Exploring EnglishKey Concept ChartForm 2PunctuationYou should know how to use the following punctuation markscorrectly. Wrong use of these marks can change the wholemeaning or sense of a sentence!full stop . apostrophe ’comma , colons :quotation marks “ ” semicolons ;question mark ? dashes –exclamation mark !Most of these are very easy to use, as shown in these twosentences.1. “Have you seen my cell phone? I can’t find it anywhere!” saidTshenolo.2. There are three things to remember about crossing the road: lookboth ways to see cars from both directions; cross at a pedestriancrossing, if possible; cross quickly and safely.The most common errors in punctuation are:• not using semi-colons to separate clauses (look atsentence 2 again).• misusing apostrophes in abbreviations, e.g. writing do’nt insteadof don’t. Remember the rule: the apostrophe goes where aletter is left out, not where two words are joined together.• misusing the apostrophe showing possession, e.g. writingObakengs’ book instead of Obakeng’s book, or writing Thebook is their’s, which shouldn’t have an apostrophe.• putting the punctuation in the wrong place in directspeech. (See the section on Direct and indirect speechlater on in this chart.)Nouns◗ Types of nouns• Common nouns are everyday objects, such as table,dog, porridge.• Collective nouns are the names for groups of things, suchas the herd of cattle, the team of soccer players.• Proper nouns are the names of places, people or things.Some examples are Mrs. Moremi, Maun, Wednesday.• Abstract nouns are things we cannot see or touch, such ashappiness, success, pride.• Beware of making mistakes when using countable anduncountable nouns.Uncountable nouns cannot be counted, and cannot haveplurals, e.g. sugar, milk, advice, bread, water, equipment, work, money.So you cannot say an advice or two moneys. (Note: This is acommon mistake and is often tested in exams.)Some nouns can only be used in the plural form, e.g. scissors,jeans, pants. Don’t say I have a new jean. However, you can sayI have a new pair of jeans, as the word pair is countable.Words◗ Forming words with prefixes and suffixes• Prefixes go before a root or basic word. They change themeaning: unable, disabled, bilingual, anti-retroviral.• Suffixes go at the end of a root or basic word. They changethe part of speech: amuse (verb), amusement (noun), amusing(adjective), amusingly (adverb).◗ Parts of speechMothusi has understood the new poem easily.noun verb article adjective common noun adverbWe ate rice and stew on Saturday.pronoun verb nouns conjunction proposition nounSometimes a word is pronounced differently when it is usedas different parts of speech. Stress the underlined syllables inthe following examples:Put the refuse in the bin.I refuse to listen to this horrible music!The coach subjected the players to difficult fitness training.What is your favourite subject at school?◗ Antonyms and synonyms• Antonyms are words with opposite meanings, e.g.short – tall; comfortable – uncomfortable; inside – outside• Synonyms are words with similar meanings, e.g.kind – concerned – caring; sad – depressed – down;hardworking – industriousHint: if you have used the same word over and over again inyour writing, try to think of synonyms. So, instead of writingWe went for a nice swim in the nice river because the weather wasnice you can write We went for a refreshing swim in the clear riverbecause the weather was warm.Definite and indefinite articles• Definite articles are the words the, this, these and that.We use them when we talk about something specific. If youknow the book you want to read, you can ask the librarianPlease may I have that book? / Please may I have the book thatis over there?• Indefinite articles are the words a and an. If you don’tknow which book you want to read, you can ask the librarianPlease may I have a book to read?We cannot use definite or indefinite articles withuncountable nouns. For example, ask your visitors Would youlike some/any sugar with your tea? It is wrong to ask Would youlike a sugar/the sugar? But you can ask Would you like a biscuit?Why? Because while biscuits are countable, sugar is not.Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English in Action English Exploring English Exploring
Sentences◗ Statements are straightforward sentences, e.g. I like to braidmy hair.◗ Directions or instructions tell someone what to do, e.g.Switch off your cellphones during the film.Do not leave candles burning when you go to bed.Turn left at the crossroads.◗ Imperatives are a stronger form of command, e.g.Don’t do that!◗ Exclamations express strong emotions, e.g.I thought that was great!◗ QuestionsThere are different ways of forming questions.1. Using question words such as who, which, why, how, where, e.g.Where is the nearest garage?Who would like some more supper?2. Changing the word order:He can speak two languages changes to a question like this:Can he speak two languages?3. Using question tags:Use a positive tag with a negative sentence, e.g.He can’t speak three languages, can he?Use a negative tag with a positive question, e.g.You will remember to bring the book, won’t you?