata Institute of Fundamental Research, IndiaCreating the cortex and the hippocampal organizerAssoc. Professor Ann TurnleyCentre for Neuroscience, The University of MelbourneRegulation of neuronal differentiationand neurite outgrowth by suppressor ofcytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2)Dr Vidita VaidyaTata Institute of Fundamental Research, IndiaNeurobiology of depression: role for Alpha2adrenoceptors and 5-HT2 receptorsDr Margie WrightGenetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology andQueensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, QIMRNeuroimaging genetics, finding genesfor brain function and dysfunctionPG | 81

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010Editorial BoardsActa Physiologica SinicaPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardDevelopmental NeurosciencePerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardJournal of Comparative NeurologyDavid Vaney, Editorial BoardNeuroscience ResearchPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardActa Psychiatrica ScandinavicaJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardAdvances in Artificial Neural SystemsMandyam Srinivasan, Editorial BoardAustralian and New Zealand Journal of PsychiatryJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardBioMedCentral (BMC) PsychiatryJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardBMC PhysiologyPankaj Sah, Editorial BoardBrain and CognitionJason Mattingley, Editorial BoardChannelsPankaj Sah, Editorial BoardClinical Schizophrenia and Related PsychosesJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardCognitive Neuropsychiatry Psychology PressJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardCortexJason Mattingley, Assoc. EditorCurrent NeuropharmacologyFrederic Meunier, Editorial BoardCognitive NeuroscienceJason Mattingley, Editorial BoardDevelopmental DynamicsLinda Richards, Editorial BoardDevelopmental NeurobiologyPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardFrontiers in Cellular NeuroscienceStephen Williams, Assoc. EditorFrontiers in Molecular NeuroscienceJoe Lynch, Editorial BoardFrontiers of Molecular PsychiatryJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardFrontiers in Neural CircuitsStephen Williams, Assoc. EditorFrontiers in NeurogenesisPerry Bartlett, Assoc. EditorLinda Richards, Editorial BoardGenesBryan Mowry, Editorial BoardGrowth FactorsHelen Cooper, Editorial BoardHippocampusPankaj Sah, Editorial BoardInternational Journal of Developmental NeurosciencePerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardInternational Journal of Biochemistryand Molecular BiologyJoe Lynch, Editorial BoardJournal of Applied Clinical PediatricsRobyn Wallace, Editorial BoardJournal of Attention DisordersMark Bellgrove, Editorial BoardJournal of Biological ChemistryJoe Lynch, Editorial BoardJournal of Comparative Physiology AMandyam Srinivasan, Editorial Advisory BoardJournal of NeurochemistryFrederic Meunier, Handling EditorJournal of NeurophysiologyPankaj Sah, Assoc. EditorJournal of NeurosciencePankaj Sah, Editorial BoardJournal of Neuroscience MethodsStephen Williams, Editorial BoardJournal of Neuroscience ResearchPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardLabSuite Brain NavigatorDavid Reutens, Editorial BoardNetwork: Computation in Neural SystemsGeoffrey Goodhill, Editor-in-ChiefNeural Circuits and SystemsGeoffrey Goodhill, Editorial BoardNeural ComputationGeoffrey Goodhill, Assoc. EditorNeural DevelopmentPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardNeural PlasticityPankaj Sah, Editorial BoardNeurocaseJason Mattingley, Editorial BoardNeuropsychologiaJason Mattingley, Editorial Advisory BoardNeurosignalsPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardLinda Richards, Editorial BoardPLoS BiologyMandyam Srinivasan, Editorial BoardPLoS ONEThomas Burne, Academic EditorJustin Marshall, Academic EditorFrederic Meunier, Academic EditorBruno van Swinderen, Academic EditorBryan Mowry, Academic EditorPsychiatric GeneticsBryan Mowry, Editorial BoardRevista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, AssociaçãoBrasileira de PsiquiatrisJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardSchizophrenia BulletinJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardSchizophrenia ResearchJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardStem Cell ResearchPerry Bartlett, Editorial BoardStroke Research and TreatmentDavid Reutens, Editorial BoardTranslational PsychiatryJohn McGrath, Editorial BoardYonsei Medical JournalPerry Bartlett, Editorial Advisory BoardPG | 83

