Triad Manual - The National Association of Triads

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Triad Manual - The National Association of Triads

National Association of Triads, I1988–2008TriadProgramManualTriad: Communities Educating Older Adults About Crime


Triad is an outstanding vehicle for improving the communication and relationships betweenlaw enforcement and the senior community. Besides providing additional services to an underservedpopulation, Triad is designed to empower, educate, and forge links with older people. Bothseniors and law enforcement are enhanced by the establishment and expansion of Triad.Introduction— Sheriff Robert J. Garvey,Hampshire County, MassachusettsTriad: A Concept in Action“Crimes targeting older adults are different in that victims are sought out because of perceivedvulnerabilities, and these crimes affect older adults differently. Law enforcement, firstresponders, and those who work with older adults must understand this dynamic to curbthese activities, and to assist the victims,” says Edward Hutchison, Triad Director, NSA.Triad is a commitment shared by chiefs of police, the sheriff, leaders within the older adultcommunity, and affiliated organizations to reduce the victimization of and increase lawenforcement services available to older citizens. Now in its twentieth year, the Triad programhas provided services to thousands of older adults and has become an invaluable resource tolaw enforcement agencies nationwide.Working together, Triad volunteers develop and implement crime prevention and educationprograms for older adults. Activities address crime from both a pre-victimization (preventive)standpoint and a post-victimization (victim/witness assistance) standpoint.Another important component of Triad is its focus on reducing the fear of crime prevalentamong older Americans by identifying misconceptions and educating older adults aboutcriminal activity. To achieve its goals, Triad promotes and facilitates ongoing informationexchange between law enforcement and the older adults they serve.Triad’s BeginningsTwenty years ago, three national organizations—the American Association of Retired Persons(AARP), the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), and the National Sheriffs’Association (NSA)—agreed that the crime prevention needs of older citizens could be bestmet by their cooperative effort. This Triad of organizations signed a cooperative agreementin 1988. Today, Triad at the community level can involve the fire department, the council onaging, the Agency on Aging, emergency and social services, RSVP groups, and various otherorganizations that work directly with older adults.Purpose of HandbookThis handbook is designed to help law enforcement and older adults interested in the Triadconcept to implement a comprehensive crime prevention and education program. It explainswhat Triad is, why it is needed, how to organize a Triad, and how to leverage the group’scollective strength to address issues affecting older adults.The NATI LogoThe National Association of Triads, Inc., logo signifies the need for equal nationallevelparticipation and leadership of three entities—law enforcement, older adultvolunteers and community service groups—for a successful Triad program. Threetriangles symbolize a working relationship among leaders from these organizations.i


ContentsChapter One: Why Triad Is Necessary .............1Chapter Two: Starting a Triad ............................3Agreeing ......................................................................3Meeting ........................................................................3Establishing a S.A.L.T. Council ..............................4Variables.......................................................................4Chapter Three: Making Triad Work .................5Representation ..........................................................5Law Enforcement Members ..................................5Other Members .........................................................6Role of the S.A.L.T. Council ....................................6Activities of the S.A.L.T. Council ...........................6Survey of Older Adults ............................................7Directory ......................................................................7Additional Programs................................................7Evaluation ....................................................................7Information Sharing and Education ...................8Advocacy and Advisory Group ............................8Reassurance, Crime Reporting .............................8What the Council Is Not ..........................................8S.A.L.T. Council Meetings .......................................8Supplies ........................................................................9Publicity .......................................................................9Success .........................................................................9Ten Tips for S.A.L.T. Councils .................................9Summary .....................................................................9Chapter Four: Crime and Older Adults ........11The Older Victim .....................................................12What Are Targeted Crimes? .................................12Chapter Five: Structure of Triad .....................15Local Triad .................................................................15Regional Triad ..........................................................15State Triad ..................................................................16Chapter Six: Elements of Triad ........................17Combating Vulnerability ......................................17Safer Older Adults—Beginning Projects ........18Chapter Seven: Fostering UnderstandingThrough Triad ........................................................ 23Officer Training ....................................................... 23What Officers Know ...............................................24Victimization and Its Effects ...............................24Crime Reporting by Older Individuals .............24Alzheimer’s Education ......................................... 25Starting a Citizen Police Academy ................... 26Chapter Eight: Older Adult Volunteers .......27Recruiting ..................................................................27Law Enforcement Agencies ............................... 28The Community ..................................................... 28Victim and Witness Assistance .......................... 28Benefits ..................................................................... 28For Law Enforcement.................................................28For the Community ....................................................28For the Older Volunteer ............................................28Chapter Nine: Evaluating Triad...................... 29Planning for Evaluation ....................................... 29Timing........................................................................ 29The Measuring Stick.............................................. 29Goals and Objectives ............................................ 30Keeping Score ......................................................... 30Methods of Gathering Information ................. 30Determining Results ..............................................31Chapter Ten: Avoiding Missteps .....................33Involving Triad Partners........................................33Budget ........................................................................35Manpower Constraints .........................................35Programs ..................................................................37Appendices ............................................................. 63Resources................................................................. 89Recommended Reading .................................... 98NATI Alerts ............................................................ 101ii


Chapter OneWhy Triad Is NecessaryGenerally speaking, older adults have high levels of trust withregard to strangers, telephone salespersons, contractors, workers,officials, and others they deal with. Therefore, they become an easiertarget for home invasion, dishonest contractors, fraudulent bankingtransactions, identity theft, and other scams.Unfortunately, it is not only crime of a financial naturethat poses a threat to older adults. Though less common, olderadults are also victimized by violent crime, including mugging,sexual violence, physical and mental domestic abuse, neglect,and intimidation. Memory-impaired older adults are even morevulnerable to these crimes.The older adult victim may not recover from the physicaland mental repercussions of the crime, leading to a loss ofindependence and self-confidence. Furthermore, the possibilityof criminal activity occurring or reoccurring can tax limited lawenforcement and social resources.Estimated Percentage of the Population 65 and Older by State, 2010Source: 2010 Population Estimates from the U.S. Bureau of the Census1


Americans are getting older, more diverse,and they are living longer. The U.S. CensusBureau estimates that more than 40.4 millionAmericans were 65 or older in 2010. Of theseindividuals, nearly 5.5 million were over theage of 85.As the number of older adults rises, sodoes the need to protect and serve this atrisk population. Unfortunately, in an era ofskyrocketing costs and budget cuts, manylaw enforcement agencies lack the resourcesto implement older adult crime preventionand safety programs. Triad fills this gap byproviding vital services that help keep olderadults safe and secure.Who Are Older Adults?The majority of those 65 or older surveyeddescribe themselves as healthy and enjoyinglife—continuing to work and be active inpaid or volunteer capacities. When an olderadult becomes a crime victim, that levelof interaction can change drastically. Theresults have lasting consequences for thosewhose resources—physical, emotional, andfinancial—are limited.Older adult victims do not recoverwith the same agility as those from otherdemographic groups, potentially leadingto irreversible health issues, fear, and lossof assets.Older Adult Participation in TriadWhile active and content with their lives,most surveyed older adults also state that theyworry about crime and fear victimization.The Triad concept is successful thanks, inlarge part, to the participation of dedicatedand capable older volunteers who are willingto invest time and energy to make theircommunities safer.Projected Distribution of the Population Ages 65 and Older, by Race and Hispanic Origin,2010 and 20502010 2050Non-HispanicWhite80%Non-HispanicWhite67.8%Asian andPacific Islander3.5%American Indianand AlaskanNative0.4%American Indianand AlaskanNative0.7%Asian andAfrican-American Pacific Islander8.4% 6.5% African-American10.7%Hispanic6.9%Hispanic17.1%2


Chapter TwoStarting a TriadStep 1: AgreeingThe first step in forming a Triad involves law enforcement leaders. Inmost cases, the sheriff or local chiefs of police provide an opportunityto work together to promote and enhance older adult safety in theircommunity through partnerships.A Triad begins with one law enforcement leader bringing togetherother members of law enforcement, older adults, and those who servethem to form a team. As an example, a chief of police may contactother chiefs, the sheriff, and someone to represent the older adultcommunity and their services. This person may be an RSVP leader, acommunity leader, or another older adult with experience, knowledgeof the community, and the ability to motivate others.Step 2: MeetingThe second step is to schedule the first meeting. During this initialgathering, the team should sign a Triad cooperative agreement (seeAppendix A), consenting to work together to assess area older adultneeds and enhance crime-related services.Triad focuses on crime, education and prevention, criminalvictimization, and safety. Below is a list of sample agenda items to helpensure all appropriate areas of activity are covered during the first meeting.Beneficial meeting topics overview:*3


Growth of the local older adult population How area law enforcement services areaffected by population changes Ways to inform older adults of how andwhere to obtain services How the practice of referring olderadults to needed services benefits lawenforcement Educating law enforcement about theolder adult population Teaching law enforcement skills forcommunicating with older adults Triad benefits to law enforcement, otherservice providers, older adults, and thewhole community The benefits of having a council composedof law enforcement leaders and older adults.* discussed in detail belowDuring the initial meeting, you maywish to draft a press release announcing theformation of the new Triad to local television,radio, and print media outlets, especiallythose with large older adult audiences.The press release should include the name,telephone number, and email address of adesignated representative the media cancontact for further information.Step 3: Establishing a S.A.L.T. CouncilThe third step is to establish a Seniors and Law(Enforcement) Together (S.A.L.T.) council,consider members for this senior advisorycouncil, and set a date for the first meeting.The role of the S.A.L.T. council and suggestedguidelines for member selection are discussedin detail in Chapter Three: Making Triad Work.Many law enforcement agencies have adepartmental policy on the Triad approachto crime and older adult individuals. A modelpolicy can be found in Appendix B.The involvement of the police department(s),sheriff’s office, older adult leaders,and those who work with older adults isessential to create a successful Triad.VariablesAlthough there is no single format for replicatingTriad activity and success, establishedTriads report some commonalities: The sheriff and at least one police chiefattend most council meetings. Officers and deputies provide guidanceand support rather than chair councilmeetings. Within the first few months, a survey ofolder adult residents is first reviewed bythe council and then conducted with theassistance of members. Council meetings are held monthly(groups meeting only quarterly tend tomove slowly and rely too heavily on thesupport of law enforcement). Triad sponsors crime prevention seminarsfor older adults. Triad members recruit older volunteers towork with law enforcement agencies. An effort is made to identify and publicizeprograms that assist older adults. Members provide outreach to vulnerableolder adults living alone.The commitment of agency representativesand volunteers will dictate the variety andscope of programs and services that eachTriad can offer. The Triad will only progressthrough the efforts of a group of individualswho know the community and understandolder adult concerns.4


Chapter ThreeMaking a Triad WorkImportant to Triad’s success is the senior advisory council, whichconsists of older adult community members, people who work witholder adults, and law enforcement. Open dialogue with the councilallows chiefs of police and sheriffs to hear firsthand from older adultsabout crime—and their fear of crime, as perception and reality do notalways coincide. Both groups focus on unmet needs and concerns, aswell as alleviate fears.Further, the council assumes an active role, adopting availableprograms, recommending appropriate initiatives, or beginningnew programs.Triad may accomplish its goals through one council or several,depending on the size of the area, the population, and the needs of thearea’s citizens.RepresentationThe senior advisory council is known as S.A.L.T., an acronym for“Seniors And Law (Enforcement) Together.” Because the councilplays a vital role, careful consideration of members is paramount.Ideally, selection is based on leadership and familiarity with olderadult issues—and the amount of time and energy potential membershave to give. Diverse representation reflecting the community isequally important.Community leaders and senior-related agencies can suggestcouncil members who will work to accomplish Triad goals. Volunteersfill many roles in Triad and can be used for specific projects or ona short-term basis; however, only a limited number may becomeS.A.L.T. council members.Law Enforcement MembersLaw enforcement leaders must participate in the S.A.L.T. council tohear older adult concerns firsthand. Council membership might alsoinclude district attorneys, state police, and other representatives,including staff who work in planning, crime prevention, victim assistance,or older adult issues.In counties with a large number of incorporated areas and policedepartments, each department might rely on a smaller S.A.L.T. group.Representatives may then attend regional or national meetings. Witha large number of groups, each should be allowed to send one or tworepresentatives to the regional council.5


Other MembersOlder adults and professionals who workwith older adults, know the community,and are familiar with local resources shouldcompose half the council. When selectinga candidate, it is important to considerthe qualities that person would add to thegroup—Does the person have a positiveattitude? Is he action-oriented and havenew ideas? What geographical area doesshe represent?Council membership can be drawn fromdiverse sources. Below is a sample list ofpotential members: The Clergy: A ministerial associationrepresentative, retired priest, minister,rabbi, or imam The Business Community: Arepresentative of business or industry, thechamber of commerce, or Better BusinessBureau Healthcare Professionals: A professionalfrom the mental health field, hospital,or auxiliary, or a geriatric physician orretired doctor Service or Membership Organizations:Local councils on aging, area agencieson aging, AARP, retired teachersrepresentative, Jaycees, Kiwanis, ExchangeClub, Masons, or Federation of Women’sClubs Local Agencies Working Directlywith Older Adults: The public housingauthority, council of governments, city orcounty council, mayor’s office, or RSVP Aging Professionals: A representativefrom the aging network, includingsocial services, adult protective services,organizations promoting nutrition (e.g.,Meals on Wheels), agency or council onaging, senior centers, or others Media: A representative fromnewspapers, radio, or television stationsS.A.L.T. council members withknowledge of the police and sheriffs’ officestend to be more effective. Acquaint newvolunteers with law enforcement and theactivities of the individual departments.Social service providers and others withknowledge of community facilities mayconduct training for Triad members—bothlaw enforcement and civilian. An orientationformat is included in Chapter Six: FosteringUnderstanding Through Triad.A newly formed S.A.L.T. council shouldcomprise no more than 10 members.Additional members can be added as needsarise. A letter of invitation explaining therole of the S.A.L.T. council may clarifyvolunteer rules and limitations. A sampleletter is included as Appendix C.Role of the S.A.L.T. CouncilThe S.A.L.T. council is a Triad action groupthat focuses on senior crime and safety. Thecouncil reviews and recommends programswith community benefit. The council shouldalso work to recruit volunteers for needspecificprojects.Council meetings should offer anopportunity for frank discussion, and thecouncil should function as a working groupand source of ideas. Samples of S.A.L.T.council purpose, role, model policies, andbylaws are listed in Appendices D and E.Activities of the S.A.L.T. CouncilEach Triad pursues issues appropriate for itsolder adult community. In areas where crimeis intense, crime prevention may be the solefocus. In others, reassurance or agency volunteeringmay take priority. The following textcovers the primary steps for building effectiveS.A.L.T. councils. Finding the “pulse” of yourcommunity is paramount to a S.A.L.T. council.6


Survey of Older AdultsPerception and reality often do not correlate.Triads should never assume they know whattypes of criminal activities and fears affectthe older adults they represent—they shouldask them directly.A survey of older adults is the first orderof business for new Triads. Sample surveys,which can be adapted to meet local needs, areincluded in Appendix F. Surveys should beeasy to read, short, simple, easily distributed,and easily collected. A survey subcommitteecan draw from the generic survey form. Thecouncil can review the final draft. The surveycommittee can also recommend methods foradministering the questionnaire, assist withdistribution, and tabulate findings.Strive for wide questionnaire distribution: Publish in newspapers, senior papers, ororganizational bulletins. Distribute at libraries and senior centers. Hand out during meetings of religious/civic groups. Ask Meals on Wheelsand others to distributeand collect surveys. Request that utilitycompanies includesurveys with monthlystatements.DirectoryInventorying existing community seniorservices eliminates program duplication.A subcommittee may recommend expandingexisting programs or creating new ones. Asubcommittee can also help locate volunteers.Use subcommittees as the Triad work force,as it is efficient to assign tasks to these smallergroups. Subcommittee recommendationsprovide the foundation for the council’s actions.Additional ProgramsIn many areas, law enforcement agencies lackstaff for senior-targeted crime prevention.The council and Triad volunteers work withprofessionals and agencies to provide assistancenot previously available. Volunteersbecome valuable assets to law enforcementagencies with personnel constraints.However, it is very important to assess needbefore the council creates new programs orexpands an established one.EvaluationThe work of a Triad evolves as communityneeds change, and its focus is adjusted asnecessary. Create an evaluation tool foreach program to measure effectiveness.Law enforcement responds favorably toresults-driven activities. With grant funding,a measurable improvement often meansfurther funding.For additional information about surveys, see Conducting Community Surveys: A Practical Guide forLaw Enforcement Agencies by Deborah Weisel (Bureau of Justice Statistics and Office of CommunityOriented Policing Services, 1999). This guide, along with accompanying computer software, providespractical pointers for law enforcement in conducting community surveys. The document is also availableat http://bit.ly/Az061i.Additionally, see A Police Guide to Surveying Citizens and Their Environments, Bureau of JusticeAssistance, 1993. This guide offers a practical introduction for law enforcement to two types ofsurveys that officers find useful: the public opinion survey and the physical environment survey. Theguide provides guidance on whether and how to conduct cost-effective surveys. This document isavailable at http://1.usa.gov/wKsmsp.7


Information Sharing and EducationThe S.A.L.T. council facilitates informationexchange among older adults, agencies, andlaw enforcement. To understand the limitationsof law enforcement response to olderadult concerns, the council should haveknowledge of law enforcement responsibilities.Often, under-reporting of seniorrelatedcrimes is a key factor to responsein this area. (see Chapter Six: FosteringUnderstanding Through Triad for theCitizen Police Academy.)Advocacy and Advisory GroupVolunteers can disseminate to other older adultsinformation about law enforcement’s capabilitiesand the judicial and other constraints placed oncriminal justice personnel.While the council has no authority andis not intended as a citizen review board,the perspectives of its members can provideofficers with insight. The council can act asa focus group for law enforcement on olderadult issues.Reassurance, Crime ReportingOlder adult volunteers who are part ofa reassurance program report immensesatisfaction from their work with victims.Volunteers can answer a “senior line” setup within a law enforcement agency. Theycan encourage callers to report suspiciousactivities or crimes and gather details withvictim callback programs. Older adultvolunteers also are helpful when it comes todealing with chronic callers and callers withunrealistic expectations of law enforcement,freeing up law enforcement to tend to otherduties. Triad is an excellent conduit betweenthe older adult community andlaw enforcement.What the Council Is NotThe S.A.L.T. council has limitations as well.It is not a law enforcement review board or apolicy-making body. The council is not involvedin agency operations and has no authority overagency personnel. Members normally have nosupervisory or sworn authority.S.A.L.T. Council MeetingsS.A.L.T. councils, if not properly organized,will become obsolete. Listed below are provenmethods for healthy, organized, successful,and long-lasting councils.When to Meet?Initially, meetings should be held more thanonce a month to establish objectives, devise aplan of action, and get Triad activities underway. Afterward, meetings may be scheduledfor the same time each month. Considerdaylight hours for meeting times, as somevolunteers may prefer not to drive or ventureout after dark.Where to Meet?A meeting place should be established whena Triad is formed. Often, law enforcementagencies have a convenient regularmeeting space. To learn about other agencyoperations, alternate meetings betweenpolice and sheriff’s offices, or the firedepartment, when space is available.The most convenient location may be acommunity, older adult, or religious centeror a library. Also, S.A.L.T. councils mayschedule meetings in different parts of thecommunity, making it easier for older adultsin different areas to attend.Who Chairs?Leadership by a capable older adult volunteeris desirable. Law enforcement leaders, actingas a resource, will balance council ownership.Law enforcement and senior service providerscan contribute and provide guidance.8


What Is the Best Format?Most meetings are divided into informationand planning segments. Typical agenda itemsinclude the following: Updates on crimes affecting older adultsas well as seasonal crime awareness(Crime statistics can be reported, butolder adults should be allowed to discussconcerns and remedies to crime duringthis part of the meeting.) Reports from committees on new andongoing activities Informative programs such as crimeprevention presentations. Short-term plans for S.A.L.T. activities Long-term goals to reduce crime againstolder adults and older adults’ fear of crime.A sample S.A.L.T. meeting agenda isincluded in Appendix G. Meetings can beformal or informal, as desired, but they musthave structure and provide thorough agendacoverage. Encourage older adult input byholding meetings at older adult gatheringplaces. Address each item with action.SuppliesBefore the meeting begins, distributenametags, agendas, and Triad informationpackets, especially to newcomers, visitors,and speakers. Offering refreshments andsocial time after the meeting is a certain wayto increase attendance.PublicityInvite members of the media from localpublications, radio, TV, and newspapers tojoin the S.A.L.T. council.Media coverage provides publicity forTriad, which builds awareness among newvolunteers, companies, and organizations.Articles and programs on crimeprevention help to keep older adult issuesbefore the public.SuccessThe S.A.L.T. council succeeds byimplementing and maintaining one programat a time from the prioritized survey listand achieving results. Once one issue isaddressed, it is time to address the next issue.Finally, ensure that you have bylaws toreplace members of the council, as needed.Ten Tips for S.A.L.T. Councils Start with a small council. Expand thegroup as needs arise. Create subcommittees to handleplanning and activities. Select a capable older adult to chairmeetings. Hold a brief session before each meetingfor the chairperson and law enforcementto determine the meeting goals. Plan the meeting agenda around crimeprevention. Evaluate all subcommittee efforts, eitherformally or informally. Include all members. Allow them toparticipate and provide input. Plan meetings during daylight hours, ifpossible. Establish a regular meeting day andtime End meetings on time with clearsubcommittee follow-up assignments. Invite members of the media often.SummaryUse your Triad to improve the safety of theolder adults in your community. By focusingyour Triad, and your S.A.L.T. council on thisultimate goal, you will enrich the lives ofthe seniors you serve as well as those of theindividuals who serve them.9


Chapter FourCrime and Older AdultsThe main purpose of Triad is to educate older adults and to preventcrimes against them by focusing on pre-victimization (crimeprevention) and post-victimization (victim assistance).The primary avenues for helping older adults with crime issues arethe joint programs carried out by law enforcement and Triad. Olderadults present ideas, take part in initiatives, and assist law enforcementin effectively addressing crime against older adults.Triad’s victim assistance program helps older adults followingincidences of all aspects of crime. Triad volunteers can focus on Triadvictim activities from emergency room to courtroom—with the goal ofhelping the older adult move past the event.Triad may help prevent or discourage the targeting of older adultsfor financial victimization through education—and thereby preventloss of earnings or lifetime savings.Triad can help older adults contend with other types of crimeand victimization as well. For example, a Triad “buddy” assigned toan older adult can be trained to notice and report abuse, resultingin investigations of older adult abuse or neglect. Older adult crimevictims can serve both as volunteers and advocates, assisting fellowvictims and empowering themselves.Older volunteers can take part in a call program—a program inwhich Triad volunteers call to check on the welfare of older adultswho have requested the service. The volunteers can then alert lawenforcement to instances when older adults fail to respond.11


The Older VictimWhen addressing criminal victimization ofolder adults, consider the following questions:How many area older adults are crimevictims? How many are victims of violent asopposed to nonviolent crimes? and Why isfear of crime such an issue?According to the U.S. Department ofJustice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, olderadults do not make up a high percentageof crime victims. Violent crime mostfrequently involves young males aged 18 to25. Of murder victims, only 14.7% were over50. Older adults donot always respond to statistics, however.Understanding older victims begins withacknowledging their concerns for safetyand criminal activity despite what statisticsmight show.Older adults are less likely to reportcrimes against them for a variety of reasons.According to First Response to Victims ofCrime 2001 (U.S. Department of Justice,Office of Justice Programs, Office forVictims of Crime), older adult victims haveother worries. They may doubt their abilityto meet law enforcement expectationswhen reporting the incident and worry thatofficers or family members will perceivethem as incompetent. They may also fearoffender retaliation for reporting the crime.Finally, older adults may feel guilty for“allowing” the victimization to occur.What Are Targeted Crimes?Frauds and scams, purse-snatching, pickpocketing,theft of checks from the mail, andcrimes in long-term care settings more oftenhappen to older adults, according to AARPstudies. Abuse is another crime that specificallytargets older adults.Older adults fear the possibility ofcrime—even if they have not been victims.Many take necessary precautions andcontinue with their lives. But others acutelyalter their lifestyle or withdraw, which canhave a debilitating effect on their physicaland mental well-being. Following are somespecific ways that targeted crimes can affectolder adults: Physical and Emotional Impact: Thosewho are injured tend to recuperate moreslowly. Physical and emotional trauma canlead to incapacitation and often death ofthe older victim. Income: According to the U.S.Department of Justice, robbery accountsfor a quarter of the violent crimes againstpersons age 65 or older. Financial loss,whether the result of street robbery,home burglary, telephone fraud, realestate scam, identity theft, or other crime,can do irreparable damage to a limitedbudget as well as to emotional well-being. Independence: Victimization may destabilizean older adult’s sense of security. Itcan compromise his or her will to copewith future problems. The crime may bethe catalyst that brings about an end toemotional and financial independence. Quality of Life: Recovering fromvictimization, worrying about thelikelihood of another incident, orregretting the consequences of a poordecision, victims may become reclusive.Embarrassed, distressed, and sufferingfrom poor self-confidence, victims maychoose to lock out the outside world,which can have a detrimental impacton quality of life. This withdrawal canhappen in varying degrees. Secondary or Vicarious Victimization:Older adult victimization often frightensthe victims’ peers. They abandonpatterns of visiting friends, going toworship, shopping, and other social12


interaction. According to the AmericanNurses Association, “secondary victimization”can lead to a condition of hypervigilance,suspicion, and paranoia. Thisbecomes more acute with violent crimes.Compounding the problem is thefact that, for the isolated or incapacitatedolder adult, perception of the outsideworld is based on, and often skewed by,media reports of crime, which often aredramatized and can make older adultsfeel especially vulnerable.The U.S. Department of Justice statesthat among victims of nonlethal violence,persons 65 or older were about six timesmore likely than younger persons tonever go out at night. Until this fearis alleviated, secondary victims willdisproportionately affect law enforcementworkload.Through education and trainingby law enforcement professionals,community leaders, senior-issuesprofessionals, and volunteers, Triadcan help prevent senior-targetedcrime, alleviate the unwarranted anddebilitating fear of crime, and assistvictims. For example, Triad crimeprevention programs address personalsafety, demeanor, avoidance of high-risksituations, and sensible precautions toreduce the chances of victimization,taking into account the nature of actualcriminal activity in the area.The workbook section of thishandbook addresses programs toimplement in your community. Cultural Awareness and Understanding:Older adults may be less culturallyintegrated into their community thanmembers of other age groups. Culturalvalues may inhibit interaction between lawenforcement or volunteers and an olderadult resident, victim, or witness, as dophysical and emotional limitations.Cultural or historical influences mayaffect how older adult members withindistinct ethnic communities perceive andinteract with law enforcement officers ofother races, backgrounds, and gender.Understanding differences thatdrive behavior can lead to successfulinterchange and reduction of obstacles.Use Triad to address cultural differencesand the ways that cultural values,beliefs, and traditions affect individualperception. Remember, “ageism”—or thestereotyping of older adults—is a barrieras well.Alternative lifestyles are also adenominator that may arise and shouldbe considered when addressing olderadults. Discussing this topic with lawenforcement and with volunteers priorto an encounter will be beneficial for apositive outcome of the encounter.Understand your local cultural normsto begin the process of removing barriers.A voice of community members to eachsubculture in your community cananswer questions that law enforcementand volunteers might have. Contactsocial service agencies, culturalspecificcommunity centers, religiousorganizations, or leaders within eachsubculture for insight on minimizingcultural differences and misconceptions.13


