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Purpose: Instruct - e-asTTle

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Purpose: InstructThis section describes the key characteristics of the “instruct or lay out a procedure” purpose.Using the Scoring RubricThe progress indicators in the scoring rubric have been developed to help teachers understandand evaluate their students’ progress and achievement in writing. Teachers are asked to make a“best-fit” judgement as to the level at which their student’s writing most predominantly sits foreach of the seven content areas: Audience Awareness and Purpose, Content/Ideas,Structure/Organisation, Language Resources, Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation.Deep FeaturesAudience Awareness and Purpose:This purpose usually involves describing how something may be accomplished through asequence of actions or steps to tell someone how something is done. There are severalcommon types of text associated with this function, namely recipes, appliance manuals,assembly instructions, games’ rules, etc.Content/Ideas:Texts intended to instruct or to outline a procedure contain information statements, oftenimperative or command and declarative or stating, which tell another person how somethingmay be achieved. Elements of this purpose include a goal statement or often a title thatprovides information for the reader about the nature of the procedure to be outlined. Itidentifies the product to be made or the process to be carried out. There is information aboutmaterials, though this is not required for all procedural texts, which tells the reader whatresources may be required to complete the procedure. This is usually ordered. Then thedescription of the sequence of steps required in order for the reader to achieve the goal islaid out. Advice or background information may be included at any time as a means ofclarifying the procedure.Surface FeaturesGrammar:This dimension of text refers to accepted patterns in language use rather than withgrammatical choices made by writers to achieve particular purposes. Here we refer toaspects of grammar such as subject-verb agreement, the use of complete verbs/verb groups,and the appropriate and consistent use of tense-choices for verbs. It is a student’s ability tocontrol language patterns at this level of text that is judged here.Spelling:Spelling is considered separately and is related to increasing skill and knowledge about highfrequencywords (HFW), simple spelling patterns, complex spelling patterns, and the spellingof irregular or technical vocabulary. The judgement of spelling is made in the context of thestudent’s text but evidence to support the judgement needs to be considered carefully.Punctuation:This dimension of text refers to the degree of control a writer shows over punctuation. Thiscontrol ranges from showing an awareness of sentence punctuation to being able to usecomplex punctuation effectively. Again scorers are required to locate evidence to supporttheir judgements about a student’s competence.Structure/Organisation:The text is generally organised around a process from beginning to end. The focus is onactions and human action or agency. Content is structured according to the prescribedsequence of events required to complete the task. A time sequence is employed to tellreader the order of the steps. Text organisers such as titles, headings, or subheadings maybe used to orient or organise reading.Language Resources:Precise, descriptive language is employed to clarify aspects of the procedure (e.g., actionverbs, adverbials, and adjectivals add detail and clarity about what is needed and what is tobe done). Pronoun use or omission refers to reader in a generalised way (e.g., “First youbreak the egg” or “Break the egg”). Many action verbs are employed to describe processesto be done by the reader (e.g., whisk, cut, deal, transfer, twist). Precise verb choices reflectthe desire to clarify meanings for the reader (e.g., trim rather than cut). The verbs used arecommonly in simple present tense. The mood choice is often imperative (i.e., command-likestatements tell the reader what to do). However, declarative or stating statements may beused to contextualise the action or give advice to the reader. Time and sequencerelationships when instructing or laying out a procedure are generally indicated by the use oftime conjunctions (e.g., first, then, next, after, while you are waiting) or numbering. Somecause-and-effect conjunctions may be present (if this, then that).


