Eye Tracking Technology - Cerebral Palsy Alliance

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Eye Tracking Technology - Cerebral Palsy Alliance

TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011A LOOK AT EYE TRACKING TECHNOLOGYExplanation of terms:Currently there is no agreed standardised terminology for the terms used in relation to eye gaze/tracking. For the purposes of thisarticle, TASC has defined and used the following terminology:Eye gaze (or simply gaze) refers to the use of the eyes to point to a photo, symbol or object in the real world, on a page or on acomputer screen.Eye tracking in Assistive Technology refers to a system that enables access to computers and Speech Generating Devices (SGDs).Eye tracking or eye control is ‘high-tech’ eye gaze and should not be confused with ‘low-tech’ eye gaze, which is also called eyepointing. Eye pointing refers to a person communicating, making choices and indicating by looking at words, symbols, picturesor objects in the real world, as opposed to eye tracking which enables access to a computer.For information on eye pointing, please contact TASC.Background“Eye tracking in assistive technology refers to the measurement of gaze (where are we looking) by a deviceattached to a computer.” (COGAIN 2011)Eye tracking systems can seem like the answer to the access issues of clients who have previously had difficulty accessing computersand speech generating devices. Sometimes this is the case, but unfortunately, the people who are most in need of this technologycan also present the most challenges when trying to make eye tracking work.Careful system selection, planning, goal setting, positioning, technical support and trial is essential to ensure that the user is ableto get the best possible outcome from using any eye tracking system.In 2007, TASC completed a comparison of the eye tracking systems that were available at that time. Since then, there has been asteady growth in the number of people using eye tracking and there have been some changes in the choice of systems that areavailable on the Australian market. TASC has reviewed each available system and provided a summary of the information in thefollowing tables.TASC has divided the currently available systems into two categories:1. Integrated eye tracking systems that will only work with a specific speech generating device2. Stand-alone systems that can be used across a broader range of software and hardware choices.The purpose of this article is to assist people to understand more about eye tracking systems, to outline some principles ofassessment when looking at eye tracking and to provide detailed information about each system that will help people featurematchthe most appropriate system to meet the end user’s needs.At the time of writing, most systems had a 6-12 month waiting time to trial for two weeks. For this reason, it is important thatcareful preparation and consideration is given to the way that the eye tracking system will be used during the trial and carefulconsideration should be made regarding which system to trial.Eye tracking systems are very expensive and as a result, clear justification is required in order to apply for funding. In order to assistwith this justification and to ensure that you are ready for a trial of a device before one is arranged, please refer to the table onthe following page which details the functional skills and abilities which are recommended to be established prior to eye trackingassessment and/or device trial.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU2


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONSAssessing a client’s ability to use eye tracking as an access method can be difficult, especially for a therapist who has limitedexperience in using an eye tracking system and/or limited experience in working with speech generating devices. There are manyconsiderations including clinical and technical issues that must be addressed in order to ensure that a valid and reliable assessmentof the client is able to be completed.For general information and assistance on the process to follow when completing an eye tracking assessment, please see the webbasedresource from the COGAIN website: http://www.cogain.org/w/images/5/5a/Assessment.pdfTASC can provide a handout to support therapists should some specific information on step-by-step considerations for what toconsider in an eye tracking assessment be required. A thorough eye tracking assessment is essential when applying for funding asclear assessment and clinical reasoning will be required in order for an eye tracking system to be funded.WHAT IS ACCURACY WHEN TALKING ABOUT EYE TRACKING?Generally, accuracy refers to the ability of the system to know where the eyes are actually looking. Accuracy of eyetracking may be affected by the quality of calibration, vision issues, eye variations, background/ambient lighting (especiallyincandescent bulbs and sunlight), head movement, the quality of the eye tracking system, and many other factors.The accuracy of a system when used by each client should be investigated and tested by the therapist during assessmentand trial of eye tracking systems. It should be noted that there are ways of compensating for poor accuracy onmost systems, so contact a specialist technology service or the supplier of the system. Also refer to the resources at:http://www.cogain.org/wiki/User_Involvement_Exemplars_GridsBACK-UP ACCESSAs with most technology, eye tracking is not completely reliable as an access method and there are environmental factors (especiallysunlight), and technological difficulties (software and hardware failure) that will mean that the user may not always be able toaccess their device or computer using their eye tracking system. TASC recommends that a back-up low-tech option is availablewhen eye tracking is used for the person to access communication and that an alternative computer access method is available forthose who use eye tracking to access a computer.LEARNING HOW TO USE EYE TRACKINGSome users of eye tracking systems who have no difficulties with calibration, cognitive abilities within normal limits and who canfollow complex instructions are able to learn to use eye tracking for basic access to a communication grid within a single therapysession, however for clients who have limited attention span, complex issues with their eyes, difficulty following instructions, and/or cognitive impairment, they may take much longer to learn how to use eye tracking or they may have difficulty learning to useeye tracking as a functional access method.This process of teaching a client how to use eye tracking may not be possible in trial circumstances as it may require the availabilityof an eye tracking system over a long period of time and the regular involvement of a therapist with experience in the teaching ofthe skill of eye tracking. Loans of eye tracking systems are usually limited to two or four weeks and for some users, this may not besufficient time to establish whether they have the capacity to use a system functionally.There is currently no research available regarding the age or level of cognition required to be able to functionally access eyetracking, however, TASC has experience in implementing eye tracking systems with clients as young as three years old who havebeen assessed as having a cognitive ability in the normal range.Once the functional skills and prerequisites for eye tracking have been established and clear goals have been set, the followingtable(s) can be used as a resource to match your client and their needs to the most suitable device. If you require support in thisfeature-matching process, it is recommended to consult with a specialist assistive technology service. Suppliers of eye trackingsystems may also be able to assist.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU4