Chapter FiveStructure of TriadLocal TriadThe first local Triad was establishedby the sheriff of St. Martin Parish,Louisiana, working with four areapolice chiefs. In 1988, Louisianachiefs of police, sheriffs, and AARPleaders signed the first statewideTriad agreement.Triad consists of the sheriff,police chiefs, and communityleaders who may have a leadershiprole in an AARP chapter, RSVP,the retired teachers association,a local council on aging, an areaagency on aging, or a similarorganization. Triad is the agreement among thesegroups to work together to educate and thereby ebyreducecrime against older adults. Triad members mayserveon the S.A.L.T. council or, if they do not, they mayoffer representatives to serve. The S.A.L.T. councilassesses older adult needs through surveys andinformation gathering. The survey focuses on crime, perception of crime,and older adult needs—the primary concerns ns of Triad. With surveyresults in hand, a subcommittee is created to address each issue that isidentified. Volunteers change as needs change.Regional TriadWhere a regional planning group exists, Triad activities are conductedfor a larger area; information and programs are shared among towns andcounties. Participants plan crime prevention programs for local trainthe-trainerevents.At meetings, regional or multicounty Triads give presentations tohighlight successful programs and share resources of benefit to othercounties. Each area should be represented at the regional S.A.L.T. council.For best results, work with local resources to secure space and trainingmaterials for regional meetings. Choose meeting times that do not conflictwith local S.A.L.T. council meetings. Maintain focus on senior safety at theregional level—with issues common to all S.A.L.T. councils represented.15


State TriadA state-level Triad may concentrate ontraining and providing advice and technicalsupport. The state training academy may beinvolved, making training available to lawenforcement officers as well as to volunteerson topics such as the process of aging,expansion of senior services, and communityorganization.Document and publicize statewideresources. Legislative issues can beaddressed at this level. Use a statewideteam of law enforcement/judiciary, the stateattorney general, RSVP, and social servicesrepresentatives to identify older adult issues.Identify model Triad programs to replicateand create advanced programs for nascentlocal Triads to follow.Once the local or regional Triadsmature, create a state-level Triad fortraining conferences. Disseminate pertinentinformation about state and federallegislation and provide advanced training.Address aging issues from state and nationalperspectives, including national crime trendsand remedies. It is critical to the state-levelTriad’s success to have the right delegatesfrom the local Triads represented at the statelevel, as well as state-level participants whocan implement necessary change.16


Chapter SixElements of TriadTriad begins by focusing on the specific crime-related concernsolder adults indicate on the initial survey, starting with one or twoprograms, and expanding as these programs succeed.The S.A.L.T. council prioritizes activities so as to balance abilitieswith issues—bear in mind that expectations must be based on thenew Triad program’s capabilities. For best results, start with the mostpressing activity, address it to the best of the program’s ability, andthen expand to the next issue. Programs might take weeks or monthsto identify, orchestrate, and execute.Combating VulnerabilityUse law enforcement leadership and S.A.L.T. council members todevelop programs that help older adults assess and reduce their risk ofvictimization.When expanding existing crime prevention programs, or addingnew ones, consider the following: Crime statistics for older adultvictimization—area by area in your community—can be valuable.Know and be able to tell older adults what, when, and where crimesare occurring. Use these statistics to dispel fears. Surveys can indicatewhether statistics and actual criminal activity are consistent. Samplesurveys are located in Appendix F.Plan a crime prevention education campaign to reach olderadults. Information should be concise, clear, and provided frequently.Where other agencies sponsor crime prevention programs for olderadults, expand on and support those efforts. These agencies provide17


an opportunity for information gathering,alliance building, and possible recruitment ofvolunteers for the new Triad.Safer Older Adults—Beginning ProjectsAddress older adults with a crime preventionmessage unique to their needs, communicatedin a variety of ways, and repeated often.To bring about a change in behavior andhave a positive impact on the safety of olderpersons, repeating this message is essential.It is important to inform older adults aboutcrimes and scams that should concern them,offer tools to combat these crimes, and dispelperceptions of crime that are disproportionateto reality.Consider the following tools or programs toreinforce your Triad message: Print Media: Place announcementsin newspapers; community bulletins;council on aging newsletters;neighborhood association/housingauthority newsletters; publicationstargeted at older adults, retired veterans,and educators; and employee bulletins.Often, these venues are provided as a freecommunity service. For those that arenot free, consider a sponsoring partnerto cover costs. Senior service providersare an excellent resource for Triadpartnerships. S.A.L.T. Speakers’ Bureau: Membersof the S.A.L.T. council, law enforcement,and other older adults can be trainedto deliver crime prevention messagestailored for the community. AARPchapter meetings, religious organizations,community groups, senior meal sites, andother gatherings provide ideal forums foryour event. Offer your services to olderadult venues. Crime Prevention Events: Integrateolder adult safety seminars into currentolder adult events in your community.Focus on crimes targeting older adultsand prevention techniques. Or, initiatea community event with sponsors,seminars, and safety personnel.Pair crime prevention messages withother outings or social events for olderadults. Senior centers serving meals mayprovide a ready audience at lunchtime.Offering refreshments along with a briefprogram garners a receptive audience. Triad Calendar: Print a calendar forolder adults with safety and crimeprevention tips for each month. Sponsors(often printing companies themselves)may absorb the cost of printing. Be sureto include text thanking the sponsor forsupporting Triad. Public Service Announcements:Radio and television are often eager tobroadcast community service messagesabout crime prevention. Ask the localcommunity college to produce publicservice announcements (PSA) explainingTriad and its crime prevention emphasis.Use community resources to benefit bothTriad and the resource. Neighborhood Watch Groups: Olderadults involved in community crime18


prevention communicate with theirpeers. Many crime prevention groupsare led and sustained by retired persons.Expand Neighborhood Watch to focusattention on older adult neighborneeds. Train older persons to assist lawenforcement by observing and reportingsuspicious activities. Many older adultsmay be willing to take on leadershiproles in the program. Expand theNeighborhood Watch/Triad partnershipinto a comprehensive community/seniorwatch program. Senior Centers and RetirementCommunities: Most places where olderadults reside or gather will be willing toadd your program to their agenda. Focusthe program on law enforcement, crime,or prevention of crime, or on all three.Open a forum to educate older adults,allay fears, and answer questions. Public Housing Projects: Citygovernment, social services,law enforcement, and housingadministration officials share concernfor criminal issues in public housing,particularly regarding older personsliving in unsatisfactory or unsafearrangements in such a setting. In highriskareas, deliver a crime preventionmessage with concrete strategies forolder persons’ safety. Build a coalitioninvolving law enforcement, seniorservices groups such as RSVP, andvolunteers to protect older adults inhigh-risk areas. Inner-City Older Adults: For olderpersons living in high-risk areas, uselectures, as discussed earlier in thismanual, but focus primarily on safetyand prevention. Obtain relevant statisticsand survey results, caution older adultsabout current crime, and offer training onmaintaining a safe living space. Emphasizethe importance of always locking doors,stressing the often creative ways criminalsgain entry into older adult homes. Someprograms offer equipment, such aswhistles, or collect unused cell phones tohelp keep older adults safe—a charged cellphone, even without a purchased serviceagreement, can reach 911. Escort Partnerships: Carefully selectyouth volunteers or members of youthprograms to accompany older individuals,when needed. Collaborating with othersocial services can help you find Triadvolunteers. Bring community attentionto specific older individual needs, suchas escorts to and from religious services,grocery shopping, and communityevents, where vulnerable older adulttargetedcrime is prevalent. Recruit lawenforcement officers to live in seniorhousing or to be assigned to crimeprevention projects—chiefly to serve as adeterrent to crime. Safe Walks: Mr. Mark Fenton, host of thePBS series America’s Walking and formereditor of Walking Magazine, states that thepsychological benefits of regular physicalactivity for older adults are great.19


“We see again and again that regularexercise gives an improved sense of selfworthand an improved sense of purpose,”Fenton said. “It’s also clear that regularactivity may reduce the likelihood ofclinical depression—a problem amongolder individuals who may begin to feelthey are a burden to their family. Withregular exercise, they can continue tobe contributing members of society andif they want, they can get involved involunteer work or part-time work.”Health benefits from regular physicalactivity such as walking include: Reduced risk of dying prematurely Decreased risk of dying from heartdisease Decreased risk of developing coloncancer Reduced risk of developing highblood pressure Help in reducing blood pressure Decreased risk of developing diabetes Decreased risk of developingosteoporosis Lower risk of developing hypertension Increased muscle strength/flexibility/balance, reduced risk of falls Weight control.In some neighborhoods, however,venturing out can be potentiallydangerous. Remove older adults fromthese neighborhoods by locating aneutral, public place where they can go.Provide transportation and supervisewalking events to alleviate the dangers ofunsafe neighborhood exercise. Distributenotices through newspapers, seniorcenters, food-distribution programs,religious centers, and local publicationsto ensure participation.In addition to serving as an olderadult exercise option, walks provide anopportunity to educate older adults oncrime prevention. Make this a weeklyevent arranged in a community space,such as the zoo, mall, or park. Localhospitals or other health organizationsmay agree to be sponsors, providingjuice or fruit. Although this event can beconstrued as a social gathering, maintainfocus on the crime prevention message. Safe Shopping: Co-sponsored by Triadand local grocery store chains, theprogram provides safe transportation tobuy groceries on designated days. Off-dutylaw enforcement officers or volunteersescort older adults into the store, whereclerks assist them, allowing for additionaltime to shop and check out. Some grocerystores provide services to accommodatethe group, such as using smaller packagesof produce and providing shoppingassistants, chairs, or refreshments. Tiethis event into the crime preventionmessage prior to the store visit. Refrigerator Cards: Originating inMonmouth County, New Jersey, thiseasily replicable product is now widelyused throughout the United States andother countries. The cards are printedand distributed by Triads (see Appendix20


H). A brightly colored card displayshealth information, including names andnumbers of emergency contacts, doctors,health care plans, known allergies, andcurrent medications. Due to the riskof identity theft, older adults should beadvised not to post personal data such asa Social Security number. File of Life: An idea originally developedin Bridgeport, Connecticut, this programuses a clearly marked envelope designedto be magnetically mounted on therefrigerator door. Along with medicalinformation, the envelope can contain acopy of important health-related papers,a living will, or other documentation aphysician may need. Older Adult Referral Card: Originallydeveloped in Volusia County, Florida,these cards are carried by lawenforcement so that they can makeappropriate referrals to special servicesfor older adults in need.Law enforcement can use the card,included as Appendix I, to obtain servicesfor older adults who may be sufferingfrom conditions such as dementia ormalnutrition. Use volunteers to follow upwith agency/service recommendations.The volunteer should check to make surethat the older adult is making use of theservice and report results. Adopt-a-Senior: Begun in St. MartinParish, Louisiana, law enforcementofficers “adopt” a vulnerable older adult,with consideration to individual specialneeds. The program provides an outsidecontact for older adults who are isolated.The law enforcement officer visits andtelephones assigned older adults oncea week. This program allows isolatedolder adults to maintain independence.Suggested guidelines are in Appendix J. Buddy System: A 2003 report by theNational Research Council Panel toReview Risk and the Prevalence ofElder Abuse and Neglect estimated thatbetween 1 and 2 million Americans ages65 and older have been injured, exploited,or otherwise mistreated by a caregiver.The exact number of cases is unknownbecause, according to a 1996 NationalElder Abuse Incidence Study, only 16% ofthe abuse situations are referred for help:84% remain hidden.Triad focuses on preventing domesticabuse by educating older adults aboutthe need to plan for one’s later yearsand develop reliable support networks.Establish a network system to helpprevent or stop abuse—be it financial,physical, psychological, neglect, orself-neglect. Train volunteer buddies torecognize changes in health, well-being,mental attitude, and financial situation.Older adults tend to be more comfortableconfiding in a peer information thatthey feel they cannot share with lawenforcement or strangers. Disaster Preparedness: When disasterthreatens, older persons are among themost vulnerable. Establish an emergency21


preparedness subcommittee to chartlocations of older adults in disasterproneareas and care for them. Create a planbefore disaster strikes—for example,planning for the evacuation of those withspecial needs. This builds relationshipsbetween Triad and emergency personnel.This program can also assist with trainedvolunteers to help law enforcement withnoncritical duties in a disaster situation.Team up with a local NeighborhoodWatch or Community EmergencyResponse Team (CERT) to furtherimplement the program.The Safety Training and Resources(STAR) Initiative is a community-basedtraining and database development projectthat Triads can use to instruct communitymembers how to collect, collate, anddisseminate safety and communityresource information in order to betterprepare for natural and manmade disasters.More information about the STARInitiative is available at www.nationaltriad.org/STAR_Program/index.htm. Cell Phone Banks: Cell phones can bea vital lifeline between victims and firstresponders during emergencies. Enhancelocal law enforcement’s availabilityto provide cellular communicationsto vulnerable older adults by gettinginvolved in the 911 Cell Phone Bankprogram. Open to law enforcement,emergency management, and privatecharitable victim services agencies, theprogram provides an ongoing, readilyavailable source of emergency cell phonesand funds to participating members.Information on how to volunteer orbecome a cell phone donor site isavailable at www.911cellphonebank.orgor (866) 290-7864. Telephone Reassurance: Older adultsstate that their safety and sense ofsecurity increase with a daily telephonecall. Telephone contact programs becomeTriad activities when law enforcementagencies sponsor them through theS.A.L.T. council. Locate older adultsthrough older adult groups, mediaarticles, the local agency on aging,and referrals from friends, neighbors,relatives, and older adult referral cards.Live calls made by older adultvolunteers or law enforcement officers arestrongly recommended.Depending on resources, either askthe volunteer to place the call, or havethe volunteer available to take the callfrom the older adult daily. A telephonereassurance program model is located inAppendix K.The S.A.L.T. council establishesa subcommittee for reassuranceprograms, such as Adopt-A-Senior,telephone reassurance, and therecruiting and assignment of buddies.For program volunteer help, turn toyour local older adult organizations.22


Chapter SevenFostering UnderstandingThrough TriadLaw enforcement and older adults may connect only when problemsarise—which often fosters impatience, misunderstanding, andmiscommunication. Triad can help address this problem by providinga forum for both law enforcement and older adults to discuss commonmisperceptions.Officer TrainingLaw enforcement officers generally know little about the processof aging. They can be more effective in their jobs when educated toconsider the following: Vision, hearing, and depth perception are sometimes limitedin older adults. Such impairments can affect how an older adultresponds to an officer. Fear of crime is often paramount. Some officers may notappreciate the impact that the fear of crime has on older persons—or the reasons behind certain older adult actions. Older adults are often susceptible to specific kinds of “targeted”crime and fraud.To educate law enforcement, obtain educational materials fromsenior services, the AARP, the local council on aging, the area agencyon aging, or a community relations/training/senior resource officer.23


Victimization and Its EffectsOlder victims often do not report crimeand have difficulty recovering from theexperience. Officers who are cognizant ofthis fact when responding to older adultcalls will be more effective in gatheringevidence, handling crime reports, andoffering reassurance.Invite a doctor, nurse, or social workerskilled in older adult care to conducta training session for law enforcementofficers and volunteers. Offer in-serviceor roll-call training at a local or statetraining academy or university. Obtaincontinuing education unit (CEU) creditfor your program in advance in order toensure success. (Information about CEUsis available at the International Associationfor Continuing Education and Trainingwebsite, (http://bit.ly/y3R9w6.)What Officers KnowThe quiz in Appendix L may reveal officermisconceptions.Subjects to incorporate into officer training: The process of aging Communicating with older persons Impairments—observe vision/hearinglimitations and make adjustments incommunication, as needed Medication—the effects of medication,mixing medications, or of failure to takethe appropriate dosage Detecting older adult abuse Facts/effects of criminal victimization.Crime Reporting by Older IndividualsReporting tendencies among this populationcan be divided into three categories: nonreporters,chronic callers, and those seekingimmediate action. Nonreporters fear thatofficers will not or cannot do anything or aretoo busy. They also may fear retribution, orthey may convince themselves that the crimecommitted was comparatively insignificant.Officers should be cognizant of thesebarriers to reporting when responding toolder adult crime reports. Is the victimembarrassed by the prospect of neighborsobserving a uniformed officer at her door?Might he fear law enforcement? Could shebe hesitant about becoming involved withthe judicial process? Does he lack awarenessof anonymous reporting programs, such asCrime Stoppers? Answering these questionscan remove roadblocks to the capture andprosecution of criminals, ensure that olderadult crime statistics fully reflect actual cases,and inhibit reoccurrence. A Triad victimassistance volunteer may help to allay theseconcerns as well. A telephone number ofthe volunteer may foster a better interactionbetween victim and officer.Chronic callers may contact agenciesrepeatedly to report minor activities thatoften do not constitute law-breaking. Byreinforcing the fact that officers can onlyenforce the law, Triad volunteers canhelp raise awareness and, perhaps, a newappreciation of law enforcement’s limitations.24


Individuals who seek immediate actionare often lonely, fearful, or are losing arealistic perspective. Some could be victims ofAlzheimer’s disease or other dementia. Raisingawareness of these possible reasons mayalleviate miscommunication when officersrespond to these callers.Alzheimer’s EducationAccording to the Alzheimer’s Association,Alzheimer’s disease (AD) afflicts an estimated5 million middle-aged and older adults in theUnited States and is the sixth-leading causeof death. The National Institute on Agingdescribes AD as a gradual brain disorderthat results in progressive degradation ofmemory, attention, and judgment along withbehavior and personality changes. Manymildly impaired AD patients appear alert andphysically fit.The course of this disease varies, as doesthe rate of decline. On average, patients withAD live for eight to 10 years after diagnosis,though the disease can last for up to 20years. AD advances progressively, from mildforgetfulness to a severe loss of mental function.Symptoms normally appear after age 60.Risk increases with age. It also can affectbeha-vior in seemingly criminal ways. Thefollowing behaviors are typical of someAlzheimer’s victims: Wandering: A patient wanders fromcaregivers, becoming disoriented quitenear his or her home. AD affects theassociative capabilities that allow peopleto relate to familiar landmarks. Indecent Exposure: Repetitive behaviorssuch as concerted attention to buttonsand zippers are often cases of fidgetingcaused by AD. A victim who zips andunzips his pants or unbuttons a blouse inpublic may be fidgeting. Shoplifting: AD patients lose the abilityto sequence events. They may forgetthat they have an item, are in a store,or that it is necessary to pay. They mayalso forget pocketbooks, wallets, andmoney. Confronted with a charge of“shoplifting,” they may become confused,irritated, and accusatory. Appearance of Intoxication: Severalbehavior patterns resemble intoxication.Confusion, disorientation, and problemswith short-term memory, language, orcoordination may be AD. Victimization/False Report: AD patientsmay be deluded in thinking that they havebeen victimized. They may report a crimethat has not occurred—even implicatingfriends or family members. However,when reporting crimes, they may not beable to communicate coherently. Driving: When memory, judgment, andproblem-solving ability are impaired,AD patients who continue to drive maybe involved in crashes. They may also“wander” as they drive and wind up inan unknown location with no idea ofhow to return. Failure to Pay Bills: Evictions,repossessions, or termination of utilityservice may occur when AD patients losetrack of bill payments.Behaviors that may indicate Alzheimer’s include: Repeated Questions: Patients may askthe same question over and over. Unusual Reactions or Expressions:Facial expression may be blank orinappropriate to thesituation. Inappropriate Dress:An AD patient may wearclothing inappropriate tothe weather and season.25


Delusions: A delusion is a persistent,incorrect belief that remains fixed in spiteof all rational evidence to the contrary. Short-term Memory Loss: Short-termmemory becomes most acutely affected—and nonexistent in advanced stages—while recollection of events long pastmay be vivid. Problems with Language: AD patientsmay ramble in a confused manner. Thevictim may lose the ability to understandwhat he or she hears.Keep the following techniques in mind whenconfronted with unusual behavior: Check for an Alzheimer’s disease IDbracelet. Speak slowly, clearly, simply, and in areassuring tone—one idea at a time. Speak directly to the patient in anonconfrontational fashion. Take charge of the situation calmly.Invite disease specialists to providetraining. Alzheimer’s Association chaptersoffer training and may assist agencies andfamilies. If there is no area chapter, develop areferral list of professionals and institutionsfamiliar with AD. As a resource that maybe of benefit, Blackford County HospitalAdmissions Director Joni Slentz created theElopement Drill Evaluation Form, MissingResident Response Kit, and Elopement Risk-Assessment forms found in Appendix O.Training: Starting aCitizen Police AcademyTo promote civilian-law enforcementcooperation, it is important to educatemembers of the S.A.L.T. council and olderadults about the criminal justice system—laws, courts, and law enforcement. Schedulea “citizen police academy” after establishingthe S.A.L.T. council. Both older adults andvolunteers should receive this training. Offertraining to volunteers before they begin work.Citizens are invited by the chiefs of policeand sheriff to participate in the program.Participants fill out an application andsign a liability waiver. A background checkis performed on participants. A sampleapplication and liability waiver are includedin Appendix M.The objectives of the academy are to: Provide insight into law enforcementtraining and duties Explain departmental policies andprocedures to promote understandingand dispel misconceptions Target older adult safety issues.Topics to cover: Responsibilities ofpolice and sheriffagencies Officer training Patrol procedures Crime sceneinvestigation Narcotics and vice investigation Crime prevention Traffic accident investigation Duties of highway patrol Firearms training and safety and deadlyforce issues.Ideally, the program should be repeatedsemi-annually or quarterly.The Citizen Police Academy procedureswere supplied by the DeSoto, Texas, andBridgeport, Connecticut, police departmentsand the Union County, North Carolina,Sheriff’s Office. The Alzheimer’s Associationfurnished material for this chapter.26


Chapter EightOlder VolunteersAccording to Volunteering in America, in 2007, 60.8million Americans—26.2% of the adult population—gave8.1 billion hours of volunteer service worth $158 billion.Among older adults, 60.2% of those ages 65 to 74 and44.7% of those ages 75 and older said they volunteered(The Urban Institute, 2002 Health and Retirement Study).Older adult volunteers are a valuable asset to lawenforcement. An agency’s capabilities can be expandedwithout increasing paid staff with the help of volunteers Also, older adults oftenprove to be especially faithful assistants who bring maturity, experience, andenthusiasm to a task.RecruitingUse the S.A.L.T. council to form a subcommittee to find, enlist, manage, andretain volunteers. Before recruiting volunteers, the S.A.L.T. council should havea clear vision of what the Triad program will accomplish, including timeframesand duties to assign. This in turn gives volunteers a clear definition of duties andexpectations.Once recruitment begins, screening and selecting volunteers for specificprograms are the initial steps. Making the volunteers feel involved, needed, andimportant is also part of the process.According to a Gallup Poll, nine out of 10 individuals volunteered when asked.Results of an AARP survey about volunteering revealed that many older adultsdidn’t volunteer because “nobody asked me.” Here are some tips when recruitingvolunteers: Explain clearly what the volunteer job is and what it is not. Present the opportunity both realistically and enthusiastically.Effective volunteers must place value in the program. Recruit from the community and professional, civic, and charitable organizations.A personal invitation to volunteer in Triad can be especially effective.The one-on-one approach is more successful than a blanket invitation. There arenumerous ways to announce the need for volunteers. These include: Local newspapers (crime prevention articles, advertisements, and letters) Local radio or television (talk shows and public service announcements) Community/spiritual/senior newsletters and bulletins Merchant window displays Flyers in public libraries, waiting rooms, and other public places Bulletin boards in places where older adults shop or gather Neighborhood/condominium associations and civic groups.27


The NATI partnership with RSVP is a goodsource of volunteers. For more information,visit www.seniorcorps.org/about/programs/rsvp.asp.After volunteers are recruited, begineducating—for example, through thecitizen police academy. Volunteers link lawenforcement and the community. Solicitsuggestions and implement when appropriate.Law Enforcement AgenciesAfter training, volunteers can assist withvarious senior-related issues, including anonymousreporting, administrative/clerical tasks,civil process administration, communications,crime prevention, computer data entry, fraudalerts, investigative follow-up, missing persons,neighborhood patrol, disaster evacuation,public relations/media, search and rescue, andwriting (e.g., reports, bulletins).The CommunityOpportunities to volunteer at the communitylevel abound. Types of community activitiesto consider include block organizing,court watch, crime reporting, educationalpresentations, excursion companion/escorts for older adults/disabled, literaturedistribution, neighborhood disputeresolution, Neighborhood Watch programs,pedestrian safety/training, personal/homesecurity, property identification, telephonereassurance, vacant house checks, and schoolofficers assistance.Victim and Witness AssistanceHelping crime victims and witnessescan be a rewarding experience. Potentialvolunteer activities include advocacy services,compensation applications, complaintreferrals, counseling, court assistance,crisis support, emergency shelters, impactstatement preparation, legislative watch,pre-trial briefings, transportation, and trialdate notification.BenefitsVolunteering benefits everyone involved—lawenforcement, the community, and individualvolunteers—in a host of ways.For Law Enforcement Relieves sworn law enforcement so theymay tend to other duties Enhances community policing Improves system efficiency Reduces older adult isolation Provides for officer-citizen interaction.For the Community Helps the community to better understandlaw enforcement functions Renews community pride Facilitates property return to owners Prompts the development of newprograms and activities.For the Older Volunteer Provides a chance to help others Enriches daily living Reinforces self-confidence Develops talents and new skills Nurtures fellowship and friends Gives the satisfaction of contributing tothe community.Before bringing on volunteers, identifytasks and supervisors. Establish screeningprocedures for volunteers. Write jobdescriptions. Identify liability/insurancerequirements. Establish standard taskmeasurement prior to assigning tasks. Developa plan for how contributions of volunteers willbe acknowledged.Much of the material in this chapter isbased on the monograph “Older Volunteerswith Law Enforcement” by the Late Mr.Lee Pearson, Assistant Manager, CriminalJustice Services, AARP.28


Chapter NineEvaluating TriadEvaluation is a necessary component of every successful Triad—at thevolunteer, assigned-task, and program levels.To measure how Triad is meeting the needs of law enforcement and olderadults, plan for assessment to be an integral part of the program from the start.An evaluation, pertinent at all three aforementioned levels, should answerthese questions:1. Does the volunteer/program do what you want done?2. Is the program being carried out the way you had planned?3. Should the volunteer assignment/program continue as originally begunor change?Assessment justifies continued Triad/agency involvement. Fundingassistance is often based on successful demonstration of the program’seffectiveness.Planning for EvaluationInclude evaluations into the program planning stages. Because Triad iscomposed of law enforcement, older adults, and public organizations, eachshould be engaged in the review.Establish who will oversee the Triad evaluation after the cooperativegroups are formed. If possible, engage a specialist in the design andadministration of the evaluation.Ideally, a single person or subcommittee will be responsible for theevaluation. This can be an excellent opportunity to work with colleges,universities, high school social science classes, local businesses, or otherorganizations having research capability.TimingDo not postpone evaluation until the program is under way. Plan forappraisal—or see progress suffer as a result.The Measuring StickThese questions can help you focus on what should be evaluated: Does the community know about your Triad? Do law enforcement and older adults know what Triad is and what isits purpose? Is there duplication of Triad programs in the community? Are individuals representing Triad doing so effectively? Are Triad goals being met? Are goals specific and understandable?29