UQ AppointmentsThomas Burne- UQ Animal Ethics CommitteeJoe Lynch- UQ Masters of Neuroscience Program CoordinatorHelen Cooper- University of Queensland, Faculty of Science localconfirmation and promotions committee (Levels A-D)- University of Queensland Biosafety CommitteeElizabeth Coulson- UQ Research Higher Degree CommitteeIan Duncan- Corporate Information Sub-Committee- Phoenix Program Steering Committee- UQ Information Technology Consultative Group ChairJustin Marshall- UQ Research Station Steering CommitteeFrederic Meunier- UQ Radiation Health and Safety CommitteeLinda Richards- UQ Biological Resources AnimalUsers Committee ChairPankaj Sah- UQ Research CommitteeGeoffrey Goodhill- UQ Excellence in Research forAustralia Steering Committee- UQ RHD CommitteeJohn Kelly- UQ Biological Resources Steering Committee- UQ Research Infrastructure andFacilities Working GroupClare Seaman- UQ Occupational Health and Safety CouncilRobyn Wallace- UQ Animal Ethics CommitteePG | 84

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010QBI StaffDirector,Queensland Brain InstituteProfessor Perry BartlettMr Geoffrey OsborneDr Judith ReinhardProfessor Linda RichardsDr Robert HesterProfessor Brent ReynoldsDr Dana Bradford (began September)Dr Arne Brombas (began March)Dr Stanley Chan (finished August)Dr David Kvaskoff (began June)Mr Nikolai LiebschMs Tien LuuDeputy Director (Research)Professor Pankaj SahProfessor Mandyam SrinivasanAssoc. Professor Bruno vanSwinderenConjoint AppointmentsDr Lawrence Sanjay NandamDr Meiyun Chang-SmithDr Min Chen (began February)Dr Allen CheungDr Marie MangelsdorfDr Sally Marshall (began March)Dr Vikki Marshall (began April)Deputy Director (Operations)John KellyProfessor David VaneyDr Robyn WallaceAssoc. Professor Stephen WilliamsHonorary ProfessorsProfessor David AdamsProfessor Mary GaleaDr Tsyr-Huei ChiouDr Robert ColvinDr James Crane (finished June)Dr Natasha MatthewsDr Dusan Matusica (began February)Dr Michael Milford (finished February)Director,Centre for Advanced ImagingProfessor David ReutensFacultyAssoc. Professor Mark BellgroveDr Timothy BredyDr Thomas Burne (AdjunctAppointment)Dr Charles ClaudianosAssoc. Professor Helen CooperDr Elizabeth Coulson*Assoc. Professor Ross CunningtonDr Darryl Eyles (AdjunctAppointment)Dr Louise FaberProfessor Geoffrey GoodhillDr Massimo HilliardProfessor Joe LynchProfessor Justin MarshallProfessor Jason MattingleyProfessor John McGrath (AdjunctAppointment)Professor Huji Xu (Began Sep)* Promoted to Assoc. Professor,effective 01 January 2011University of Queensland AffiliatesProfessor Andrew BoydProfessor Matthew BrownProfessor Chen ChenProfessor Shaun CollinProfessor Wayne HallProfessor Ottmar LippProfessor Daniel MarkovichDr Sean MillardDr Peter NoakesDr Marc RuitenbergDr Ethan ScottProfessor Peter SilburnProfessor Walter ThomasDr Guy WallisProfessor Janet WilesAdjunct AppointmentsDr Marta Bortoletto (beganSeptember)Professor Dexter IrvineProfessor Tianzi JiangProfessor Gisela Kaplan (began July)Professor Nicholas Martin (beganJune)Professor Hideyuki OkanaProfessor Lesley Rogers (began July)Professor Seong-Seng TanProfessor Charles WatsonProfessor Huji Xu (began July, finishedAugust)Honorary Research ConsultantAssoc. Professor Christine WellsIndustry FellowsProfessor David GearingPostdoctoral FellowsDr Natalie AlexopoulosDr Daniel AngusDr Eleonora Autuori (began July)Dr David BallDr Guy BarryDr Alexandre CristinoDr Xiaoying CuiDr Tarrant Cummins (beganNovember)Dr Angela DeanDr Andrew Delaney (finished July)Dr Kirsty Dixon (began April)Dr Kevin Dudley (began April)Dr Richard Faville (began May)Dr Traute Flatscher-BaderDr Isabel FormellaDr Thomas FothergillDr Kerstin Fritsches (began January,finished September)Dr Jacob Gratten (began May)Dr Adam HamlinDr Angus Harding (finished August)Dr Jill HarrisDr Ziarih Hawi (began March)Dr Julia Hocking (finished May)Dr Martin HowDr Matthew Ireland (finished May)Dr Dhanisha JhaveriDr Vilija Jokubaitis (began March)Dr Randal MoldrichDr Pascal MolenberghDr Duncan MortimerDr Brent NeumannDr Tam NguyenDr Cathrin NourseDr Shona OsborneDr Angelique PaulkDr Vincenzo PignatelliDr Michael PiperDr John PowerDr Zlatko PujicDr Martin Sale (began February)Dr Qiang ShanDr Benjamin Sivyer (began March)Dr Jay SpampanatoDr Mark SpanevelloDr Peter StrattonDr Robert SullivanDr Jinjun Sun (began May, finishedNovember)Dr Alex Sykes (finished April)Dr Chanel Taylor (began July)Assoc. Professor Frederic MeunierProfessor Bryan Mowry (AdjunctAppointment)Dr James Crane (began July)Dr Andrew Delaney (began July)Dr Geoffery ErickssonDr Denis Bauer (began April)Dr Oliver BaumannDr Daniel BlackmoreDr Marianne Keller (finished January)Dr Angelo Keramidas (began March)Dr Benjamin Kottler (began March)Research AssistantsSuzanne AlexanderJohn BaisdenPG | 85