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011HOW DOES IT WORK?The most common techniques used to track eye movements are called Pupil Centre Corneal Reflection (PCCR) or dark pupilinfrared illumination. These techniques are non-intrusive and both options use a light source to illuminate the eye enabling aspecial camera to track the movements and positions of the eye. The illumination is near infrared and therefore unnoticeableto the user but creates patterns on the cornea and/or pupil of the eye that can be tracked by image sensors that are usedto capture images of the eyes and the infrared patterns. A computer then uses advanced image processing algorithmsand a physiological 3D model of the eye to calculate the position of the eye in space and then estimate the point of gaze.Adapted From www.userfirst.comMOUNTING AND POSITIONINGMounting of any device is important, but for eye tracking, it is essential. In order to maintainaccuracy of a system, it needs to be held still.In order to enable a user to access all eye tracking systems that are currently available, the screenof the system needs to be parallel to the plane of the user’s face and at eye level. Furthermore, thesystem needs to be generally 50-60cm from the user’s face. For clients who are able to sit uprightand can access a desk, this means that mounting is fairly straightforward as the system can be setup on a desk stand or desk clamp mounting arm.For clients who need their eye tracking system to be portable, there are a number of significantchallenges for mounting. Firstly, the weight and required positioning of the device means that eyetracking systems CANNOT be mounted on paediatric manual wheelchairs, strollers or any form ofwalking or standing frame. Care should be taken and stability testing should be carried out whenattaching eye tracking systems to adult manual wheelchairs and paediatric powered wheelchairsas there is a chance that the weight and position of the device when mounted to the chair couldcompromise the balance and structure of the wheelchair. Careful attention needs to be paid toweight limits of the wheelchair also.Even when the device can be securely attached to a wheelchair, the stability is tested and the clientis able to use the device when it is attached to the wheelchair, careful monitoring needs to becarried out on the mounting as significant strain can be placed on the mounting system over time.TASC has known of several bolts in eye tracking mounting systems that have needed to be replacedafter a few months of use as they were at risk of failing.For clients who want or need to access eye tracking in bed, when reclined or in a tilt-in-space posture, positioning a device canbe difficult (diagrams from ECOPoint Manual). For example, if a user is lying in bed, then the device needs to be mounted directlyabove their head and (depending on the device) 40cm-60cm away from their face with the device tilted so that the screen facesdirectly down. This position may not be able to be achieved with desk mounts or standard rolling or over-bed mounts.SUMMARYDue to the complexity of eye tracking systems and the considerations around calibration, mounting/positioning, portability,language system, accuracy, lighting issues, selection methods, and user skill, it recommended that assessment and trial of anyeye tracking system is completed with the support of a person who is experienced in dealing with such a system. TASC canprovide support to therapists in NSW and ACT who are interested in looking at eye tracking with their clients either remotely andconsultatively or through specialist assessment.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU5