Goals and ObjectivesBase evaluations and progress on thefollowing fundamental Triad programobjectives: Reduce criminal victimization of older adults Educate older adults on communityspecificcrime and crime preventioninformation Start/expand reassurance programs Educate law enforcement to work moreeffectively with older persons.If the objectives are not clearly definedor are unrealistic, accurate evaluation maybe elusive or even unattainable—and so willsuccess for the program.Keeping ScoreMap progress as goals are accomplished. Forexample, an informal check-up sheet mightread as follows: Program: Crime prevention presentations(initial programs planned for seniorcenters during March and April). Topics:personal safety, spring home-repairscams. Objectives: (1) Inform older adults aboutcrime-related scenarios and appropriateresponses designed to reduce victimization.(2) Officer Jones will train Mr.Senior Volunteer to conduct similarpresentations. Participants: Officer Jones, DeputySmith, and Mr. Senior Volunteer.The purpose of the evaluation is toconfirm that objectives are being met or toidentify aspects that need to be changed.Some programs can be assessed by pre/posttesting.Evaluate programs in a standard,measurable format.Perceptual programs are more difficult toevaluate. Follow-up calls with a brief surveycan document perceptions. Allow volunteersin the victim/witness program to carry outthis portion of the evaluation.Methods of Gathering InformationWritten questionnaires should be briefand easy to read. If multiple-choice andyes-no questions are used, little writingwill be required. Query individualsby asking standardized questions (forcomparison purposes).The sample forms, illustrated here, maybe adapted to fit local programs:1. I (am) (am not) aware that our policeand sheriff’s departments are workingtogether to reduce crimes againstolder adults.2. I (have) (have not) attended one ormore crime prevention program in thepast six months.3. If a salesperson or repairperson whomI did not know appeared unexpectedlyat my door, I (would)(would not) knowhow to determine if he were legitimate.4. I would (feel comfortable) (hesitate)calling the police or sheriff’s office if Isaw something suspicious.5. I (know) (do not know) about theSenior Call program at the police orsheriff’s department.6. I (know) (do not know) whom tocontact about programs or services Imight need.The following hypothetical situationillustrates another measuring method—fromdesired results to assessment of actual results. Objectives: Reduce the incidence ofvictimization and the level of fear amongthe residents of Oakdale Manor; increasethe number of older individuals involvedin civic activities.30


Activities: Conduct at least one personalsafety and crime prevention presentationper week for an audience composed ofolder persons; establish volunteer escortservice daily from 3–7 p.m., persuade cityto route mini-buses through the area,install streetlights in five key areas.Determining Results byMeasuring Numbers and Events: Count of reported crime incidentsinvolving older victims before Triadefforts start and at six-month and oneyearpoints Number of crime prevention presentationsmade and persons addressed Number of bus routes rescheduled andchanges in ridership Number of new streetlights installed.Measuring Attitudes and Activities: Pre- and post-surveys of older adults’ attitudes/activities—daytimeand evening Resident attendance at evening events Changed behavior on the part of residentsas the result of crime prevention programs.Tabulation of this information providesthe basis for a realistic evaluation.Other Evaluation Techniques: Uniformly interview participants, volunteers,and program staff. Analyze existing data—census, crimereports, economic and social data. Evaluators provide direct observations. Review programs, reports, and key groupsurveys. Review data on actual area crimes. Volunteers could record meetingattendance.Poor evaluation results should not bediscouraging. Break down the program intoits elements; keep those that are successfuland re-evaluate or modify unsuccessfulelements.Sample surveys are included in AppendixF. These may be adapted.Key Points Essential in an Evaluation: Be sure it gets done. Triad doesn’t workwithout an evaluation process. Plan for an evaluation method from thebeginning of the program. Review the process and the results. Assess changes in feelings and perceptionas well as facts. Use your results to improve the program.Core program is based on Taking a Standagainst Crime and Drugs from the NationalCrime Prevention Council.31


Chapter TenAvoiding MisstepsThe S.A.L.T. council should be prepared to encounter and overcome orwork around difficulties. Begin by looking at well-known Triad programssimilar to those you foresee establishing. Below are suggestions foravoiding missteps.Involving Triad PartnersFor the Law Enforcement Partner: Stress that Triad is a program for older adults by older adults, usingfew law enforcement resources. Emphasize the community aspects of the program and that lines ofcommunication between law enforcement and older adults will be enhanced. Indicate the ways Triad benefits older adults and the law enforcement agency. Emphasize older adult benefit in incorporated and unincorporated areas. Emphasize public relations aspects of Triad, such as S.A.L.T. councilmembership. Stress that “business as usual” equates to status quo in crimeand fear. Remember that older adults trust law enforcement they know andwork with. Reassure agency personnel that the S.A.L.T. council is purelyadvisory and voluntary—not a review board. Use resources to cite reported and typically unreported seniorrelatedcrime. Ask an older adult leader to accompany you to strengthen yourinvitation for participation or to make a separate appeal in person.33


For Senior Services or RSVP Partners: Note that Triad is a positive publicrelations and marketing tool for serviceproviders. Emphasize the benefits to older adultsby referencing Triad successes. Surveyresults are beneficial in this respect. Discuss the mutual advantage in sharingresources—crime prevention programs,materials, ideas, and volunteers. Mention intent—senior surveys, crimeprevention/reassurance, and education.For Older Volunteers: Invite older individuals who can makethe Triad a success. Invitations are bestmade in person or by telephone. Send afollow-up letter to underline importance. Contact older adults who request crimeprevention programs or home-securitysurveys for their organizations orthemselves. Rely on other volunteer programs toassist or supply volunteers.34


BudgetMost Triads have little or no budget. Beloware ideas Triads with limited funds can use toenhance their programs: Older adults volunteer their time and canprovide much of the leadership. Senior service organizations usuallyprovide support. Hospitals and medical associations oftenadd crime prevention to health-careevents and assist in other ways. Firefighters, libraries, educationalinstitutions, church-affiliatedorganizations, and civic and Masonicgroups are often very supportive. Organizations to whom older adultsare important as clients or customersmay offer in-kind or other support(e.g., agencies on aging, grocery stores,drugstores).Manpower ConstraintsIf a law enforcement officer is not available,choose capable older adults or retired officerswho can lead. In such an instance, officersserve in an advisory capacity. They suggest,encourage, and help to plan but do not directthe program.35


Programs37


ProgramsVictim Assistance ProgramsProgram DescriptionOlder adults often feel law enforcement is unable to assist when victimization occurs, that lawenforcement is too busy—or that the crime is not worth reporting. Triad helps break downthese myths. Local police departments, the sheriff’s office, and the district attorney’s office canhelp with victim assistance.Cultural influence affects law enforcement perceptions. Some older people aren’t sure whatconstitutes a crime. Others are embarrassed by the prospect of family or authorities knowingthat they have been swindled. A primary Triad activity is victim assistance. Triad must firstidentify who needs assistance, a task complicated by the unwillingness of some older people toreport crimes. A goal of Triad is to develop a program in which older adult volunteers educatefellow older adults on older adult crime. Volunteers provide a comfortable means of reportingcrime and render victim assistance and support.Supporting DocumentationBased on data collected between 1992 and 2000, of all victims aged 65 or older, only 53% ofviolent crimes they experienced were reported to the police. For older adults ages 50 to 64, thefigure was even lower at 49% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003). After victimization, few olderadults understand the court system and how to navigate it. Surveyed older adults have stated aneed for a peer who is able to explain the process and offer support.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)The Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center (OVC TTAC)provides comprehensive technical assistance and training resources to victim serviceproviders and allied professionals. Information on training initiatives and tools and resourcesare available at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/assist/welcome.html or (866) 682-8822. In addition,contact victim assistance programs in your area to locate lecturers and resources. AARP’sCitizen’s Guide to the Criminal Justice System is a widely used resource. Obtain older adultvolunteers through RSVP, advertisements, and other older adult programs.Procedures (How Program Is Put Together)Primarily, through the S.A.L.T. council, work to educate older adults on the importance ofreporting crime and its benefits—lower recidivism, safer neighborhoods, fewer repeat crimesagainst other older adults. Provide education on what constitutes a crime, and why, when, andhow to report crime. Teach older adults about law enforcement functions and the availabilityof anonymous reporting, such as through Crime Stoppers.Establish a victim assistance program. Establish a committee to recruit older adults withcounseling experience. Provide sufficient volunteer training and peer assistance, recognizingthat older victims are more comfortable discussing experiences with a fellow older adult.Often, former victims can heal by helping others in similar straits.39


ProgramsIn certain circumstances, it may be appropriate for the victim assistance volunteer to: Listen to the victim, share experiences, and offer support Act as liaison to service providers (e.g., locksmiths to install deadbolts) Help the victim obtain appropriate counseling Act as a criminal justice system guide, escorting victims to court/hearings Recommend involvement in Neighborhood Watch Take part in a crime report callback program, updating victims on the progress of theinvestigation. Volunteers can also get crime information details.If your community already has a victim assistance program, expand it by recruiting oldervolunteers to help older adult victims. Triad thereby can help older adults reduce the likelihoodof repeat victimization. Contact your local citizen academy or law enforcement to coach or trainvolunteers on how to assist victims.Evaluation ProcessInitially, your crime reporting rate may register an increase as older adults becomemore comfortable with reporting crimes. Establish education programs on how to avoidvictimization for different crime categories and lecture on these repeatedly. Monitor statisticsfor each crime category. Victimization rates among older adults eventually should drop incorrelation to lecture programs and eventual reduction in recidivism. Administer a survey toolder adults after attending your program. Ask clear questions, such as “Do you feel safer nowknowing more about __________ crime?” or ask direct questions about identifying criminalbehavior. Set up an evaluation process before implementing your program.Potential Model Programs/Notes:40


ProgramsProperty Crime ProgramsProgram DescriptionThe Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that 57 per every 1,000 households of persons age65 and older experienced property crime in 2009. In addition, more than half of all victims ofnon-lethal violence ages 65 or older offered no resistance to the crime, often a tempting targetfor criminals. Triad can offer several lecture programs to educate older adults about propertycrimes and how to make themselves an unlikely target.Supporting DocumentationBurglary, theft, and vandalism are economically and emotionally distressing for older people.Many older adults have a fragile sense of security and limited ability to replace stolen ordamaged property.Some older adults do not report crimes and suspicious activities, fearing retaliation.Defacement of property and automobile vandalism are often viewed as a personal attack.Educating older adults on localized crime and prevention methods therefore becomes a keyobjective of Triad.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Invite your crime prevention officer or trained older adults/senior providers to lecture at olderadult gatherings about crime, crime safety, and prevention. The Office for Victims of CrimeTraining and Technical Assistance Center provides comprehensive technical assistanceand training resources to victim service providers and allied professionals. Information ontraining initiatives and tools and resources are available at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/assist/welcome.html or (866) 682-8822. In addition, contact victim assistance programs in your areato locate lecturers and resources. AARP’s Citizen’s Guide to the Criminal Justice System is awidely used resource. Obtain older volunteers through RSVP, advertisements, and other olderadult programs.Procedures (How Program Is Put Together)Establish a property theft program by creating several training events on senior-targetedcrimes. Present these programs where older adults gather, or create a venue to educate themon crime safety. Many topics vary by community, although several remain consistent. Forexample, all older adults will benefit by learning how to make themselves and their propertyless attractive to thieves and vandals.Also illustrate ways to carry money safely and stress the importance of leaving valuablesat home.Citizens can deter theft, or more easily reclaim stolen property, by marking valuables with anidentifying number (Operation Identification). Visit www.usaonwatch.org and contact the NationalSheriffs’ Association or telephone participating local law enforcement agencies for details.Thieves know when monthly checks are delivered and act accordingly. Encourage olderadults to use direct-deposit to their banks rather than mail delivery.41


ProgramsInform citizens about crime deterrence, but convey information without frightening them.Foster caution and safe habits; do not feed paranoia.Evaluation ProcessInitially, your crime reporting rate may increase as older adults become more comfortablein reporting crimes, as stated earlier. Establish an education program for avoiding propertycrime and lecture on that topic repeatedly. Monitor statistics for property crime. Propertyvictimization rates among older adults should drop in correlation to lecture programs.Administer a survey to older adults after attending your program. Ask clear questions, suchas “Can you list three ways to keep your property safe?” to assess vulnerability.Potential Model Programs/Notes:42


ProgramsAbuse ProgramsProgram DescriptionOften society’s most hidden crime, older adult abuse may not be evident in your community.Abuse can be physical or mental (e.g., intimidation) in nature. It can also be financialor involve neglect by a caregiver—or self-neglect. Triad volunteers can become adept atrecognizing signs of abuse and acting upon it. They can implement programs to prevent olderadult abuse.Supporting Documentation for ProgramThe National Crime Victimization Survey cannot accurately measure older adult abuse, as thementally impaired often cannot report victimization or describe details. Victims dependent onabusive caretakers may not report abuse. In addition, financial exploitation may occur withoutthe victim’s knowledge.According to the National Center on Elder Abuse 2004 Survey of Adult Protective Services:Abuse of Adults 60 Years of Age and Older, self-neglect was the most common category ofinvestigated reports (26.7%) followed by caregiver neglect (23.7%) and financial exploitation(20.8%). These findings represent a 19.7% increase over the previous survey conducted in 2000.Self-neglect is abuse that is due to diminished mental or physical ability or social isolation.Many older adults see no options other than the neglectful or abusive situation. Currently, if acompetent person chooses to remain in such a situation, it is his or her right to do so.Research says that “passive neglect”—failing to provide proper nutrition, hygiene, livingconditions, or to administer medication—occurs with the most frequency and can lead toserious health problems or death.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Health care, mental health, or certain social service agencies; law enforcement officers; andvolunteers can provide pamphlets and other literature. Find volunteers by approaching socialand spiritual organizations, posting requests in senior-related areas, and contacting RSVPchapters. Use your local Meals on Wheels and other senior outreach programs to disseminateabuse information.Procedures (How Program Is Put Together)Make abuse awareness a regular topic for examination. Training topics should includedetection, assistance, and prosecution, with older adults educated to assist themselves and/orothers. Understand the hidden nature of the crime—one that won’t readily be discussed. Invitelocal professionals to lecture on this topic.Search your community resources to identify and provide education on the following: Older adult abuse Organizations that offer assistance Alternatives to the abusive situation Abuse victim assistance programs.43


ProgramsEstablish “buddy networks.” Buddies may be friends, acquaintances, or another volunteerwho is adept at detecting and preventing the mistreatment of older adults.Call banks used to contact older adults on the Triad telephone list can serve to both deterand detect abuse. Telephone calls provide the opportunity for individuals reluctant to discussabuse to be more forthcoming.Go to older adult venues and schedule lecture times during regular older adult events.Alternatively, create your own safety fair, tapping resources through your senior providerorganizations.Evaluation ProcessMonitor before-and-after statistics on older adult abuse through your crime statistics andvictim assistance programs, or your local law enforcement agencies. Surveys can also bedistributed following lectures. Keep surveys easily quantifiable.Potential Model Programs/Notes:44


ProgramsFrauds and Scams ProgramsProgram DescriptionFor older adults, financial loss can be devastating. A trusting nature leaves many olderpeople susceptible to frauds and scams from individuals—often family members or primarycaregivers, predatory institutions, and professional scammers.Supporting Documentation for ProgramConsumers reported more than $3.6 million in losses to the National Consumers LeagueFraud Center in 2010. The average loss per person to Internet scams alone was $931.According to the Federal Trade Commission, 38% of all fraud complaints were made by peopleages 50 and over in 2010.A 2004 National Consumers League report noted that, in the following fraud categories,older adults made up an even higher percentage of victims: prizes sweepstakes fraud (66%),lottery club scams (59%), magazine sales scams (52%).Various factors lead to victimization—more so when combined with reduced mental andphysical abilities, loneliness, grief, isolation, loss, sensory impairment, illness, vanity, limitedincome, and mistrust of banks.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Predatory Lending: The county or state office of consumer affairs or state attorney general’soffice can provide information on borrowing that may be helpful in preventing victimizationthrough predatory lending. A qualified attorney, financial advisor, housing counselor, or apanel of these individuals can provide ongoing information to older adults to prevent a verypainful experience. Find local U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)offices at www.hud.gov/localoffices.cfm. Another useful document is the AARP’s “Borrower’sGuide to Home Loans,” a step-by-step guide to getting the best loan possible. Call (800)424-3410 or order online at http://aarp.us/zWjhbP.Home Improvements: The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) Consumer ResponseCenter publishes “Home Improvement Tools You Can Use,” helpful for this type of fraud. Call(877) 382-4357 to order.Telemarketing: Request speakers from local sources, your Better Business Bureau, orthe fraud unit within your agency. Obtain written materials from Experian, Equifax, andTRW credit reporting agencies (see Resources for contact information), the National FraudInformation Center, and the National Center for Victims of Crime.Find volunteers by approaching social and spiritual organizations, RSVP, and AARP. Useyour local senior outreach programs to reach shut-in older adults. Repeat your message often.Procedures (How Program Is Put Together)Use crime prevention officers, volunteers, articles, brochures and presentations withfollow-up bulletins and reminders to educate older adults about fraud and scams—and howto recognize those who perpetrate them. A few of the most prevalent frauds and scams arelisted on next page.45


ProgramsPredatory Lending: Home loans and predatory lending schemes can result in the loss ofolder adults’ homes. These offers come by telephone, mail, email, and door to door.Home Improvements: According to the Consumer Federation of America, homeimprovement and contractors are the second-largest U.S. consumer complaint. Commonissues include workmanship, overpricing, abandonment or unfinished work, failure to meetbuilding code requirements, and failure to use a written contract. They are often connected topredatory lending scams to finance the work. Home improvement fraud is more prevalent inthe aftermath of community disasters.Telemarketing: The National Fraud Information Center reported that 33% of alltelemarketing fraud complaints were made by people ages 60 and over in 2005. Encourageolder adults to adopt a prepared response to suspicious unsolicited offers. Older individualswill be better able to resist high-pressure and often fraudulent sales pitches with replies suchas: “Leave your number and I will get back to you after I check with (the Better BusinessBureau, police department, relative, attorney, etc.).” “Send (or leave) some literature and I will consider it.” “I no longer respond to telephone solicitations.” “I have to consult my (spouse, brother, daughter, attorney) before I make that sortof decision.” “If I have to give you an immediate answer, the answer will have to be ‘no’.”Instruct older adults not to transact with their credit card numbers over the telephoneunless they themselves have placed the call. Encourage them to add their names to the NationalDo Not Call Registry at www.donotcall.gov.Interaction with law enforcement encourages older adults to call when they suspectsomeone is attempting to defraud them. Promote it in Triad meetings and seminars. Uselaw enforcement, the S.A.L.T. council, and volunteers to alert older adults when fraudulentoperators are in the area. Contact your local media to create public service announcements forthese topics.Evaluation ProcessMonitor before-and-after program statistics on scams and fraud through your crime statisticsand victim assistance programs, or your local law enforcement agencies. Surveys can also beused after lecture programs. Keep surveys easily quantifiable.Potential Model Programs/Notes:46


ProgramsIdentity Theft Prevention ProgramsProgram DescriptionAs one of the fastest growing crimes in the U.S., identity theft affects twice the numberof older adults as the rest of the population—approximately 9 million Americans overall.(Federal Trade Commission)With identity theft, an individual’s identity is assumed either temporarily or longer term tocommit fraud. A criminal will use the name, address, Social Security number, bank or creditaccount number, or other identifying information without the victim’s knowledge to commitfraud or other crimes. In 38% of reported complaints, the victim did not notify anyone(including law enforcement), signifying that many people do not have proper training as tohow to report and rectify these crimes.Supporting Documentation for ProgramAbout 42% of victims spent one day or less working to resolve financial and credit problemsassociated with identity theft. However, 3% continued to experience problems more than sixmonths after discovering the theft. Some 23% of victims suffered an out‐of‐pocket financialloss; the average loss amount was $1,870, with half losing $200 or less. (Bureau of JusticeStatistics, Victims of Identity Theft, 2008, December 2010)Agencies strengthen efforts to combat identity theft by involving Triad, its programs, andvolunteers listed in this resource manual.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Contact the Federal Trade Commission, local law enforcement agencies, and the threemajor credit-reporting agencies (Equifax, Experian, TransUnion) (see Resources for moreinformation). Obtain a copy of the Consumer Action Handbook at www.consumeraction.govfor general consumer assistance.Additional materials and resources can be obtained from AARP, your local RSVPorganization, the local council on aging or area agency on aging, or the Department of Justice.Contact your local bank for bank fraud representatives, Better Business Bureau personnel,fraud investigators, or specialized law enforcement personnel for presenter contacts.Recruit volunteers to distribute handouts and fraud leaflets.For presentations, use senior-accessible space, such as a community center or library. Askyour local Meals on Wheels or equivalent to distribute informative placemats with printedidentity theft messages.Use local printing and advertisement resources for your program.47


ProgramsProcedures (How Program Is Put Together)Educate older adults about identity theft to reduce underreporting and the occurrence offinancial crimes. Teach older adults to identify fraudulent activities before victimization and, ifdefrauded, how they can rectify the situation. Provide articles, brochures, and presentations—with follow-up bulletins and reminders—toindividuals and older adult organizations outlining ways to recognize, prevent, and rectify fraud. Offer seminars on the fraud trends in your area, with community experts as presenters. The presenters/moderators of the program could include bank fraud representatives,Better Business Bureau staff, fraud investigators, or other experts. Summarize the materialin flier format, distributed through channels used to advertise your program. Older adults should be instructed not to make any transaction in which they give creditcard information over the telephone unless they placed the call. Encourage older adults tojoin the National Do Not Call Registry at www.donotcall.gov. Criminals obtain personal information by rummaging through trash, stealing walletsand purses, mail, pre-approved applications, or tax information. They pose as telemarketersor sweepstakes employees to get personal information over the telephone. They send falseemails requesting information. Some dishonest employees steal employer records withpersonal information. Criminals will watch or listen for PIN numbers, calling card or creditcard numbers. According to the FTC, 7% of identification-theft victims reported that theirpersonal information was stolen during a purchase or financial transaction in 2006. Inform older adults that identity theft is a serious crime. Actions related to identificationtheft can be a federal offense and violations of these federal laws are investigated by federallaw enforcement agencies, including the FBI, U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Postal InspectionService, and Social Security Administration. Federal identity theft cases are prosecuted bythe U.S. Department of Justice. Advertise your program. If older adults are unaware of your seminars and efforts,your program will fail. Many radio stations provide free airtime for public serviceannouncements. Triad should have or create a contact sheet of local senior centernewsletters, long-term care facilities, and other senior-targeted publications to disseminateseminar information. Other advertising venues are local news coverage, fliers in publicareas, spiritual centers, and volunteer programs such as Meals on Wheels.48


Programs Finally, train law enforcement to interview victims effectively. The quality of informationgathered from older adults will increase the likelihood of apprehending offenders.Law enforcement must be trained to identify and work around health impairments.Physical, sensory, memory, or other cognitive impairments can interfere with an officer’sattempt to gather information. Improved techniques will allow the officer to develop aquality investigation and to positively impact victims’ behaviors and attitudes towardlaw enforcement. Address all relevant inquiries, including victim, offense, and offendercharacteristics. Create and use a detailed investigation checklist for the older adult’s estate,financial arrangements, and relevant legal documents. Ask crime victim volunteers to gatheradditional information after the initial law enforcement interview.Evaluation ProcessUse a quiz after the presentation to assess the amount of information older adults absorbed.Asking generalized questions on recognizing, preventing, and rectifying identity theft candetermine weaknesses in presenters for the next seminar. By offering these seminars andevaluations often and updating the material as criminal activity evolves, you help ensure thatolder adults are continually reminded of the factors that constitute identity theft.A reduction of identity theft in your community is an evaluation tool to measure programsuccess. Review crime statistics for these changes.Law enforcement is not accountable to Triad. Keep a working rapport with the sheriff,chief of police, or other officers to increase the number of law enforcement officials attendingand contributing to training.Potential Model Programs/Notes:49


ProgramsHome Safety Inspection ProgramsProgram DescriptionIn addition to senior crime safety, your Triad can implement programs that keep older adultssafe. Statistics show that higher percentages of older adults are injured and killed by falls dueto an unsafe environment and from fires caused by equipment that has not been maintained.Although not a senior crime safety issue per se, these statistics have bearing on law enforcementduties. This program of home fire safety and security inspections is a joint effort betweenthe sheriff’s office, police departments, fire departments and EMT workers. Work with lawenforcement and older adults to perform home inspections to reduce fall and fire statistics.Supporting Documentation for ProgramOften, older adults are unable to maintain their homes, and the cycle of disrepair and neglectcan lead to an unsafe environment. In addition, safety equipment such as locks, peepholes,and fire detectors may be out of date or not functioning.Falls as a percent of fatal home accidents are increasing. More than 86% of the victims are65 or older. According to the U.S. Fire Administration, Americans over the age of 65 are at ahigh risk of death and injuries due to fires and represent over 1,200 fire-related deaths eachyear. People over age 80 die in fires at a rate three times higher than the rest of the population.By addressing fall, fire, and safety issues as they pertain to older adults, Triad will alleviate lawenforcement duties but also help to keep older adults safe.Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Contact the Federal Online Resources, AARP, Administration on Aging, AmericanFederation for Aging Research, International Association of Fire Chiefs, National VolunteerFire Council, National Fire Protection Asso ciation, National Safety Council, and the NationalCenter for Injury Prevention and Control for distribution and lecture materials on fall,fire, and home safety. If you prefer to create your own materials, team up with printingservices in your area to produce fall and fire safety information. Recruit volunteers for leafletdistribution, signup, and maintenance/installation efforts. For presentations, any spaceaccessible by older adults, such as a community center, library, or other facility with lecturespace, will suffice. Use local advertisement resources for your program.51


ProgramsProcedures (How Program Is Put Together)Distribute prevention information through spiritual groups, civic organizations, Meals onWheels, Neighborhood Watch, and senior centers. Arrange for safety lectures where olderadults gather. Promote your free evaluation and home safety inspection program, after settingqualifying factors for participants. Volunteers should take registrations for a free inspection.Obtain volunteers from among other resources, including high school and trade schools withhandyman capabilities (e.g., woodshop), Masons, Kiwanis Clubs, and Eagle Scouts. Scheduleeach person for a one-hour slot. Allow 30 minutes for a law enforcement security check and30 minutes for a fire department/EMT fall and fire prevention check. Team up with localhardware companies to sponsor the program. Companies often donate fire alarm systems,peepholes, night lights, light bulbs, or other safety devices for older adults lacking safetyequipment. Obtain reliable volunteers to install equipment. Promote the donor to establishrepeat participation. Make prevention awareness a regular lecture topic, including homeassessment materials, free inspections, and volunteer services and equipment. Appendix Nincludes a sample home inspection form.Evaluation ProcessEvaluate your program by the number of older adults who sign up. You may also administera short survey after the inspection/walkthrough lecture in order to determine the amount ofinformation retained.Potential Model Programs/Notes:52