Level 1(Proficient)Level 2(Proficient)Level 3(Proficient)Level 4(Proficient)Level 5(Proficient)Level 6(Proficient)Structure(continued)Uses simple linking and/orsequence language toconnect ideas, “first”, “then”.Uses simple linking and/orsequence language toconnect ideas within andacross sentences, e.g., “first”,“next”, “then”, “when”.Uses linking and/orsequence language toconnect ideas within andacross sentences.Attempts sectioning orparagraphing whereappropriateSustains appropriate andvaried linking and/or sequencelanguage.Uses sectioning orparagraphing whereappropriate.Sustains appropriate andvaried linking and/orsequenced languageeffectively.Uses paragraphs with main ideas and supporting details,where appropriate.Uses some simple,command-like statements.Uses command-likestatements with someelaboration.Uses some features ofprocedural language, e.g.,imperatives, passive voice,data.Uses most features ofprocedural language.Uses features of procedurallanguage.Makes controlled,consistent use ofappropriate register.Uses adjectives and/orpositives richly to motivateand support completion ofinstructions.Uses some topic-specificlanguage to instruct. Usesmainly high frequency wordsUses some topic-specificlanguage.Uses topic-specificlanguage.Language ResourcesShows some understandingof pronoun use asappropriateShows some understandingpronoun use, as appropriate.Uses language appropriateto describing materialsand actions, e.g., actionverbs, adverbs, adjectives.Largely controls pronounuse.Uses language appropriate toclarifying procedure e.g.,action verbs, adverbs,adjectives.May adjust language to bothinstruct and advise.May record actions from apersonal perspectiveUses some languageappropriate to purpose andaudience.Uses language that isgenerally appropriate topurpose and audience.Uses language appropriate topurpose and audience.Uses language concisely.Uses mainly simplesentences, with somevariation in beginnings.Uses Simple and compoundsentences, with somevariation in beginnings. Mayattempt complex sentencesappropriate to purpose.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths appropriate topurpose.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths appropriate to purposefor effect.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths appropriate topurpose for effect andimpact. May use animperative in conclusion.


GrammarLevel 1(Proficient)Attempts to use basicgrammatical conventionswhen writing simple andcompound sentences, e.g.,consistent tenseLevel 2(Proficient)Uses most basicgrammatical conventionscorrectly when writing simpleand compound sentencese.g.,consistent tense,subject-verb agreement,consistent pronouns correctuse of prepositions).Level 3(Proficient)Uses most grammaticalconventions correctlywhen writing simple,compound, and somecomplex sentences.Level 4(Proficient)Uses most grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound, andcomplex sentences.Level 5(Proficient)Uses almost all grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound,and complex sentences.Level 6(Proficient)Sustained control ofsentence grammarevident throughout piece.Control enhancescommunication.Errors may interfere with meaning. Errors no longer interfere with meaning Uses the conventions of grammar with few intrusiveerrors.Shows some simplesentence indication, e.g.capital letters, full stops.Uses most simple sentenceindication i.e., caps, full stops,question marks.Uses simple correctsentence indication i.e.,caps, full stops, questionmarks.Uses consistent correctsentence indication i.e., caps,full stops, question mark,exclamation.Uses the conventions of punctuation with few intrusiveerrors.PunctuationErrors may interfere with comprehension.Attempts some other basicpunctuation e.g., caps forproper nouns, commas inlists, speech marks,apostrophes for contraction.Uses some other basicpunctuation correctlye.g., caps for propernouns, commas in lists,speech marks,apostrophes forcontractionErrors do not interfere with comprehension.Mostly uses accuratecomplex punctuation e.g.,commas, colons, hyphen,ellipsis, apostrophe ofpossession, and thepunctuation for dialogueUses complex punctuation accurately e.g.,apostrophes, colons, hyphensSome success with using commas, semicolons forembedded, parenthetical, and conditional phrases orclauses.Spells some high frequencywords (Lists 1-3) correctlySpells most high frequencywords (Lists 1-4) correctly.Spells most high frequencywords (Lists 1-6) correctly.Few errors within highfrequency words (Lists 1-7).SpellingBegins to use come commonspelling patterns, e.g., “and”,“band”, “hand”Understands frequently usedspelling patterns (e.g.,changing y to ies, doubleconsonant when adding ing).Understands most spellingpatterns including somecomplex patterns (e.g.,plurals using ch,sh,x,o).Understands most spellingpatterns including mostcomplex patterns e.g., soft ‘g’or ‘c’, keep the ‘e’ manageable.Demonstrates a good understanding of spelling patternswith few intrusive errors.Attempts to spell words byrecording dominant sounds inorder.Approximate spellings showknowledge of consonantsounds, blends, and vowelsounds.Has some success withmulti-syllabic (hygienic),irregular (yacht), ortechnical words.Uses complex multi-syllabicirregular or technical words.Sustains control of complexmultisyllabic, irregular, ortechnical words.Sustains control ofcomplex multisyllabic,irregular, or technicalwords.