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011SPEECH GENERATING DEVICES WITH EYE TRACKING ACCESSECOpoint EyeMax MyTobii P10 CEyeDescriptionThe ECOpoint enableseye tracking access tothe Liberator-14 (nolonger available, upgraderequired to use eyetracking), ECO2 andEssence ECO2.The Liberator-14, ECO2and Essence ECO2 aretablet computers / speechgenerating devicesrunning Word Core, Unityand Essence languagesystems.The DynaVox EyeMaxenables eye trackingaccess to the Vmax (1GBRAM required) or Vmax+.The Vmax (old model,still available for saleat reduced price) andVmax+ (latest model)are tablet computers /speech generating devicesrunning DynaVox Series 5software.It is recommended bysuppliers to use theVmax+ High Performancewith the EyeMax.The My Tobii P10 is a fullyintegrated eye trackingtablet computer andspeech generating device.The P10 can bepackaged with the TobiiCommunicator languagesystem or can run otherWindows software suchas The Grid 2 (purchaseseparately).The Tobii CEye enableseye tracking access to theTobii C12 and C15.The C12 and C15are tablet computers/ speech generatingdevices running the TobiiCommunicator (premiumedition) language system.The devices also comewith Sono Suite softwareor can run other Windowssoftware such as TheGrid 2 (additional cost oroption).System Specifications/HardwareOperating System Windows XPWindows XP Pro (Vmax)Windows XP Windows 7The ECOpoint eyetracking unit has its ownmicroprocessor to limit thesystem resources it drawsfrom the device.Windows 7 (Vmax+)The CEye has a microprocessorinside that runsindependently to thedevice.HardwareIntel 1.6GHz Atomprocessor2GB RAM (ECO2)1GB RAM (Essence ECO2)Vmax+ High Performance:Intel Atom 1.6GHz DualCore processor1GB RAMIntel 1.5GHz processor1GB RAM80 GB HDDIntel Core Duo U2500processor2GB RAM60 GB HDD60 GB HDD (solid state)160GB HDDDimension 33.5 x 28.5 x 7.4cm 32 x 25 x 7.6cm 36 x 36.5 x 11cm 31.2 x 26.4 x 4.6cm C1237 x 30 x 5.7cm C15Screen Size 14.1 inch (35.8cm) 12.1 inch (30.7cm) 15 inch (38.1cm) 12.1 inch (30.8cm) C1215 inch (38.1cm) C15Weight0.65kg ECOPoint1kg EyeMax5.3 kg 0.7kg CEye3.1kg ECO2/EssenceECO23.75kg total3.12kg Vmax/Vmax+4.12kg total2.9kg C12 or4.1kg C153.6 or 4.8kg totalCEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU6


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011System Specifications/Hardware (cont.)Battery Life Up to 6 hours ofcontinuous use.ECOpoint EyeMax MyTobii P10 CEyeUp to 6 hours continuoususe.No internal battery5 hours with standardbattery.SpeakersAccess and CalibrationCamera/TrackingmethodTrack 1 or 2 eyes(binocular)Visual feedback ofeye imageECOpoint runs off devicebattery and may shortenbattery life.Amplified speakers withinthe ECO2 / Essence ECO2Video, dark pupil, infraredillumination. Two HDinfrared cameras and twoinfrared LED arrays withover 50 LEDs in each array.Binocular or individual eyetracking.Yes. Available in the “eyetrack status menu”. Canalso be set to display inan optional sub menuwindow.EyeMax has own batterythat needs charging aswell as Vmax/Vmax+.Amplified speakers withinthe Vmax/Vmax+.Video, dark pupil, infraredillumination. Single IRCamera and dual IR arrays.Binocular or individual eyetracking.Yes. Available in “eyetrackstatus” menu.Not able to always bedisplayed. Two lights onEyeMax indicate whetheruser is in range.Amplified speakersintegrated in the P10monitor.Video, dark pupil, infraredillumination. Two built-ininfrared cameras tracka video image of eyemovements. The P10 hasfour infra-red arrays, oneach corner of the screenBinocular or individual eyetracking.Yes. Eye track status canbe set up as a floatingwindow which appearsover other applicationsand is always available inthe calibration options.CEye runs off devicebattery and may shortenbattery life.Amplified speakers withinthe C12/C15.Video, dark pupil, infraredillumination.Binocular or individual eyetracking.Yes. Eye track statusimage not alwaysdisplayed, but available inthe calibration options.Optimal workingposition of systemFace must be 50-64cmfrom the device and withina box 35 × 32.5 ×20 cm(HxWxD)Face must be 43-71cmfrom the device andwithin a box 15.2 × 23.9× 27.9cm (HxWxD)Face must be from 50-70cm from the device andwithin a box 15 × 30 ×20cm (HxWxD)Face must be 50–70cmfrom the device and withina box 30 × 40 × 20cm(HxWxD)Selection methods••Blink••Dwell••Switch••Blink••Dwell••Dwell/Blink combined••Switch••Blink••Dwell••Switch••Blink••Dwell••SwitchAdditional accessoptions••Touch Screen••Mouse or mousealternative••Switch Access (1 or 2switches)••Inbuilt head mouse(Tracker inside) –Additional cost••Touch Screen••Mouse or mousealternative••Switch Access (1 or 2switches)••Touch screen••Mouse or Mousealternative••Switch access (up to 4switches)••Touch screen••Mouse or mousealternative••Switch access (1 or 2switches)Calibration(Number oftargets andadjustabilityof calibrationactivity to userneeds)Calibration is fixed at 5targets; however targetspeed can be calibrated.The target image and sizecannot be adjusted.Number of targets: 5,9, 16 (the more targetsused in calibration, thebetter the quality of thecalibration). Targets canbe a picture or animatedimage. The picture canbe set to move slowly(or quickly) between thecalibration targets.Number of targets: 2, 5, 9(the more targets used incalibration, the better thequality of the calibration).Size of targets, targetimage and speed of targetmoving (fast or slow)between calibration pointscan all be adjusted.Number of targets: 2, 5, 9(the more targets used incalibration, the better thequality of the calibration).Size of targets, targetimage and speed of targetmoving (fast or slow)between calibration pointscan all be adjusted.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU7