ProgramsOlder Adult Safe Driving ProgramsProgram DescriptionToday, there are more than 32.2 million older adults on the road—accounting for 15% ofall licensed drivers in the United States. Older adults are more likely to wear seatbelts, abstainfrom alcohol, and avoid risk-taking while driving than all other age groups. However, whileolder drivers are involved in fewer crashes than their younger counterparts, for miles traveled,their fatal crash rate increases sharply with age.Fragile bones, slowed reflexes, and other age-related changes lessen the older adult’s abilityto overcome physical trauma. Crash-related injuries that might temporarily incapacitatea younger person may be fatal to a frail older adult. Medical conditions such as cataracts,glaucoma, and macular degeneration can destroy the visual acuity needed to drive safely.In some older drivers, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia—even the effects of certainmedications—can reduce cognitive and higher-reasoning abilities, leading to unsafe driving.Mobility is vital to health and well-being. According to the American AutomobileAssociation, compared with older people who drive, older non-drivers make fewer shoppingand restaurant trips and fewer social, family, and religious visits (Getting Around). Loss ofmobility can lead to social withdrawal and “shut-in” mentality, which in turn negatively affectphysical and emotional health.Triads can play an important role in ensuring that older adults have the skills to driveas long as mental and physical health allow. Further, they can help older adults develop atransition plan for when it becomes necessary to relinquish the car keys and find new forms ofmobility. Finally, Triads can link older adults to local transportation resources.Supporting DocumentationDespite lower risk-taking, older drivers are more likely to be hurt or die in a car crash. 75% of peoplewho die in crashes involving older drivers are the drivers themselves or their older passengers. Theincrease in fatal crashes involving drivers age 75 and older is attributed mostly to fragility due to age.(National Institute on Aging, 2009) (IIHS, Fatality Facts 2009)Drivers age 65 and over killed in car crashes are significantly more likely to die of chest injury thanyounger drivers (47.3% vs. 24%). (Dr. Richard Kent et al., “On the fatal crash experience of olderdrivers,” University of Virginia, 2005)The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported that nearly 183,000 older adults wereinjured in traffic crashes, while older drivers accounted for 15% of all traffic fatalities, in 2008.A total of 3,981 people age 70 and older died in motor vehicle crashes in 2009—a 32% decrease since1997. (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Fatality Facts 2009)In two-vehicle fatal crashes involving an older driver and a younger driver, the vehicle driven bythe older driver is nearly twice as likely to be the one struck. (National Highway Traffic SafetyAdministration, Traffic Safety Facts: 2008 Data)53


ProgramsOlder drivers are over-represented in intersection crashes, while merging and overtaking, andin angle crashes—especially left-hand turns. (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, OlderDrivers Q&A, 2010)Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material Requirements)Contact the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) (www.iihs.org) and theNational Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) (www.nhtsa.gov) for the latestcrash statistics.Contact the following organizations for information on and assistance with older drivereducation and training resources: American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA): AAMVA workswith NHTSA, the American Medical Association, and other organizations on safe driverprograms such as GrandDriver (www.granddriver.info) , which urges older drivers andtheir adult children to learn more about how the effects of aging affect safe driving ability.American Association of Retired Persons (AARP): The AARP Driver Safety Programprovides local and online training to help older adults brush up driving skills andlearn to adjust driving to accommodate normal age-related changes). (www.aarp.org/home-garden/transportation/driver_safety/) American Automobile Association (AAA): The AAA’s national Senior Driver Expo(www.aaaseniors.com/seniordriverexpo) helps older adults and their families deal witholder driving and mobility challenges. Participants can access tools to help assess andimprove driving skills, reduce driving risks, and foster dialogue between adult childrenand their older parents about driving. Tools featured at the expo include the AAARoadwise Review (a computer-based screening tool used to measure functional abilitieslinked to crash risk among older drivers) and Smart Features for Mature Drivers (a guidethat identifies vehicle features that can help drivers deal with the visual, physical, andmental changes often encountered with age). The AAA website www.AAASeniors.org provides older drivers and their families withinformation related to safety, mobility challenges, and transitioning from driver topassenger. An online skills assessment checklist allows older drivers or their loved ones toassess driving skills. American Society on Aging: Developed by the ASA in collaboration with AAA, AARPand the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), CarFit is a quick butcomprehensive check to help older drivers determine how well they “fit” into their vehicle.A professional completes a 12-point checklist, recommends any necessary car adjustmentsor adaptations, and provides a list of local resources. (http://midatlantic.aaa.com/Foundation/RoadsPrograms/CarFit)54


Programs National Association of Triads, Inc. (NATI): The National Association of Triads,Inc., offers a series of tools, including a meeting agenda template, seminar and lecturePowerPoint slides and handouts, a vehicle safety checklist, and sample law enforcementagency guidelines for responding to older and at-risk drivers (www.nationaltriad.org/Older_Driver_Materials.htm). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)/American Society onAging (ASA): NHTSA and ASA offer various older driver resources, including theDriveWell Toolkit. The Toolkit is designed to help people and organizations that work witholder adults to understand older driver mobility issues, plan and implement informationevents for older drivers, and evaluate the effectiveness of such events. NHTSA also offersa series of tools for law enforcement, including a guide to older driver behavioral cues anda compendium of state law enforcement programs focused on older driver safety. (www.nhtsa.gov/Senior-Drivers ) National Safety Council (NSC): The NSC online defensive driving course uses animationand graphics in an interactive learning environment where students analyze real drivingsituations, spot hazards, and identify correct defenses. (www.nscddconline.com)Compile a list of organizations that provide private transportation and/or delivery servicesfor older adults. These might include Meals on Wheels, law enforcement agencies, houses ofworship that offer bus service, grocery and delivery services, and taxi companies.Compile and maintain a list of public transportation (e.g., bus, subway) options, routes,and schedules.Recruit volunteers to provide transportation and/or distribute literature about safe drivingto older adults. Recruit individuals willing to staff a transportation telephone hotline.Procedures (How Program Is Put Together)Distribute safe-driving literature at venues to which older adults drive (e.g., older adultcenters, doctor’s offices, places of worship, grocery stores). Before creating new materials,check with organizations such as those listed above. The AAA Foundation, for example,offers free booklets and flyers that address older driver safety.Produce a user-friendly guide on local transportation resources and distribute at olderadult centers, assisted living facilities, and other places where older adults gather. Developa database of transportation alternatives and recruit volunteers to staff a telephone hotlineto help older adults who no longer drive find reliable transportation and map out schedulesand routes.Invite experts to conduct safe driving presentations and trainings at older adult centers,places of worship, Neighborhood Watch meetings, and other venues. Presenters might includegeriatricians specializing in older driver issues; law enforcement traffic safety personnel;department of motor vehicles (DMV) representatives who review rules, regulations, reportingrequirements, and the revocation process; and AAA representatives to brief on car safety,maintenance, and roadworthiness.55


ProgramsStress to the older adult community the importance of getting regular medical checkups,including annual vision and hearing screenings. Encourage older drivers to review allmedications they take with a physician and/or pharmacist to ensure that side effects will notaffect driving ability.Like older adults, vehicles also require regular “checkups.” Encourage older drivers tohave vehicles inspected regularly to check tire pressure and ensure lights, windshield wipers,windshield, mirrors, and tire tread are in good condition.Encourage Triad members to participate in volunteer training programs such as AAA’sGetting Around (www.getting-around.org/home/). Such programs teach volunteers how toeffectively counsel older adults on safe driving and mobility planning.Contact local newspapers and radio and television stations that attract an older audience toplace public service announcements promoting driver safety and training. Publicize seminars,telephone hotlines, and safety information in local older adult newspapers and bulletins. Createadvertisements with links to driver safety and training information on social media sites suchas Facebook. Filters allow you to target your message to desired age and interest groups.Involve law enforcement, the community, and older adult service providers in helping toensure the safety and mobility of older adults. Triad can provide sensitivity training to DMVand law enforcement personnel to educate them about older driver issues. Use the tools offeredby NATI and NHTSA (see above) to help you get started.Some law enforcement officers hesitate to cite older offenders, not wanting to takeenforcement action against “grandma and grandpa.” Triads can ensure that officers and deputiesare aware of their state’s referral process for driver licensing retesting. Triads can also teachofficers to be alert for signs of impaired driving such as vision problems or dementia.Provide city traffic planners with ideas to help make the community safer for older adultdrivers and pedestrians. Suggestions include bigger road signs, longer pedestrian crosswalktimes, refuge islands for those unable to cross the street during one signal cycle, and highvisibilitycrosswalks with lighting or reflectors.Evaluation ProcessConduct surveys asking participants to rate the effectiveness of the driver safety trainingthey have received. Keep surveys short and easily quantifiable. Adjust training asneeded according to feedback. Quiz training participants on safe driving procedures, carmaintenance, and health-related topics to assess the degree of learning.Record referrals to public and private transportation resources and keep track of the numberof older adults who use these services.56


ProgramsRegularly review local traffic and crash statistics to determine if older driver safety trainingand information programs are effective.Review the number of “hits” public service announcements and advertisements receive onradio and television, in print, and on social media sites to determine if your message is reachingyour target audience.Potential Model Programs/Notes:57


ProgramsDisaster Preparedness Programs“We all have a role in homeland security. Citizen Corps asks you toembrace the personal responsibility to be prepared; to get trained in firstaid and emergency skills; and to volunteer to support local emergencyresponders, disaster relief, and community safety.”—Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA)Linking Triad to Emergency ManagementOften, disaster preparedness plans fail to serve, or under-serve, those most vulnerable—older adults and people with disabilities. Triad works with emergency management (EM)organizations to locate, map, and plan assistance programs for these individuals.Triad is a direct link to communities and the vulnerable people they serve. IncorporatingTriad into a disaster preparedness system builds capacity and effectiveness of response to thehuman service issues that result from disastersTriad can be linked to the emergency operations center through the same EM branch asthe American Red Cross, Salvation Army, and other organizations. Also, Triad works withFEMA to ensure that recovery services reach older people and that efforts are not duplicated.Getting Started Create pre-event agreements to provide disaster response services. Include agreementpurpose, statements about the organizations involved, a list of duties and servicesTriad will provide, a list of government provisions supporting each function, jointresponsibilities, how and when agreement terms become activated, costs covered and howcosts are documented and paid, and signatures of all parties concerned. Bring Triad and EM together to discuss Triad resources and services, emergency planning,and roles. Include Triad representatives in meetings that involve EM issues and taskforces. Involve social services, public and mental health, area agencies on aging, the UnitedWay, volunteer centers, Catholic Charities, food banks, health clinics, homeless serviceproviders, Jewish Family and Children’s Services, the Salvation Army, NeighborhoodWatch, and interfaith providers. Become the EM conduit to ensure that local communities are informed and involved inactivities by organizing teams of volunteers to do door-to-door outreach following disasters.59


ProgramsTriad as a Resource Triad is a local organization with a primary mission to provide services to specific groups,including older adults, the disabled, and the cognitively compromised (e.g., Alzheimer’s).Triad helps incapacitated older adults through various programs, including Collaboration with Meals on Wheels, Community Emergency Response Teams(C.E.R.T.), and area agencies on aging to map individuals who need assistanceduring disasters. Assistance with service accessibility; personal care support; and distribution of food,water, and other supplies. Triad can pre-chart vulnerable individuals to alert EM personnel about potentialin-home dangers, medication levels, electricity/utilities, and so forth. Use the Triad website section (if applicable) to offer emergency planning tips on howindividuals can get involved. Involve EM and Triad in planning, training exercises, creation of service teamcollaboratives, geographic cluster groups, and coordinated response support plans. Identify a Triad leader to serve as a single EM contact and add the leader to theoperational area council. Develop a disaster collaborative group of volunteers active in pre- and post-disasters.Cover responsibilities and services of each group. Identify an ongoing network such as a Citizen Corps council for community leadership(if applicable) in your jurisdiction to bring together volunteers within the community.Triad’s goal may be to tie into an existing group. Create a hierarchy of services to provide should a shortage of resources occur. Plan a communication strategy for before, during, and after a disaster. Include alternatemeeting points.The Disaster Checklist Include people living both independently and in dependent care facilities. Identify community needs and the support necessary to meet them. Arrange personal care assistance if in-home care support is unavailable. Get food, water, and other supplies distributed to older people and individuals withdisabilities living alone or in isolated areas. Provide food for people dependent on home-delivered meals if services are interrupted. Help older people and individuals with disabilities fill prescriptions for life-sustainingmedications and replace vital personal equipment (e.g., hearing aids, wheelchairs,batteries) damaged or lost in the disaster. Ensure that dependent care facilities serving older people and individuals with disabilitieshave disaster plans that include measures to support t they serve. Contact isolated and homebound older people and individuals with disabilities to checkon their status and to help them get needed services.60


Programs Check on and, if necessary, evacuate people who cannot be self-sufficient for 5-7 daysfollowing a major disaster—including those who are severely disabled, ill, on life support,older adults, and people in dependent care. Relocate people dependent on electricity to maintain life support during power outages.Support mobility needs with accessible transportation resources. Triad can help transportpeople to disaster service areas during evacuations. Provide information and instructions slowly for individuals with difficulty understanding. Supplement the response to medical needs through volunteer and/or staff trained in firstaid and emergency response, and/or by providing medical supplies. Support people with special dietary needs and help with distribution of food and waterto at-risk, homebound, and disabled persons. Ideas include volunteer kitchens, mealprograms, and food pantries to support mass feeding and food distribution efforts.Coordinate efforts prior to a disaster. Provide information on community resources that connect people who need help toavailable services. Create emergency supply kits for older people.Potential Model Programs/Notes:61


Appendices


Triad Cooperative AgreementAppendix ATriad Cooperative Agreement ofArea/City/CountyOlder Adult Group(s)Sheriff’s OfficePolice DepartmentPreambleStatistics and polls indicate that crime and the fear of crime impact older adults. Recognizing that the numberof older adults is increasing, we desire to identify and address more effectively the problems faced by older citizens.Because of the aging of the population and the increasing demands placed on law enforcement agenciesto meet the needs of older adults, it is important that the law enforcement agencies of (area/city/county)_____________________________support programs designed to benefit older adults.Statement of AgreementIn light of the above, (law enforcement agency[ies], senior group, and affiliated organization[s] the new Triadwill comprise) _________________, __________________, and ________________ are determined toeffect change. These groups and agencies agree that the older adult population has special needs with respectto victimization and fear of crime, loss, and isolation. We agree that these needs can be met by law enforcementagencies and the county’s premier organization(s) of older adults, working together at all levels of freesocieties.We hereby commit to work together to enhance the crime safety of older adults. Our purpose is toreduce criminal victimization through cooperative strategies, planning, and programming and increaselaw enforcement awareness of older persons’ need for security and dignity.This initiative is designed to mobilize community resources to ascertain the needs and concerns ofolder adults and to provide mechanisms for meeting those needs.The sharing of resources is the first step toward achieving an efficient means of providing effectiveprograms. This process will involve law enforcement, older adults, and senior services in the development,implementation, and evaluation of acceptable solutions. Together, we will strive for a renewed sense ofresponsibility for the security and well being of older adults through public awareness, training, and theprovision of criminal justice services.Therefore, by agreement, the Triad will initiate the appropriate actions to achieve these objectives.Accepted:NameDateNameDateNameDateNameDateNameDateNameDateNameDateNameDate65


Appendix BTriad Cooperative AgreementOfficer Interaction with Older AdultsI. PurposeThe (law enforcement agency) ___________________________ will take a leadership role in aunique challenge—work with older leaders and affiliated organizations to reduce crimes perpetratedagainst older adults and increase law enforcement services to the older adult community.Officers should be aware that the fear of crime and certain types of criminal victimizationoccur among older persons. For these reasons, officers shall pursue steps to ensure that therights and protection guaranteed by law are available for the older adult. This department willseek and use appropriate community resources to: Promote a cooperative expansion of community crime prevention. Provide educational programs to reduce fear and victimization. Work to identify and arrest those who commit crimes against older adults. Involve older volunteers in support roles in this process.Like physical assault, harassment and intimidation are serious crimes. We recognize thatcrimes against older adults may be subtle or hidden. Some older adults are victimized by familymembers, health care providers, or fraudulent business practices. Such acts may cause the victimto withdraw from community or social activities.The (law enforcement agency) _______________________ will maintain an advisory councilwhose membership should include a local AARP/RSVP member, a crime prevention officer, alocal clergy representative, a local social services representative, and the chief executive officer ofother interested area law enforcement agencies. Additional relevant membership is welcome. Thecouncil shall be named S.A.L.T.—“Seniors and Law (Enforcement) Together.”The purpose of the S.A.L.T. council shall be to research and offer programmatic remediesto older adult needs as they pertain to criminal activity. The council shall be a forum forcommunications and discussion between law enforcement and older adults. It may develop itsown agendas, focusing on crime and security-related concerns of older adults. The council shalldetermine meeting frequency and the formality of goals, minutes, topics, and projects.II. DefinitionAn older adult is defined for members of the (law enforcement agency) ________________as a personwho has attained the age of ________ years. (Note: Local statutes may define applicable age.)III. PolicyIt shall be departmental policy to promptly investigate all reported or observed incidentsinvolving a victimized older adult and enforce applicable law. Emphasis should be placed onvictim assistance and accessing community resources to assist the victim. Officers shall be alertto the quality of life of the older adults they assist and document and report substandard conditionsto the appropriate authority.66


Appendix BIV. ProceduresWhen an officer determines that an incident involves an older adult, that officer shall ensurethat the following procedures are enacted:A. The incident shall be fully investigated and documented.B. If circumstances threaten the older adult’s health, safety, or welfare, the officer shallimmediately notify his or her supervisor.C. Officers shall refer to the list of social agencies that may resolve any immediate threat.(The department should prepare and update an appendix to this policy listing all relevantservice agencies.)D. Initial-response officers shall:1. Respond in a manner that is sensitive to the victim’s condition.2. Preserve the crime scene and evidence.3. Identify and interview witnesses.4. Initiate a follow-up visit by a family member, friend, fellow officer, or social servicesrepresentative, if warranted, and request notification of final disposition.5. Advise a supervisor of additional assistance needed.E. The reviewing or notified supervisor shall:1. Ensure that immediate threats to health, safety, or welfare are resolved.2. Respond to the scene if requested by the officer.3. Ensure that officer responsibilities (see above) are met.4. Assure victim(s) that the department will render appropriate assistance.5. Verify arrangements for any support person or agency to provide assistance.6. If warranted, arrange for increased patrol of the area to either prevent/solve crime andreassure the victim.7. Inform the police administrator or his or her designee of any health, safety, or welfarecondition that may need follow-up.V. Training and Records (Optional)A. The department shall provide periodic in-service training to patrol and investigative officerson topics relevant to the aging process, older adult crime prevention, crime trends, andvictimization.B. The department shall keep such records that will allow for analysis of victimization data sothat appropriate countermeasures can be developed for reduced crime against older adultsC. To the extent possible, the department shall share knowledge and records of senior crime,abuse, and neglect with other law enforcement and governmental social service agenciesthat have a legitimate interest in the case.67


Appendix CSample Letter of Invitation[Date]Dear:I would like to invite you to serve on a council of law enforcement, older adults, andsenior service providers dedicated to making (area/city/county) _________________a safer place for older adults. This council is named Seniors and Law (Enforcement)Together, or S.A.L.T.In some of our communities, older adults are defrauded, victimized, or are afraid toleave home, shop, worship, or socialize, for fear of crime.Sheriff _______________________, Chief _____________________, RSVPrepresentative ___________________________, and I have signed an agreementthat commits our community’s law enforcement, working with older volunteers,to addressing senior-related crimes of our area. Also, the State Sheriffs’ Association,the State Association of Chiefs of Police, and RSVP have signed a Triad agreementcommitting them to work with older adults to reduce senior-targeted crimes.If you accept this invitation to serve on the S.A.L.T. council (normally composed of 15of your peers), please plan to attend two meetings within a month, and meet once everymonth thereafter. Meetings are normally one hour. Sheriff/Chief _________________,or a designee, will also attend these council meetings.Sheriff ___________________ and I have selected you to serve on this committeebased on your skills and expertise, and we hope you will join us. The program will berewarding to older adults, our community, and to you personally. If you agree to serve,please call my office. We need your services!Respectfully,________________ (name and title)68


Appendix DSenior Advisory Council PolicyS.A.L.T. Council of (area/city/county) ________________________________________The Senior Advisory Council meets on the first Tuesday of each month at 1:00 p.m.,alternating meeting locations among the _____________________ Police Department,______________ Police Department, and ____________________________ Sheriff’sOffice. At least two meetings each year shall be held at the _______________________and the __________________, with all county older adults invited to attend.MeetingsMeetings are to be informative, with the S.A.L.T. chairperson officiating.AgendaThe agenda is determined by the chairperson, with input from the police chiefs andsheriff or designee.NotificationS.A.L.T. members shall be notified of the meeting date and place by email, telephonecall, card, or letter at least one week before the listed meeting.MinutesMeeting minutes will be recorded by a S.A.L.T. council designee and distributed tomembers no more than 10 days after the meeting.AttendanceIt is expected that all S.A.L.T. council members will attend the monthly meetings unlessunavoidably prevented from attending. Those unable to attend will notify the chairpersonprior to the meeting time in order to continue participation on the council. Threeconsecutive, unexcused absences will terminate membership.Subcommittees:Community participation shall be encouraged by establishing subcommittees of theS.A.L.T. council as needed. It is expected that subcommittees will be involved in thefollowing types of activities: surveys assessing older adult needs and concerns, crimeprevention education, reassurance program development/expansion, victim services,and special projects. Subcommittees shall be established to meet the immediate andchanging needs of the local older adult population based on community-specific crimes.69


Appendix ETriad S.A.L.T. Council BylawsArticle I. NAMEThe name of this organization shall be Seniors And Law (Enforcement) Together (S.A.L.T.)Council of the ________________ Triad.Article II. PURPOSEThe purpose of the S.A.L.T. council shall be to further the goals and objectives of the Triad, ajoint venture between the (Triad member organizations) ____________________________to reduce the criminal victimization of older adults.Article III. MEMBERSHIPA. The S.A.L.T. council shall consist of not more than 20 but not fewer than 10 members.B. Membership shall be ex-officio and at-large.1. Ex-officio members shall be the designated representatives of each of the Triadorganizations:a. _______________________________ (AARP, RSVP, or equivalent)b. _______________________________ (law enforcement agency)c. _______________________________ (senior organization)2. At-large membership shall be open to law enforcement officers, communityrepresentatives and civic organizations, service providers, and older adults.C. Selection of S.A.L.T. council members-at-large shall be made by a membershipcommittee consisting of the elected officers and two members selected at the Octobermeeting. Recommendations for membership may be made to the committee in writing.D. The regular term of office for members-at-large shall be three years. Membership shallbe staggered so that one-third of the members complete their term each year. Term ofmembership shall begin January 1 and end December 31. Resigned memberships will befilled by the membership committee.Article IV. OFFICERS AND THEIR ELECTIONA. The elected officers of the S.A.L.T. council shall be the chairperson, vice chairperson, andsecretary/treasurer.B. A five-member nominating committee shall be elected at the July meeting and shallpresent a slate of candidates for office at the October meeting. The committee shall electits own chairperson.C. The officers shall be elected from within the council for a one-year term. The electionshall be held at the October meeting, with those elected assuming office January 1.Officers may be re-elected to the same office for succeeding terms.70


Appendix EArticle V. DUTIES OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERSA. Duties of officers:1. Chairperson shall preside at all meetings of the council, appoint chairpersons asneeded, and serve as an ex-officio member of all committees with the exception ofthe nominating committee.2. Vice chairperson shall preside in absence of the chairperson and assume other dutiesas requested.3. Secretary/Treasurer shall maintain a membership list, keep meeting minutes, sendtimely notification of meetings to members, and keep records of moneys under thejurisdiction of the council.B. Duties of members:Each member shall be familiar with S.A.L.T. council purposes, attend regular and specialcouncil meetings, and serve on at least one standing committee.Article VI. STEERING COMMITTEEThe steering committee shall be composed of the elected officers, chairpersons of thestanding committees, and immediate past chairperson of the council. The steeringcommittee shall have the authority to conduct council business between meetings and to fillby appointment any office vacancy, with approval of the membership.Article VII. COMMITTEESA. Standing committees of the S.A.L.T. council shall be:1. Advisory2. Crime Prevention3. Legislation4. Resource Coordination5. Training6. Victim Assistance7. Volunteers8. Membership9. Nominating10. Media or PromotionalB. Special committees may be appointed by the council chairperson as needed.C. Committees shall consist of the chairperson, at least two council members, andcommittee chairperson appointees.Article VIII. MEETINGSA. The S.A.L.T. council shall meet the first Tuesday of the month unless otherwise orderedby the chairperson, with steering committee approval.B. Special meetings may be called at the request of the council chairperson.C. A quorum shall consist of one-third of the current membership. A simple majority of thevoting members present shall be the voting rule.71


Appendix FS.A.L.T. Community Action SurveyAARP/Police Department(s)/Sheriff’s OfficeWe need your help to assist us in taking positive steps to improve our community. Pleaseanswer each question by placing a check in the column that best describes your views. (Pleasecomplete this survey only once). To what extent does each of the following affect your life?Major Minor Very Little/Concern Concern No Concern1. Fear of going out after dark?2. Fear of fraud or con artists?3. Vandalism in the neighborhood?4. Lack of public transportation?5. Sense of personal isolation?6. Fear of robbery (e.g., purse-snatching)?7. Fear of burglary (e.g., home invasion)?8. Vendors knocking on the door?9. Neglect by family or friends?10. Fear of personal abuse?11. Other?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Below are some suggested improvements for this community. Would these changes/additionsimprove your life?Very much To Some Degree Not at All1. Improved street lighting?2. Expanded Neighborhood Watch?3. Improved public transportation?4. Home security recommendationsby police?5. Group housing resident councils?6. Daily reassurance phone calls?7. Senior van service at night?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________Where do you live?Town _________________________________Sex: Male FemaleAge: 55–65 66–75 Over 75Section __ _____ _____ _________ _____ _______Optional Information (your name and address might be helpful but are not required):Name: _________________________________ Phone Number: __________________________Email Address: ____________________________________________________________________Street Address: _____________________________________________________________________72


Appendix FTriad Quality of Life Survey1. Which of these communities do you live in or closest to? (Triad to insert a list of areas)2. Do you live alone? Yes No3. Indicate in order of importance (1 being the most important) the top 5 crime-relatedconcerns in your area:Fear of Crime ______Vandalism ______Animals ______Victimization ______Residential Burglary ______Mail Fraud ______Robbery ______Vacant/Abandoned House ______Traffic ______Other ___________________________________________________________________________Comments ______________________________________________________________________4. Would you be interested in any of the following crime prevention programs?Neighborhood Watch ____ Home Security Survey ____ Personal Safety Skills ____Comments ______________________________________________________________________5. Would you be interested in participating in a volunteer program to assist lawenforcement?Yes ______ No ______ If yes, please specify areas of interest: _______________________Neighborhood Watch ____ Victim Assistance ____ Reassurance Visits ____Home Security ____ Office Work ____ Crime Prevention ____6. Do you need assistance in any of the following:Frauds/Scams ______Murder ______Telemarketers ______Solicitors/Vendors ______Purse-Snatching ______Rape ______Abuse/Neglect ______Assault ______Internet Fraud ______Transportation/Courier ____ Shopping ____ Running Errands ____Other ___________________ ________________________________________________________Optional Information (helpful but not required)Age ____ Sex: Male FemaleName: _______________________________________________________________________________Phone Number: _________________________ Email Address: ______________________________Street Address: _______________________________________________________________________Thank you for taking the time to fill out this survey. This survey will help your Triad andS.A.L.T. council (Seniors and Law [Enforcement] Together) to help you. Please return thesurvey to (name and address) or call (phone number) to have a S.A.L.T. volunteer pick it up.73


