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Photo: Bureau of Land Management,https://flic.kr/p/dj4s1zUNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT GOALSUnderstanding the TransformationalChallenge for Developed CountriesREPORT OF A STUDY BY STAKEHOLDER FORUMMAY 2015AUTHORS: Derek Osborn, Amy Cutter and Farooq UllahProduced by:

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are intended tobe universal in the sense of embodying a universally sharedcommon global vision of progress towards a safe, just andsustainable space for all human beings to thrive on theplanet. They reflect the moral principles that no-one and nocountry should be left behind, and that everyone and everycountry should be regarded as having a commonresponsibility for playing their part in delivering the globalvision. In general terms, all of the goals have therefore beenconceived as applying both as ambitions and as challengesto all countries. All of the goals and targets containimportant messages and challenges for developed anddeveloping countries alike.The different goals and targets will however representdifferent degrees of challenge and ambition for differentcountries depending on their present state of developmentand other national circumstances. So when it comes toimplementation different countries will need to givedifferent degrees of attention and effort to the differentgoals and targets, depending on where they stand in relationto them at present, their differentiated responsibilities andtheir different capabilities and resources. The balancebetween the social, economic and political effort needed todeliver the different objectives is also likely to be differentin different countries.Much of the international discussion in the formation of theSDGs has naturally and rightly concentrated on the pressingdevelopment needs of the developing countries and thesupport they will need from more developed countries andthe international community in achieving the goals. Some ofthe individual goals and targets have been particularlyshaped and calibrated to express the needs and aspirationsof developing countries; and others express theresponsibilities of the developed world to assist thedevelopment process in the developing world.From the outset it has also been intended that the SDGsshould also express the sustainability challenges facing thedeveloped world in their own countries. But so far lessattention has been paid to this aspect of the SDGs and theways in which they represent a fundamental challenge tothe more developed countries (and increasingly the middleincome countries as well) to transform their own domesticeconomies in a more sustainable direction. This reportoffers a preliminary analysis of that radical challenge to themore developed world and some of the key elements in it.In our initial analysis, the methodology identifies the goalsof sustainable consumption and production (SDG 12),sustainable energy (SDG 7) and combating climate change(SDG 13) as the three most transformational challengesfacing developed countries – and as being the challenges onwhich the world at large needs to see the developed worldplace a strong emphasis for action so as to relieve theoverall anthropogenic pressures on the planet and its naturalsystems. Other goals involving significant transformationalchange in developed countries include the need to achievemore sustainable economies and growth pathways, the goalof greater equality, and the goals to achieve betterprotection of the oceans and of terrestrial ecosystems.Social problems of poverty, health, education and genderissues are, of course, still present in developed countries aswell as in developing countries (though to differing degrees)as are all the other issues covered by the SDGs. And theuniversal applicability of the SDGs stresses to the need tocontinue to confront all of these issues comprehensively inall countries. But further progress on these issues in thedeveloped world cannot be expected to have such a large,transformational effect either within those countriesthemselves or in its impact on the rest of the world.Developed countries also need to continue to assist thedevelopment process in developing countries, particularlythe least developed countries and to deliver on theirlong-standing pledges to commit 0.7% of their Gross NationalIncome (GNI) to official development assistanceprogrammes. But the attention which the SDGs and theinternational development agenda rightly place on thisresponsibility of the developed world should not divertattention from the equally important responsibility of thedeveloped world to reduce the footprint and impact theyimpose on the rest of the world through unsustainablepatterns of consumption and production and lifestyles.The report suggests that the method of analysis it employsshould now be used more widely to explore more deeply themajor transformational challenges which the SDGs presentto developed countries, as they begin to plan their SDGimplementation strategies. It could also be applied to helpother countries or groups of countries to identify the majortransformational challenges which the SDGs imply for them.This study proposes a new method of analysis of the goalsand targets to assist in identifying those which willrepresent for developed countries the biggesttransformational challenges, in the sense of requiring neweconomic paradigms and changes in patterns of behaviour aswell as new policies and commitment of resources.

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDOne of the main outcomes from the UN Conference onSustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012 was internationalagreement to negotiate a new set of global SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs) to guide the path of sustainabledevelopment in the world after 2015.The Rio+20 Outcome Document 1 Indicates that the goals areintended to be “action-oriented, concise and easy tocommunicate, limited in number, aspirational, global innature and universally applicable to all countries, whiletaking into account different national realities, capacitiesand levels of development and respecting national policiesand priorities.” They should be “focused on priority areasfor the achievement of sustainable development.”The Secretary General’s synthesis report of December 2014powerfully reinforces the message of universality, stating“universality implies that all countries will need to change,each with its own approach, but each with a sense of theglobal common good.” 2As the discussions to create these goals have taken placeover the past two years, much of the international dialoguehas however naturally focused on the problems of thedeveloping and least developed countries and how acombination of their own efforts and renewed internationalco-operation and partnership can help them build on theachievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)to make progress more rapidly towards the goals andtargets. These issues feature strongly in the set of SDGs andtargets proposed by the UN’s Open Working Group in August2014 3 as the basis for further discussion and negotiation inthe General Assembly.The SDGs have however always been intended to go beyondthe MDGs and to provide a comprehensive vision andframework for the evolution of all countries in the yearsahead. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)therefore commissioned Stakeholder Forum to prepare thisnew report as a contribution to redressing the balance ofthe debate on these issues. It examines how the SDGs asuniversal goals include significant challenges to developedcountries to transform their own societies and economies ina more sustainable direction as well as contributing stronglyto the global effort to speed the achievement of sustainabledevelopment in the developing countries.All of the SDGs are relevant and apply in general terms to allcountries including developed countries. However, thenature and balance of the challenges they represent will bedifferent in different national contexts. This report proposesa methodology for identifying which of the different goalsand targets represent the biggest transformationalchallenges in any given implementation context. It thenillustrates how this methodology can be applied to give apreliminary analysis of the particular challenges which theSDGs (if adopted in their current form) and theirimplementation will present to developed countries withintheir own societies and economies.This methodology was designed to offer a non-biased,objective approach to understanding, country by country,where attention is most needed to advance sustainabledevelopment both locally and globally. This could helpdeveloped countries to create focused and effectiveimplementation strategies and plans for achieving the SDGswithin their own domestic context.Developed countries also of course continue to have a majorresponsibility to help developing countries in their owntransition to sustainability through Official DevelopmentAssistance (ODA), international development policies, globalcooperation and other means. Nothing in this report isintended to diminish or divert attention from the centralimportance of that challenge to the developed world.1 ‘The Future We Want.’ Outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development June 2012, Para 247.https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/733FutureWeWant.pdf2 ‘The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet.’ Synthesis Report of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda,December 2014, Para 48. http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/reports/SG_Synthesis_Report_Road_to_Dignity_by_2030.pdf3 Open Working Group Proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. August 2014. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/focussdgs.htmlUNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS3