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011Access and Calibration (cont.)Ability to turneye tracking on/off independentlyand/or changeaccess methodECOpoint EyeMax MyTobii P10 CEyeUser can pause and restarteye tracking by lookingat a point off the top ofthe screen in the centre.Users can also swap accessmethods independentlyeither through aprogrammed button orthrough the accessiblemenu.A button can beprogrammed on thedevice to enable thepausing of the eyetracking selection.A button can beprogrammed forswapping access methods.Can be pausedindependently by lookingoff the bottom of thescreen. A button canbe programmed forswapping access methods.Can be pausedindependently by lookingoff the bottom of thescreen. A button canbe programmed forswapping access methodsThe ECOpoint was theonly eye tracking devicewith options menus thatare easily accessible usingeye tracking.Tolerance to User/Environmental ConditionTolerance to headmovementTolerance toambient light/sunlight*Tolerance toglasses/contactlensesAccommodationto human eyevariations**Subjectively, the ECOpointcoped well with headmovement once calibratedand accuracy wasmaintained with a broadrange of head positionchanges within theoptimal working positionarea.Will not work outdoors.Sunlight through windowsand incandescent bulbswill affect accuracy.Reported to work wellin most cases. Settingsare available for Diopterstrength of glasses tocompensate (range 0-6).Reported to work well inmost cases.Subjectively, the EyeMaxappeared to have somedifficulty in maintainingaccuracy when the user’shead position changed,even within the optimumworking position ofthe device. Some (ablebodied) testers haddifficulty achieving a goodcalibration score, whichaffected accuracy.Will not work outdoors.Sunlight through windowsand incandescent bulbswill affect accuracy.Reported as variable. Nospecific setting available inoptions. Supplier reportsthat this device copesbetter with glasses thansome others, in theirexperience.Reported to work well inmost cases.Subjectively, theP10 coped well withhead movement andmaintained accuracy verywell once calibrated ifthe user moved, tilted orrotated their head withinthe large optimal workingposition area.Reported to work wellunder varying lightconditions. Testingindicates that it will notwork outdoors on a brightday even in the shade.Sunlight through windowsand incandescent bulbswill affect accuracy.Reported as variable.Settings available foradjustment to differentlenses (including bifocals)Reported to work well inmost cases. Supplier hasreported difficulties withnystagmus due to thevery high sensitivity of thecamera and sensors.Subjectively, theCEye coped well withhead movement andmaintained accuracy verywell once calibrated ifthe user moved, tilted orrotated their head withinthe large optimal workingposition area.Reported to work wellunder varying lightconditions. Testingindicates that it will notwork outdoors on a brightday even in the shade.Sunlight through windowsand incandescent bulbswill affect accuracy.Reported as variable.Settings available foradjustment to differentlenses (including bifocals).Supplier reports that intheir experience, the CEyecan struggle to pick up theeye through glasses.Reported to work well inmost cases.* All eye tracking systems can be affected by lighting such as strong sunlight or Incandescent lighting.** Certain eye dysfunctions and eye movement disorders may make eye tracking impossible or very difficult.References: 1. Spectronics Eye Gaze Comparison Chart: http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/eyegazetracking-system-comparison-chart.2. COGAIN Website : www.cogain.orgCEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU8