Appendix GSample AgendaS.A.L.T Council MeetingDate, Time, LocationI. Welcome – Chairperson, Chief(s) and Sheriff or RepresentativesII.III.IV.Introduction of Council Members and Any GuestsMinutes of Last MeetingOverview of S.A.L.T. Purpose and Activities to DateV. Crime Update (Current Statistics, Problems, Trends)a. Reported Crimesb. Input from Older Adults—Unreported Crimes? Rumors? Fears?VI.Reports from Committeesa. Crime Prevention Presentations/Programsb. Volunteersc. Reassurance Programsd. Victim Assistancee. Trainingf. EvaluationVII. Short-Term Plans to Meet Needs of Older ResidentsVIII. Long-Term PlansIX.Crime Prevention Information—Tips for S.A.L.T. Members (also to be shared withfriends and acquaintances)X. Other ConcernsXI.Next Meeting74


Appendix HSample Refrigerator CardTriad(Local Law Enforcement Agency)Refrigerator CardName:Date Card Completed:Address:Phone Number:Allergies to Medications:Whom to Contact and Phone Numbers:1.2.Date of Birth:3.Major Illnesses:Doctor’s Name:Doctor’s Phone Number:Health Care Plan:Other:Health Plan Number:Medicare Number:OVER FOR MEDICATIONS75


Appendix HTriad(Local Law Enforcement Agency)Back Side of Sample Refrigerator CardCurrent Medications Date Updated Dosage Strength How Often Taken When Taken76


Appendix ISenior Referral CardTriad“Seniors & Law Enforcement Together”Senior Referral Card[Name of local law enforcement agency]Name:Address:City: State: ZIP:Phone Number:Nearest Relative:Emergency Phone Number:During the course of my duties, I observed the above person in need of the following:Food:Clothing:Care-Taking:Lighting:Security:Heat:Prevention Materials/Type:Other:Offi cer Signature ID #77


Appendix ISenior Referral Card (Back Side)Date:Follow-upReferrals:Comments:Auxiliary SignatureID#78


Appendix JAdopt-A-Senior ProgramDefinitionThe Adopt-A-Senior program is sponsored by Triad. It is a joint venture involving the___________________ Police Department, the __________________Sheriff’s Office, and the___________________ Council on Aging. It is intended to provide support and reassurance forolder adults with special needs. Considered for participation are older persons with limitedmobility or medical problems, confined to their homes, or living alone with limited familysupport. This program is intended to supplement care provided by other persons/agencies.GoalThe purpose of Adopt-A-Senior is to establish communication and cooperation among lawenforcement, state/local agencies, and older adults to maximize resources and ensure thatolder adult needs are monitored and referred as necessary.ImplementationThe following agencies will provide officers who will adopt one or more older adult.Background information will be provided on the older person, explaining any special needsor medical problems. The officer will contact the referral agency to schedule the first meetingwith advance notice and a caseworker present for the initial visit, if necessary. Afterward, theofficer will plan for future visits (at least one per week).The officer will call the older adult at least once a week. During each visit or call, the officershould be aware of the person’s needs or attention required. In the event an officer feels thata referral is in order, the officer should fill out a Senior Referral Card to notify the AdultProtective Services, Senior Referral Program, or appropriate service agencies.This program will be coordinated by _____________________________________.79


Appendix KApplication for Triad Call-In ProgramName: Phone #:Address:Description of Home:(Please describe exact location of your residence [e.g., route number, color of house, right or leftside of road, apartment, house])Name of Nearest Neighbor: Neighbor’s Phone #:Address:Medical Problems:Doctor’s Name: Doctor’s Phone #:Name of person to be notified in case of illness (name, address, phone number, relationship)Waiver of property damage: I hereby authorize any state or county law enforcement officer and/or medical unit to forcibly entermy home (address above) in the event there is reasonable cause to suspect that I am in need of immediate medical assistance.I agree to hold the state and county, together with its agents and/or employees, harmless for any damage to my property, bothpersonal and real, resulting from said forcible entry.Signature:Date:80


Appendix LPalmore Quiz—Selected QuestionsTrue or False1. In general, most older adults are fairly similar.2. Over 15% of the U.S. population is now age 65 or older.3. The aged are more fearful of crime than are persons under 65.4. Most older people (age 65+) are senile (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, defective memory,dementia).5. More older persons (age 65+) have chronic illnesses that limit their activity than theiryounger counterparts.6. At least one-tenth of the age are living in long-stay institutions (e.g., nursing homes,mental hospitals).7. Older people usually take longer to learn something new.8. Most older workers cannot work as effectively as younger workers.9. The reaction time of most older people tends to be slower than that of younger persons.10. The majority of older people are socially isolated and lonely.11. The majority of older people are working or would like to have some kind of work to do(including housework and volunteer work).12. Most older adults are set in their ways and unable to change.81


Appendix LAnswers1. False. There appear to be as many differences between older people as any age level. Someevidence indicates that people tend to become more heterogeneous as they age.2. False. In 2004, there were an estimated 36.3 million people age 65 or older in the UnitedStates, accounting for 12% of the total population.3. False. According to National Council on the Aging, in 1974, 23% of people 65 and older saidfear of crime was a “very serious problem.” Today, 9% voice the same worry. Older adultsare more acutely fearful of crime within this 9%, despite their lower rates of victimization.However, in part due to senior safety educational programs such as Triad, this fear has beenreduced significantly since 1974. Women, minorities, and older adult city dwellers havehigher percentages fearful of crime. This more acute fear of crime among the aged may beanother reason their actual victimization rate is lower.4. False. According to a 2008 study by the Alzheimer’s Association, only about 13% of peopleover the age of 65 have Alzheimer’s disease.5. True. More persons over 65 have chronic illnesses that limit their activity (43%) than youngerpersons (10%).6. False. Only 4.9% of persons 65 or over were residents of any long-stay institutions accordingto census data. Even among those age 75 or over, only 9.2% were institutionalized.7. True. Experiments have consistently shown that older people take longer than youngerpeople to learn new material.8. False. Despite declines in perception and reaction speed under laboratory conditions, studiesunder actual working conditions generally show that older workers perform as well as, if notbetter than, younger workers on most measures.9. True. One of the best documented facts about the aged on record, it appears to be trueregardless of the kind of reaction that is measured.10. False. Older individuals living alone comprise 28% of all older households. With frequentvisits and contacts with relatives and friends, participation in churches and other voluntaryorganizations, the majority of older people are far from socially isolated and seldom lonely.11. True. According to an AARP study, older adults ages 65 to 74 made up 22.1% of the workforce in 2006.12. False. There is some evidence that older people tend to become more stable in their attitudes,but it is clear that older people do change and adapt to the many major life events that occurin old age.Questions courtesy of Dr. Erdman Palmore of Duke University.82


Appendix MCitizen Law Enforcement Academy ApplicationDate of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Work Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Home Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Social Security # . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Driver’s License # . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Employer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Employer’s Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Have you been arrested for any offense other than traffic? . . . . . . . . . . .When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Please list or describe any civic activities/organizations you are involved in:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .What experience have you had with law enforcement? Positive NegativeBriefly explain: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Briefly explain your interest in the citizen academy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .What do you expect to gain from attending this academy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Will you be able to attend all of the class sessions? (Schedule Attached) Yes NoPerson to be contacted in case of emergency during your attendance at the academy:Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Liability WaiverI hereby certify that the information contained in this application is true and complete to the best ofmy knowledge. You are hereby authorized to make any investigation of my personal history deemednecessary for consideration to attend the Citizen Police Academy.Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83


Appendix NIndependent Living WeekRelease FormI certify that I am the owner of this home and that my gross monthly income is less than$. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (one person) or $. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (two persons). I request that the IndependentLiving Week Team visit my home and assess it for safety and security. I understand that I am under noobligation to make any changes to my home and that I can withdraw my request if I change my mind. Ialso understand that there is no fee for this service and that it may take up to 12 months to complete theauthorized repairs due to the workload of the Senior Assistance Program staff.Homeowner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Homeowner’s Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Assessment Team Volunteer Signature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yes No I authorize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . County Triad Inc. and its related agencies to usepictures of myself and my home if taken in any and all publications both paper and electronic for thepurposes of furthering this organization’s efforts to improve the quality of life of older residentsin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . County.84


Assessment FormType of Construction: Block Frame Manufactured Home Mobile HomeWindows/Doors1. What type of windows: Awning Double-hung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jalousie2. Are windows/doors easy to open/close? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No3. Are locks sturdy/easy to operate? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No4. If not, what type of deadbolt lock is required?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single lock Double lock5. Does the door have a peephole? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoIs it at proper height? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No6. Does one need to be installed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoFloor Surfaces7. Are any surfaces not safe (tripping hazard)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No8. Has it been repaired? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No9. If not, what type of surface is it and what needs to be done? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steps/Stairways/Walkways10. Are they in good repair? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No N/A11. Are there handrails on both sides? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No N/AKitchen/Bath12. Are stove knobs clearly marked, easy to use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No13. Are faucets easy to use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No14. Are there any leaks in or around the faucets? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoIf yes, where?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. Can you get out of tub or shower with ease? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No16. If no, should grab bars be installed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No17. Assess whether hand-held shower head is needed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No18. Assess whether shower chair is needed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No19. Is toilet seat secure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoElectrical Outlets20. Are there any outlets that are inoperable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoIf so, how many? . . . . . . . . . . . Where are they located? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fire Safety21. Are there smoke detectors in all necessary areas? (Test each detector) . . . . . . . . . . Yes No22. If the answer is no, how many were installed?23. Is there a telephone available for emergencies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No24. Is telephone equipped with hearing enhancement? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes No N/A25. Are house numbers visible from street? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes NoProject InformationDate Project Started: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date Project Completed: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Actual Cost: $. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Staff Hours: . . . . . . . . . . . Volunteer Hours: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Home Improvement Worker Signature: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix N85


Appendix OElopement Drill Evaluation FormTo be completed and sent to the Regional Director of OperationsCommunity:Location of hidden item:Time drill started:Date:Time drill ended:Lost subject profile completedPoint last seenDescriptionYes No CommentsApartments/rooms checkedHead count initiated and completedCommunity search conducted in atimely, organized mannerAll common/work areas searchedOutside search initiated andconducted in a organized, timelymannerAll staff followed protocol permissing persons standard practiceWas a lead person identified andsearch organized through lead?Overview and follow-up:Signature of Participants:86


Appendix OMissing Resident Response KitEach community will prepare a kit to be used in the event of an elopement. The kit shouldbe inspected and updated regularly, and at the time of a missing resident drill.Contents (or directions where to find these items in the community)1. Obtain a copy of resident photo from the chart. Make at least four good copies:One for the police, two for the search teams and one for the person in charge.Photos should be taken at admission.2. Flashlights (wide beam, shatter-resistant, batteries checked on drill,extra batteries available).3. Internal diagram of the building(s), showing all exits, doors, and areas by nameor identifier.4. Map(s) of immediate area with street names provided and addresses of buildings on thecampus as well as residents and nearby businesses. Suggest the map contain physicalmarkers such as parking lots, ponds, bridges, fences, bus stations, etc.—whatever may behelpful when searching the outside perimeter and can be communicated over a radio orcell phones during a search.5. List of key phone numbers and cell phone numbers in very large print of the following:• Front desk• Administrators• Police• Fire department• Local hospital6. Guidelines on what to do when neighbors or the public offer to assist.* Tailor this response to each community and discuss in safety committee, as eachcommunity is different.* Thank search volunteers and state that the police are also searching; provide adescription of the resident and what he/she was wearing; and instruct volunteers on whatwould be most helpful (e.g., turning on lights, searching their own yards, cars, stairwells)and on whom to call if the resident is seen or found.87


Appendix OElopement Risk AssessmentTo be completed upon admission, quarterly, and with significant changes in condition.Resident Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Resident is alert and oriented and not at risk for elopement? Yes No(If yes to #1, sign and date form. If no, complete the assessment.)2. Resident often requests to go home and/or is searching for home? Yes No3. Resident has a history of leaving his/her home or facility? Yes No4. Resident experiences increased confusion at certain times of day? Yes No5. Resident has had a decline in cognitive status? Yes No6. Resident walks/paces about facility and is often found at an exit door? Yes No7. Resident is capable of independent mobility? Yes No8. Resident resists redirection? Yes No9. Resident attempts to follow others when leaving the building? Yes No10. Resident has eloped from facility? Yes No11. Resident representative has requested to have resident monitored? Yes NoAssessment Outcome:Resident is an elopement riskResident placed on a safety check listResident is assigned a wander-guardYes NoYes NoYes NoSignature: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88


Resources


ResourcesAdministration on Aging (AoA)One Massachusetts Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20001(202) 619-0724TDD: (800) 877-8339Eldercare Locator: (800) 677-1116Fax: (202) 357-3555www.aoa.gov/ALZHEIMER’S RESOURCESAlzheimer’s Association225 North Michigan Avenue, Floor 17Chicago, IL 60601-763324/7 Helpline: (800) 272-3900TDD: (866) 403-3073Fax: (866) 699-1246info@alz.orgwww.alz.orgNational Silver Alert Program(866) 840-3639http://nationalsilveralert.orgAmerican Automobile AssociationFoundation for Traffic Safetywww.seniordrivers.orgAmerican Association of Retired Persons(AARP)601 E Street, NWWashington, DC 20049(888) 687-2277 (OUR AARP)member@aarp.orgwww.aarp.orgAmerican Federation for Aging Research(AFAR)55 W 39th Street, 16th FloorNew York, NY 10018(888) 582-2327Fax: (212) 997-0330info@afar.orgwww.afar.orgwww.infoaging.orgBetter Business Bureau (BBB)4200 Wilson Blvd, Suite 800Arlington, VA 22203-1838(703) 276-0100Fax: (703) 525-8277www.bbb.orgCitizen Corps800 K Street, NW, Suite 640Washington, DC 20472-3630CERT Program: cert@dhs.govCitizen Corps: citizencorps@dhs.govwww.citizencorps.govConsumer Action HandbookFederal Citizen Information CenterU.S. General Services Administration1800 F Street, NW, Room G142Washington, DC 20405(202) 501-1794www.consumeraction.govAmerican Bar AssociationCommission on Law and Aging740 15th Street, NWWashington, DC 20005-1019(202) 662-8698Fax: (202) 662-8698abaaging@abanet.orghttp://new.abanet.org/aging/91


ResourcesConsumer Federation of America1620 I Street NW, Suite 200Washington, DC 20006(202) 387-6121www.consumerfed.orgCREDIT BUREAUSAnnual Credit Report Request ServicePO Box 105283Atlanta, GA 30348-5283(877) 322-8228www.annualcreditreport.comOptOutPrescreen.comPO Box 600344Jacksonville, FL 32260(888) 567-8688 (5OPTOUT)TDD: Call 711 and refer the relay operatorto (800) 821-9631www.optoutprescreen.comExperian (formerly TRW)475 Anton BoulevardCosta Mesa, CA 92626(888) 397-3742 (Experian) (to order creditreport and to report credit card fraud)www.experian.comEquifaxPO Box 740250Atlanta, GA 30374-0250(888) 766-0008 (to report credit card fraud)(800) 685-1111 (to request credit report)www.equifax.comTransUnionP.O. Box 6790Fullerton, CA 92834(800) 680-7289 (fraud victim assistance)(800) 877-322-8228 (to request credit report)www.transunion.comDeaf Telephone ServicesTDD-TTY(800) 855-1155U.S. Department of Health and HumanServices (HHS)200 Independence Avenue, SWWashington, DC 20201(877) 696-6775(202) 619-0257www.hhs.govwww.hhs.gov/about/referlst.html(alphabetical directory of HHS informationand hotline topics)U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20530-0001(202) 514-2000TYY: (202) 514-0716askdoj@usdoj.govwww.usdoj.govDirect Marketing Association (DMA)(Instructions for removing your name fromdirect mail, telemarketing, and email lists)1120 Avenue of the AmericasNew York, NY 10036-6700(212) 768-7277customerservice@the-dma.orgwww.the-dma.orgEldercare Locator(800) 677-1116http://www.eldercare.govFederal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics3311 Toledo Road, Room 5419Hyattsville, MD 20782(800) 232-4636www.agingstats.gov92


ResourcesFirstGov for SeniorsUSA.govU.S. General Services AdministrationOffice of Citizen Services and Communication1800 F Street, NW, Suite G-142Washington, DC 20405(800) 333-4636 (FED-INFO)www.usa.gov/Topics/Seniors.shtmlGerontological Society of America1220 L Street, NW, Suite 901Washington, DC 20005(202) 842-1275Fax: (202) 842-1150geron@geron.orgwww.geron.orgHearing Aid HelplineInternational Hearing Society16880 Middlebelt RoadLivonia, MI 48154(800) 521-5247www.ihsinfo.orgHome Safety Council1250 Eye Street, NW, Suite 1000Washington, DC 20005(202) 330-4900Fax: (202) 330-4901info@homesafetycouncil.orgwww.homesafetycouncil.orgIDENTITY FRAUDPrivacy Rights Clearinghouse (PRC)(619) 298-3396 (consumer hotline to reportprivacy abuse and request information)http://www.privacyrights.org/identity.htm(identity theft resources and fact sheets)U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html(identity fraud information and tipsto avoid becoming a victim)U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)www.fbi.govwww.fbi.gov/majcases/fraud/fraudschemes.htm (information on common frauds andschemes)U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)http://1.usa.gov/gx5U.S. Postal Service (USPS)Postal Inspection Service(877) 876-2455http://postalinspectors.uspis.gov/U.S. Secret Servicewww.treas.gov/usssU.S. Social Security Administration(SSA)www.ssa.govInternational Association of Chiefs of Police(IACP)615 North Washington StreetAlexandria, VA 22314(800) 843-4227 (THE-IACP)Fax: (703) 836-4543www.iacp.orgInternational Association of Fire Chiefs4025 Fair Ridge Drive, Suite 300Fairfax, VA 22033-2868(703) 273-0911Fax: (703) 273.9363www.iafc.org93


ResourcesMeals on Wheels Association of America(MOWAA)203 South Union StreetAlexandria, VA 22314(703) 548-5558Fax: (703) 548-8024www.mowaa.orgMEDICARE AND MEDICAIDCenters for Medicare &Medicaid Services (CMS)7500 Security BoulevardBaltimore, MD 21244-1850(877) 267-2323TTY: (866) 226-1819www.cms.govMedicare Service Center(800) 633-4227 (MEDICARE)TTY: (877) 486-2048Medicare Fraud and Abuse(800) 477-8477 (HSS-TIPS)Fax: (800) 223-8164HHSTips@oig.hhs.govNational Association of State Directors ofVeterans Affairs (NASDVA)107 South West Street, Suite 570Alexandria, VA 22314www.nasdva.usNational Association of States United forAging and DisabilitiesInformation/Resource/ReferralSupport Center1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 350Washington, DC 20005(202) 898-2578Fax: (202) 898-2583info@nasua.orgwww.nasuad.orgNational Center for InjuryPrevention and ControlCenters for Disease Control and Prevention4770 Buford Highway NE, MS K65Atlanta, GA 30341-3724(800) 232-4636 (CDC-INFO)TTY: (888) 232-6348cdcinfo@cdc.govwww.cdc.gov/ncipc/National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA)c/o Center for Community Researchand ServicesUniversity of Delaware297 Graham HallNewark, DE 19716(302) 831-3525Fax: (302) 831-4225ncea-info@aoa.hhs.govwww.ncea.aoa.govNational Center for Victims of Crime2000 M Street, NW, Suite 480Washington, DC 20036(800) 394-2255(202) 467-8700Fax: (202) 467-8701www.ncvc.orgNational Committee for the Preventionof Elder Abuse1612 K Street, NWWashington, DC 20006(202) 682-4140Fax: (202) 223-2099ncpea@verizon.netwww.preventelderabuse.org94


ResourcesNational Council on Aging, Inc. (NCOA)1901 L Street, NW, 4th FloorWashington, DC 20036(202) 479-1200Fax: (202) 479-0735info@ncoa.orgwww.ncoa.orgNational Crime Prevention Council (NCPC)2001 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 901Arlington, VA 22202(202) 466-6272Fax: (202) 296-1356www.ncpc.orgNational Domestic Violence Hotline (NDVH)(800) 799-7233 (SAFE)TTY: (800) 787-3224www.thehotline.orgNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA)1 Batterymarch ParkQuincy, MA 02169-7471(800) 344-3555Fax: (617) 770-0700www.nfpa.orgNational Fraud Information Center(800) 876-7060www.fraud.orgNational Hospice and Palliative CareOrganization (NHPCO)1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 625Alexandria, VA 22314(800) 658-8898(703) 837-1500Fax: (703) 837-1233info@nhpco.orgwww.nhpco.orgNational Institute of Environmental HealthSciences (NIEHS)PO Box 12233Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233(919) 541-3345TTY: (919) 541-0731Fax: (919) 541-4395www.niehs.nih.govNational Institute on Aging (NIA)Building 31, Room 5C2731 Center Drive, MSC 2292Bethesda, MD 20892(301) 496-1752TTY: (800) 222-4225Fax: (301) 496-1072www.nia.nih.govNational Institutes of HealthNIH Senior Healthwww.nihseniorhealth.govNational Long Term Care OmbudsmanResource Center (ORC)1828 L Street, NWWashington, DC 20036(202) 332-2275Fax: (202) 332-2949ombudcenter@nccnhr.orgwww.ltcombudsman.orgNational Organization for Victim Assistance(NOVA)510 King Street, Suite 424Alexandria, VA 22314(800) 879-6682 (TRY-NOVA)(703) 535-6682 (NOVA)Fax: (703) 535-5500nova@try-nova.orgwww.try-nova.org95


ResourcesNational Sheriffs’ Association (NSA)1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(800) 424-7827Fax: (703) 683-6541www.sheriffs.orgNational Silver Alert Program(866) 840-3639http://nationalsilveralert.orgNational Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC)7852 Walker Drive, Suite 450Greenbelt, MD 20770(888) 275-6832 (ASK-NVFC)(202) 887-5700Fax: (202) 887-5291nvfcoffice@nvfc.orgwww.nvfc.orgOffice for Victims of CrimeTraining and Technical Assistance Center(OVC TTAC)10530 Rosehaven Street, Suite 400Fairfax, VA 22030(866) 682-8822 (OVC-TTAC)TTY: (866) 682-8880Fax: (703) 279-4673TTAC@ovcttac.govwww.ovcttac.govOffice of Community Oriented PolicingServices (COPS)U.S. Department of Justice1100 Vermont Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20530(800) 421-6770 or (202) 307-1480 (ResponseCenter)AskCopsRC@usdoj.govwww.cops.usdoj.govPaul B. Beeson Career Development Awardsin Aging Research Program(212) 703-9977grants@afar.orgwww.beeson.orgSenior Corps1201 New York Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20525(800) 424-8867(202) 606-5000Fax: (202) 606-3472help@joinseniorservice.orgwww.seniorcorps.govSocial Security Administration (SSA)Office of Public InquiriesWindsor Park Building6401 Security BoulevardBaltimore, MD 21235(800) 772-1213TTY: (800) 325-0778www.ssa.govSocial Security Administration (SSA) FraudHotlineOffice of the Inspector GeneralPO Box 17768Baltimore, MD 21235(800) 269-0271http://oig.ssa.gov/Substance Abuse and Mental HealthServices Administration (SAMHSA)Department of Health and Human Services1 Choke Cherry RoadRockville, MD 20857(800) 729-6686(240) 276-2000TTY: (800) 487-4889Fax: (240) 276-2010www.samhsa.gov96


ResourcesUrban Institute2100 M Street, NWWashington, DC 20037(202) 833-7200www.urban.orgU.S. Department of Health andHuman Services200 Independence Avenue, SWWashington, DC 20201(877) 696-6775(202) 619-0257www.hhs.govwww.hhs.gov/about/referlst.html(alphabetical directory of HHS informationand hotline topics)www.healthfinder.gov (information and toolsto help you stay healthy)U.S. Senate Special Committee on AgingG31 Dirksen Senate Office BuildingWashington, DC 20510(202) 224-5364Fax: (202) 224-8660mailbox@aging.senate.govwww.aging.senate.govVOLUNTEER RESOURCESCitizen Corps800 K Street, NW, Suite 640Washington, DC 20472-3630CERT Program: cert@dhs.govCitizen Corps: citizencorps@dhs.govwww.citizencorps.govCorporation for National & CommunityService1201 New York Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20525(202) 606-5000TTY: (800) 833-3722www.serve.govPeace Corps1111 20th Street, NWWashington, DC 20526(800) 424-8580www.peacecorps.govSenior Corps1201 New York Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20525(800) 424-8867(202) 606-5000Fax: (202) 606-3472help@joinseniorservice.orgwww.seniorcorps.govVolunteerMatch717 California Street, Second FloorSan Francisco, CA 94108(415) 241-6872support@volunteermatch.orgwww.volunteermatch.orgVolunteers of America1660 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314(800) 899-0089(703) 341-5000Fax: (703) 341-7000info@voa.orgwww.volunteersofamerica.orgYoung Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)YMCA of the USA101 North Wacker DriveChicago, IL 60606(800) 872-9622www.ymca.netYoung Women’s Christian Association (YWCA)1015 18th Street, NW, Suite 1100Washington, DC 20036(202) 467-0801Fax: (202) 467-0802info@ywca.orgwww.ywca.org97


Recommended ReadingRecommended ReadingA Police Guide to Surveying Citizens and Their EnvironmentsBureau of Justice Assistance, 1993. This guide offers a practical introduction for policepractitioners to two types of surveys that police find useful: surveying public opinion andsurveying the physical environment. It provides guidance on whether and how to conductcost-effective surveys. Available online at http://bit.ly/yPpoei.Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide forPolice Problem-SolversJohn E. Eck (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, June2002). This guide is a companion to the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police series. It providesbasic guidance to measuring and assessing problem-oriented policing efforts. Available onlineat http://1.usa.gov/z5CN0J.Bringing Victims into Community PolicingThe National Center for Victims of Crime and the Police Foundation.(Bureau of Justice Statistics and Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, September2002). This guide shows how to enhance community policing by working with victims andvictim organizations to prevent repeat victimization and building collaborative problemsolvingskills. Available online at www.cops.usdoj.gov/ric/ResourceDetail.aspx?RID=16.Call Management and Community Policing: A Guidebook for Law EnforcementTom McEwen, Deborah Spence, Russell Wolff, Julie Wartell, Barbara Webster. (Bureau ofJustice Statistics and Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, July 2003). This guidefocuses on police call management strategies and how they affect the practice of communitypolicing. Available online at www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/e05031968_web.pdf.Conducting Community Surveys: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement AgenciesDeborah Weisel (Bureau of Justice Statistics and Office of Community Oriented PolicingServices, October 1999). This guide, along with accompanying computer software, providespractical, basic pointers for police in conducting community surveys. Available online athttp://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/ccspglea.pdfThe COPS Collaboration Toolkit: How to Build, Fix,and Sustain Productive PartnershipsGwen O. Briscoe, Ph.D., Anna T. Laszlo, Tammy A. Rinehart. (U.S. Department of Justice,Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2001). The Collaboration Toolkit is designedas a guide for law enforcement agencies and their partners as they work with citizen groups,community-based organizations, youth, government, and others to develop, fix, and sustainproductive law enforcement-community partnerships supporting the advancement ofcommunity policing. Available online at http://1.usa.gov/ziZTX8.98