2. THE METHODOLOGYStakeholder Forum has created a transparent andreplicable methodology or analytical tool to enablerelative scores or marks to be assigned to each of thedifferent targets and goals according to their differentsignificance in different contexts.The method uses a number of assessors to assign their ownindependent scores of the significance of each of theproposed targets in the implementation context inquestion, according to three separate criteria. The threecriteria proposed are applicability, implementability, andthe transformational impact (both in the countryconcerned and for the world as a whole). The assessors’scores are then aggregated and averaged to give an overallscore for each target, and then combined to give anaverage score for each goal. The methodology is describedin more detail in Annex 1.The general effect is to give the highest scores to thosetargets and goals which are both clearly applicable andimplementable in the country in question and whichrepresent the biggest transformational challenge.Conversely, lower scores are given to targets and goalswhich are less applicable or implementable in a particularcountry, perhaps because they are already substantiallyachieved or are expressed in ways that are less relevant inthat country, and to goals that will not require such atransformation of the domestic economy or behaviourpatterns or will not have such a transformational effect onthe impact or footprint which that country makes on therest of the world.In principle this kind of analysis could be used to helpanalyse the different challenges that will be involved inplanning for implementation of the different SDGs indifferent circumstances. Thus in a national context it mightbe a useful tool to illuminate a national conversation orconsultation with stakeholders about the relativeapplicability of the different goals and targets in thatcountry, so as to focus implementation strategies and actionplans around the highest priority elements. Or similarexercises might be conducted at local or regional level toidentify local and regional actions that might contributesignificantly to the global objectives.A critical methodological question for any exercise of this isto determine who should undertake the assessment andassign the scores. In principle, the scoring could beundertaken by anyone. At base level, it could be undertakenby a single individual decision-maker or commentator toclarify his or her own thinking about the relative importanceof the different goals and targets.Going more broadly it could be undertaken by any numberof individuals or organisations with results averaged toproduce a more broadly-based collective view of priorities.The significance of the result will depend partly on thecalibre, standing and experience of the assessors, partly onthe number of assessors and their representativeness andpartly on ensuring that they start from a common knowledgebase and policy briefing about the issues. Given the range oftopics and challenges covered in the SDGs and targets, anideal scenario would be to have a group of assessors with abreadth of expertise that could match that of the goals.Going wider still it might be possible to use the methodologyor a variant of it to consult a much wider public about theirview of priorities amongst the SDGs and targets that shouldbe prioritised in a particular developed country or amongstdeveloped countries as a whole. Separate exercises mightalso apply the methodology to look at understanding theemphasis for the delivery of the SDG in developingcountries, or in middle-income countries.4 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

3. APPLYING THE METHODOLOGYFor the purpose of the current report, the methodologydescribed above was applied to analyse the significance andrelevance of the SDGs and their associated targets fordeveloped countries.Given the limited time and resources available to carry outthis work it was not possible to assemble a large team ofassessors, spanning several countries. The task was thereforecarried out by a small group of three assessors, all based inthe UK. The assessors endeavoured to assign their markingsin line with their knowledge and awareness of conditions andissues in developed countries generally. However, theconditions in the UK and Europe were used as a rough proxyfor the assessment rather than the generality of developedcountries, and readers should be aware of this possible bias.The three assessors are all well versed in the UN discussions,and in the whole range of the sustainable developmentdebate in the world. So they were able to make informedassessments on the basis of their own knowledge of thestate of the debate and the current issues without anyadditional policy briefing. They made their assessmentsindependently and did not agree on every mark. There washowever sufficient convergence of views on most of themarkings to give some limited assurance about therobustness of the methodology.Stakeholder Forum believes that these initial resultsrepresent a useful initial run at applying the methodology tothe challenge of preparing for SDG implementation. Eventhese initial results suggest that there is likely to be someinteresting differences in the challenges for SDGimplementation from country to country.To achieve more generally robust results it would bedesirable to repeat the exercise with a very much largergroup of assessors, themselves selected according to arobust methodology with a wider range of backgrounds andknowledge and spanning a range of countries (includingdeveloped countries, middle income countries anddeveloping countries).UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS5

4. RESULTSThis section presents the scores assigned to each goal andprovides an initial commentary on the broad balance of thetransformational challenges which the SDGs represent fordeveloped countries.Table 1 below shows the scores assigned by the assessment foreach goal for a typical developed country out of a maximumscore of 8. The scores have been used to reorder the SDGs ina developed country context. The goals with the highestscores representing the biggest transformational challenge fordeveloped countries appear at the top, while those withlower transformational challenge score appear lower down.It should be noted that Goal 17 and the individual targets inthe other goals that are specifically concerned withinternational co-operation and development assistance havenot been included in the scoring. These goals and targetsare of course a crucial part of the responsibility ofdeveloped countries, and will no doubt feature strongly indeveloped country plans for implementing the SDGs. Butthey are outside the scope of the present exercise which isfocused on the transformational challenges which the SDGsrepresent for the domestic agendas of developed countries.The full numerical results of this initial assessment fordeveloped countries are set out in the tables in Annex 2. Wehave provided a further more detailed narrative discussionof the significance of each goal and target in a developedcountry context in Annex 3.TABLE 1: Ranking of SDGs by level of transformational challenge in developed countriesGOALOverall mark for goal(average of target scores)Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts 7.1Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all 6.4Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 6.3Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainabledevelopment4.4Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries 3.6Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productiveemployment and decent work for allGoal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manageforests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity lossGoal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access tojustice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels2.72.72.7Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 2.6Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 2.5Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunitiesfor allGoal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainableagriculture2.52.3Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 2.2Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and fosterinnovation2.1Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere 1.8Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages 1.56 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgIt is important to note that none of the SDGs have beenscored zero in this assessment (although some individualtargets have been scored zero) – all the goals containrelevant and significant challenges even for the mostdeveloped countries. But the re-ordering of the goalsaccording to their marks in the developed countryassessment is interesting and revealing. It is also interestingthat our analysis and the analysis of the Civil SocietyReflection Group 4 (which used a different method ofanalysis) have both identified sustainable consumption andproduction as a key transformational challenge for thedeveloped countries.The order of the SDGs in the Open Working Group’s proposalputs poverty eradication and other development imperativesat the head of the list, which is clearly the right emphasisfor developing countries and for the internationaldevelopment agenda. It also builds upon the SDGs’predecessor, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), andcarries forward the momentum and experience of that work.But for developed countries the reordering of the goals andtargets according to their marks in the assessmentundertaken for this report suggests that for their domesticsustainability agenda developed countries might consideradopting a different focus and a different emphasis foraction in creating their own domestic implementationstrategies and action plans for implementation of the SDGs.The table shows that highest marks are assigned to Goals 13,7 and 12, indicating that the most importanttransformational domestic challenges for the developedworld lie in the areas of climate change, sustainable energyand sustainable consumption and production.The analysis suggests that these are areas to whichdeveloped countries will need to give particular attention asthey develop their strategies and plans for implementing theSDGs within their own countries, and where business andpolicy-making as usual is most likely to fall short of what isneeded. The elaboration of these goals and their targets andindicators and a strong implementation programme for themshould be seen as a central challenge for the developedworld embodied in the SDG framework.One reason why these particular goals and targets fordeveloped countries have scored highly in the analysis isthat the achievement by developed countries of these goalswill have a global significance going beyond the individualcountries concerned. Developed countries have a particularresponsibility to transform their own economies to a moresustainable pattern so as to reduce the pressure theirdemands make on limited or finite global resources and theload they impose on the world through waste production,pollution, greenhouse gas emissions as well as theoutsourcing of unsustainable activities such as traditionalproduction methods to developing countries.Many developing countries are particularly vulnerable tothese global pressures, and developed countries can makean important contribution to developing countries byreducing the overall burden they place upon the planet andits resources. Increasingly, this kind of contribution is likelyto become as important as the more traditional ways inwhich they provide development assistance. It is anincreasingly important application of the principle ofcommon but differentiated responsibility for humankind’ssustainable stewardship of the planet.It is also significant that action on these particular goals bydeveloped countries eminently needs to be undertakencollaboratively by all or most of the developed countriesadvancing together. This is partly because many of thechanges needed will involve changes in the productionprocesses and consumption patterns of an increasinglyglobal market that cannot be taken very far by one countryacting alone. It is also because there will only be significantglobal impact in moderating the dangerous global pressuresof Greenhouse Gases (GHGs), pollution, waste, anddepletion of resources if all developed and middle incomecountries make combined efforts to transform theireconomies in these priority goals. One or a few countriesacting alone will not be sufficient to make enoughdifference globally. Collective action and partnerships withindustry and other stakeholders to tackle these particularissues could therefore be a particularly useful focus forinternational action amongst developed countries for globalmonitoring and follow-up.At the lower end of the table the challenges of poverty andhealth have been given lower marks in this assessment fordeveloped countries. Of course, even in developed countriescontinuing problems of poverty and health persist. They areof great social, economic and political importance, and havehigh political priority. But there are well-developed policieson these subjects in all developed countries and widespreadwelfare safety nets and health care services already inplace. This means that in a developed country context theresolution of these problems has more to do with reformingexisting policies and structures whereas in developingcountries these issues represent a more fundamentaldevelopmental challenge.Tackling these continuing social problems in developedcountries should clearly feature prominently in their SDGimplementation strategies and reports. Nevertheless, forthese issues the way in which the SDGs have been expressedseems less likely to generate new transformative pressures,ambitions and policy initiatives in a developed countrycontext. And their achievement in a particular developed4 ‘Goals for the Rich.’ Indispensable for a Universal Post-2015 Agenda Discussion Paper. Civil Society Reflection Group on Global Development perspectives. March 2015http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/11253.pdfUNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS7