◗ Simple, complex and compound sentences1. Simple sentences have only one clause, e.g.Lesedi likes curry. Lesedi likes hot curry.2. Complex sentences have clauses that tell us more aboutthe main clause. The subordinate clause is joined to the mainclause with a conjunction such as because, when or if, e.g.Lesedi likes curry, because he likes spicy food.(subordinate clause of reason)Lesedi eats curry when he is at his grandmother’s house.(subordinate clause of place)Lesedi likes curry if it is made with lots of chilli.(subordinate clause of manner)3. Compound sentences have two or more main clauses, e.g.Lesedi likes curry but his brother Thato prefers burgers.◗ Subject, object and predicate• Sentences always have a subject and a verb.The referee whistled loudly.subject verb• Sentences can have an object as well. The verb and objecttogether are called the predicate.The referee whistled at the offside player.subject verb objectpredicateThe player kicked the ball with his right foot.subject verb direct object indirect objectpredicate◗ Subject-verb agreementThis is also called concord. The form of the verb has to agreewith the subject. This is one of the most common mistakes.This is also often tested in language examinations.◗ Subject-verb agreement of regular verbsNotice that for regular verbs, the verb gets an –s if the subjectfalls into the category of third person singular.Subjectfirst person singular (I)plural (We)second person singular (You)plural (You)third person singular(He/She/any name)plural (They)DictionariesRead this extract from a dictionary:Headword Part of speech Pronounciation MeaningChicken (n) tshi-ken (1) A bird used in farming, for poultryor eggs. (2) The meat of this bird, eaten: We had chickenstew for supper. (3) (adj) cowardly (slang): The bullies weretoo chicken to confront anyone bigger than themselves.Example sentenceA thesaurus is a dictionary that gives synonyms. It does notexplain meaning. Read this extract from a thesaurus:Cold: chilly, freezing, frozen, icy, wintry, coolVerb formI wear smart clothes.We wear smart clothes.You wear smart clothes.You all wear smart clothes.He/She/Naledi wears smart clothes.They wear smart clothes.◗ Subject-verb agreement of irregular verbsNotice that for irregular verbs, the verb form changes completely.Subjectfirst person: singular (I)plural (We)second person singular (You)plural (You)third person singular (He/She)plural (They)Verb formI am in Form 2.We are in Form 2.You are in Form 2.You all are in Form 2.He/She/Naledi is in Form 2.They are in Form 2.◗ Relative clauses1. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns, e.g. whoif the clause refers to people, and that or which if the clauserefers to things or places, e.g. Our examination which/that waswritten on Monday was easy!2. We can usually use either that or which. But some grammariansprefer to be strict about this, and use which for less importantclauses. Those clauses should also be in commas, e.g.The day that I won the competition changed my life.Note: Use that because the clause is essential.My shoes, which are black, are made from leather. Use which andput the clause in commas, because the information about theshoes being black is extra to the meaning of the sentence.3. A common examination question is to ask you to explain thedifference between two relative clauses, e.g.My uncle, who lives in Francistown, is a doctor.My uncle who lives in Francistown is a doctor.The first sentence means the speaker only has one uncle, so thefact that he lives in Francistown is extra. The second sentencemeans the speaker has more than one uncle, and it is the one wholives in Francistown who is a doctor.Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English Exploring English in Action English Exploring English Exploring
This course is supported by the onlineA NEW teaching experience!For new curriculum implementation in BotswanaHeinemann Exploring English Form 2 covers all the requirements of the Revised JuniorSecondary School English syllabus for Form 2.Exploring English Form 2 helps students to understand the subject:• Each chapter lists the learning objectives helping students to clearly understand whatthey need to be able to do• The wide range of varied activities and additional information enables studentsto explore the content• Clear and concise language makes the content accessible for students• A comprehensive glossary defines and explains new and difficult words.Exploring English Form 2 helps students to pass the subject:• Exercises help students test their understanding of the subject and build confidence• Chapter summaries reinforce learning• Revision exercises expose students to a variety of commonly used examination questions• A sample examination paper provides valuable exam practice.Exploring, a new teaching and learning experience!Heinemann books are printed on qualitypaper, and have sturdy, long-lasting covers.Brigid Conteh, Matlhoatsie Masendu, Deborah SanotoPronounsPronouns are confusing to many people!