Recommended ReadingCrime Prevention StudiesEdited by Ronald V. Clarke (Criminal Justice Press, 1993, et seq.). This is a series of volumesof applied and theoretical research on reducing opportunities for crime. Many chapters areevaluations of initiatives to reduce specific crime and disorder problems. Available online athttp://bit.ly/zBtTch.Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing: The Herman Goldstein Award WinnersThis document produced by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in collaboration with theOffice of Community Oriented Policing Services and the Police Executive Research Forumprovides detailed reports of the best submissions to the annual award program that recognizesexemplary problem-oriented responses to various community problems. A similar publicationis available for the award winners from subsequent years. The documents can be locatedonline using the NIJ publications database at http://1.usa.gov/ytuDrs.Not Rocket Science? Problem-solving and Crime ReductionTim Read and Nick Tilley (Home Office Crime Reduction Research Series, 2000). Identifiesand describes the factors that make problem-solving effective or ineffective as it is beingpracticed in police forces in England and Wales. Available online at http://bit.ly/z6NDdP.Opportunity Makes the Thief: Practical Theory for Crime PreventionMarcus Felson and Ronald V. Clarke (Home Office Police Research Series, Paper No. 98, 1998).Explains how crime theories such as routine activity theory, rational choice theoryand crime pattern theory have practical implications for the police in their efforts to preventcrime. Available online at http://bit.ly/xPakI3.Police Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Crime in Hot Spot Areas(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2008). This reportsummarizes the findings from all academic studies evaluating law enforcement in troubledareas. It finds that focusing efforts on high-crime areas and calls for service can effectively beused to prevent crime in those locations. Available online at http://1.usa.gov/cONR5H.Problem Analysis in PolicingRachel Boba (Police Foundation, 2003). Introduces and defines problem analysis andprovides guidance on how problem analysis can be integrated and institutionalized intomodern policing practices. The executive summary of this publication is available atwww.policefoundation.org/pdf/vol5issue1_color.pdf. To view the entire text, visit www.policefoundation.org. Click on Publications to view the publications list.99


Recommended ReadingProblem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder ThroughProblem-Solving PartnershipsKarin Schmerler, Matt Perkins, Scott Phillips, Tammy Rinehart and Meg Townsend. (U.S.Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2006). A tooldesigned to help readers during every step of their efforts to reduce crime and disorderthrough problem-solving partnerships. Available online at http://1.usa.gov/zuQ5Tk.Using Analysis for Problem-solving: A Guidebook for Law EnforcementTimothy S. Bynum (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented PolicingServices, 2001). This guidebook provides law enforcement with resources and tips forconducting effective problem analysis. Available online at http://1.usa.gov/z1qHh8.100


NATIAlerts


102Form Number NATI-03-12


NATI AlertsCommunity Safety and the Older AdultAccording to the Administration on Aging report, A Profile of Older Americans, 80.6% of alladults age 65 and over lived in urban or suburban areas in 2009. The remaining 19% lived innonmetropolitan areas. These older adults are less likely to change residence than any otherage group and are also more likely to live alone. In 2009, 30.1% of older adults—11.4 million,lived alone. This percentage increases with advanced age; among women age 75 and over, 49%reported living alone in 2009.Despite a decline in the national crime rate over the past two decades, perceptions ofcrime remain disproportionately high. More than two-thirds of respondents to an October2011 Gallup poll felt crime in the United States had increased over the past year, while48% felt it had risen in their local area. Those fearful of crime stated that they frequentlyor occasionally worried about being mugged (34%), falling victim to terrorism (30%), beingburglarized while at home (30%), being sexually assaulted (22%), being attacked while driving(19%), being murdered (19%), and/or becoming a victim of hate crime (17%). About 38% saidthey would be afraid to walk alone at night within a mile of their home.Among older adults, especially the physically impaired and those isolated from others,the fear of crime is often higher than among the younger population. Fear can be paralyzing;many older adults become afraid to leave their homes and withdraw from friends, family, andactivities they once enjoyed.Law enforcement, civic organizations, and individuals working together can successfullycombat neighborhood crime. Following are statistical crime data as well as project ideas thatcan be used to improve community safety and reduce the fear of crime among older adults.Facts and FiguresThe number of background checks for the purchase of firearms rose from 14.4 million in 2010to 16.5 million in 2011. Of all federal requests, 820,888 were denied in 2010. The most commonprohibiting factors included prior felonies (61.8%), domestic violence misdemeanors (11.08%),and a history of controlled substance abuse (7.8%). (Bureau of Justice Statistics, BackgroundChecks for Firearm Transfers; FBI, National Criminal Background Check System Operations 2010 )America is divided on the issue of gun control. 43% say laws governing the sale of firearmsshould be made more strict, while 44% say they should be kept as they are now. 11% say gunlaws should be relaxed. (Gallup Annual Crime Poll, 2011)An estimated 1.2 million violent crimes occurred nationwide in 2010. Violent crimedecreased an estimated 6% nationwide from 2009 to 2010, the fourth consecutive year it hasdeclined. Also in 2010, the murder rate decreased by 4.2%. (Federal Bureau of Investigation,Crime in the United States: 2010)In 2010, an estimated 778,901 aggravated assaults—252.3 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants—occurred in the United States. 20.6% were committed with firearms. Fewer than 1% of victimswere over the age of 50. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States 2009)Within three years of release, 2.5% of rapists and 1.2% of those convicted of homicide werere-arrested for the same type of crime in 2007. Released prisoners with the highest re-arrestForm Number NATI-03-12103


NATI Alertsrates were for those convicted of robbery (70.2%), burglary (74%), larceny (74.6%), motorvehicle theft (78.8%), possession/sale of stolen property (77.4%), and possession/use/sale ofillegal weapons (70.2%). (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2007)Community ProjectsResearch shows that neighborhood problems such as public drug use, homelessness,abandoned buildings and cars, vandalism or graffiti, loitering, poor lighting, and trashreinforce resident fears and affect their sense of safety. (BJS, Criminal Victimization andPerceptions of Community Safety in 12 Cities, 1998) Further, proponents of the BrokenWindows Theory believe that ignoring such issues leads to more neighborhood decline, whileencouraging individuals to clean up and repair their property renews community pride andreduces both crime and the fear of crime.The National Institute of Justice Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiativestudy states that, in order to lower crime rates, law enforcement must reduce high-crimeneighborhoodpoverty, eradicate drug demand, prosecute illegal firearms carriers, and supportconflict resolution and anti-gang training in schools.Projects for Law Enforcement Provide an anonymous vehicle for reporting crime and suspicious activity inneighborhoods. This can be a mailer posted in your newspaper or public places with aphone number or email address for leaving detailed information. Partner with neighborhood groups to combat neighborhood crime. Involve job trainingagencies, small businesses, mortgage lending institutions, educational associations, andlocal government to address neighborhood decay. Under the Department of Justice Asset Forfeiture Program/Equitable Sharing Program,state and local law enforcement agencies are entitled to share proceeds from the seizureof drug and crime assets. Program details are available at www.justice.gov/jmd/afp/index.html. (U.S. Department of Justice) Through Project Safe Neighborhoods, identify the most serious violent offenders in thecity and increase the arrest, prosecution, and incarceration of these individuals.Projects for Individuals Make your home a less likely target for criminals. Trim shrubs and install wide-angleviewers, deadbolt locks, and exterior lighting. Help those who need a hand making their homes more secure, including older adults,people living alone, and persons with disabilities. Avoid high-crime areas in your neighborhood and pair or group up for evening excursions. Start or strengthen a Neighborhood Watch, Window Watch, Adopt-A-Senior, or otherneighborhood program. Find out whether your area has community policing. If not, contact your local policedepartment or sheriff’s office to begin a program and build rapport with your officers.Invite an officer to attend all neighborhood crime prevention meetings.Form Number NATI-03-12104


NATI AlertsProjects for Community Groups Work with your local Environmental Protection Agency, city council, and other localofficials to clean up vacant lots and transfer them to the community for parks andrecreation areas. Neighborhood cleanup events are also an effective way to mobilize thecommunity and fight decay. Initiate a federally funded Project Safe Neighborhoods initiative through your directorof public safety and local law enforcement entities. This project works to combat gunviolence. Learn more at www.psn.gov. Practitioners agree that community interaction increases sense of security. Work withlaw enforcement, social service providers, community groups, and religious organizationsto give older adults tools to make them less likely victims of crime. (National CrimePrevention Council, Engaging the Power of Prevention: 10 Action Principles, 2005). Lack of transportation, one of the most commonly expressed needs of older adults, canlead to “shut-in” mentality, exacerbating the fear of crime. Work with your local EldercareLocator and the Administration on Aging to meet the following objectives: Better coordinate transport resources. Help older adults recognize and use their transportation options. Develop creative and flexible designs for transportation services.Form Number NATI-03-12105


NATI AlertsResourcesAdministration on AgingOne Massachusetts Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20001Public Inquiries: (202) 619-0724Eldercare Locator: (800) 677-1116aoainfo@aoa.hhs.govwww.aoa.govBureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,and Explosives99 New York Avenue, NEWashington, DC 20226(800) 800-3855ATFTips@atf.govwww.atf.govCommunity Transportation Association ofAmerica1341 G Street, NW, 10th floorWashington, DC 20005(800) 891-0590http://web1.ctaa.orgKeep America Beautiful1010 Washington BoulevardStamford, CT 06901(203) 659-3000info@kab.orgwww.kab.orgNational Crime Prevention Council2001 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 901Arlington, VA 22202(202) 466-6272www.ncpc.orgNational Neighborhood WatchNational Sheriffs’ Association1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(703) 836-7827nw@sheriffs.orgwww.usaonwatch.orgNational Training and Information Center810 North Milwaukee AvenueChicago, IL 60642ntic@ntic-us.orgwww.ntic-us.orgProject Safe NeighborhoodsOffice of Justice Programs810 7th Street, NWWashington, DC 20531AskPSN@usdoj.govwww.projectsafeneighborhoods.comU.S. Department of Justice,Office of Justice Programs810 Seventh Street, NWWashington, DC 20531www.ojp.usdoj.govU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyAriel Rios Building1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20460(202) 272-0167TTY: (202) 272-0165www.epa.govForm Number NATI-03-12106


Disaster Preparedness for the VulnerableThroughout the year, CNCS [Corporation for National and Community Service] engages morethan 1.5 million Americans of all ages and backgrounds in service. Senior Corps, AmeriCorpsState and National, and the AmeriCorps NCCC volunteers have been particularly active inresponding to the recent disasters. These programs play an essential role assisting communitiesresponding to a disaster. CNCS volunteer programs provide a great deal of value both to thecommunities in which they serve and the volunteers themselves.—Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA)NATI AlertsEach year in America, natural and manmade disasters cause billions of dollars in damages,displace residents, halt productivity, and are to blame for the loss of many innocent lives.According to FEMA, individuals can mitigate the effects of such events by recognizingpotential and impending hazards, knowing what to do to protect themselves and their family,and preparing before disaster strike.Disturbingly, a 2009 Citizen Corps report revealed that adults age 55 and older are lessprepared to cope with disaster than younger people. Older adults perceive many barriers tobeing prepared, including higher reliance than younger groups on emergency responders. Infact, 43% of survey respondents age 55 and older had not taken disaster preparedness stepsdue to expected reliance on first responders such as fire, police, or emergency personnel.Also, 24% of those over age 55 (versus 8 to 10% of younger respondents) indicated that doubtsregarding their abilities to take action were a primary reason for not taking any preparednesssteps. (Personal Preparedness in America: Findings from the 2009 Citizen Corps NationalSurvey)Triads, emergency response agencies, and national disaster preparedness organizationsshould collaborate to ensure that vulnerable older adults receive all necessary assistancebefore, during, and after an event occurs. Furthermore, these organizations can work withagencies such as Citizen Corps to educate and create volunteer opportunities that empowercapable older adults to plan for and recover from disasters.Disaster FactsIn 2011, FEMA made 99 major disaster declarations, 29 emergency declarations, and 114 firemanagement assistance declarations. Events included a 5.8 earthquake centered in Virginia;severe storms, tornadoes, and flooding in the Midwest; wildfires in Texas; and HurricaneIrene, which battered the East Coast.The August 2009 (revised December 2009) report Personal Preparedness in America:Findings from the 2009 Citizen Corps National Survey revealed the following: Just 57% of participants (all ages) reported having supplies set aside in their home to beused only in case of a disaster, while only 34% of individuals said they had supplies setaside in their car.Form Number NATI-03-12107


NATI Alerts Individuals between the ages of 18 and 34 (38%) and ages 35 to 54 (35%) were significantlymore likely to have disaster supplies set aside in their cars than individuals age 55 andolder (29%). More individuals age 55 and older significantly felt that the impact of a natural disasterwould not be severe at all (9%) as compared to other age groups. Across all disasters except for a severe disease outbreak, individuals ages 35 to 54 (33 to47%) were significantly more likely than those over the age of 55 (29 to 39%) to think thatpreparing for a disaster would help them very much. Older adults are more likely to be aware of their community’s shelter locations andevacuation routes.Linking Triad to Emergency ManagementOften, disaster preparedness plans fail to serve, or under-serve, those most vulnerable—olderadults and people with disabilities. Triads can work with emergency management (EM)organizations to locate, map, and plan assistance programs for these individuals.Triad is a direct link to communities and the vulnerable people they serve. IncorporatingTriad into a disaster preparedness system builds capacity and effectiveness of response tothe human service issues that result from disasters. Triad can be linked to the emergencyoperations center through the same EM branch as the American Red Cross, Salvation Army,and other organizations. Also, Triad works with FEMA to ensure that recovery services reacholder people and that efforts are not duplicated.When engaged in disaster planning, Triads and emergency management agencies can alsoinvolve social services, public and mental health, area agencies on aging, Meals on Wheels, theUnited Way, volunteer centers, Catholic Charities, food banks, health clinics, homeless serviceproviders, Jewish Family and Children’s Services, the Salvation Army, Neighborhood Watch,and interfaith providers.The Older VolunteerDespite age and ability, thousands of older adults volunteer in communities throughoutAmerica. Opportunities for service abound and include older adult-focused organizationssuch as Triad and Senior Corps. For example, the Retired Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP)is a Senior Corps project that connects volunteers age 55 and over with service opportunitiesthat match their skills and availability. A database of state RSVP offices is available at www.seniorcorps.gov/about/programs/rsvp.asp. For older volunteers interested in disasterpreparedness, the Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) database currently includesmore than 1,100 community programs nationwide. For an online directory, visit www.citizencorps.gov/cc/listCouncil.do?submitByState&state.Disaster PlanningThe following checklist is designed to help community organizations and individualvolunteers prepare for potential disasters. For more detailed planning information, consultthe Disaster Preparedness Programs guide in the Programs section of this manual.Form Number NATI-03-12108


NATI Alerts Include people living both independently and in dependent care facilities. Identify community needs and the support necessary to meet them. Arrange personal care assistance if in-home care support is unavailable. Get food, water, and other supplies distributed to older people and individuals withdisabilities living alone or in isolated areas. Provide food for those who depend on home-delivered meals if services are interrupted. Help older people and individuals with disabilities fill prescriptions for medications and replacevital personal equipment (e.g., hearing aids, wheelchairs) damaged or lost in the disaster. Ensure that dependent care facilities have disaster plans that include measures to supportthe population they serve. Contact isolated and homebound individuals to check on their status and to help them getneeded services. Check on and, if needed, evacuate people who cannot be self-sufficient for 5 to 7 daysfollowing a major disaster. Relocate people dependent on electricity to maintain life support during power outages.Support mobility needs with accessible transportation resources. Triad can help transportpeople to disaster service areas during evacuations. Supplement the response to medical needs through volunteer and/or staff trained in firstaid and emergency response, and/or by providing medical supplies. Support people with special dietary needs and help with distribution of food and waterto at-risk, homebound, and disabled persons. Ideas include volunteer kitchens, mealprograms, and food pantries to support mass feeding and food distribution efforts. Provide information on community resources that connect people who need help toavailable services. Create emergency supply kits for older people.ResourcesAmerican Red Cross2025 E Street NWWashington, DC 20006(800) 733-2767 (REDCROSS)www.redcross.orgCenter for Disease Control and PreventionEmergency Preparedness and Response1600 Clifton RoadAtlanta, GA 30333(800) 232-436 (CDC-INFO)TTY: (888) 232-6348cdcinfo@cdc.govwww.bt.cdc.govCitizen Corpscitizencorps@dhs.govwww.citizencorps.govCommunity Emergency Response Teams(C.E.R.T.)cert@dhs.govwww.citizencorps.govFederal Emergency Management Agency500 C Street, SWWashington, DC 20472(800) 621-3362 (FEMA)TDD: (800) 462-7585www.fema.govForm Number NATI-03-12109


NATI AlertsFire Corps7852 Walker Drive, Suite 450Greenbelt, MD 20770(888) 324-6361 (FC-INFO1)www.firecorps.org/Independent Living Centerswww.ilusa.com/links/ilcenters.htmMedical Reserve CorpsOffice of the Surgeon GeneralU.S. Department of Health and HumanServices5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18C-14Rockville, MD 20857(301) 443-4951www.medicalreservecorps.govNational Neighborhood Watch ProgramNational Sheriffs’ Association1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(703) 836-7827nw@sheriffs.orgwww.usaonwatch.orgReady CampaignU.S. Department of Homeland SecurityFederal Emergency Management Agency500 C Street, SWWashington, DC 20472(202) 282-8000ready@dhs.govwww.ready.govU.S. Department of AgricultureFood Safety Inspection ServiceHomeland Security CouncilTTY: (800) 877-8339http://1.usa.gov/kuF9sU.S. Department of AgricultureFood and Nutrition ServiceFood Distribution Division3101 Park Center Drive, Room 504Alexandria, VA 22302-1500(703) 305-2680fdd-psb@fns.usda.govwww.fns.usda.gov/fdd/programs/fd-disastersU.S. Department of Health andHuman ServicesOffice of Emergency Preparedness200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 638GWashington, DC 20201www.phe.govVolunteers in Police Service (VIPS)International Association of Chiefs of Police515 N Washington StreetAlexandria, VA 22314info@policevolunteers.orgwww.policevolunteers.orgSenior Corps1201 New York Avenue NWWashington, DC 20525(202) 606-5000www.seniorcorps.govForm Number NATI-03-12110


NATI AlertsThe Fear of Crime and the Older AdultAccording to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, more than 3 of every 1,000 people age 65 orolder, and nearly 11 of every 1,000 people age 50 to 64, fell victim to violent crime in 2009. Asingle victimization can frighten an entire community of older adults. They abandon patternsof visiting friends, going to worship, shopping, and other social interaction. The AmericanNurses Association states that “secondary victimization” can lead to hypervigilance, suspicion,and paranoia. This condition becomes more acute when violent crimes occur.Older people fear the possibility of crime, even if they have not been victims. Someindividuals take precautions and continue with their lives. Others acutely alter their lifestyle orwithdraw, debilitating themselves.The U.S. Department of Justice states that, among victims of nonlethal violence, persons 65and older are about 6 times more likely than younger persons to never go out at night. For theisolated or incapacitated older adult, perception of the outside world is based on, and frequentlyskewed by, media reports, which often sensationalize crime.Consequences of CrimeImpactVictimization of older adults has far-reaching consequences, including slower injuryrecuperation. Physical and emotional trauma both can lead to incapacity.IncomeBoth violent and nonviolent crimes affect older adults financially. According to the AARP,purse-snatchers and pickpockets more often target older victims. The Department of Justicerecorded more than 57,000 victims of robbery age 50 and over in 2009. Financial loss can doirreparable damage to a limited budget as well as to emotional well-being.IndependenceVictimization may destabilize an older person’s sense of security. It can compromise his or herwill to cope with future problems.Why Older Adults Are Targets Lack of Awareness: Know where you are and what is going on around you. Stay alert. Body Language: Keep your head up, swing your arms, stand straight. Wrong Place, Wrong Time: Don’t walk alone, especially in unfamiliar or high-crimeneighborhoods. If you sense something is wrong, get away quickly.Form Number NATI-03-12111


NATI AlertsHome Safety Tips Lock your doors and windows, use deadbolt locks, install a good security system, pin yourwindows, and ensure your home exterior is well lit at night. Install a panoramic peephole and use it when answering the door. Trim plants away from windows and doors. Plant prickly bushes under windows and neverleave a ladder or chairs outside the home that can be used to gain entry. Never hide keys outside your home. Keep your keys handy as you approach your house or vehicle. Use a timer to turn on lights, radio, and TV while you are away to give the impression thatsomeone is home. Cancel newspaper and other deliveries when you plan to be gone for extended periods. Ask for ID from service and delivery people. If you remain suspicious, call the company. If you live in an apartment building, avoid going into the laundry room or garage alone. Join a Neighborhood/Apartment/Window Watch, a Triad, or a Citizen Patrol. If you arrive at home and suspect a break-in, DO NOT go inside. Call 911 from a cellphone or neighbor’s home. Never let people know that you live alone. Record voice mail messages in the plural. Useinitials on your mailbox and in phonebook listings. Always keep your cell phone charged for use in emergencies. When using social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Blogger), do not broadcast dates youplan to be away from home.Tips for Law Enforcement and Community LeadersAddress older adults’ often unwarranted fear of crime. Develop or expand crime preventionprograms to help these individuals realistically assess and reduce victimization risk: Prepare crime statistics on victimization of older adults. Explain what, when, and wherecrimes occur. Dispel unwarranted or exaggerated fears. Surveys can indicate if statistics mirror actualcriminal activity. Plan a crime prevention education campaign to reach older adults—briefly, clearly, and often. Expand on crime prevention programs for older adults offered by other agencies.Form Number NATI-03-12112


NATI AlertsResourcesBoys & Girls Clubs of America1275 Peachtree Street NEAtlanta, GA 30309-3506(404) 487-5700info@bgca.orgwww.bgca.orgFederal Bureau of Investigation (UniformCrime Reports)935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20535-0001www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/ucrNational Crime Prevention Council2001 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 901Arlington, VA 2220(202) 466-6272Fax: (202) 296-1356www.ncpc.orgNational Criminal Justice Reference ServiceJuvenile Justice ClearinghousePO Box 6000Rockville, MD 20849-6000(800) 851-3420TTY: (877) 712-9279http://1.usa.gov/AkWPpXNational Neighborhood WatchNational Sheriffs’ Association1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(703) 836-7827nw@sheriffs.orgwww.usaonwatch.orgU.S. Department of JusticeOffice of Justice Programs810 Seventh Street, NWWashington, DC 20531Bureau of Justice Statistics(202) 307-0765askbjs@usdoj.govhttp://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/Juvenile Justice/Delinquency Prevention(202) 307-5911askojp@usdoj.govwww.ojp.usdoj.gov/programs/juvjustice.htmForm Number NATI-03-12113


114Form Number NATI-03-12


NATI AlertsFraud and the Older AdultEach year, thousands of people living in America unwittingly fall victim to marketing fraudand identity theft scams. Congress estimates that consumers lose billions annually totelemarketing fraud alone. According to the National Consumers League (NCL), older adultsare being increasingly targeted by scammers. In 2010, older consumers made up 54% of all NCLcomplaints, a 5.5% rise over the previous year. Alarmingly, the number of incidents reported byconsumers age 65 and older have increased by nearly 6% since 2009.Older adults are targeted for crimes for several reasons: Availability: Older adults are often home for cold calls and scam artists. Also, older adultsincreasingly use email and the Internet, the most popular venues for scammers. Isolation: Very often, older adults do not live near family and have nobody to reviewfinancial and investment decisions. Loneliness: Lack of friendships can position some to be receptive to the friendly voice of acon artist. Health Issues: As one ages, natural health issues evolve. Disabilities leave older adultsunable to repair and upkeep homes, positioning them for scams and fraud. Money: Older adults are often targeted because cons see them as trusting and easy targetsfor theft of money from savings or property.Form Number NATI-03-12115


NATI AlertsHow Marketing Scams WorkHow’d they find me? Fraudsters get contact information from many sources. Some purchasemailing lists or use special software to trawl the Internet for email addresses. Telemarketersmay refer to the local phonebook, purchase lists of those who have responded to previoussolicitations, or use an automated program to dial random numbers sequentially. A fraudulenttelemarketing operation is usually a “boiler room,” where seasoned operators try to scampeople. Common scam mediums include: Email and Internet: Using fake email addresses with links to websites that claim to befrom a financial institution or government agency, “phishers” fool you into divulging yourSocial Security number, PIN, credit card number, or other personal information. Cold Calls: Telemarketing scammers may call with bogus product offers or requestdonations to a fake charity. “Bank representatives” who call to warn you of an accountbreach and “market researchers” who ask you to participate in a survey may actually bephishers trying to steal your financial data. Text Message: Claiming to be old friends or admirers, text scammers tempt you intoreplying. Return calls are redirected to a premium-rate service without your knowledge,and you are charged a high per-minute fee. Direct Mail: You receive mail saying you’ve won a prize or a contest. The instructions tellyou to respond with certain information. If you do, you’ll be contacted by a fraudster. Online, Broadcast, and Print Ads: You click, call, or write in response to an advertisement.The fact that you initiate the communication doesn’t mean the business is legitimate.Warning Signs of Fraud “Free” gifts that require you to pay shipping and handling, redemption fees, or tax before delivery. “High-profit, no-risk” investments. “Act now” and other high-pressure sales tactics. A request for a credit card, bank account, or Social Security number to verify that youhave won a prize. Refusal to provide basic written information about an organization. Organizations that are unfamiliar or have no physical address (i.e., those with only a postoffice box or Internet address).Form Number NATI-03-12116