www.stakeholderforum.orgcountry, while very welcome in itself, will not have so muchsignificance or impact on the rest of the world.It should be noted however that even within the lowerscoring goals there are a number of individual targets that dohold significant challenges for developed countries, andshould feature strongly within their implementation plans.For example Goal 1 (the eradication of poverty) is given alow overall assessment of 1.8 for developed countriesbecause several of the targets within it are expressed in waysthat hardly apply in a developed country context. Thus Target1.1 which calls for the eradication of extreme poverty for allpeople everywhere by 2030 is scarcely relevant to developedcountries since it is defined in the target as referring topeople living on less than $1.25 a day which would beinsufficient for survival in most developed countries.Therefore this target is given a zero score for applicability.Target 1.2 however calls for a reduction by 2030 of half inthe proportion of men, women and children of all ages livingin poverty in all its dimensions according to nationaldefinitions. This is clearly much more relevant in developedcountries as well as in developing countries, and is assigneda higher marking of 3.3 in the assessment. This target willfor example be relevant to the continuing challenge oftackling various specific types of poverty that persist even indeveloped countries (e.g. poverty among the unemployed,child poverty, homelessness, fuel poverty). These challengesclearly ought to feature in SDSG implementation plans fordeveloped countries.Similarly Goal 2 on hunger, food security and agriculture wasassessed at a comparatively low overall score of 2.3 fordeveloped countries, because several of the targets within itare framed in ways that are more applicable in developingcountries. But Target 2.4 on ensuring the sustainability offood production systems and resilient agricultural practicesthat help maintain ecosystems, strengthen capacity foradaptation to climate change, and progressively improveland and soil quality was given the higher score of 4.7 andidentified as a priority for developed countries. We elaboratefurther on the implications and significance of the individualtargets for developed countries in Annex 3 of this report.8 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

5. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS AND NEXT STEPSTHE NEEDS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ANDINTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIONAs noted above the analysis in this report has not dealtwith the responsibilities of developed countries to assistsustainable development in other parts of the worldthrough development assistance and international cooperation.And the analysis has not covered Goal 17 andthe other targets specifically directed towardsinternational co-operation.As a further study it might be useful to apply a similarmethodology to assess the comparative significance andtransformational potential of the different tasks and targetsidentified in the SDGs for the post-2015 development agenda.MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIESSimilarly middle income countries are increasingly beingidentified as a new category with their own distinctivechallenges and priorities. As developing countries most ofthem still have much to do to eradicate the poverty thatremains and make further progress on many of the otherchallenges of the traditional development agenda. At thesame time their rapid expansion means that they are alsoalready having to face up to the challenges of dealing withtheir own contribution to climate change, pollution anddepletion of global natural resources alongside theirdeveloped world partners. This report has not attemptedto cover the special concerns and priorities of middleincome countries in implementing the SDG agenda. Again itmight be useful to undertake a further study to make asimilar analysis of the relative significance andtransformational potential of the different SDGs andtargets in middle income countries.FURTHER WORKThe report above has noted several areas in which it mightbe useful to extend the kind of analysis piloted in thisreport. Broadly speaking the options for taking this workforward may include (but are not limited to):1. Expand the scope and coverage of the existingmethodology to add more robustness through a largerstatistical sample of assessors/scoring assessments.2. Use the existing methodology to undertake a similarexercise on middle income and/or developing countries,which will then allow a comparative analysis of theresults against different country types and differentnational circumstances.3. Undertake a more quantitative analysis building on theexisting methodology (e.g. using a combination ofexisting statistic/indicators and/or policies relating tosustainable development) of the implications of the SDGsin a group of developed countries, for example theEuropean Union, building on the methodology developedunder Stage 1 of the project, as well as identifying anddelivering best practices. It might also be useful toconsider a ‘deep dive’ analysis into a single SDG toexplore in-depth the implications of that SDG and itsrelated targets for domestic policy and action.4. Examine in more detail the indicators and data that willbe needed to support the international monitoring ofprogress on the goals and targets, and how to ensure thatthe measures chosen have significance in a developedcountry context as well as in developing countries.Stakeholder Forum also plans to examine the methods ofdeveloping strategies for implementation, engagingstakeholders and monitoring progress in related butseparate pieces of work.UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS9

