The Qin and Han Dynasties

The Qin and Han Dynasties

The Qin and HanDynastiesChapter 5 Section 3

Key Terms/People/Places• Key Terms:• Acupuncture:• A medical treatment using herbs and needles to cure illnesses andease pain• Key People:• Qin Shihuangdi• Liu Bang• Han Wudi• Key Places:• Guangzhou• Silk Road• Luoyang

Emperor Qin Shihuangdi• 400 B.C. to 200 B.C.• Period of Warring States• Unrest and violence throughout China• Kings and nobles fighting amongst each other for power• 221 B.C., Ruler of Qin state conquers neighboring states• The Qin ruler declares himself• Qin Shihuangdi• “The First Qin Emperor”

Biography• 3 rd Base Partner• Read the Biography onPage 297• Complete “Then andNow”• Qin’s great successes:• Defeating rival states• Reorganizing the country• Making uniform lawsand taxes• Standardizing weightsand measurements• Building grand structures• What did Qin do toobtain his successes?• Heavy taxes• Forced labor• Great cost of buildingsto glorify Qin Shihuangdi

Biography Continued• Discuss the following question:• What kinds of responsibilities do you have?• How old was Ying Zheng when he came to power?• What were his responsibilities at age 13?

Powerful Ruler• Qin based his rule on Legalism• Everyone who opposed him was punished or killed• Books opposing his views were burned• Central government became stronger than ever• Appointed censors:• Made sure everyone did their job• 2 nd in power to central government• Provinces• Counties• Posts were filled by Qin• Under Zhou – passed from father to son

Powerful Ruler• Unified China• Created one currency• Money used throughout the entire empire• Construction:• Roads• Huge canal• Connected Chang Jiang to central China• Guangzhou• Shipped supplies to troops in far-off territories

Great Wall• Northern China bordered by Gobi Desert• Inhabited by nomads (Xiongnu)• Masters at fighting on horseback• Attacked Chinese villages and farms• Chinese rulers built walls to keep them out• Qin Shihuangdi• forced farmers to stop farming• work on connecting and strengthening the walls• Result = Great Wall of China• Stone• Piled rubble• Sand• Great Wall we know today is a different one built 1,500 years later

Rebellion• People became angry at Qin Shihuangdi• Why did people hate him?• Aristocrats power was reduced• Scholars books were burned• Farmers were forced to build the wall• 4 years after his death, civil war• Dynasty overthrown• New dynasty arose

Check• Why did Qin face little opposition during most of his reign?• He killed or punished anyone who opposed him.• Who viewed Qin Shihuangdi as a cruel ruler?• Aristocrats, scholars, and farmers viewed Qin Shihuangdi as acruel ruler.• What philosophy did the Qin rulers base their harsh rule on?• The Qin rulers based their harsh rule on the Chinese philosophyof Legalism.

Han Dynasty• 202 B.C., Liu Bang founded Han dynasty• Peasant became military leader• Defeated rivals• Declared himself:• Han Gaozu• Exalted Emperor of Han• Threw out harsh policies of Qin• Continued to use censors• Divided empire into• Provinces• Counties

Civil Service• Han dynasty reached peak under• Han Wudi: “Martial Emperor of Han”• Ruled 141 B.C. to 87 B.C.• Wanted talented people to fill government posts• Job seekers took long difficult tests• Highest scores got jobs• Tests became civil service examinations• System used for 2,00 years• Allowed anyone with right skills to get government jobs• Actually favored only rich – wealthy could afford education needed

Civil Service• Test preparation, students learned:• Law• History• Teachings of Confucius• Official teachings of empire• Memorized works of Confucius at age 7• After many years of study, students took test• 1 in 5 passed• Those who failed• Taught in schools• Worked as assistants to officials• Supported by their family

Civil Service Test QuestionsAmerica• Many jobs in America require a Civil Service Test• Police Officer• Postal Worker• Firefighter

Sample Question• Officers who use pepper spray to disperse a crowd should do thefollowing:• 1. Warn other officers that pepper spray is about to be deployed.• 2. Order the crowd to disperse.• 3. Take a position upwind of the crowd.• 4. Direct the spray into the crowd while continuing to order them todisperse.• 5. Provide first aid to anyone who is overcome by the spray.• 2. Officers Brady, Dion, and Rodriguez are called to the scene of a largefight in front of Omar’s Grill. When they arrive, they see around 15adult males bunched up in the parking lot punching each other. OfficerDion pulls out his canister of pepper spray. What should he do next?• A. Order the crowd to stop fighting.• B. Warn the other two officers that he’s about to spray the crowd.• C. Warn the crowd that he has pepper spray.• D. Stand downwind of the crowd before spraying.• The correct answer is B

Sample Question• 3. Officers Perez and Navarro arrive at City Hall to find a mobrocking Mayor Dickson’s car back and forth in the street.Officer Navarro shouts to Officer Perez that he is going to usehis pepper spray. What should he do next?• A. Shout to the crowd to disperse.• B. Stand downwind of the crowd.• C. Warn the crowd that pepper spray is about to be deployed.• D. Stand upwind of the crowd before using the spray.