NATI AlertsSocial Media Fraud: A Growing ConcernThe popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook has caught the attention offraudsters. According to Scambusters.org, the current top five social media scams involve usinga false identity to commit fraud, malware (links that, when clicked, upload spyware, trojans, orviruses to your computer), profile hacking, identity theft, and spam.How to Combat Fraud Don’t be pressured to make a quick decision. Never give out your bank account, credit card, or Social Security numbers unless youknow the request is legitimate. Avoid posting your email or home address or phone number on unsecure Internet sites. Scrutinize email carefully. Never click on a link unless you know it is from a reliablesource. Delete spam without opening. Be wary of responding to unknown calls/texts from unfamiliar or foreign area codes. Use privacy settings on social media sites to control access to your profile. Keep your computer safer by installing a firewall, updating your operating system with the latest security patches, and using current antivirus software. Be wary of statements that you’ve won a “prize.” Don’t agree to pay a fee to receive it. Before giving, check out the charity with the Better Business Bureau (BBB). Check outall unsolicited offers with the BBB, local consumer protection agency, or state attorneygeneral’s office. When hiring a contractor, select only a licensed professional. Always insist on a writtencontract or financial agreement—and read carefully before signing. Don’t pay in full for a home improvement or other service if asked for a deposit. Beware of offers to “help” you recover lost money or improve your credit. If you are havingfinancial difficulties, consult a nonprofit consumer credit counseling service or workdirectly with your mortgage lender, credit card company, or other lender/service provider. Cons often take advantage of consumer goodwill after disasters such as floods andearthquakes. Check out relief organizations with the BBB before donating. Use gift cards and gift certificates promptly. If a company closes or goes bankrupt, it maybe impossible to get refunds for the unused balance. Note that federal rules limiting thefees card issuers may charge took effect in 2010. Forward unsolicited email to spam@uce.gov. Messages are stored in a database for lawenforcement agencies to use in their investigations. List your phone number on the National Do Not Call Registry to reduce the number oftelemarketing calls you receive.Form Number NATI-03-12117


NATI AlertsFraud FactsIn 2010, 38% of all fraud complaints were made by people age 50 and over. (Federal TradeCommission, Consumer Sentinel Network, March 2011)Consumers reported more than $3.6 million in losses to the NCL Fraud Center in 2010.The average loss per person to Internet scams alone was $931. (“Mid-year report: Internetmerchandise scams topping complaints to NCL’s Fraud Center,” 2010)The top three categories in the 2009 Consumer Complaint Survey Report were 1. auto(false advertising, faulty repairs, towing disputes), 2. credit/debt (billing disputes, mortgagefraud, credit repair and debt relief services, predatory lending, illegal debt collection tactics),and 3. home improvement/construction (shoddy work, failure to start or complete the job).(Consumer Federation of America, 2010)The Internet is the choice venue of con artists. Among the top web-based scams reportedin 2010 were sales of merchandise not delivered or misrepresented (37.4%), fake checks (31.3%),prize/sweepstakes/free gift offers (10.5%) phishing/spoofing (7.2%), and advance fee loans/credit arrangers (2.9%). Other Internet scams included phishing, advance fee loans/creditassistance, Nigerian money offers, “sweetheart swindles,” employment/job counseling, andbogus business opportunities. (National Consumers League, “Top Scams of 2010”)Top telemarketing fraud schemes involved prizes/sweepstakes/gifts (40%), fake checks(26%), and phishing/spoofing (12%). Telemarketing scams included timeshare resales,magazine offers, advance fee loans/credit arrangers, and scholarships/grants. (NationalConsumers League, “Top Scams of 2010”)Fraudsters haven’t abandoned the telephone as a method of contact. In 2010, 23.6%—upmore than 7% over the previous year—of victims reported being defrauded over the phone.(National Consumers League, “Top Scams of 2010”)Despite government regulation, the amount of unsolicited bulk email, commonly knownas “spam,” accounts for more than 80% of all messages received. (Symantec, “The State ofSpam: A Monthly Report,” January 2011)The Consumer Sentinel Network, a fraud complaint database developed and maintainedby the Federal Trade Commission, received 1.3 million consumer fraud and identity theftcomplaints in 2009. (Federal Trade Commission, Consumer Sentinel Network Data Book forJanuary – December 2009, February 2010)Economic downturn has led to a rise in securities and commodities fraud (e.g., pyramidand Ponzi schemes, advance fee fraud, high-yield investment fraud). Over the past five years,investigations into these types of schemes have increased by 33%, while associated losses totalbillions of dollars. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2009 Financial Crimes Report)Form Number NATI-03-12118


NATI AlertsResourcesBetter Business Bureauwww.bbb.orgCredit BureausAnnual Credit Report Request Service(877) 322-8228www.annualcreditreport.comOptOutPrescreen.com(888) 567-8688 (5OPTOUT)TDD: Call 711 and refer the relay operatorto (800) 821-9631www.optoutprescreen.comExperian (formerly TRW)(888) 397-3742 (Experian)(to order credit report and to report creditcard fraud)www.experian.comEquifax(888) 766-0008 (to report credit card fraud)(800) 685-1111 (to request credit report)www.equifax.comTransUnion(800) 680-7289 (fraud victim assistance)(800) 877-322-8228 (to request credit report)www.transunion.comConsumer Federation of America1620 I Street NW, Suite 200Washington, DC 20006(202) 387-6121www.consumerfed.orgElectronic Crimes Task Forcewww.ectaskforce.orgFederal Bureau of Investigationwww.fbi.govFederal Trade Commission600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20580(877) 382-4357 (FTC-HELP)(877) 438-4338 (ID-THEFT)consumeralerts@fdic.govwww.ftc.gov/bcp/index.shtmlwww.consumer.gov/idtheftIdentity Theft Prevention and Survivalwww.identitytheft.orgInternet Crime Complaint Center(to report Internet crimes)www.ic3.govInternet Fraud Watch(800) 876-7060www.fraud.orgNational Consumers League Fraud Center(to report suspected Internet or telemarketingfraud)(800) 876-7060www.fraud.orgNational Cyber Security Alliance1101 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 600Washington, DC 20004www.staysafeonline.orgDirect Marketing Association(to remove your name from direct mail,telemarketing, and email lists)www.the-dma.orgForm Number NATI-03-12119


NATI AlertsNational Do Not Call Registry(to remove your name fromtelemarketing call lists)www.donotcall.govPrivacy Rights Clearinghouse3100 – 5th Avenue, Suite BSan Diego, CA 92103(619) 298-3396www.privacyrights.orgU.S. Department of Justice Disaster FraudHotline(to report disaster-related fraud)(866) 720-5721disaster@leo.govwww.usdoj.govUnited States Postal Inspection ServiceAttn.: Mail Fraud222 S Riverside Plaza, Suite 1250Chicago, IL 60606-6100(877) 876-2455https://postalinspectors.uspis.gov/Federal Trade Commission600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20580(877) 382-4357 (FTC-HELP)(877) 438-4338 (ID-THEFT)consumeralerts@fdic.govwww.ftc.gov/bcp/index.shtmlwww.consumer.gov/idtheftIdentity Theft Prevention and Survivalwww.identitytheft.orgInternet Crime Complaint Center(to report Internet crimes)www.ic3.govInternet Fraud Watch(800) 876-7060www.fraud.orgNational Consumers League Fraud Center(to report suspected Internetor telemarketing fraud)(800) 876-7060http://bit.ly/bfvVQlNational Cyber Security Alliance1101 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 600Washington, DC 20004www.staysafeonline.orgNational Do Not Call Registry(to remove your name fromtelemarketing call lists)www.donotcall.govPrivacy Rights Clearinghouse3100 – 5th Avenue, Suite BSan Diego, CA 92103(619) 298-3396www.privacyrights.orgU.S. Department of Justice DisasterFraud Hotline(to report disaster-related fraud)(866) 720-5721disaster@leo.govwww.usdoj.govUnited States Postal Inspection ServiceAttn.: Mail Fraud222 S Riverside Plaza, Suite 1250Chicago, IL 60606-6100(877) 876-2455https://postalinspectors.uspis.gov/Form Number NATI-03-12120


NATI AlertsIdentity Theft and the Older AdultIdentity theft is one of the fastest growing crime in the country. The Federal TradeCommission (FTC) estimates that as many as 9 million people living in America have theiridentities stolen each year.A 2008 Bureau of Justice Assistance study estimated that 11.7 million persons in theUnited States were victims of identity theft in the two years prior to the report. Financiallosses due to identity theft totaled more than $17 billion. (Victims of Identity Theft, 2008,December 2010)Older adults represent more than a quarter of all identity theft victims. These individualsare targeted for several reasons: Availability: Retired, less mobile, and perhaps in poor health, older adults are often homefor cold calls. Also, more and more older adults use email, the Internet, and social media,now the most popular venue for fraudsters. Vulnerability: Physically or mentally impaired older adults who rely on unscrupulouscaretakers or family members often are targeted for identity fraud. Money: Targeted older adults are a ready money supply from savings or property. Loneliness: Lack of friendships can position older adults to be receptive to identity fraud.Identity Theft DefinedIdentity assumed to commit fraud under the assumed identity is identity theft. A criminalwill use the name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit account number, or otheridentifying information, without the victim’s knowledge, to commit fraud or other crimes.Criminals obtain personal information in many ways: Dumpster Diving: “Divers” rummage through trash to find bills, pre-approvalapplications, or other papers containing personal information. Skimming: ID thieves use a special device to steal credit or debit card numbers. Telemarketing: Fraudsters pose as telemarketers or sweepstakes employees to getpersonal information. Phishing: Pretending to be from a financial institution or legitimate company, phisherssend spam or pop-up emails to get the recipient to reveal personal information. Pre-texting: Using false pretenses, thieves obtain personal data from financialinstitutions, utility companies, and other sources. Old-Fashioned Stealing: Thieves steal wallets, purses, or mail. Dishonest employeessteal employer personnel records. Criminals watch or listen for person identification,calling card, or credit card numbers.Form Number NATI-03-12121


NATI AlertsIdentification Theft FactsIn 2010—for the eleventh year in a row—identity theft was the top consumer complaint category(19%) received by the FTC, which recorded 250,854 complaints. Of these cases, governmentdocuments/benefits fraud (19%) was the most commonly reported, followed by credit card fraud(15%), phone or utilities fraud (14%), and unemployment fraud (11%). Other significant categoriesof identity theft reported by victims were bank fraud (10%) and loan fraud (4%). (FTC, ConsumerSentinel Network Data Book for January – December 2010, March 2011)In 2009, 28% of identity theft victims were age 50 or over. (Consumer Sentinel NetworkData Book for January – December 2010)About 42% of victims spent one day or less working to resolve financial and creditproblems associated with identity theft. However, 3% continued to experience problems morethan six months after discovering the theft. Some 23% of victims suffered an out-of-pocketfinancial loss; the average loss amount was $1,870, with half losing $200 or less. (Bureau ofJustice Statistics, Victims of Identity Theft, 2008, December 2010)Reporting Identity TheftActions related to identification theft can be a federal offense, and violations of federallaws are investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Secret Service, U.S. PostalInspection Service, and Social Security Administration/Inspector General. Federal identitytheft cases are prosecuted by the U.S. Department of Justice.The FTC provides the following four steps for reporting identity theft. For moreinformation, visit www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/defend.html.1. Place a fraud alert on your credit reports—and review your credit reports.2. Close the accounts you know, or believe, have been tampered with or opened fraudulently.3. File a complaint with the FTC online at www.ftccomplaintassistant.gov, or call the IdentityTheft Hotline at (877) ID-THEFT (438-4338), TTY: (866) 653-4261.4. File a report with your local law enforcement agency, or with the law enforcement agencyin the community where the identity theft took place.Social Security TheftThieves may try to use stolen Social Security numbers to file tax returns in order to receivea refund or obtain employment. If you suspect someone else is using your Social Securitynumber (SSN), contact the Social Security Administration (SSA). The SSA will review yourearnings with you to ensure their records are correct.If someone has misused your SSN or other personal information and caused you creditproblems, contact the FTC. If an identity thief may have filed a tax return in your name,contact the Internal Revenue Service Identity Protection Unit. Finally, victims should filean online complaint with the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), which alerts theappropriate law enforcement and regulatory agencies.Form Number NATI-03-12122


NATI AlertsCredit Card TheftFederal law limits a cardholder’s maximum liability for unauthorized card use to $50 percard. Also, if the loss involves the credit card number, but not the physical card, you arenot liable for any charges. Be aware, however, that federal law regarding ATM/debit cardloss or fraudulent transfers differs. Consumers who report the loss within two business daysafter realizing a card is missing are not responsible for more than $50 for unauthorized use.However, if the loss is not reported, you can lose up to $500. Cardholders who fail to reportan unauthorized transfer within 60 days after their bank statement was mailed to them riskunlimited loss—possibly the entire amount in the account and any unused portion of creditline or overdraft. For more information, read the FTC report “Credit, ATM and Debit Cards:What to do if They’re Lost or Stolen”.Many people learn they have been victimized when a debt collector calls regarding unpaidaccount activity. Federal and state laws regulate collection agencies in order to protect identitytheft victims.To learn more, see Identity Theft Resource Center Fact Sheet 116 – Collection Agenciesand Identity Theft.ResourcesBetter Business BureauElder Fraud Hotline(804) 780-2222Philanthropic Advisory Service Council(to verify a charitable organization)www.bbb.orgConsumer Action HandbookName and Address to:HandbookPueblo, Colorado 81009(888) 878-3256www.ConsumerAction.govConsumer Response CenterFederal Trade CommissionWashington, DC 20580(202) FTC-HELP [382-4357]TDD: (202) 326-2502Credit BureausAnnual Credit Report Request Service(877) 322-8228www.annualcreditreport.comOptOutPrescreen.com(888) 567-8688 (5OPTOUT)TDD: Call 711 and refer the relay operator to(800) 821-9631www.optoutprescreen.comExperian (formerly TRW)(888) 397-3742 (Experian) (to order creditreport and to report credit card fraud)www.experian.comEquifax(888) 766-0008 (to report credit card fraud)(800) 685-1111 (to request credit report)www.equifax.comTransUnion(800) 680-7289 (fraud victim assistance)(800) 877-322-8228 (to request credit report)www.transunion.comForm Number NATI-03-12123


NATI AlertsDirect Marketing Association(Instructions for removing your name fromdirect mail, telemarketing, and email lists)Customerservice@the-dma.orgwww.the-dma.orgNational Fraud Information Center(to verify a charitable organization)www.fraud.orgWhere to Report ID Theft:Federal Trade Commission(877) IDTHEFT (1-877-438-4338)TTY: 1-866-653-4261www.ftc.govInternal Revenue ServiceIdentity Protection Unit(800) 908-4490www.irs.gov/privacy/article/Federal Bureau of Investigationwww.fbi.govInternet Crime Complaint Centerwww.ic3.gov/Privacy Rights Clearinghousewww.privacyrights.orgU.S. Department of Justicewww.usdoj.govU.S. Postal Servicewww.usps.gov/websites/depart/inspectU.S. Secret Servicewww.secretservice.govU.S. Social Security Administration(800) 772-1213www.ssa.govForm Number NATI-03-12124


NATI AlertsOlder Adult AbuseOften hidden, abuse inflicted on older people may not be evident in your community. Victimsdependent on abusive caretakers may be too frightened or physically or mentally unable toreport abuse. Financial abuse may occur without the victim’s knowledge.The National Crime Victimization Survey cannot accurately measure older adult abuse, as it isvastly unreported, and the impaired often cannot report victimization. What is certain, however,is that it is a growing problem. As the average lifespan increases in America, more older people arebeing subjected to physical, mental, and sexual abuse; neglect; and financial exploitation.Older Adult Abuse DefinedOlder adult abuse refers to any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver orother person that causes harm, serious risk, or death to an older person. The World HealthOrganization has adopted the following definition: “a single or repeated act, or lack ofappropriate action, occurring within relationships where there is an expectation of trustwhich causes harm or distress to an older person.”Self-neglect is a form of abuse that often stems from diminished mental or physical ability orsocial isolation. Unwilling or unable to request help, many older people remain in a neglectedsituation. In fact, a competent older person may have the legal right to refuse assistance.Passive neglect—a caregiver failing to provide proper nutrition, hygiene, living conditions,or medication—is common, leading to serious health problems or death.Abuse FactsThe National Center on Elder Abuse states that, for years, studies found that mostabusers were adult children. However, current data shows spouses now to be the mostcommon perpetrators.A 2009 survey estimated 14.1% of adults age 60 and older experienced physical,psychological, or sexual abuse; neglect; or financial exploitation within the previous year.(Ron Acierno et al., “Prevalence and Correlates of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and FinancialAbuse and Potential Neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study,”Am J Public Health, 100:2, February 2010)Research on caregiver and recipient pairs found that, when spouses were caregivers, theywere more likely to display abusive behavior when the partner had greater need for care.(Beach, Stott R., et al., “Risk Factors for Potentially Harmful Informal Caregiver Behavior,” JAm Geriatrics Soc, 53:2, 2005)Research indicates that a history of potentially traumatic events, including physical oremotional mistreatment, is associated with poor physical health among adults age 60 and older.(Josh M. Cisler et al., “Elder Mistreatment and Physical Health among Older Adults: TheSouth Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study,” J Trauma Stress, August 2010)In a study of adults age 57 to 85, 9% reported verbal mistreatment, 3.5% financialmistreatment, and 0.2% physical mistreatment by a family member. Odds of verbalmistreatment were higher for women and those with physical vulnerabilities and wereForm Number NATI-03-12125


NATI Alertslower for Latinos than for whites. Odds of financial mistreatment were higher for AfricanAmericans and lower for Latinos than for whites and lower for those with a spouse or partnerthan for those without partners. (“Elder mistreatment in the United States: prevalence estimatesfrom a nationally representative study,” J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 63:4, Jul 2008)Older Adult Abuse and DeathA Virginia study reported that, from 1999 to 2007, of the state’s 583 homicide victims age50 or older, one in four was killed as a result of domestic violence. (Lee, Nicole Lynn, PhD.,Virginia Department of Health, Intimate Partner Homicide: An Analysis of Homicide inVirginia Among Those 50 Years or Older, 1999-2007)In 2007, 5.7 of every 100,000 deaths in the United States of people age 65 and older wereruled homicides. (Centers for Disease Control, National Vital Statistics Reports, “Deaths:Preliminary Data for 2007,” June 2010)In a 2009 study of community-dwelling older adults in Chicago, those who had been reportedto social services agencies as abuse victims faced an increased risk of mortality compared to thosewho had not been reported. (XinQi Dong et al., “Elder Self-Neglect and Abuse and Mortality Riskin a Community-dwelling Population,” J Am Med Assn; vol. 302, no. 5, 2009)The use of autopsy is decreasing in the United States. Autopsies are performed in only twopercent of older adult deaths. (Centers for Disease Control, Autopsy Patterns in 2003, March 2007)Types of Caregiver Abuse Physical: Threats of bodily harm, infliction of physical injury, or deprivation of basic needs. Emotional: Verbal or nonverbal infliction of mental pain, anguish, or distress. Sexual: Nonconsensual sexual contact. Exploitation: Theft, misuse, or concealment of an older adult’s money, property, or assets. Neglect: Failure to provide an older adult with adequate food, shelter, or health care. Abandonment: The desertion of an older adult by a caretaker. Isolation: Cutting off an older adult from friends, family, or activities.Know the Warning SignsCaregivers, family members, social service and health care providers, and law enforcementshould learn to recognize the following signs of older adult abuse and neglect.Caregiver Abuse Bruises, pressure marks, broken bones, abrasions, burns, or untreated injuries in variousstages of healing; signs of being restrained (e.g., rope marks on wrists). Unexplained withdrawal from routine activities, a sudden shift in alertness, or unusual depression. Bruises or bleeding around the breasts, genitals, or anus, or unexplained STDs. Bedsores, unattended medical needs, poor hygiene, and abnormal weight loss. Extreme hunger or thirst. Drug overdose or failure to take a medication regularly (a prescription has more or fewerremaining than it should). Behavior such as belittling, threats, and other uses of power and control by caretaker. Strained or tense relationships, frequent arguments between a caregiver and an older person.Form Number NATI-03-12126


NATI Alerts Unusual behavior usually attributed to dementia (e.g., sucking, biting, rocking). Desertion of an older person in a medical facility, shopping center, or other location. Broken eyeglasses or frames.Financial Abuse Sudden changes in financial situation, unexplained disappearance of funds or valuables, orunexplained transfer of assets to a family member or someone outside the family. Suspicious changes to wills, power of attorney, titles, policies, or signature cards. Overbilling for medical services or charges for medical services not rendered. Unpaid or overdue bills when an older person has enough money to pay them. Unusual bank account activity (e.g., ATM withdrawals when the account holder isbedridden, online transactions when the account holder does not use a computer).Self-NeglectMost cases reported to Adult Protective Services are due to self-neglect. Self-neglect is oftencoupled with health factors, lack of a social support group, Alzheimer’s disease or dementia, ordrug/alcohol abuse. Signs of self-neglect often include: Hoarding. Failure to take medications. Failure to seek medical treatment. Poor personal hygiene. Failure to take routine safety precautions (e.g., turn off a stove). Inappropriate clothing (e.g., no coat in winter). Bewilderment. Poor housekeeping. Dehydration or malnutrition.Types of OffendersGenerally, a combination of psychological, social, and economic factors, along with the mentaland physical state of the victim and the abuser, contribute to elder maltreatment. Below arefour typical abuser profiles: Well-intended, normally competent: Overwhelmed, highly stressed, with limited resources. Well-intended, impaired: May have chronic or cyclical impairments. Narcissistic: Self-centered, exclusive interest in his or her own needs. Abusive: Chronically angry, unhappy, critical, and feels justified in abuse. Sadistic: Derives a sense of power from controlling and inflicting pain on others.Preventing and Reporting AbuseEveryone, including friends, family members, health care providers, in-home service providers(e.g., meal delivery services), law enforcement, and other community members, plays a role inpreventing and reporting older adult abuse.Isolation is a risk factor for older adult abuse and neglect. Friends and family memberscan commit to regular visits or invite older relatives or neighbors to participate in outside activitiesForm Number NATI-03-12127


NATI Alerts(e.g., sporting events, church socials). Individuals can also volunteer with organizations such asTriad to educate the community about older adult abuse.Law enforcement agencies can help establish and become involved with Triad. Many agenciesalso offer call programs—regular phone calls or visits to check up on vulnerable older adults.Law enforcement officers and deputies should be trained to recognize and investigate the signs ofpotential abuse and neglect. The National Sheriffs’ Association has published a guidebook, FirstResponse to Victims of Crime, which provides tips for law enforcement personnel who deal witholder crime victims.Physicians, pharmacists, and other health care providers who serve older patients shouldbe alert for physical signs of abuse, as well as for changes to patients’ cognitive abilities. Theseproviders should know how to refer and report suspected cases of abuse to the proper authorities.ResourcesClearinghouse on Abuse and Neglectof the Elderlycane-ud@udel.eduwww.cane.udel.eduElder Justice: Stronger FederalLeadership Could Enhance NationalResponse to Elder AbuseU.S. Government Accountability Officehttp://aging.senate.gov/events/hr230kb2.pdfEldercare LocatorU.S. Administration on Aging(800) 677-1116www.eldercare.govInternational Network for the Preventionof Elder Abuse2800 515 W Hasting StreetVancouver, Canada V6B 5K3(778) 782-5063www.inpea.netNational Association of Triads, Inc.1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314(703) 836-7827nati@sheriffs.orgwww.nationaltriad.orgNational Center on Elder Abuse c/o Centerfor Community Research and ServicesUniversity of Delaware297 Graham HallNewark, DE 19716(302) 831-3525nea-info@aoa.hhs.govwww.ncea.aoa.govNational Committee for the Prevention ofElder Abuse1612 K Street, NW, Suite 400Washington, DC 20006(202) 682-4140info@preventelderabuse.orgwww.preventelderabuse.orgNational Adult Protective ServicesAssociation920 S Spring Street, Suite 1200Springfield, IL 62704(217) 523-4431www.apsnetwork.orgNational Domestic Violence Hotline(800) 799-7233 (SAFE)TTY: (800) 787-3224ADWAS@ndvh.orgwww.thehotline.orgForm Number NATI-03-12128


NATI AlertsOlder Driver SafetyMore than 12% of the U.S. population is 65 or older. According to the National HighwayTraffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), there were 32.2 million older licensed drivers in2008—representing about 15% of all licensed drivers.As we age, physical changes affect our ability to drive safely. Eyesight, one of the mostcritical aspects of driving, begins to deteriorate after age 40. Reaction time and flexibility alsodiminish as we age. NHTSA states that physical changes and decreased ability due to diseasemay alter the performance level of critical skills needed to drive. In 2008, 183,000 older adultswere injured in traffic crashes, while older drivers accounted for 15% of all traffic fatalities.Although older drivers are involved in fewer crashes overall than younger drivers, their fatalcrash rate per miles traveled increases after age 75.Despite the statistics, many older adults continue to drive safely. According to theInsurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the fatal crash rate for older adults has droppedby 37%. Among drivers over 80, the rate has dropped even more drastically—by 47%.Age alone does not necessarily predict fatality or crash rates. In a University of Michiganstudy, “able older drivers” had fewer fatalities when rates were proportionally corrected forlicensed drivers (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2003). By learning to recognize thewarning signs of impaired driving and identify risk factors, such as weather/road conditionsand driver health/motor functioning, law enforcement and community groups can developstrategies to reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries among older adults.Aging FactsThe number of people living in America age 65 and older rose to 39.5 million in 2009.(U.S. Census Bureau, “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex and Selected AgeGroup for the U.S.: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009”)The 65-and-over population will increase from 40 million in 2010 to 55 million in 2020. By2030, almost 20% of the U.S. population will be 65 or older. (Administration on Aging, A Profileof Older Americans: 2009) (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 2000)According to U.S. census data, just under 7 million people age 85 and over live in America.This figure is expected to grow to 19 million in the next four decades.In 2009, persons reaching age 65 had an average life expectancy of an additional 18.6 years(19.8 years for women and 17.1 years for men). (Administration on Aging, A Profile of OlderAmericans: 2009)In 2008, older women outnumbered older men at a ratio of 22.4 million to 16.5 million. 42%of older women were widows. (Administration on Aging, A Profile of Older Americans: 2009)Form Number NATI-03-12129


NATI AlertsCrash StatisticsAuto crash deaths among drivers age 70 andolder fell 21% from 1997 to 2006. (NationalInstitute on Aging, 2009)A total of 3,981 people age 70 and older died inmotor vehicle crashes in 2009—a 32% decreasesince 1997. (IIHS, Fatality Facts 2009 )In 2008, older adults made up 15% of alltraffic fatalities, 14% of all vehicle occupantfatalities, and 18% of all pedestrian fatalities.(NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts: 2008 Data)75% of people who die in crashes involvingolder drivers are the drivers themselves or theirolder passengers. The increase in fatal crashesinvolving drivers age 75 and older is attributedmostly to fragility due to age. (National Instituteon Aging, 2009) (IIHS, Fatality Facts 2009)In two-vehicle fatal crashes involving anolder and a younger driver, the vehicle drivenby the older driver is nearly twice as likely tobe the one struck. (NHTSA, Traffic SafetyFacts: 2008 Data)Drivers age 65 and over killed in carcrashes are significantly more likely to die ofchest injury than younger drivers (47.3% vs.24%). (Dr. Richard Kent et al., “On the fatalcrash experience of older drivers,” Universityof Virginia, 2005)In 2008, most traffic fatalities involvingolder drivers occurred during the day (80%),on weekdays (72%), and involved other vehicles(69%). (NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts: 2008 Data)Older drivers are over-represented inintersection crashes, while merging andovertaking, and in angle crashes—especially lefthandturns. (IIHS, Older Drivers Q&A, 2010)Training IssuesLaw enforcement officers need to be trainedabout aging—how it affects older adults,society as a whole, and law enforcementservices delivery. They especially need tounderstand how an older driver populationimpacts traffic safety.One aging issue officers need to recognizeis dementia and its warning signs. Theyrequire sensitivity training that focuses onthe needs of an aging community.Law Enforcement’s RoleAccording to International Association ofChiefs of Police, older driver issues cross all fourphases of crash prevention: education, engineering,enforcement, and evaluation. (HighwaySafety Desk Book, 2004) The suggestions belowcan be tailored to help your agency establish orimprove older driver safety programs.Education Use radio and TV public serviceannouncements to educate older driversabout driving hazards, make them awareof their limitations, and encourage themto adjust driving behaviors accordingly. Create advertisements with links todriver safety and training informationon social media sites such as Facebook.Filters allow you to target your messageto desired age groups. Provide officers and deputies withregular training on older driver issues.Topics should include the warningsigns of dementia as well as tools forproperly interacting with dementiasufferers. Contact your local Alzheimer’sFoundation chapter for assistance. Develop safety videos or slide presentationsto present to older-adult organizations,including religious groups andsocial clubs. Organize or strengthen Triads.Form Number NATI-03-12130