ANNEX 1 - METHODOLOGYTo review the Open Working Group proposal for SustainableDevelopment Goals and their associated targets as to whetherthey uphold the principle of universality we examinedwhether the targets are applicable to developed countries,if they are realistically implementable and whether theywould have a transformative impact both at the domesticlevel in developed countries and in terms of the impact orfootprint of developed countries on the rest of the world.Each target was considered in turn and assessed as towhether it is applicable, implementable and transformative.Three independent assessors provided scores for each of theindividual categories working to the methodology elaboratedbelow. An overall score was then obtained for each target bymultiplying the scores given to each of the three categories.Multiplication was used to emphasise that for a goal ortarget to score highly, it must meet all three criteria – a‘zero’ on any one criteria would result in a zero overall.As this report focuses on exploring the significance of theSDGs for the domestic agendas of developed countries, Goal17 and the targets within the other goals that arespecifically directed towards international co-operation andthe development assistance responsibilities of developedcountries (identified with letters rather than numerals, e.g.1.a.) are excluded from this analysis.All targets were assessed from a domestic perspective,rather than a global perspective. The three assessors arebased in the UK and naturally had the UK and otherEuropean countries particularly in mind as typical developedcountries. But they endeavoured to make their assessmentsrelevant to all developed countries, and to avoid providingmarks and comments that would be relevant only in thespecific UK or European context.SCORING METHODOLOGYThe following key questions (in bold) were used by theindependent assessors to assess each target against each ofthe three categories. These key questions weresupplemented by guiding questions and a scoring guide,which were intended to aid the assessor in formulating anassessment an answering the key question and ensure aconsistency in the approach of the three assessors.APPLICABILITY – In the opinion of the assessor is thetarget relevant, suitable and/or appropriate to developedcountries, i.e. is it relevant?• Does the goal/target have universal relevance andcommunicate common aspirations for developed, as wellas developing, countries?• Does the goal/target apply (i.e. is it relevant todomestic challenges and related public policy)?• Is there already domestic action or policy relevant to thegoal/target?SCORING GUIDE:0 The target is not relevant to developed countries. Forexample, this is not an issue in the country or the targethas already been achieved at the domestic level and istherefore no longer a challenge that requires action.1 The target has some relevance for developed countries.Progress has already been made in this area but morecould be done.2 The target is very relevant to developed countries’challenges and is a priority for action.IMPLEMENTABILITY - In the opinion of the assessor will areasonable allocation of resources result in theachievement of the goal/target in developed countries,i.e. can it be done?• Is the goal/target realistically achievable within thetimeframe outlined?• Can the goal/target be easily translated into action atthe national level?• Is the necessary data currently available? E.g. Are thererobust measurements of/data for extreme poverty (asdefined by the SDGs framework as living on less than$1.25 a day) for developed countries?SCORING GUIDE:0 The target cannot be translated into action at thenational level/cannot be achieved with the time/resources/data available.1 The target can be achieved/implemented but it will bechallenging.2 The target is easily implementable/has been achieved.TRANSFORMATIONALISM - In the opinion of the assessorwill the achievement of the goal/target require significantnew and additional policy action beyond what is currentlyin place and/or planned, i.e. will it matter and require asignificant increase or change in the level of political andsocietal ambition and action?• Is the framework more ambitious than the merecontinuation of current trends?• Will the achievement of the goal/target result in moresustainable outcomes both domestically and globally?• Does the goal/target address the root causes and driversof the identified challenges?SCORING GUIDE:0 The target is not ambitious or transformative/hasalready been achieved1 The achievement of the target would result in sometransformational impact at the domestic level2 The target is highly ambitious and transformative andaddresses modern sustainable development challengesfor the developed world with results that wouldsignificantly affect the impact or footprint of thedeveloped world on the globe as a whole.10 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgSCORING EXAMPLESBased on the above methodology, the following examples were also provided as a guide for the assessors.Example 1A target that is considered to be achieved in the context of a developed country would be scored as follows:APPLICABILITY IMPLEMENTABILITY TRANSFORMATIONALISM OVERALL SCORE0 2 0 0Example 2A target that is considered highly relevant and transformative for developed countries, but potentially challenging to achievewould be scored as follows:APPLICABILITY IMPLEMENTABILITY TRANSFORMATIONALISM OVERALL SCORE0 2 0 0COLLATING AND COMBINING OF THE SCORESOnce the three independent assessments had beencompleted, the scores were collated in a spread sheet forcomparison. Any significant discrepancies between the rawscores for each category were reviewed and discussedcollectively amongst the assessors and scores were adjustedwhen it was considered appropriate. A two point discrepancywas considered significant i.e. where there were scores of 0and 2 from different assessors in the same category for thesame target. This method allowed assessors to voicejustification for their scores and was intended to removeany significant variation in the scores that might haveoccurred due to a difference in the approaches of theassessors to the scoring.Any discrepancies in the average scores were considered asnatural variation in the scores from different assessors andwere not reviewed.Once any significant discrepancies were resolved, the scoresof the assessors were used to obtain an average for eachcategory and then these category averages were multipliedto obtain an overall average score for each target.OBTAINING THE GOAL SCORESOnce all of the targets were assessed, an overall score foreach goal was then obtained by taking an average of thecombined scores for their associated targets.UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS11

ANNEX 2 - RESULTS OF THE SCORING ASSESSMENTThe tables below present the individual category scores and the overall scores for each goal and target. These were obtainedby averaging the collective scores from the three assessors. The scores given below are out of a maximum of 2 for individualcategory scores and a maximum of 8 for overall scores.GOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?Overall markfor goal targetGoal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere 1.1 1.9 0.8 1.81.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for allpeople everywhere, currently measured as peopleliving on less than $1.25 a day1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportionof men, women and children of all ages living inpoverty in all its dimensions according to nationaldefinitions1.3 Implement nationally appropriate socialprotection systems and measures for all, includingfloors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage ofthe poor and the vulnerable1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, inparticular the poor and the vulnerable, have equalrights to economic resources, as well as access tobasic services, ownership and control over land andother forms of property, inheritance, naturalresources, appropriate new technology andfinancial services, including microfinance1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor andthose in vulnerable situations and reduce theirexposure and vulnerability to climate-relatedextreme events and other economic, social andenvironmental shocks and disastersGoal 2. End hunger, achieve food security andimproved nutrition, and promote sustainableagriculture2.1 by 2030 end hunger and ensure access by allpeople, in particular the poor and people invulnerable situations including infants, to safe,nutritious and sufficient food all year round2.2 by 2030 end all forms of malnutrition, includingachieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targetson stunting and wasting in children under five yearsof age, and address the nutritional needs ofadolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women,and older persons2.3 by 2030 double the agricultural productivity andthe incomes of small-scale food producers,particularly women, indigenous peoples, familyfarmers, pastoralists and fishers, including throughsecure and equal access to land, other productiveresources and inputs, knowledge, financial services,markets, and opportunities for value addition andnon-farm employment2.4 by 2030 ensure sustainable food productionsystems and implement resilient agriculturalpractices that increase productivity and production,that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthencapacity for adaptation to climate change, extremeweather, drought, flooding and other disasters, andthat progressively improve land and soil quality0.0 2.0 0.0 0.01.7 2.0 1.0 3.31.3 2.0 1.0 2.71.0 1.7 0.3 0.71.3 1.7 1.0 2.31.3 1.7 0.8 2.31.3 2.0 1.0 2.71.7 2.0 0.7 2.70.7 1.3 0.0 0.01.7 1.7 1.7 4.712 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?2.5 by 2020 maintain genetic diversity of seeds,cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animalsand their related wild species, including throughsoundly managed and diversified seed and plantbanks at national, regional and international levels,and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharingof benefits arising from the utilization of geneticresources and associated traditional knowledge asinternationally agreedGoal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeingfor all at all ages3.1 by 2030 reduce the global maternal mortalityratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births3.2 by 2030 end preventable deaths of new-bornsand under-five children3.3 by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis,malaria, and neglected tropical diseases andcombat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and othercommunicable diseases3.4 by 2030 reduce by one-third pre-maturemortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs)through prevention and treatment, and promotemental health and wellbeing3.5 strengthen prevention and treatment ofsubstance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse andharmful use of alcohol3.6 by 2020 halve global deaths and injuries fromroad traffic accidents3.7 by 2030 ensure universal access to sexual andreproductive health care services, including forfamily planning, information and education, and theintegration of reproductive health into nationalstrategies and programmes3.8 achieve universal health coverage (UHC),including financial risk protection, access to qualityessential health care services, and access to safe,effective, quality, and affordable essentialmedicines and vaccines for all3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce the number ofdeaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals andair, water, and soil pollution and contaminationGoal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable qualityeducation and promote life-long learningopportunities for all4.1 by 2030, ensure that all girls and boys completefree, equitable and quality primary and secondaryeducation leading to relevant and effective learningoutcomes4.2 by 2030 ensure that all girls and boys haveaccess to quality early childhood development, careand pre-primary education so that they are readyfor primary education4.3 by 2030 ensure equal access for all women andmen to affordable quality technical, vocational andtertiary education, including universityOverall markfor goal target1.3 1.7 0.7 1.71.0 1.7 0.7 1.50.0 2.0 0.3 0.01.0 1.7 0.3 0.71.0 1.7 0.3 0.71.3 1.7 1.0 2.32.0 2.0 1.0 4.01.7 1.7 1.0 2.70.0 1.7 0.3 0.00.3 2.0 0.3 0.01.3 1.3 1.7 3.01.3 1.9 0.9 2.50.3 1.7 0.3 0.31.3 1.7 0.7 1.31.0 1.7 0.7 1.0UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS13