Annotated Examples for Instruct PurposeAudience Awareness and Purpose 2BRecognises the purpose of writing –attempts to instruct the reader and givesbasic information about how somethingmay be accomplished in steps, using theimperative form to “tell” the reader. Theprocedure is difficult to understandbecause so much shared knowledge isassumed (he does not even tell us what weare about to make until halfway through!) .To score higher than 2B Needs todevelop more knowledge of the ways inwhich this purpose may be accomplished intext. Needs to learn to interpret the needsof an audience to produce a text that canstand alone.Content/Ideas 2BOnly some elements of procedure present(no title or goal statement, no headings, nolist of materials). Steps in the procedureare outlined, but are simple andunelaborated. Many instruction statementspresent and some advice statements.Some topic-related information is present(“wings”). No tangential information ispresent, but the procedure relies heavily oncontext and reader inference.To score higher than 2B Needs todemonstrate knowledge of procedureelements of goal-statement, materials list,show ability to use headings, and developa more comprehensive and elaborated setof steps in the procedure. (In summary,more content material and more domainelements are needed to get above this verybasic level.)Grammar 2BPoor punctuation makes it hard to makesense of this student’s sentences, but wecan tell that s/he has good control of clausepattern in written English (SVO/C) . Onlysimple sentences are used and there areerrors in many (run-on sentences orsentences with missing conjunctions).Tense is consistent but errors in sentencesare too frequent to score higher.To score higher than 2B, this writer needsto learn to control simple and compoundsentences. He needs to learn when to stopa sentence and when to use conjunctionsto join “chunks of meaning”.First get a paper fold it in half long ways Then get the tow (two) longcorner(s). Then get the tops fold them to the line. Fold it again. fold itin half. Fold the top in half on bother (both) side. make shure that thewings are right pickup the plany (plane) and push out (it) lighlee(lightly). Then you (your) progect (project) is fished (finished). don’tpush hade (hard) all (or) the plany well be off blance (balance)Structure/Organisation 2BUnderstands that procedures are about sequencing steps to theachievement of a goal. The procedure steps have a sequence tothem and some sequencing conjunctions are used to help structure,but there is no overall ordering or grouping in the text globally. Thereis no evidence to support a judgement that the writer knows how togroup and order across a text, because so little is written.To score higher than 2B This writer would need to show evidenceof ability to organise the text globally and use a wider variety ofconjunctions and text connectives to help with sequence.Language Resources 2BCommand-like statements are present (mainly imperative mood).Shows evidence of an emerging understanding that the procedureshould both instruct and advise (“Then your project is finished” &“Don’t push too hard or the plane will be off balance”). Present tenseis used appropriately. Conjunctions are limited to the use of “first”and the repetition of “then”. Very limited use of descriptors (“apaper”!) but shows some emerging knowledge of the use ofadverbials of place (telling the reader how and where to do things –e.g., “to the line”, “on both sides” & “long ways” (good).To score higher than 2B This writer must learn to add detail andprecision to the instructions by using adjectives, adjectivals andadverbials (e.g., developing the use of prepositional phrases). Morevaried and effective use of text connectives needed.Punctuation