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011Additional FeaturesEnvironmentalcontrolMounting/PortabilityECOpoint EyeMax MyTobii P10 CEyeInbuilt in all models ofECO••DaeSSy••REHAdapt••PRC: QRM2Inbuilt into the DynaVoxVmax and Vmax+••DaeSSy••REHAdapt••VESAInbuilt GEWA or Tiramodule accessible throughTobii Communicator orThe Grid 2••DaeSSy••REHAdapt••VESADue to the large size ofthe device, caution shouldbe taken mounting theP10 on a wheelchair asit may occlude too muchof the user’s vision toenable them to see theirsurroundings.GEWA or TiraInbuilt into the C12,accessible through TobiiCommunicator or TheGrid 2••DaeSSy••REHAdapt••VESADue to the large size ofthe device, caution shouldbe taken mounting theC15 on a wheelchair asit may occlude too muchof the user’s vision toenable them to see theirsurroundings.No internal battery.OtherIntegrated Wi-Fi andBluetooth in the ECO2No inbuilt Wi-Fi orBluetooth in the Vmax(but these can bepurchased separately andplugged in externally viaUSB).Bluetooth and Wi-Fistandard in the VMax+.No Wi-Fi or Bluetoothinbuilt (but these can bepurchased separately andplugged in externally viaUSB).Wired network (LAN) portis standard.Integrated Wi-Fi andBluetooth in C12/C15.Integrated desk stand.Purchase/TrialApproximatepriceCheck withsupplier forinclusions andadditionalaccessoriesECOpoint $12,900ECO2 $14,750Essence ECO2 $13, 950EyeMax $11,749Vmax $7,000 (limitedmodels left)Vmax+ High performance$13,999$23,680 - $25,380 CEye $10,325Tobii C12 $12,905Tobii C15 $13,430ManufacturerPrentke Romich CompanyDynaVox CorporationTobii TechnologyTobii Technologywww.prentrom.com.www.dynavoxtech.com.www.tobii.com/www.tobii.com/(Eye tracking systemmanufactured byTobii Technology, butsupported by PRC).(Eye tracking systemmanufactured by TobiiTechnology but supportedby DynaVox).SupplierLiberatorSpectronicsSpectronicsSpectronicswww.liberator.net.auwww.spectronicsinoz.comwww.spectronicsinoz.comwww.spectronicsinoz.comTrialYes – Contact Liberator.Free 2 week trial withadditional weeks availableat extra cost.Yes – Contact Spectronics.Free 2 week trial withadditional weeks availableat extra cost.Yes – Contact Spectronics.Free 2 week trial withadditional weeks availableat extra cost.Yes – Contact Spectronics.Free 2 week trial withadditional weeks availableat extra cost.The user will need to coverthe cost of return postage,which is usually between$50-$100.The user will need to coverthe cost of return postage,which is usually between$50-$100.The user will need to coverthe cost of return postage,which is usually between$50-$100.The user will need to coverthe cost of return postage,which is usually between$50-$100.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU10


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011COMPUTERS WITH EYE TRACKING ACCESSIntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)EyeProDescriptionThe IntelliGaze providescomputer operation byeye gaze. The systemcan be connected to anycomputer or to a portabletablet computer suchas the PowerBox 7, toprovide eye gaze accessfor communication. TheIntelliGaze has beendesigned to work onits own as a mousealternative or to interfacewith The Grid 2. Thesystem is reported to alsowork with Mind Express,although this was nottested by TASC.System Specifications/HardwareCompatible Windows XP/Vista/7operating SystemPowerBox 7 is Windows 7HardwareDepends on system.PowerBox 7 is a SaharaSlate i400d Tablet withIntelCore Duo 2.0 GHzProcessor, 2 GB RAM and60 or 120 GB HDDThe EyeGaze Edge is atablet PC package thatoffers computer controlusing eye gaze. Thesystem includes a rangeof inbuilt programs toenable eye gaze controlof computer applications.The system can also beconnected to a secondcomputer (PC or Mac) andafter installing a specialSKeys utility can be usedas an input interface(keyboard and mousedevice) to the secondcomputer.The TM4 Eye Tracker is aseparate tracking modulethat can be added to aWindows computer. Itcan also be purchasedwith a tablet PC ready formounting on a wheelchairor desktop stand.The EyePro enableseye gaze access to theWindows desktop, EZKeys, Say-It! SAM, MindExpress and any PC basedcommunication softwaresuch as The Grid 2. Itcan attach to a broadrange of communicationdevices and almost any PCcomputer.Windows XP Windows 98/XP/Vista/7 Windows XP/Vista/7The EyeGaze Edgecomes bundled with anApple MacBook, runningWindows software.2.4GHz2GB RamDepends on system.No minimum processorspeed is quoted by themanufacturersDepends on system.No minimum processorspeed is quoted by themanufacturers30GB Hard Disk DriveDimensionsScreen SizeDepends on systemPowerBox 7 31 x 23 x 7cmDepends on system.32.5 cm x 23 cm x 3.5 cm(tablet only)Depends on system13.3” (33.8cm) Depends on system.Depends on systemDepends on system.WeightRecommended for use onscreens between 12” -19”PowerBox 7 is 12.1”1.2kg IntelliGaze IG-30Tablet 3.696kgRecommended for usewith laptop computerswith screen sizes upto 17” or a computermonitor or tablet PC upto 19”.0.6kg TM4 Eye TrackerCan be used on screensfrom 12” to 21”.0.6kg EyePro4.7kg with PowerBox 7Other components 3.93kg(Total 7.622 kg)3.5kg with tablet PC,tracking module andspeakersDepends on system.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU11