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?4.4 by 2030, increase by x% the number of youthand adults who have relevant skills, includingtechnical and vocational skills, for employment,decent jobs and entrepreneurship4.5 by 2030, eliminate gender disparities ineducation and ensure equal access to all levels ofeducation and vocational training for thevulnerable, including persons with disabilities,indigenous peoples, and children in vulnerablesituations4.6 by 2030 ensure that all youth and at least x% ofadults, both men and women, achieve literacy andnumeracy4.7 by 2030 ensure all learners acquire knowledgeand skills needed to promote sustainabledevelopment, including among others througheducation for sustainable development andsustainable lifestyles, human rights, genderequality, promotion of a culture of peace andnon-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation ofcultural diversity and of culture’s contribution tosustainable developmentGoal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower allwomen and girls5.1 end all forms of discrimination against allwomen and girls everywhere5.2 eliminate all forms of violence against allwomen and girls in public and private spheres,including trafficking and sexual and other types ofexploitation5.3 eliminate all harmful practices, such as child,early and forced marriage and female genitalmutilations5.4 recognize and value unpaid care and domesticwork through the provision of public services,infrastructure and social protection policies, andthe promotion of shared responsibility within thehousehold and the family as nationally appropriate5.5 ensure women’s full and effective participationand equal opportunities for leadership at all levelsof decision-making in political, economic, andpublic life5.6 ensure universal access to sexual andreproductive health and reproductive rights asagreed in accordance with the Programme of Actionof the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action andthe outcome documents of their review conferencesGoal 6. Ensure availability and sustainablemanagement of water and sanitation for all6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable accessto safe and affordable drinking water for all6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate andequitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and endopen defecation, paying special attention to theneeds of women and girls and those in vulnerablesituationsOverall markfor goal target1.7 2.0 1.0 3.31.3 2.0 1.0 2.71.3 2.0 0.7 2.02.0 2.0 1.7 6.71.2 1.7 0.9 2.21.3 1.3 1.0 1.71.3 1.3 1.0 1.71.0 1.7 1.0 1.71.7 2.0 1.0 3.31.3 2.0 1.3 4.00.7 2.0 0.3 0.70.9 1.9 0.9 2.50.3 1.7 0.3 0.30.0 1.7 0.0 0.014 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducingpollution, eliminating dumping and minimizingrelease of hazardous chemicals and materials,halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, andincreasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-useefficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainablewithdrawals and supply of freshwater to addresswater scarcity, and substantially reduce the numberof people suffering from water scarcity6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resourcesmanagement at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-relatedecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands,rivers, aquifers and lakesGoal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable,sustainable, and modern energy for all7.1 by 2030 ensure universal access to affordable,reliable, and modern energy services7.2 increase substantially the share of renewableenergy in the global energy mix by 20307.3 double the global rate of improvement in energyefficiency by 2030Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive andsustainable economic growth, full and productiveemployment and decent work for all8.1 sustain per capita economic growth inaccordance with national circumstances, and inparticular at least 7% per annum GDP growth in theleast-developed countries8.2 achieve higher levels of productivity ofeconomies through diversification, technologicalupgrading and innovation, including through a focuson high value added and labour-intensive sectors8.3 promote development-oriented policies thatsupport productive activities, decent job creation,entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, andencourage formalization and growth of micro-,small- and medium-sized enterprises includingthrough access to financial services8.4 improve progressively through 2030 globalresource efficiency in consumption and production,and endeavour to decouple economic growth fromenvironmental degradation in accordance with the10-year framework of programmes on sustainableconsumption and production with developedcountries taking the lead8.5 by 2030 achieve full and productive employmentand decent work for all women and men, includingfor young people and persons with disabilities, andequal pay for work of equal value8.6 by 2020 substantially reduce the proportion ofyouth not in employment, education or trainingOverall markfor goal target1.3 2.0 1.7 4.01.7 2.0 1.0 3.30.7 2.0 0.7 1.31.7 2.0 1.7 6.01.9 2.0 1.7 6.41.7 2.0 1.0 3.32.0 2.0 2.0 8.02.0 2.0 2.0 8.01.4 1.7 1.1 2.71.3 1.3 0.7 1.01.3 1.3 1.3 2.31.7 1.7 1.3 3.32.0 2.0 2.0 8.01.7 1.7 1.3 3.32.0 1.3 1.3 3.3UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS15