NATI Alerts Act as a referral resource to link olderpeople, adult children, and communityoutreach systems. Build older adult service coalitions tochannel community resources to olderadults in need.Engineering Inform city traffic planners of the needsof older adult drivers and pedestrians.Suggestions include bigger road signs,longer pedestrian crosswalk times, refugeislands for those unable to cross the streetduring one signal cycle, and high-visibilitycrosswalks with lighting or reflectors.Enforcement Be alert to drivers who appear lost,confused, or incapacitated, stopping themto inquire about their welfare. Drivers whoappear to suffer from dementia should notbe allowed to continue driving. Cite offenders. The scope of the problemis likely understated because officers arereluctant to take enforcement actionagainst “grandma and grandpa.” Policies for retesting older and/orimpaired drivers vary by state. Knowyour state’s referral process for driver’slicensing retesting and establish adepartmental policy for requestingre-examinations of unfit drivers.The Older Driver’s Responsibilities Avoid driving at night, in bad weather, orunder other stressful conditions. Maintain your health: Get regularcheck-ups and vision screenings. Eat ahealthy diet and stay physically fit. Know your meds: Ask your doctor if anyof your medications could affect driving. Avoid distractions such as adjusting theradio, eating, talking on the phone, ortexting while driving. Plan travel routes in advance. Update your vehicle: Features such aslarge mirrors, power windows and locks,and automatic transmission may help youovercome physical limitations. Never drink alcohol and drive. Maintain your vehicle. Checkwindshields and mirrors, tire tread, andlights. Get regular tune-ups.Evaluation Analyze crashes involving older driversand work closely with highway engineersand local officials to evaluate the needfor changes in traffic control devices,warning signs, and traffic patterns.Form Number NATI-03-12131


NATI AlertsKnow the warning signs!Consult your doctor if you experience unusual concentration or memory problems, or otherphysical symptoms that could affect your ability to drive safely. If you notice any of thewarning signs below, consider having your driving assessed by a professional or attending adriver refresher class: Fearful driving. Frequent dents and scrapes on your vehicle, fences, mailboxes, garage doors, or curbs. Difficulty staying in one lane or paying attention to signals, road signs, andpavement markings. Frequent “close calls.” Other drivers often honk at you or you often become angry at other drivers. Friends and relatives avoid riding with you. Frequent traffic tickets or warnings. Difficulty turning to check over your shoulder when backing up or changing lanes.ResourcesAdministration on AgingPublic Inquiries Unit330 Independence Avenue, SWWashington, DC 20201(202) 619-0724Eldercare Locator: (800) 677-1116TDD: (800) 877-8339www.aoa.govAmerican Association of Retired Persons601 E Street, NWWashington, DC 20049(888) 687-2277www.aarp.org/home-garden/transportation/driver_safety/www.aarp.org/findacoursewww.aarp.driversafety.orgAmerican Automobile AssociationFoundation for Traffic Safetywww.seniordrivers.orgCarfitwww.AAA.com/seniorsAmerican Medical Associationwww.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physicianresources/public-health/promoting-healthylifestyles/geriatric-health/older-driver-safety/resources-patients.shtmlAmerican OccupationalTherapists Association4720 Montgomery LaneBethesda, MD 20824-1220(301) 652-7711www.aota.org/olderdriverNational Association of Triads, Inc.www.nationaltriad.org/Older_Driver_Materials.htmNational Highway TrafficSafety AdministrationInjury Prevention: Older Road UsersManuals and brochures for physicians,community groups, and older driverswww.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/olddrive/Form Number NATI-03-12132


NATI AlertsNational Older Driver Researchand Training CenterNTI-1211200 New Jersey Avenue SEWashington, DC 20590Fax: (202) 366-7394www.nhtsa.dot.govProcess and Outcomes Evaluation ofOlder Driver Screening Programs: TheAssessment of Driving-Related Skills(ADReS) Older-Driver Screening ToolThis study examines the effectiveness ofADReS in identifying older drivers whomay or may not be at increased risk forunsafe driving.www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/811113.pdfPhysician’s Guide to Assessing andCounseling Older Driverswww.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/olddrive/physician_guide/PhysiciansGuide.pdfThis guide helps doctors and patientsexplore driving using a health-basedmodel. A set of screening tools exploresvisual, physical and motor, and cognitivefunctions. The guide also offers physician’sguidance on actions to take forpatients who present with “red flags.”National Institute on AgingAlzheimer’s Disease Education andReferral CenterPO Box 8250Silver Spring, MD 20907(800) 438-4380www.alzheimers.org/index.htmlNational Mobility Equipment DealersAssociation3327 West Bearss AvenueTampa, FL 33618(800) 833-0427www.nmeda.orgNational Sheriffs’ Association1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(800) 424-7827www.sheriffs.orgSafercar.govwww.safercar.govForm Number NATI-03-12133


134Form Number NATI-03-12


Prescription Drug Abuse:A Growing EpidemicNATI AlertsThe number of people in America who abuse prescription and over-the-counter (OTC)medications has skyrocketed. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates that nearly20% of individuals age 12 and older have used prescription drugs nonmedically. Especiallyvulnerable are preteens, teenagers, and young adults, for whom these substances represent aneasy, cheap high. Disturbingly, more than three in five teens say prescription pain relieversare easy to get from the family medicine cabinet, while more than half say they are “availableeverywhere.” (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA],Prescription for Danger: A Report on the Troubling Trend of Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Among the Nation’s Teens, January 2008)According to federal statistics, abuse among older adults also has increased dramatically.Although people age 65 and older comprise only 13% of the population, they account fornearly one-third of all drugs prescribed in the U.S. Because these older patients are oftenprescribed long-term and multiple medications, they face an increased risk of unintentional orintentional misuse. SAMHSA predicts that, by 2020, the number of people age 50 and olderwho need treatment for substance abuse will double.Facts and Figures According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, approximately 7 millionAmericans—2.8% of the U.S. population—abuse prescription pain relievers, tranquilizers,stimulants, and sedatives. A SAMHSA report noted a large increase in the nonmedical use of prescription drugsamong women age 60 to 64. (Illicit Drug Abuse among Older Adults) Among adults age 65 and older, nonmedical prescription drug use is more common thanmarijuana use. (Illicit Drug Abuse among Older Adults) Every day, 2,500 American teens try a prescription drug for the first time to get high.(Partnership for a Drug-Free America) Four out of 10 teens believe prescription and OTC medicines are less addictive and lessdangerous than street drugs. (Office of National Drug Control Policy, Prescription forDanger, January 2008) According the 2009 Monitoring the Future report, 5% of have teens abused coughmedicine in the past year. (University of Michigan, www.monitoringthefuture.org) In 2007, 93% of unintentional poisoning deaths were caused by drugs. Opioid painmedications, such as methadone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone, were most commonlyinvolved. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Wide-ranging Online Data forEpidemiologic Research, 2010) Pain relievers like Vicodin and OxyContin are the prescription drugs most commonlyabused by teens. 70% of teens who have used pain relievers for nonmedical use reportgetting medications from friends or relatives. (NSDUH) More than 16% of weekend, nighttime drivers tested were positive for illegal, prescription,or OTC medications in 2007. (NHTSA, National Roadside Survey)Form Number NATI-03-12135


NATI AlertsProper Disposal of Unwanted MedsThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration and White House Office of National Drug ControlPolicy have developed the guidelines below to help consumers properly dispose of unneededprescription and OTC medications: Follow any disposal instructions on the drug label. Do not flush medications unless theinstructions specifically say to do so. If no instructions are given, take medications out of their containers and mix them withan undesirable substance (e.g., kitty litter, coffee grounds) to make them less appealing tochildren, pets, and others. Place the mixture in a sealable bag, empty can, or other container before putting it in thetrash in order to prevent leaks or tears. Participate in community drug take-back events. Call your local trash and recyclingservice, local police or sheriff’s office, or Triad to see if a take-back program is scheduledin your community. Many pharmacies now offer take-back services as well. Before trashing or recycling empty medicine containers, always scratch off labelinformation, including your name and Rx number, to protect your identity and privacy.Your Role in PreventionThere are many things older adults and their caregivers can do to keep themselves and thosethey love safe from the dangers of prescription and OTC drug abuse. Health care providersand law enforcement play an equally important role in helping to prevent abuse and reportviolations involving prescription and OTC medications.Older Adults and Caregivers Keep your medications out of sight and out of reach of children and young adults who visityour home. Consider purchasing a small safe to store your medications securely. Properly dispose of all unused and expired drugs. When prescribed a new medication, tell your doctor and pharmacist what other drugs(as well as vitamins and supplements) you take, since these could interact with the newmedication. If you or someone you care for take(s) multiple medications, vitamins, and/or supplements,consider using a packaging service (e.g., AccuPax) to help ensure correct dosages. Always follow your doctor’s and pharmacist’s instructions when taking your medication.Know what side effects may occur. Never share prescription medications.Form Number NATI-03-12136


NATI AlertsHealth Care Providers and Pharmacists Provide patients with clear information and advice about how to take medications properly. Look for false or altered prescription forms. Report suspected abuse to the appropriateauthorities. Consider submitting prescription orders electronically. Be aware of the physical signs of possible drug abuse in older adults: anxiety, memoryloss, depression, agitation, changes in blood pressure, falls, fatigue, pain in upperabdomen, sleep disturbance, appetite and weight loss, weakness, and confusion.(American Geriatrics Society) Be on the lookout for “doctor shoppers,” addicts who go from one health care provider toanother seeking controlled substances. Older patients who are prescribed medicines that could be abused should be monitoredfrequently and receive regular checkups. Be aware that the sudden need for larger or more frequent doses of a medication mayindicate the patient has become addicted.Law Enforcement Contact the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/U.S. Department ofTransportation for information on drugged drivers and how to become a certified DrugRecognition Expert (DRE). Educate your older adult community on controlling one’s medications using resourcematerial available free from Triad. When you encounter a driver who appears to be under the influence of drugs, complete amedical referral form to alert your state licensing agency or department of motor vehicles. If you come into contact with suspected abusive primary caregivers (those who withholddrugs, steal drugs, or overmedicate), refer the suspected older adult abuse victim to yourlocal area agency on aging or ombudsman program for further case review. Sponsor prescription take-back day events in your city or county. Learn to recognize the physical signs of drug abuse—in older adults as well as inyounger people. Become involved in, or start, a local Triad. Education is key to preventing impaired driving. Lobby your state government to includedrugged driving-related questions on licensing exams.Form Number NATI-03-12137


NATI AlertsResourcesAccuPax(888) 600-9692www.AccuPax.netAdministration on AgingOne Massachusetts Avenue NWWashington, DC 20001www.aoa.govwww.aoa.gov/aoaroot/AoA_Programs/Elder_Rights/Ombudsman/index.aspx(information on the Long-term CareOmbudsman Program)American Association of Motor VehicleAdministrators4301 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 400Arlington, VA 22203www.aamva.orgCenters for Disease Control and Prevention1600 Clifton RoadAtlanta, GA 30333www.cdc.govNational Association of Triads (NATI)1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314www.nationaltriad.orgNational Family Partnership/Lock Your Meds2490 Coral Way, Miami, FL 33145www.nfp.orgwww.lockyourmeds.orghttp://cmnfp.neworg.com/default.aspwww.facebook.com/lockyourmedswww.nfp.org/userfiles/file/12pgMEDKit6-28-10.pdf(Meducation: A Dose of Knowledge)National Highway Traffic Safety Administration1200 New Jersey Avenue, SEWest BuildingWashington, DC 20590www.nhtsa.govForm Number NATI-03-12138


NATI AlertsNational Institutes of HealthNational Institute on Drug Abuse6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213Bethesda, MD 20892-9561www.nida.nih.gov/NIDAHome.htmlNeuropsychopharmacology.orghttp://soundmedicine.iu.edu/extras/Drugs%20of%20Abuse%20and%20Aging.pdf(“Drugs of Abuse and the Aging Brain”)Office of National Drug Control PolicyDrug Policy Information ClearinghouseP.O. Box 6000Rockville, MD 20849-6000http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcpwww.theantidrug.com/pdfs/prescription_report.pdf (Prescription for Danger: A Reporton the Troubling Trend of Prescription andOver-the-Counter Drug Abuse Among theNation’s Teens, January 2008)Partnership for a Drug-Free America352 Park Avenue South, 9th FloorNew York, NY 10010www.drugfree.orgStopMedicineAbuse.orgConsumer Healthcare Products Association900 19th Street NW, Suite 700Washington, DC 20006www.stopmedicineabuse.orgU.S. Department of Health andHuman ServicesSubstance Abuse and Mental HealthServices Administrationhttps://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/default.asp(Drug Abuse Warning Network)http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Illicit-Drug-Use-among-Older-Adults/NSDUH11-0901(“Illicit Drug Use Among Older Adults”)U.S. Department of Transportation1200 New Jersey Avenue, SEWashington, DC 20590www.dot.govU.S. Drug Enforcement Administrationwww.justice.gov/dea/index.htmForm Number NATI-03-12139


140Form Number NATI-03-12


NATI AlertsCrime Safety and the Older AdultAccording to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the estimated number of violent criminaloffenses declined by 6% from 2009 to 2010.2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report, rates of violent and property crime in Americadeclined to their lowest level since 1973. Between 2000 and 2010, the violent victimization ratefell by approximately 13%. 1 Older adults continued to experience fewer violent and propertycrimes than any other age groups.Despite the decline, 2.4 of every 1,000 adults age 65 and older fell victim to violentcrime in 2010. The rate for adults age 50 to 64 was 10.9 per 1,000. With more than92,000 reported cases of violent victimization and approximately 2 million total crimescommitted against people age 65 and older, serious issues remain. Furthermore, numbersdo not reveal the full scope of the problem; the BJS estimates that more than half of allviolent crimes go unreported.Home SafetyCrime can take place at any time. In 2009, 55% of all violent acts occurred during the day(6 a.m. to 6 p.m.). More than half (55%) of sexual assaults occurred at night (6 p.m. to 6a.m.). Nearly half (46%) of household burglaries occurred during the day.58% of violent crimes occurred within a mile of the victim’s home, including 21% in the homeand 18% near the home. Only 3% of violent crimes occurred more than 50 miles from home.In 2010, 17.2% of reported robberies occurred at the victim’s residence.Statistically, property crimes make upthe highest percentage of offenses againstolder people. In 2009, 57 per every 1,000households of persons ages 65 or olderexperienced property crime.72.6 percent of all burglaries tookplace on residential properties.(FBI, Crime in the United States: 2009)Victims knew their offenders in 65%of burglaries reported between 2003and 2007. (BJS, Victimization DuringHousehold Burglary, September 2010)**Includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.Source: National Crime Victimization Survey, 1993-20101 Unless otherwise indicated, statistical data referenced in this alert are from the U.S. Departmentof Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in theUnited States, 2010.Form Number NATI-03-12141


NATI AlertsPublic SafetyOf victims of violent crime in 2009, 22% were involved in leisure activity away from home atthe time of the incident.42.8% of all robberies occurred on a public street or highway. (FBI, Crime in the UnitedStates: 2009)Purse-snatchings and pick-pocketing typically occur away from home. The most commonplaces include restaurants, bars, and other commercial buildings (39.1%) and open areas suchas streets or public transportation (28.2%)Parking Facilities and ElevatorsParking garages, lobbies, and elevators are at high risk for personal crime incidents due totheir constrained and isolated nature, low activity level , and poor lighting. According to theU.S. Department of Justice, parking facilities are more likely settings for crime—both violentand property—than all other real estate except residential.Between 2004 and 2008, 7.3% of all violent crimes occurred in parking lots or garages.In 2009, 6% of purse snatchings and pick-pocketings took place in parking lots or garages.Public Transportation SafetyLess than 1% of all reported violent and property crimes happened on publictransportation in 2009. However, 7.9% of purse snatching/pick-pocketing incidents took placeon public transportation.Protecting Yourself At Home: Lock doors and windows, and never hide keys outside. Keep your home’sexterior well lit. When away, use timers for lights, radios, and TVs to give the appearanceyou are at home. Trim foliage bordering your home to eliminate criminal “hidingplaces.” Report suspicious activity to law enforcement. Become involved in or organize aNeighborhood Watch. On the Street: Watch for loiterers. Do not carry large sums of money. Travel with othersand on busy, well-lit streets. Be aware of your surroundings. If followed, go into thenearest business or occupied house. Carry a mobile phone to use in case of emergency. On Public Transportation: While waiting, stand near others who are also waiting. Ifthe area is deserted, stand near an occupied, well-lit building. Be aware of those aroundyou on public transport. If there are no other passengers, sit near the driver. At yourdestination, be aware of those who exit with you. After dark, attempt to exit in well-litareas. Have someone meet you. In the Elevator: Observe the elevator interior before entering. Wait until the next elevatorif you are uncertain of an occupant. Stand near the control panel—if accosted, press ALLbuttons. If a suspicious person enters the elevator, exit before the door closes. Beforeexiting, observe the corridor for suspicious activity. Be aware of your surroundings.Form Number NATI-03-12142


NATI Alerts Banking: Use automated teller machines during daylight hours only. According to a studyby the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, mostrobberies at ATMs occur between midnight and 4 a.m. Robberies are somewhat more likely tooccur at walk-up ATMs than at drive-through ATMs. Guarding Against Purse/Wallet Snatchers: Remove the opportunity. Do not carry apurse or wallet, but opt for a belt-pack, fanny pack, or other inconspicuous means. Neverlet anyone see how much money you are carrying. Shop with a friend. Do not sit yourpurse or wallet on a counter while shopping. Walk confidently with your head up andshow a sense of purpose. Carry only essential items. Photocopy identification, credit cards,and medical cards for replacement purposes and keep copies in a safe place. If a criminalwants your money, purse, or valuables, cooperate and give them up.ResourcesBureau of Justice Statisticswww.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/Crime Prevention Through EnvironmentalDesign in Parking FacilitiesU.S. Department of JusticeOffice of Justice ProgramsNational Institute of JusticeWashington, DC 20531www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/cptedpkg.pdfCrime Prevention Tipswww.crimepreventiontips.org/Criminal Victimization in the United StatesU.S. Department of JusticeOffice of Justice ProgramsBureau of Justice Statisticshttp://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbse&sid=6National Crime Prevention Council2001 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 901Arlington, VA 22202(202) 466-6272www.ncpc.orgNational Criminal Justice Reference ServicePO Box 6000Rockville, MD 20849-6000askncjrs@ncjrs.aspensys.com(800) 851-3420www.ncjrs.govNational Neighborhood Watch Program/USAonWatchNational Sheriffs’ Association1450 Duke StreetAlexandria, VA 22314-3490(703) 836-7827nw@sheriffs.orgwww.usaonwatch.orgPhysical Environment and CrimeResearch Report, 1995, NCJ 157311Taylor, Ralph B., and Adele V. Harrellwww.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/physenv.pdfForm Number NATI-03-12143


144Form Number NATI-03-12


NATI AlertsVandalism and the Older AdultSmashed mailboxes, graffiti, “keyed” automobiles, broken windows, and similar crimes arenot just an eyesore. Property crimes, which include vandalism, cost schools, homeowners,businesses, youth, and others billions of dollars each year. Vandalism is the willful ormalicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of any public or private property,without the consent of the owner. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau ofJustice Statistics, about 4.4% of the nation’s households—5.1 million homes—were the target ofvandalism in 2005 (Crime and the Nation’s Households, April 2007). Figures from cities acrossthe U.S. suggest that annual graffiti cleanup alone costs each taxpayer about $1 to $3—total ofabout $139 million (Graffiti Hurts).The Scope of the ProblemAccording to Gallup’s annual Crime Poll, 14% of those surveyed reported that a home, car, orother property belonging to them or another household member had been vandalized in 2010.(The Gallup Poll, October 2010)Only 40% of property crimes were reported to the police in 2009. (Bureau of JusticeStatistics, Criminal Victimization, 2008, 2009)In 2009, of the 7,789 reported hate crimes (an offense motivated by racial or ethnic bias),more than 31% were acts of vandalism.Older People and Vandalism62.4 of every 1,000 household headed by an adult age 65 or older fell victim to property crime,including vandalism, in 2008. (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureauof Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2008, March 2010)According to the National Institute of Justice, neighborhood physical conditions, suchas vandalism and graffiti, contribute to resident concerns for personal safety and their desireto leave their neighborhood. (Impacts of Specific Incivilities on Responses to Crime and LocalCommitment, 1979-1994)Vandalism and HatredIn 2009, 31.6% of hate crimes involved destruction/damage of property/vandalism. Of all(violent and property) single-bias incidents, 48.5% were motivated by racial bias, 19.7% resultedfrom religious bias, 18.5% were linked to sexual-orientation bias, and 1.5% involved physical ormental disability bias. (U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2009 HateCrime Statistics)Among the anti-Semitic incidents reported in 2008 were 702 cases of vandalism. Mostinvolved acts in which Jewish schools, synagogues, and cemeteries were defaced with anti-Semitic graffiti. (Anti-Defamation League, “2008 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents”)Of all incidents involving religious bias, anti-Muslim hate crimes rose from 7.7% in 2008 to 9.3%in 2009. (U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2009 Hate Crime Statistics)Form Number NATI-03-12145


NATI AlertsJuveniles and VandalismIn 2008, an estimated 107,300 juveniles were arrested for committing acts of vandalism.Overall, juveniles made up approximately 38% of vandalism arrests. 40% of all minors arrestedwere younger than 15. (Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and DelinquencyPrevention, Juvenile Arrests 2008, December 2009)Females made up 13% of all juvenile arrests for vandalism in 2008. (Office of JusticePrograms, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Arrests 2008,December 2009)Nationally, about 10% of graffiti is gang-related. However, in some cities, the percentage isestimated to be higher. (Graffiti Hurts)Based on law enforcement reports, there were an estimated 731,000 gang members throughout3,500 jurisdictions nationwide in 2009. (National Gang Center, 2009 National Youth Gang Survey)Juveniles are more likely to commit crimes in groups and are more likely to be arrested thanare adults. (Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,Juvenile Arrests 2008, December 2009)Between 1999 and 2008, arrest rates for juvenile males committing acts of vandalism decreased 8%,while the rate for females increased 3%. Overall, arrests for vandalism decreased 4% between2007 and 2008. (Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,Juvenile Arrests 2008, December 2009)A study by the Consortium for Political and Social Research draws a strong correlationbetween social disorder (teen vagrancy and vandalism) and residential fear of crime,victimization, and negative neighborhood perceptions (Evaluation of the Impact of InnovativePolicing Programs on Social Disorder in Seven Cities in the United States, 1983-1990).Form Number NATI-03-12146


NATI AlertsReasons for VandalismAccording to the Urban Institute/City Safe, vandalism is not a senseless property crime.Perpetrators, acting alone or in groups, vandalize for many reasons—ranging from gangacceptance to revenge. Other common motivators include: Desire to fit in To please a friend Parent retribution/defiance Backlash to pressures at home/work/school Peer pressure/acceptance For fun To convey a message To counter low self-esteem Identify turf or territory (gang related) Anger/revenge BoredomCountering Vandalism Stay active in your community to feel safer and to make your neighborhood safer. Train citizens to recognize and report suspicious and criminal activities in their neighborhood. Join a Neighborhood/Apartment/Window/Business Watch, Triad, or Citizen Patrol. Report broken street lights and lobby local government for better public lighting. Start a clean-up crew. Ask local businesses to donate supplies for covering graffiti, or toolsand equipment for repairing vandalized property. Clean up graffiti quickly. According to Graffiti Hurts, immediate removal—within 24 to48 hours—is key to successful graffiti prevention. Write articles on the cost of vandalism and graffiti, their impact on neighborhoods andschool, and how the courts—juvenile and adult—treat vandals. Start a vandalism hotline in cooperation with law enforcement and school officials that letscallers anonymously report incidents of vandalism and gives tips. Work with your community to adopt a street or park monthly. Clean up; plant trees,bushes, and flowers. Repair equipment and install trash containers. Be a role model for youth by volunteering with mentoring organizations (e.g., Big BrothersBig Sisters). Visit www.volunteermatch.org to find opportunities in your area. Read “Preventing Vandalism,” published by Urban Institute and its Safe City partners, tolearn strategies for assessing and combating vandalism in your community (www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001192_preventing_vandalism.pdf)Form Number NATI-03-12147


NATI AlertsResourcesBig Brothers Big Sisters230 North 13th StreetPhiladelphia, PA 19107www.bbbs.orgBoys & Girls Clubs of America1275 West Peachtree Street NEAtlanta, GA 30309-3506(404) 487-5700info@bgca.orgwww.bgca.orgGraffiti Hurts(a grassroots community education programdeveloped by Keep America Beautiful, Inc.)www.graffitihurts.org/International Association ofProperty Crime Investigators10685-B Hazelhurst Drive, #1503Houston, TX 77043(206) 339-1641www.iapci.orgKeep America Beautiful, Inc.1010 Washington BoulevardStamford, CT 06901(203) 323-8987Fax: (203) 325-9199info@kab.orgwww.kab.orgNational Crime Prevention Council2001 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 901Arlington, VA 22202(202) 466-6272Fax: (202) 296-1356www.ncpc.orgNational Criminal Justice Reference ServiceJuvenile Justice ClearinghousePO Box 6000Rockville, MD 20849-6000(800) 851-3420TTY: (877) 712-9279Fax: (301) 519-5212www.ncjrs.orgUrban Institute2100 M Street, NWWashington, DC 20037(202) 833-7200www.urban.orgU.S. Department of JusticeOffice of Justice ProgramsOffice of Juvenile Justice andDelinquency Prevention810 Seventh Street, NWWashington, DC 20531(202) 307-5911www.ojjdp.gov/Form Number NATI-03-12148


This project was supported in part by Grant No.2001CKWXK095, Office of Community OrientedPolicing Services (COPS), awarded by the Bureauof Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs,U.S. Department of Justice. The Assistant AttorneyGeneral, Office of Justice Programs, coordinates theactivities of the following offices and bureaus: Bureauof Justice Assistance, Bureau of Justice Statistics,National Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justiceand Delinquency Prevention, and the Offices ofVictims of Crime.Points of view or opinions contained within thisdocument are those of the author and do notnecessarily represent the official position or policiesof the U.S. Department of Justice.