QBI StaffDanay Baker-Andressen (beganSeptember)Debra Black (finished July)Daniel BlandNatalie BlandClement Bonini (began August)Catherine Bryant (finished July)Tim ButlerSean Coakley (finished June)Dr Carlos Magalhaes CoelhoEmma Collier-Baker (began July)Tarrant Cummins (finished November)Dr Joanne Daniels (began March,finished September)Oliver Evans (finished May)Cheryl FilippichBrett Fisher (finished July)Kathryn French (finished May)Kelly Garner (began March)Alan GoldizenRachel GormalKylie Greig (began March)Nivetha Gunasekaran (began June)Justine HaddrillMelanie Havler (finished March)Sophie HillGeorg KerblerRobert Kerr (finished June)James KesbyLeonie KirszenblatDiana KleinePauline KoTamara Koudijs (finished April)Beatrice Large (finished August)Casey LintonErica Little (finished August)Pei-Yun Liu (began November)David LloydPoh-Lynn Low (began January)Eirinn Mackay (finished June)Timothy MartinEva McClure (began October)Eliza Middleton (finished May)Rebecca Morely (began October)Deborah Nertney (began June)Estella NewcombeKatherine Noakes (finished March)Nickless PalstraThomas Pollak (finished March)Kalpana Patel (began April)Divya PattabiramanMatthew PelekanosThomas PollakGregory Robinson (began September)Janelle Scown (finished August)Petra SedlakHenry SimilaHeather SmithDean SoccolSophie TajouriAndrew ThompsonSaul ThurrowgoodKatherine Truong (began July)Karly TurnerJoseph WagnerDianne WalkerWilliam Warhurst (began March)Wei WeiSimon Weiler (began May, finishedAugust)Peter Wen (began December)Oressia Zalucki (finished October)StudentsSamuel Baker (began March)Danay Baker-Andressen (beganDecember)Jessica BarnesAnna Bode (began December)Danakai Bradford (finished August)Kathleen Cato (finished August)Conor ChampCharlotte ClarkSean Coakley (began June)Lavinia CoddHayley CoxPeter CurbyMelissa de VriesChristine DixonAmber-Lee DonahooJiaxin DuRanmalee Eramudugolla (beganFebruary)Claire FoldiClare GiacomantonioIlan GobiusHelen GoochVeronika Halasz (began February)Lu HanLauren Harms (finished November)Callista Harper (began February)Shao-Chang Huang (began July)Jonathan Hunt (finished September)Md Robiul IslamBenjamin Kamien (began February,finished August)Sepideh KeshavarziInga LaubeSha LiuTimothy LynaghNancy MalintanRoger MarekElizabeth Mason (began March)Sharon MasonLinda MayRichard MooreJohn MorrisRamesh NarayananThai Vinh NguyenTruong Giang NguyenNavid Nourani VataniDavid PainterAjay PanwarSimandeep Poonian (began June)Miguel Renteria Rodriguez (finishedMarch)Amanda Robinson (began March)Sumiti SaharanHugh SimpsonBenjamin Sivyer (finished February)Daniel StjepanovicCornelia StrobelFreda TalaoGavin TaylorVanesa Tomatis (began July)Qian WangPeter Wen (finished September)Rebecca Williams (began June)Jiajia YuanOressia Zalucki (began November)Yian ZhuNikki Zuvela (finished March)Masters of NeuroscienceZoran BoscovicCheng-Liang ChiouBrett FisherBeomjun KimDi XiaShanzhi YanHon Wai YapInstitute ManagerHelen WeirRay Johnson (maternity leave cover)Institute Operations ManagerIan Duncan (finished December)Research ManagementSenior Research Manager –Rowan TweedaleGrants and Postgraduate Coordinator –Dr Sylvie PichelinCommercialisationAnnita NugentLaboratory SupportScientific Services Manager –Clare SeamanJudy BracefieldJane EllisLuke HammondMaureen KearneyColin MacqueenNicholas NacsaVirginia NinkPG | 86