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?8.7 take immediate and effective measures tosecure the prohibition and elimination of the worstforms of child labour, eradicate forced labour, andby 2025 end child labour in all its forms includingrecruitment and use of child soldiers8.8 protect labour rights and promote safe andsecure working environments of all workers,including migrant workers, particularly womenmigrants, and those in precarious employment8.9 by 2030 devise and implement policies topromote sustainable tourism which creates jobs,promotes local culture and products8.10 strengthen the capacity of domestic financialinstitutions to encourage and to expand access tobanking, insurance and financial services for allGoal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promoteinclusive and sustainable industrialization andfoster innovation9.1 develop quality, reliable, sustainable andresilient infrastructure, including regional andtrans-border infrastructure, to support economicdevelopment and human well-being, with a focus onaffordable and equitable access for all9.2 promote inclusive and sustainableindustrialization, and by 2030 raise significantlyindustry’s share of employment and GDP in line withnational circumstances, and double its share in LDCs9.3 increase the access of small-scale industrial andother enterprises, particularly in developingcountries, to financial services including affordablecredit and their integration into value chains andmarkets9.4 by 2030 upgrade infrastructure and retrofitindustries to make them sustainable, with increasedresource use efficiency and greater adoption ofclean and environmentally sound technologies andindustrial processes, all countries taking action inaccordance with their respective capabilities9.5 enhance scientific research, upgrade thetechnological capabilities of industrial sectors in allcountries, particularly developing countries,including by 2030 encouraging innovation andincreasing the number of R&D workers per onemillion people by x% and public and private R&DspendingGoal 10. Reduce inequality within and amongcountries10.1 by 2030 progressively achieve and sustainincome growth of the bottom 40% of the populationat a rate higher than the national average10.2 by 2030 empower and promote the social,economic and political inclusion of all irrespectiveof age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin,religion or economic or other statusOverall markfor goal target0.3 2.0 0.3 0.71.3 2.0 1.0 2.71.3 1.7 1.0 2.30.7 1.7 0.3 0.31.3 1.6 0.9 2.11.0 1.7 1.0 1.71.3 1.3 1.0 1.71.0 1.3 0.7 0.72.0 2.0 1.0 4.01.3 1.7 1.0 2.31.4 1.8 1.3 3.61.7 2.0 1.3 4.71.0 1.7 1.0 1.716 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?10.3 ensure equal opportunity and reduceinequalities of outcome, including througheliminating discriminatory laws, policies andpractices and promoting appropriate legislation,policies and actions in this regard10.4 adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, andsocial protection policies and progressively achievegreater equality10.5 improve regulation and monitoring of globalfinancial markets and institutions and strengthenimplementation of such regulations10.6 ensure enhanced representation and voice ofdeveloping countries in decision making in globalinternational economic and financial institutions inorder to deliver more effective, credible,accountable and legitimate institutions10.7 facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsiblemigration and mobility of people, including throughimplementation of planned and well-managedmigration policiesGoal 11. Make cities and human settlementsinclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable11.1 by 2030, ensure access for all to adequate,safe and affordable housing and basic services, andupgrade slums11.2 by 2030, provide access to safe, affordable,accessible and sustainable transport systems for all,improving road safety, notably by expanding publictransport, with special attention to the needs ofthose in vulnerable situations, women, children,persons with disabilities and older persons11.3 by 2030 enhance inclusive and sustainableurbanization and capacities for participatory,integrated and sustainable human settlementplanning and management in all countries11.4 strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard theworld’s cultural and natural heritage11.5 by 2030 significantly reduce the number ofdeaths and the number of affected people anddecrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDPcaused by disasters, including water-relateddisasters, with the focus on protecting the poor andpeople in vulnerable situations11.6 by 2030, reduce the adverse per capitaenvironmental impact of cities, including by payingspecial attention to air quality, municipal and otherwaste management11.7 by 2030, provide universal access to safe,inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces,particularly for women and children, older personsand persons with disabilitiesOverall markfor goal target1.0 1.7 1.0 1.72.0 2.0 1.7 6.71.3 2.0 1.7 4.02.0 2.0 1.3 5.31.0 1.0 1.0 1.01.3 1.7 0.9 2.61.0 1.7 1.0 1.71.3 1.7 1.3 3.71.7 1.7 1.3 4.31.0 1.7 0.3 0.71.3 1.7 0.7 2.02.0 2.0 1.3 5.31.0 1.7 0.3 0.7UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS17

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption andproduction patterns12.1 implement the 10-Year Framework ofProgrammes on sustainable consumption andproduction (10YFP), all countries taking action, withdeveloped countries taking the lead, taking intoaccount the development and capabilities ofdeveloping countries12.2 by 2030 achieve sustainable management andefficient use of natural resources12.3 by 2030 halve per capita global food waste atthe retail and consumer level, and reduce foodlosses along production and supply chains includingpost-harvest losses12.4 by 2020 achieve environmentally soundmanagement of chemicals and all wastes throughouttheir life cycle in accordance with agreedinternational frameworks and significantly reducetheir release to air, water and soil to minimize theiradverse impacts on human health and theenvironment12.5 by 2030, substantially reduce waste generationthrough prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse12.6 encourage companies, especially large andtrans-national companies, to adopt sustainablepractices and to integrate sustainability informationinto their reporting cycle12.7 promote public procurement practices that aresustainable in accordance with national policies andpriorities12.8 by 2030 ensure that people everywhere havethe relevant information and awareness forsustainable development and lifestyles in harmonywith natureGoal 13. Take urgent action to combat climatechange and its impacts13.1 strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity toclimate related hazards and natural disasters in allcountries13.2 integrate climate change measures intonational policies, strategies, and planning13.3 improve education, awareness raising andhuman and institutional capacity on climate changemitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and earlywarningGoal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,seas and marine resources for sustainabledevelopment14.1 by 2025, prevent and significantly reducemarine pollution of all kinds, particularly fromland-based activities, including marine debris andnutrient pollutionOverall markfor goal target2.0 1.9 1.7 6.32.0 2.0 2.0 8.02.0 1.7 2.0 6.72.0 1.7 1.7 5.31.7 2.0 1.0 3.32.0 1.7 2.0 6.72.0 2.0 2.0 8.02.0 2.0 1.3 5.32.0 2.0 1.7 6.72.0 2.0 1.8 7.12.0 2.0 1.3 5.32.0 2.0 2.0 8.02.0 2.0 2.0 8.01.6 1.6 1.4 4.41.7 1.3 1.7 4.318 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?14.2 by 2020, sustainably manage and protectmarine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significantadverse impacts, including by strengthening theirresilience, and take action for their restoration, toachieve healthy and productive oceans14.3 minimize and address the impacts of oceanacidification, including through enhanced scientificcooperation at all levels14.4 by 2020, effectively regulate harvesting, andend overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated(IUU) fishing and destructive fishing practices andimplement science-based management plans, torestore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible atleast to levels that can produce maximumsustainable yield as determined by their biologicalcharacteristics14.5 by 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent ofcoastal and marine areas, consistent with nationaland international law and based on best availablescientific information14.6 by 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheriessubsidies which contribute to overcapacity andoverfishing, and eliminate subsidies that contributeto IUU fishing, and refrain from introducing newsuch subsidies, recognizing that appropriate andeffective special and differential treatment fordeveloping and least developed countries should bean integral part of the WTO fisheries subsidiesnegotiation14.7 by 2030 increase the economic benefits to SIDSand LDCs from the sustainable use of marineresources, including through sustainablemanagement of fisheries, aquaculture and tourismGoal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainableuse of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manageforests, combat desertification, and halt andreverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss15.1 by 2020 ensure conservation, restoration andsustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwaterecosystems and their services, in particular forests,wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line withobligations under international agreements15.2 by 2020, promote the implementation ofsustainable management of all types of forests, haltdeforestation, restore degraded forests, andincrease afforestation and reforestation by x%globally15.3 by 2020, combat desertification, and restoredegraded land and soil, including land affected bydesertification, drought and floods, and strive toachieve a land-degradation neutral world15.4 by 2030 ensure the conservation of mountainecosystems, including their biodiversity, to enhancetheir capacity to provide benefits which areessential for sustainable developmentOverall markfor goal target1.7 1.7 1.7 4.72.0 1.3 1.7 4.72.0 2.0 1.7 6.71.7 2.0 1.3 4.71.7 1.7 1.7 5.70.7 1.0 0.0 0.01.4 1.6 1.0 2.71.7 1.7 0.7 2.71.3 2.0 1.0 2.71.0 1.3 1.0 1.31.0 1.7 0.7 1.0UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS19