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011IntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)System Specifications/Hardware (cont.)Battery/BatteryLifeTracking module ispowered by device orcomputer system.Up to 8 hours use on thePowerBox 7SpeakersDepends on system. ThePowerBox 7 comes withhigh quality amplifiedspeakers.Access and CalibrationCamera/TrackingmethodTrack 1 or 2 eyes(binocular)Visual feedback ofeye imageOptimal workingposition of systemHybrid infrared video eyeandhead-trackingLeft or right individually,or both together orwhichever the systemrecognises as the “besteye”.Live image available viakeyboard shortcut. Nolive image available whenusing The Grid 2.600 mm distance)300 x 200 x 200 mm(WxHxD) working fieldSubjectively, it was feltthat there was a limitedrange of accuracy if thehead was moved fromfront to back.Up to 2 hoursDepends on system.Tracking module ispowered by computersystem.EyeProDepends on system.Tracking module ispowered by computersystem.Advertising material claimsthat this device is a “Newtechnology low voltageUSB camera”.Inbuilt in the tablet Depends on system Depends on systemPupil centre/cornealreflection method. Alower power infrared LEDemits light and illuminatesthe eye. An infraredsensitive video cameraprocesses the image andthe Edge calculates theperson’s gaze point.Left or right individually orboth together.An eye image displayappears in the top rightcorner of the controlscreen. This displayincludes a focus indicatorand red/green colour alertto indicate where the usershould move to restoregood focus. The imagedisplay can be toggled onand off using F12.26” (65cm) is reportedby the developers. Usersshould sit in front ofscreen with the top ofthe screen at eye level.Also reported that userswith uncontrolled headmovement may not findthe system suitable ascamera has limited fieldof view.Video, dark pupil, infraredillumination.Can track one eyeindividually (left or right)OR left and/or right to setsystem to track either eyesimultaneously OR left andright to set system to onlytrack when it has botheyes in image.Has live video imageof eyes or eye positionindicators.For distance can select:- 50-60cm- 60-70cm- OtherOptimal height of unit iswhen eyes are in centre ofimage.250 x 160 x 190 mm(WxHxD) working fieldVideo, dark pupil, infraredillumination.One eye individually (leftor right) OR both left and/or right, (the system willtrack whichever eye it hasthe best tracking of) ORleft and right to set systemto only track when it hasboth eyes in image.Has live video imageof eyes or eye positionindicators. Both can bechosen and turned onand off.The distance of the eyesfrom the camera can bespecified in a broad rangethat can be set by theuser. (25cm and 90cmhave both been tested.)250 x 160 x 190 mmWxHxD working field.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU12


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011IntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)Access and Calibration (cont.)Selection methods • Blink• Dwell• Blink• Dwell• DwellAdditional accessoptionsCalibrationAbility to turn eyetracking on/offindependently• Switch access isdependent on thedevice. The PowerBox7 with The Grid 2 iscapable of switch access.• Switch access isdependent on device.There are no switchports included on thetablet that can bebundled with the TM4,but a switch adaptedmouse can be used toenable switch selectionwhen used with eyepointing.EyePro• Blink• Dwell• Switch access isdependent on deviceDepends on system. Depends on system. Depends on system. Depends on system.Calibration can becompleted in The Grid2 or in the IntelliGazesoftware. Different optionsare available for each.Using the IntelliGazesoftware, there are 1, 5,9 or 16 points. The imagesize, image and speed canalso be customised. Theuser can independentlyinitiate calibration byfixing their eyes on thecamera for 10 seconds.(Alt+F5 key press requiredalternatively). A carer orsupport person can set upthe number of calibrationpoints.The Grid 2 allows selectionof 1, 5, 9, or 16 calibrationtargets and allows adifferent target image tobe displayed as well as aslow calibration, but thesize of the target cannotbe adjusted.Some staff from TASCfound it difficult to achievea good calibration scorein The Grid 2 when usingthe IntelliGaze, whichsignificantly impactedaccuracy. ##Pause function can beset up in The Grid 2, buta specific cell must bededicated to this. Theuser can access pause inWindows if the IntelliGazesoftware is running.The user cannot easilychange access methodsindependently.The software allowsadjustment between 5, 9OR 13 target calibration.The background ofthe calibration can beset to white or blackand the target dots areautomatically adjustedin size depending on thenumber of calibrationtargets (maximum targetsize 1cm). Target image isalways a yellow dot andcannot be adjusted. Noinformation available onwhether the speed can beadjusted.Information unavailableThe software displays 5,9 or 16 targets on thescreen. Using more targetsincreases calibrationaccuracy. The time thateach calibration target isdisplayed can be adjustedbut not the type or size oftargets.Yes – Off screen buttoncan be made availableDepends which softwareis being accessed. Usingthe Words+ software(default) the user canindependently access thecalibration settings. Canbe set up with 5, 9 or 16point calibration and thecalibration target time canbe adjusted, but not thecalibration image or size.See IntelliGaze IG-30 forinformation on settings forThe Grid 2.Yes – Off screen buttoncan be made availableCEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU13