Queensland Brain Institute Annual Report 2010QBI StaffLida Stjepcevic (finished August)Nana SunnJanette ZlamalJohn WilsonOccupational Health and SafetyRoss DixonInformation TechnologyIT Manager –Jake CarrollPhillip GeorgeToby O’BrienSpecial Projects and EventsAlison van NiekerkCommunicationsAnna Bednarek (finished October)Peter Cook (finished November)Denise Cullen (began December)Ron Hohenhaus (finished May)Dee McGrathDevelopment and CommunityRelationsJenny ValentineHuman ResourcesBrooke Ellem (began September)Samantha Leblang (finished August)Jackie PerrenFinance and StoreFinance Manager –Katherine ParsonageWade EbelingMichael PerrenElizabeth PowerNathan WeirTechnical ServicesTechnical Services Manager –David WheeldonAdam BarryBrandon Horne (began June)Personal Assistant to the DirectorDeirdre WilsonAdministrative SupportBrenda CampbellSuzanne CampbellSarah Eagle (began December)Susan EarnshawLesley GreenBen Kelly (began November)Rhonda Lyons (finished November)Kym Mayes (began September)Debra McMurtrieCharmaine PaivaReeza Palamoodu NazerAmelia SahElizabeth WattsJill Wardropper (began May)Right: (L-R) QBI’s Special Projects and Events Manager Mrs Alison van Niekerk, Deputy Director(Operations) Mr John Kelly and Institute Manager Mrs Helen WeirPG | 87

In AppreciationResearchers at the Queensland Brain Instituteare dedicated to unlocking the mysteriesof neurodegenerative diseases and mentalhealth disorders, which currently accountfor a staggering 45 per cent of the burden ofdisease in Australia.By improving the understanding of thefundamental mechanisms that regulatebrain function, QBI researchers are workingto develop new, more effective therapeutictreatments for conditions such as dementia,stroke, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosisand neurotrauma.QBI relies on both public and privatedonations to continue its research programsand is therefore grateful for the support andgenerosity of its benefactors.How to support the Queensland Brain InstituteDonationsThere are many ways in which you can helpsupport QBI’s research effort, including:- Make a donation for a specificresearch area- Purchase scientific equipment- Fund scholarships for talentedstudents- Provide fellowships for early- tomid- career scientists- Sponsor Professorial Chairs- Undertake laboratory dedications- Provide gifts in memoriamBequestsBy leaving a bequest to QBI in your will, youare leaving a lasting legacy that acceleratescurrent research and preserves futureprojects. Bequests can include:- A percentage of an estate- The residuary of an estate (whatremains after all other gifts andcosts have been deducted)- A gift of a specific sum of money- A particular asset, such asproperty, works of art, shares,or an insurance policyUnder current legislation, gifts to theQueensland Brain Institute are taxdeductible. To discuss how you cansupport the Institute, please contact us at:Queensland Brain InstituteBuilding #79, Upland RoadThe University of QueenslandSt Lucia QLD 4072Telephone: +61 7 3346 6300Facsimile: +61 7 3346 6301Email: development@qbi.uq.edu.auWebsite: www.qbi.uq.edu.auPG | 88

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