Chinese Empire Grows• Large bureaucracyneeded• Empire rapidlygrowing• 20 million under HanGaozu• 60 million under HanWudi• Chinese agriculturethrived• Problems develop• Farmers died – landdivided among sons• Land owned becomessmaller and smaller• Middle of Han dynastyaverage farmer owns 1acre• Families could notraise enough to live• Families sell land toaristocrats

Chinese Empire Grows• After selling farms, farmers become tenant farmers• Farmers work on land owned by someone else• Pay rent with crops• Aristocrats own thousands of acres• Become wealthy• Peasants become trapped in poverty

Chinese Empire Grows• Empire grows in size• Han armies add land• to the south• Westward• Made country more secure• Drove back Xiongnu• China remained in peace for 150 years

Chinese Empire Grows• New literature and art appear• Literature:• Recording history• New histories of current events• Made copies of old literature• Art changed• Earlier periods = religious work for kings and nobles• Art were created for wealthy families• Carvings in tombs• Scenes of every day life and historical events• Decorated products of silk

Chinese Empire Grows• Filial Piety grew during Han dynasty• Ideas of Confucius spread and became popular• Stability of government strengthened family ties• New scholar class had great influence over government• Family life and daily life remained the same

An Era of Inventions• Han Dynasty helped Chinese Workers produce more goodsand manufacture more products than ever• Inventions:• Millers invented waterwheels to grind more grain• Miners invented iron drill bits to mine more salt• Ironworkers invented steel• Paper was used by government workers• Chinese Medicine:• Discovered that certain foods can cure illnesses• Acupuncture• Merchants developed the rudder• Able to steer ship.• Allowed merchants to sail into Indian Ocean and trade as far asthe Mediterranean Sea

Check• Which inventions helped Chinese society during the Handynasty?• Waterwheels, iron drill bits, steel, paper, acupuncture, and therudder helped Chinese society during the Han dynasty.• What Han dynasty test was used to find the best governmentofficials?• The Han dynasty used civil servant examinations to find the bestgovernment officials.

Silk Road• Carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome• Use by Chinese merchants• Made a lot of money shipping expensive items• Silk was the most valuable• Some went by ship• Most went by land

Silk RoadBeginnings• Trading along Silk Road began under Han Wudi• Sent General Zhang Qian to explore areas west of China• Sent to find allies against enemies, Xiognu• 13 years later, Zhang returned• Failed to find allies• Discovered a kingdom in modern day Kazakhstan• Horses of exceptional size and strength• Wudi was delighted• Emperor encouraged trade for horses• Horses to be used with cavalry to fight Xiognu• Result:• Silk Road• Large network of trade routes stretching 4,000 miles• Western China to southwest Asia (Mesopotamia)

Using Geography Skills• Turn to Page 301 in your book• Look at the map and key• Answer the following questions:• 1. Movement: What were some trade goods produced by China• 2. Region: What regions were near or along the route of the Silk Road?• 3. Geography Skills: What physical features do the other trade routes shownon the map follow?• 3. What was it about the Silk Road that made it difficult for one person totravel the entire route?• Answers:• 1. Silk, cinnamon, ginger, copper, and gold were trade goods produced byChina.• 2. China, Tibet, Persia, and Arabia were regions near or along the route of theSilk Road.• 3. The other trade routes follow rivers, seas, bays, and overland.• 4. It was difficult for one person to travel the entire route because the routewas long and went through many types of land, including mountains anddeserts.

Silk Road• Merchants used camels to travel across• Deserts• Mountains• Arabs carried goods to Mediterranean Sea• The trip was dangerous and expensive• Silk Road was broken up into smaller segments:• Each segment traveled by different merchants• Terrain was so difficult and changed so much over entire road• High snowy mountains• Vast deserts• Long regions of rocky land• Rivers• Long plains to cross

Silk Road• Merchants:• Traveled part of journey• Sold their goods to someone else• Goods passed from one person to another until they got to theMediterranean Sea• Paid taxes as they went through each kingdom• Each person who bought goods charged a higher price to the nextperson• Only high-priced items were carried:• Silk• Spices• Tea• Porcelain• Earned great wealth

Impact of Silk Road• The Silk Road broughtthe Chinese in contactwith other civilizations:• Merchants traveled bysea came in contact withcivilizations in:• Southeast Asia• Southern India• Egypt• Trade led to theexchange of:• Ideas• Different goods• Food• Technology• Items traded along thesilk road:• Fruit• China sent peaches andpears to India• Vegetables• India sent spinach toChina• Flowers and other plants• India sent cotton toChina• Grains• Technology:• Paper

Check• Why was travel on the Silk Road difficult?• The terrain of the Silk Road was difficult and ever changing.• Why did merchants carry mostly expensive goods on the SilkRoad?• Merchants carried mostly expensive goods on the Silk Roadbecause only expensive goods could be sold for enough money tomake a profit.

Major Changes• Unrest in China helped Buddhism spread• A.D. 100s, teachers and merchants brought Buddhism to China• At first only scholars were interested• In time, Buddhism became very popular• After the collapse of the Han dynasty• Emperors after Han Wudi were weak and foolish• Central government lost respect and power• Aristocrats grabbed more land and wealth• Dishonest officials and greedy aristocrats caused unrest among farmers• A.D. 190, rebel army attacked Han capital, Luoyang• A.D. 220, China is in a civil war• Northern nomads invade• People feel unsafe• Buddhist ideas helped people cope with stress and fears• A.D. 400s, Buddhism is popular in China

Check• What groups in China were the first to adopt Buddhism?• Merchants and scholars were the first in China to adoptBuddhism.• Why did Buddhism become popular in China?• Buddhism became popular in China because the governmentcollapsed and a civil war made the people feel unsafe.

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