Audience Awareness and Purpose 4BThis writer interprets the needs of herreaders and directs her language towardsthem (“you might want to do the same withthe tomatoes”, “now you could either” last butnot least – ENJOY!”, “Be careful you don’tcut yourself”. The procedure is elaboratedand stands alone.To score higher than 4B This writer wouldneed to demonstrate an awareness of theprecision required in giving instructions. Forexample, she list equipment but does notincorporate its use into the procedure bytelling the reader what to use and when. Shedoes not specify amounts to be used in therecipe. When we take account of the familiarnature of the procedure, little inference isneeded.Structure/Organisation 4AThis writer has organised the content throughout this piece by use ofheadings (ignoring the fact that water is a “need” not an “ingredient”).Within the procedure steps, numbers are used to show order but alsoused are conjunctions and text connectives, which serve to connectthe text and add to sequence (use of numbers and “first”, “now”, “lastbut not least”). Also note the sophisticated use of first positiondependent clauses to link ideas and preface an instruction (“If youwant to top it all off, GET…”).Grammar 4PGood control of simple (“Start cutting the tomatoes into slices orsmall squares”) and compound sentences (“First get the salad andtake off all the leaves that aren’t good”). Some good use of complexsentences with multiple dependent clauses (“If you want to top it alloff get some oranges and squeeze some orange in to have moreflavour”). Has maintained consistent tense.To score higher than 4P This writer needs to clearer about how touse balanced construction such as either/or, if/then, etc.Content /Ideas 4BGood use of procedure elements (title/goalstatement, headings, steps, instruction andadvice statements and reflections). Thewriter shows some reasonably welldevelopedknowledge about how toelaborate a procedure, but more precision isneeded to ensure clarity for readers. Onlyappropriate content is included.To score higher than 4B The procedureneeds to have more detailed content materialincluded. For example, what makes a leaf“not good”?Language Resources 4PThis writer makes consistent use of topicspecific language throughout this procedure(rinse, chop, slice, mix, squeeze, etc).Imperative mood choice (commands)predominates but declarative (statements)are used to advise the reader and giveadditional information (good).To score higher than 4P This writer needsto work more on building a precise anddetailed account of the procedure to befollowed. She could do this by adding moredetail through increasingly precise selectionof adjectives, adjectivals and adverbials ofmanner (e.g., chop roughly, carefully slice,large ripe tomatoes, etc.).Spelling 4BFew errors. All HFW spelled correctly. Common spellingpatterns show good control. Errors are goodapproximations (“ingredients”, “squeeze” and the American“flavor”, which is not penalised), but there is little in theway of technical, multi-syllabic or irregular spelling in thispiece (lettuce is good, as is capsicum).To score higher than 4B This writer needs todemonstrate that she can spell technical, multi-syllabic orirregular words.Punctuation 3PSentence and other basic punctuation – mostly correct (!commas in lists, brackets, apostrophe for contraction). Anumber of misplaced or missing capital letters appear inthe first section. Some examples of more complexpunctuation include the correct use of colons and thecorrect use of a hyphen.To score higher than 3P This writer needs todemonstrate more facility with complex punctuation, i.e.,more examples of use. Fewer errors would make herscore higher.


Audience Awareness andPurpose 5AChanged name (to Mrs “Rangi”).Clear guidelines to needs andexplanations of supplies or actions.Tone not comfortable initially.Direct address used. Reads morelike an employment job descriptionthan information to help aneighbourly volunteer.Content/Ideas 6PFluffels has food each day, but thefish is fed, “like Fluffels” once –confused. Confused about thesatellite television situation. Fulldetails of expectations.Structure/Organisation 6AInitially not paragraphed, butorganised overall by topics ratherthan by specific pet. Sequence ofideas appropriate.Language Resources 6ASevere formality initially. Someharsh word selections – “occupationin our house”.Grammar 6BSeveral gross errors, agreement ofnumber and tense. Wrong wordclass on several occasions.Good.Punctuation 6PSpelling 5AUSA “neighbors”. Minor errors donot affect meaning.


Audience Awareness andPurpose 5PMinimal recognition and gratitude forthe offer. Condescendingsuggestion that your husband canhandle it. Direct address includesrecognising the personal situation ofMrs Kingi –as you have your ownpool… Contact details at the endare considerate.Content/Ideas 5PSufficient details for the tasks to becompleted. One task describedtwice! Clarifications read as afterthoughts.Help yourself to them –really!Structure/Organisation 5BIntroduction – subheaded andbulleted points – conclusion. Wellorganisedsequence. Severalsentences have odd additions whichsit uncomfortably.Language Resources 5PDirect and simple language.Sentences are generally wellcontrolled,but the addition of tagsand appositive statementschallenges the sentence control.Grammar 6BSound control of the selection andconstruction of expressions – minorissues with handling the mechanicsof these decisions.Punctuation 5BSeveral concerns with confuseddash and comma combinations,including the use of capital letters(although handwriting may be theissue).Spelling 5PSlips up with several straightforwardwords.To achieve Level 6 The writerwould need to edit and increase theprecision and sequence of detailsfor each element. Edit thesentences for better control ofsubordinate or coordinateexpressions.