www.stakeholderforum.orgGOAL/TARGET Applicable? Implementable? Transformative?15.5 take urgent and significant action to reducedegradation of natural habitat, halt the loss ofbiodiversity, and by 2020 protect and prevent theextinction of threatened species15.6 ensure fair and equitable sharing of thebenefits arising from the utilization of geneticresources, and promote appropriate access togenetic resources15.7 take urgent action to end poaching andtrafficking of protected species of flora and fauna,and address both demand and supply of illegalwildlife products15.8 by 2020 introduce measures to prevent theintroduction and significantly reduce the impact ofinvasive alien species on land and waterecosystems, and control or eradicate the priorityspecies15.9 by 2020, integrate ecosystems and biodiversityvalues into national and local planning,development processes and poverty reductionstrategies, and accountsGoal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societiesfor sustainable development, provide access tojustice for all and build effective, accountableand inclusive institutions at all levels16.1 significantly reduce all forms of violence andrelated death rates everywhere16.2 end abuse, exploitation, trafficking and allforms of violence and torture against children16.3 promote the rule of law at the national andinternational levels, and ensure equal access tojustice for all16.4 by 2030 significantly reduce illicit financial andarms flows, strengthen recovery and return of stolenassets, and combat all forms of organized crime16.5 substantially reduce corruption and bribery inall its forms16.6 develop effective, accountable and transparentinstitutions at all levels16.7 ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory andrepresentative decision-making at all levels16.8 broaden and strengthen the participation ofdeveloping countries in the institutions of globalgovernance16.9 by 2030 provide legal identity for all includingbirth registration16.10 ensure public access to information andprotect fundamental freedoms, in accordance withnational legislation and international agreementsOverall markfor goal target2.0 1.7 1.3 4.71.3 2.0 1.3 4.01.3 1.7 1.3 3.71.3 1.7 0.7 2.01.7 1.0 1.3 2.31.2 1.6 1.1 2.71.3 1.7 1.7 4.01.3 1.7 1.3 3.71.0 1.7 1.3 2.31.7 1.7 1.3 4.31.0 1.3 1.3 1.71.7 1.7 1.7 4.71.7 1.7 1.3 4.31.0 1.3 0.0 0.00.3 1.3 0.3 0.31.3 2.0 0.3 1.320 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

ANNEX 3 – GOAL BY GOAL NARRATIVE DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTSBuilding on the scoring assessment, this Annex provides amore in-depth discussion and analysis of the significance ofeach goal and target in a developed country context. As wellas discussing each goal in turn, this section highlights targetswhich should be priorities for developed countries whenimplementing the SDGs. Importantly, it highlights thatwithin goals that have been given a low score overall interms of their significance in a developed country context,there are a number of targets that should prioritised by thedeveloped world.The scores given below are out of a maximum of 2 forindividual category scores and a maximum of 8 foroverall scores.This analysis indicates that there are a number of issueson which developed countries will need to consider newtargets, policies, programmes and measures in order tomeet the challenges for them that are implicit in theproposed SDGs.GOAL 1. END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHEREThis goal and its targets rightly focus primarily on theeradication of the most extreme forms of poverty in thepoorest countries, continuing the work of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals. The most extreme forms of poverty arehowever comparatively rare in most developed countriesand consequently, this goal is only given awarded an overallgoal score of 1.8 in our assessment of its significance indeveloped countries.Even in developed countries there do however continue tobe deprived areas or sectors of society and aspects ofpoverty that need attention. Dealing with these problemsought to form an important part of the sustainabledevelopment agenda in developed countries.Target 1.2 was awarded the greatest score (3.3) fordeveloped countries among the targets in this goal. Itproposes a halving of numbers living in poverty in all itsdimensions according to national definitions by 2030. Thisclearly applies to developed countries as well as todeveloping countries. In a developed country context thistarget might be elaborated further to refer to the particularkinds of poverty still found in developed countries includingchild poverty, poverty amongst the elderly, and amongstminority and marginalised groups, and to particular aspects ofpoverty such as homelessness, food poverty and fuel poverty.GOAL 2. END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY ANDIMPROVED NUTRITION, AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLEAGRICULTUREThis goal is also focused primarily on developing countries andis awarded an overall score of 2.3 for developed countries.Extreme hunger is uncommon in most developed countries.But the recurrence of food banks and various forms ofmalnutrition in some developed countries shows that theproblem has not been totally eliminated, particularly forsome of the more marginalised groups in society.Furthermore, in addition to the forms of malnutritionassociated with poverty, such as stunting and wasting, thedeveloped world has its own challenge in dealing with thegrowing problem of obesity associated with patterns ofoverconsumption. Dealing with these problems should forma significant part of the sustainability agenda in developedcountries as well as developing countries. Developedcountries are encouraged to interpret Target 2.2 on endingall forms of malnutrition broadly and focus on the forms ofmalnutrition most relevant to the developed world.Even in developed countries much also remains to be doneto make agriculture more sustainable, to improve land andsoil quality and to become more resilient to changingclimate patterns. Recognising this, we have awarded Target2.4 a score of 4.7, highlighting that these challenges shouldbe a key part of the sustainable development agenda fordeveloped countries. As indicated in Target 2.4, agricultureneeds to be more efficient and environment-friendly in its useof water, energy, nutrients, herbicides, pesticides and drugs.GOAL 3. ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES.This goal and its targets focus primarily on the needs ofdeveloping countries and as a consequence Goal 3 has beenawarded an overall score of 1.5 for developed countries inour assessment.Health services are well developed in most developedcountries. But even in developed countries much remains tobe done to ensure that poorer and more marginal groupshave adequate access to health care, to promote healthierlifestyles, to reduce major causes of ill health, and toensure prompt and equitable access to health services. Thisshould form part of their sustainable development agenda.Target 3.5 calls for strengthening prevention and treatmentof substance abuse and harmful use of alcohol and 3.6 forhalving deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents,while 3.9 calls for reduction in deaths and injuries fromhazardous chemicals and pollution and 3.4 for promotingmental health and wellbeing. All these objectives are stillvery relevant in most developed countries and consequentlywere awarded high applicability scores in our assessment.The overall scores awarded to these targets (4, 2.7, 3 and2.7 respectively) highlight them as the greatest priorities fordeveloped countries under Goal 3.GOAL 4. ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITYEDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFE-LONG LEARNINGOPPORTUNITIES FOR ALLThis goal and its targets focus primarily on the needs of thedeveloping countries. It is only awarded a score of 2.5 fordeveloped countries in our assessment.Education at primary and secondary level is universal inmost developed countries and consequently Target 4.1 wasscored as being achieved in our assessment, with theUNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS21