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011IntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)Tolerance to User/Environmental ConditionsTolerance to headmovementTolerance toambient light/sunlight*Tolerance toglasses/contactlensesAccommodationto human eyevariations**Software OptionsCommunicationIn spite of the camera’srelatively large field ofview, testing by TASCfound that the IntelliGazeaccuracy decreasedsignificantly when the usermoved their head, evenwhen the device was ableto continue tracking theireyes.Sunlight or incandescentlights can be a problemespecially if located behindthe monitor or user.Fluorescent lights arereported not to influenceaccuracy.No options forcompensation for glasses,although manufacturerinformation states that thesystem can automaticallycompensate.No options forcompensation oradjustment, however thesystem may accommodatefor some issues.Specifically integrateswith The Grid 2 and MindExpress.Compatible with mostWindows based AACsoftware.Not trialled.Will operate inenvironment withincandescent lightingthough fluorescentlighting offers moreaccuracy. Not accurate indirect sunlight.Supplier reports that thissystem can accommodateglasses and contact lenses.Reported to be ableto accommodate fora range of human eyevariations including dryeyes, asymmetric pupilsand droopy eyelids. Hasspecial “droopy eyelid”software. Also offers anoptional calibration thatcan accommodate fornystagmus.Comes with inbuilt phraseprogram to access preprogrammedmessages.Using the Eye Mouse orSimple Eye Mouse userscan access other softwareprograms such as Clicker 5and Speaking DynamicallyPro.Testing by TASC showedthat the camera on theTM4 has a small field ofview, which meant that itwas easy for the user tomove their head out ofthe field of the trackingcamera. Also, headmovement seems to havea reasonably negativeimpact on the accuracy ofselection.Sunlight or incandescentlights can be a problemespecially if located behindthe monitor or user.Fluorescent lights arereported not to interferewith accuracy.Bright reflections fromlights on glasses closeto the pupil can beproblematic. Tilting glassescan assist. Some contactlenses (especially hardlenses) can cause trackerto ‘drift’ each time youblink because of lensfloating in eye. Glasses canbe the best solution.Reported to work wellin most cases. There isan inbuilt “smoothingfactor” to accommodatefor individual “wiggle” eyemovements.Compatible with mostWindows based AACsoftware programs.EyeProTesting by TASC foundthat the EyePro accuracydeclined when the user’shead moved out of theinitial calibration position.Low calibration scoreswere achieved (resultingin poor accuracy) if theuser’s head moved duringcalibration.Sunlight or incandescentlights can be a problemespecially if located behindthe monitor or user.Fluorescent lights arereported not to interferewith accuracy.Reported by themanufacturer to copewith glasses and contacts,although no customisationis available.Reported to havetolerance for headmovements. Also reportedto cope with droopingeyelids and erratic eyemovements.Integrates with The Grid 2and compatible with mostWindows based AACsoftware.Additionally, The Grid 2(not included in purchaseprice) can be integratedwith the EyeGaze andaccessed through themenu. (All softwareadditional cost)CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU14