Selected glossary of terms for the ‘to instruct’ purposePurpose:- to describe how something may be done through a series of steps or actions and- make it possible for the reader to understand and duplicate the procedure being described.Terms Explanation General exampleWriting styledirected toaudienceThe writer interprets the needs of the readers anddirects the language towards them.Recognising the personal situation of the reader.You might want to do the same thing with thetomatoes. Be careful you don’t cut yourself.Mrs Kingi, as you have your own pool…May adjustlanguage to bothinstruct and adviseMaking a suggestion as opposed to giving aninstruction. Advice may be included to clarify theprocedure.Season to taste (in a recipe).Don’t push too hard or the plane will be off. Balance(in a set of instructions).Topic - related Refer to topic specific words and language that rinse, chop, slice, mix, squeezeinformationUse of specialised/task appropriatelanguageEvidence ofinstruction-likestatementsConcise use oflanguageSimple statementsCommand-likestatementsUse of descriptorsto describematerials andactions.Action verbsrelate particularly to the procedure.Consistent use of topic specific language throughoutthe task. Procedures use precise action verbsspecific to the task, e.g., dice or slice instead of cut.These are sentences that are commands orimperatives, where the subject of a command isoften left out, but it is understood as ‘you’.Adding more detail through selection of adjectives,adjectivals and adverbials of manner (the how).A statement is a sentence that tells or informs. Agoal statement is often included or a title thatidentifies the product to be made.We use commands to get things done and to obtaingoods or services. The structure of a command issimple – we drop the subject and the auxiliary anduse the main verb.Words or phrases used to add more description tothe subject, verb or object of a sentence.pulse, paramedic, patient, respirator, CPRtennis: slice, backhand, smash, deuce, directions:clockwise, turn 180 degrees, easterlyasthma: puffer, nebuliser, VentolinCut the paper into squares.Rub the butter in.large ripe tomatoes, lukewarm water, cut along thedotted line, carefully slice, trim rather than cutHow to make a paper plane.Place the mixture in the oven.Answer the phone.Telling the reader how and where to do things: go tothe line, paint it on both sides, fold the paper longwaysAction verbs: are generally the more physicalactions that can be observed.slice, put, glue, add, mix, cut, read, make, blow, fly,run, rub, slip, takeImperatives Sentence for commands or instructions. Hold this! Take the second left. Pour the oil in.Adverbs/Adjectives todescribe materialsand actions.Adverbs add detail and weight to the instruction.They give extra meaning to a verb, an adjective,another adverb or a whole sentence. Adding -ly toan adjective forms many adverbs, but there aremany that do not end in -ly.In many cases, adverbs tell us:how (manner): slowly, carefully, lightly, quicklywhere (place): here, away, outsidewhen (time): now, tomorrow, laterhow often (frequency): often, never, regularlyUse generalisedotherCompound ‘runon’sentencesSimple sentencesComplexsentencesCompletesentencesAdjectives build up information around the noun.They answer the question: which, whose, how many,what like or what type?The reader is referred to in a generalised way by theomission of a pronoun.Second person: the person(s) being addressed.Third person: what is being spoken about.A run-on sentence consists of two or more mainclauses that are run together without using theproper punctuation.Simple sentences have a single clause. They haveone main idea expressed as subject, verb andobject.Complex sentences contain at least one clause thatdoes not make sense without the other clause(s),i.e., the rest of the sentence.why (reason): because, so, in order toDescribing materials: cotton, plastic, newsprintpaper, blue paper, dotted line, racing bike, flat tyre,frothy milk, boiled water, two timesFirst you break the egg or Break the egg.youhe, she, it, theyThe boy showed us his tickets someone gave them tohim. Make sure that the wings are right pickup theplane and push it out lightly.Start cutting the tomatoes into slices.Follow the path to the forest.If you want to top it all off get some oranges andsqueeze some orange juice in to have some flavour.Alternatively, put all the ingredients in a blender.A sentence that is capable of standing alone and contains a subject and a predicate. Refer to the grammarpages for more information.

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