• Subject pronouns are easy, e.g.I am short.We/You are short.He/she/it is short.• Object pronouns are as follows:Give the ball to me/you/him/her/us.Here are some of the common pronoun mistakes, e.g.Can my brother and me go to the library? XCan my brother and I go to the library? ✓The teacher wants to see you and I. XThe teacher wants to see you and me. ✓He and her are prefects at school. XHe and she are prefects at school. ✓• Possessive pronouns show that something belongs tothe person or thing, e.g.That bicycle is mine. Is this your bicycle? Is this yours?Each candidate must write his/her name on the paper.• Other possessive pronouns are my, our, ours, hers, its, theirand theirs. Look out for these mistakes, both in yourwriting and as examination questions.The dog ate it’s food. (should be its)Here is you’re coffee. (should be your)Reading comprehension• Context: Before you read the text, try to work outwhere it comes from. Is it a magazine article, a newspaperreport, an extract from a textbook, etc? This will help youunderstand the text.• Skim: Read the text very quickly, casting your eye over theheadings, sub-headings, illustrations and captions. This willhelp you work out what the text is about.• Identify the question type:1. Multiple-choice questions ask you to choose the bestanswer. Be careful: sometimes there is one option that isalmost right, but another that is better.2. True/false questions ask you to agree or disagree with astatement. Often you are asked to provide evidence or toquote from the text to support your choice.3. Quotes: when you are asked to quote, use quotation marks!4. Analytical questions: these are the more difficultquestions that ask you to give your opinion, to commenton the writing style or on the author’s point of view.5. Questions about an advertisement will ask youto explain how words are used to sell a product oridea. Adjectives and adverbs can be persuasive. Someadvertisements use exaggeration, such as promising thatyou will look more attractive if you use a product.6. Read the marks: use the mark allocation as a guide asto how much to write. If a question is worth 1 mark,then don’t write five lines in your answer!Likewise, write more if a question Exploring isEnglishworth more.Contact detailsPearson Botswana: Tel: +267 3922969 Fax: +267 3922682Plot 14386, New Lobatse Road, G-West Industrial Site,Gaborone, Botswana. Website: www.longmanafrica.co.zaForm 2Student’sBookExploring English Form 2 Student’s BookExploringEnglishForm 2Student’sBookFREEKEY CONCEPT CHARTWITH STUDENT’SBOOKFigures of speechUse the following to make your writing and your speechmore interesting.• Idioms are well known phrases or sayings, e.g.The corruption is just the tip of the iceberg, there is a lot moreto be uncovered.• Metaphors are comparisons, e.g.You are an angel to help me so much.• Similes: similes are very similar to metaphors. They usethe words like or as in the comparison, e.g.Her eyes are as cold as ice.• Imagery is to draw a picture of something by using words.Note: metaphors and similes are types of images!I have a ton of homework to do!When I finish school, I will be starting my journey on the riverof life.Writing papers◗ Short pieces include letters, reports, dialogues orinterviews, speeches, emails and curriculum vitaes. You mighteven be asked to design an advert.• Layout for letters: remember that the address and datego on the right, and the opening goes below that, on theleft. Formal letters end with Yours faithfully followed by yourname. Informal letters can be ended with Yours sincerely orthe even more informal Best wishes or All the best. Formalletters have an underlined subject line such as “Application foremployment” or “Order of books”.• Layout of a curriculum vitae (CV): use lots of sub-headingsto make your CV look very clear. Give your personal detailsfirst, such as age and address. Then have sub-headings such asEducation qualifications, Work experience and References.• Instructions and directions are another type of short writingtext. Here you use imperatives, such as Turn left at the street.Keep your sentences short, and make sure the order is clear.◗ EssaysThere are different types of essays:1. Creative essays, which include narratives or stories anddescriptions. Typical topics are Describe an event that changedyour life or A rainstorm.2. Factual essays, which ask you to explain information on atopic, such as Choose any Botswana tradition and explain it.3. Argumentative essays, where you might be asked todiscuss more than one opinion, or you could be asked toargue strongly in favour of one opinion. For example, youcould be asked to explain the advantages and disadvantages ofcell phones. Or you could get a topic like this: Should the legalage for drinking alcohol be increased to 21? Explain your opinion.What examiners like:1. Write a strong introduction and a strong conclusion asthese leave a good impression on the examiner.2. Make sure that the body of your essay is divided intoparagraphs that have a clear topic sentence.3. Edit your work for mistakes, so that your final draft is asgood as possible.