ISSUE 190 : Mar/Apr - 2013 - Australian Defence Force Journal

adfjournal.adc.edu.au

ISSUE 190 : Mar/Apr - 2013 - Australian Defence Force Journal

that security on the frontier was a means to an end, but that military operations were not anend in themselves. Attrition and economic warfare were used but not as ends in themselves.They applied just enough attrition to coerce the ‘problem’ tribe to return to the negotiatingtable, enabling the civil power to reassert control. Ultimately, the frontier had to be managedprimarily as a civil problem, albeit with local forces and the armed forces in reserve.Perhaps the cautionary conclusion is best summed up by Lord Curzon, who said:I do not prophesy about the future. [And] no man who has read a page of Indian history will everprophesise about the Frontier. 25Colonel Graeme Sligo attended the National Defence University of Pakistan (National SecurityWar Course) in 2011-12. He has previously been the Australian instructor at the CanadianForces Command and Staff College (Toronto), visiting military fellow at the Australian Instituteof Police Management (Manly), and served twice in Iraq. He has completed a book manuscripton Alfred Conlon and the Army’s Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs, a unit which providedpolicy advice to General Blamey and the Government during the Second World War.NOTES1. This is an abridged version of a paper prepared for submission to the National Defence University(NDU) of Pakistan, where the author was a student in 2011-12. As the original (full) version makesclear, the author has written in the historical period of 1893 to 1939, and the ‘lessons’ should beconsidered within that context. The original paper will shortly be available on the Australian DefenceCollege website, published as a Commander’s Paper: see . Bothpapers are published with permission of the NDU Pakistan.2. The British defeated the Sikhs at the battle of Gujrat and annexed the greater Punjab in 1849,although there had been wars and British contact over the previous decades. After 1901, there weretwo significant provinces on the western frontier: Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province.3. Christian Tripodi, Edge of Empire: the British political officer and tribal administration on the North-West Frontier 1877-1947, Ashgate: Farnham UK, 2011, p. 231, citing John Lewis Gaddis. The authoris indebted to the insights in Tripodi’s work.4. Muhammad Yahya Effendi, ‘Military Operations in Waziristan: From a Historical Perspective(1849-1947)’, Central Asia, Issue 62, p. 8: see accessed 12 February 2012.5. Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Touchstone: New York, 1994, p. 151.6. The Amir of Afghanistan (1880-1901) had earlier agreed to discourage Russian influence orincursions into Afghanistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan have differing views on the legal status of the1893 Durand Line Agreement. The UK view (post-Partition) was that the Durand Line was the legalinternational frontier.7. Effendi, ‘Military Operations in Waziristan’, p. 8.8. Indian Army, The Manual of Operations on the North-West Frontier of India, Government of India:Calcutta, 1925:seeaccessed 25 July 2012.9. T.F. Moreman, ‘Small Wars and “Imperial Policing’: The British Army and the Theory and Practiceof Colonial Warfare in the British Empire, 1919-1939’ in Brian Holden Reid, Military Power: landwarfare in theory and practice, Frank Cass: London, 1997, pp. 114-7 and 120.51

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