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011IntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)Software Options (cont.)Computer accessWorks over Windows.The user can select dwellclicking options (left click,right click, double click,click and drag) froma menu that pops upwhen the user looks justto the left of the screen(although this menu isdisabled if The Grid 2 isrunning). Testing by TASCfound that some usershad difficulty completingdwell selection on thedesktop as the mousecursor would “drift” whileselections were trying tobe made. ##Simple word processingavailable on the EyeGazeEdge using an onscreenkeyboard. Eye Mouseprogram can be used toprovide mouse control(left click, right click,double click and clickand drag) for Windowsapplications on theEyeGaze Edge tablet.Computer access programenables use of EyeGazeEdge as input interface tosecond computer.Works with standardWindows applicationsand Windows compatiblespecialist softwarethat can be accessedwith a mouse. Testingshowed that the TM4had sufficient accuracyto perform standardmouse operations on theWindows desktop by mostusers ##EyeProWorks well in all versionsof Windows tested.Different clicking optionsare also available in acustomisable menu.Testing by TASC showedthat the Eye Pro had agood level of accuracyto the point where smallicons on the desktop andstandard size scroll barswere able to be accessedusing eye gaze by someusers.##Voices Depends on software Depends on software Depends on software Depends on softwareSymbols Depends on software Depends on software Depends on software Depends on softwareAdditional FeaturesEnvironmentalcontrolDepends on system.Mounting/PortabilityOtherThe IntelliGaze iscompatible with Windowsbased environmentalcontrol software.The PowerBox 7 hasinbuilt ECU.IntelliGaze can beattached to most screenswith a VESA-mountadapter.Mounting interfaces withdevices and computerswill be dependent oneach device. Discuss thiswith device and mountingsuppliers.A zoom feature is availablefor making selectionof small targets withinWindows more accessible,however this was felt tohave limited functionalityas only a small area ofthe screen would zoomand this meant repeateddouble selection wasrequired.PowerBox 7 has Integrateddesk stand.Compatible withmost computer-basedenvironmental controlprograms. An additionalenvironmental controldevice is required to sendcommands to infraredappliances, eg. Tira 2,Control Prog, GewaControl Star/Micro.• Desk mount included• A DaeSSy compatiblebracket is availableMounting interfaces withdevices and computerswill be dependent oneach device. Discuss thiswith device and mountingsuppliers.Contact supplier ifyou would like systemset up as dedicatedcommunication device.Offers stand alone EyeSwitch utility to accesscause and effect switchsoftware on computer via5” square eye gaze target.Compatible withmost computer-basedenvironmental controlprograms. An additionalenvironmental controldevice is required to sendcommands to infraredappliances, eg. Tira 2,Control Prog, GewaControl Star/Micro.• Laptop stand or monitorbracket includedMounting interfaces withdevices and computerswill be dependent oneach device. Discuss thiswith device and mountingsuppliers.Zoom feature for clickingon small objects.Ability to pause eyecontrol if reading a lotof text or any other timewhen cursor control is notneeded and restart whenappropriate.If using eye blink forselection user can cancelselection by opening eyesbefore single click time orafter a set cancel time.Compatible withmost computer-basedenvironmental controlprograms. An additionalenvironmental controldevice is required to sendcommands to infraredappliances, eg. Tira 2,Control Prog, GewaControl Star/Micro.Brackets are available forattaching the EyePro (unitonly).Mounting interfaces withdevices and computerswill be dependent oneach device. Discuss thiswith device and mountingsuppliers.Zoom is available and canbe used with all mousefunctions. Eye control canbe temporarily paused fora rest or when readingtext on the screen.CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU15


TECHNOTALKVOLUME 20 - ISSUE 1 - APRIL 2011Purchase/TrialApproximatepriceCheck withsupplier forinclusions andadditionalaccessoriesIntelliGaze IG-30 EyeGaze Edge TM4 Eye Tracker(Quick Glance 4)IntelliGaze IG-30 -including camera, powersupply, VESA mount =$8,250IntelliGaze IG-30PowerBox 7 $17,250including The Grid 2with PCS and AustralianRealSpeak voices, inbuiltECU and mount plate.EyeGaze Edge TabletPackage (includestablet PC, EyeGazeEdge software, camera,adjustable monitor arm,table clamp and camerabracket. Keyboard withinbuilt mouse for assistantsupport) $21,750.EyeGaze Turn Keypackage $17,000$9,000 for trackingmodule with brackets formounting to a desktopcomputer monitor ortablet PC or a standfor resting on a laptopkeyboard (computerextra).$13,200 for trackingmodule, tablet PC withcordless keyboard andErgotron Neoflex desktopmounting stand.EyePro$9,450 including bracketsfor attachment to amonitor, tablet computeror laptop.$19,550 for trackingmodule attached to aCONVERSA tablet witheither SAM PC or EZ KeysXP (both with AustralianRealSpeak Voices) plusa DaeSSy Vertical DeskStand.The Grid 2 softwareapprox $850.00.(Note: this is only oneexample of compatiblecommunication software).Eye Tech Digital Systemswww.eyetechds.com/ManufacturerAlea TechnologiesGermanywww.alea-technologies.deZyteq Australiawww.zyteq.com.auYes. Contact supplier.Free 2 week loan availablewith client responsible forreturn shipping cost.LC Technologies, Inc.www.eyegaze.comWords+www.words-plus.comSupplierNovitaTechwww.novitatech.org.auTechnical Solutionswww.tecsol.com.auYes. Contact supplier.Therapist needs to beinvolved with trial.Technabilitywww.technability.com.auYes. Contact supplier.Free 2 week loan availablewith client responsiblefor return shipping cost.Return postage is usuallybetween $50 and $100.TrialYes. Contact supplier.Maximum two week trial.$60 per week. Contactsupplier for freightcharges.Trial period usually 2weeks.$250.00 deposit required(refunded when loanreturned) and $60.00postage fee. Clientresponsible for registeredpost return.## Please note that variability between systems and users means that the results of our testing cannot always be applied to all people usingthese devices. TASC recommends that a device is trialled in the manner which the client intends to use it, for at least 2 weeks before purchaseis considered. Testing is based on a sample of only four users.Cerebral Palsy Alliance321 Mona Vale Road Terrey Hills NSW 2084T: 02 9479 7200 F: 02 9479 7233E: info@cerebralpalsy.org.auW: CEREBRALPALSY.ORG.AU

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