www.stakeholderforum.orgapplicability and transformation categories obtainingaverage scores of 0.3. There are extensive opportunities attertiary level. But maintaining the quality of educationremains an on-going challenge in all countries.Target 4.4 was awarded an overall score of 3.3 with anapplicability score of 1.7 out of 2, recognising theimportance of increasing relevant skills for employmentamong youth and adults in developed countries.Target 4.7 was scored highest, with a mark of 6.7,highlighting the significant need to integrate a sustainabledevelopment approach both into the curriculum and into themanagement and life of educational institutions at all levels.These objectives, in particular those outlined in Target 4.7,should form part of developed country sustainabledevelopment strategies.GOAL 5. ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALLWOMEN AND GIRLSThis goal and its targets are well-expressed in a way that isapplicable and relevant to both developing and developedcountries. Considerable progress has already been made inmost developed countries so the goal is only given an overallscore of 2.2 for those countries.But even in developed countries there remain many on-goingchallenges to secure full equality in employment situations,and in various social and domestic settings. Target 5.4,which calls for recognition of the value of unpaid care anddomestic work and Target 5.5 on ensuring equalopportunities for participation and leadership areconsequently awarded the highest overall scores among thetargets in this goal (3.3 and 4 respectively). Making furtherprogress on these issues must remain an important part ofthe sustainable development agenda in developed countries.GOAL 6. ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLEMANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALLThis goal and its targets are a well-balanced expression ofthe sustainability needs of both the developing anddeveloped countries. It is awarded an overall score of 2.5 inour assessment.In most developed countries almost everyone has access tofresh water and sanitation services, consequently Targets6.1 and 6.2, which focus on achieving universal access tothese services, were scored as being achieved with overallscores of 0.3 and 0 respectively as a result of their lowscores in the applicability and transformation categories.There are, however, a number of areas where the watercycle is not managed sustainably in developed countries–water extraction is depleting natural resources, thetreatment of waste is not entirely satisfactory, water-useefficiency could be improved and management of theservices use too much energy. The protection andrestoration of water-related ecosystems is also still a seriouschallenge in some developed countries.Target 6.3 on improving water quality, Target 6.4 on wateruseefficiency and Target 6.6 on protecting and restoringwater-related ecosystems were identified as the greatestpriorities for developed countries within Goal 6, with Target6.6 awarded the highest score of 6.These objectives should be included in the sustainabledevelopment plans for water in developed countries as wellas in those of developing countries.GOAL 7. ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE,SUSTAINABLE, AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALLThe focus on access in Goal 7 and its first target – securinguniversal access to energy for all by 2030 – are clearlydirected primarily to developing countries’ energy needs.In developed countries most people already have access toenergy, but there is a major challenge to transform theenergy systems of those countries to provide clean, modernand sustainable energy at affordable prices. Consequently,this goal is given a high score of 6.4 for developed countries.The loss of the word ‘sustainable’ from Target 7.1 whencompared to the goal heading is notable and reduces thetransformational aspect of this target for developedcountries when taken as face value. Developed countries areencouraged to keep in mind the sustainable aspirationsarticulated at the goal level when implementing all thetargets within this goal.The development of renewable energy (Target 7.2), thephasing out of fossil fuels, and the promotion of energyefficiency (Target 7.3) should be key features of developedcountries’ sustainable development strategies. Targets 7.2and 7.3 and have both been awarded the highest score of 8in our assessment highlighting them as vital priorities fordeveloped countries within the SDGs framework.GOAL 8. PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE ANDSUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVEEMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK FOR ALLThis goal has been a central objective for all countries in theworld both developing and developed, and is often regardedas being a necessary foundation for achieving many of theother goals. The developed countries have in general alreadyachieved high levels of GDP per capita so in the assessment forthose countries this goal is only given an overall score of 2.7.But they still have much to do to achieve more sustainablepatterns of production and consumption and in shifting theirobjective towards growing wellbeing in their societies ratherthan simply seeking to maximise GDP.Target 8.4 on improving global resource efficiency inconsumption and production and decoupling economicgrowth from environmental degradation was identified as akey priority for developed countries, with a maximum scoreof 8. Targets that focused on job creation, employment,equality and rights (targets 8.3, 8.5, 8.6 and 8.8) were alsoidentified as areas of focus for developed countries.22 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

www.stakeholderforum.orgThese should be central features of developed countrysustainable development strategies.GOAL 9. BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTEINCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION ANDFOSTER INNOVATIONThis goal is relevant for all countries. All countries need tofoster innovation, and to make their industry andinfrastructure more sustainable. But developed countriesalready have extensive industrialisation and infrastructure inplace so this goal is only given a score of 2.1 in our assessment.But Target 9.4 which calls on all countries to upgradeinfrastructure and retrofit industries to make themsustainable by 2030, with increased resource use efficiencyand greater adoption of clean and environmentally soundtechnologies and industrial processes has a particularrelevance to developed countries and the sustainableredevelopment of their industries and infrastructure thatthey will need to undertake over the next generation. Target9.4 has been identified as the priority for developed countriesunder this goal, with a score of 4, and this objective shouldfeature in their sustainable development strategies.GOAL 10. REDUCE INEQUALITY WITHIN AND AMONGCOUNTRIESThis goal and the targets proposed under it are relevant to allcountries. It is given a score of 3.6 for developed countries.Several recent studies indicate that more equal countriestend to record higher levels of wellbeing and happinessamongst their populations. From this perspective the recenttendency for many developed countries to become moreunequal is disturbing and needs to be addressed.Target 10.1 urges that by 2030 all countries shouldprogressively achieve and sustain income growth of thebottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than thenational average; and other targets propose specific policyareas for attention to help advance equality within andbetween countries. Target 10.4, which urges countries toadopt policies to progressively achieve greater equality, wasidentified as the priority for developed countries under Goal10, with an overall score of 6.7.Developed countries will need to introduce new ways ofmonitoring progress towards these targets, and introducenew policies to achieve them.GOAL 11. MAKE CITIES AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTSINCLUSIVE, SAFE, RESILIENT AND SUSTAINABLEThis goal is relevant to all countries. Some of the individualtargets are relevant primarily to developing countries, butcities and settlements in developed countries also facesignificant challenges. The goal is given an overall score of2.6 in our assessment.Most developed countries have a wide range of cities andsettlement patterns displaying considerable variety inregard to sustainability, safety, resilience and inclusivity.Developed countries and the cities and settlements in themmay need to establish more quantified targets in relation tothe improvements needed in the sustainability of housingand other buildings, and transport and planning policies inorder to give more substance to this goal in their situation.Target 11.2 on transport, Target 11.3 on inclusive andsustainable urbanisation and Target 11.6, which calls forreducing the adverse environmental impact of cities with afocus on air pollution and waste management, wereidentified as the priorities for developed countries withinthis goal with scores of 3.7, 4.3 and 5.3 respectively.GOAL 12. ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION ANDPRODUCTION PATTERNSThis is one of the crucial challenges for developed countries(and middle income countries) and, as 12.1 indicates,developed countries are expected to take the lead in thisarea. The goal was given the overall high score of 6.3 out of8 in our assessment.In spite of some progress on energy efficiency and on wastemanagement and recycling most developed countries arestill consuming excessive amounts of non-renewable energyand other primary resources. Developed countries have sofar failed to decouple economic growth from increasedconsumption of energy and other resources. Some businessesand sectors of industry have made some progress towardssustainability over the past 20 years. But much greaterefforts will need to be made on these issues over the next15 years.All the targets under this goal scored highly in ourassessment, highlighting sustainable consumption andproduction as a key priority for developed countries withinthe SDGs.GOAL 13. TAKE URGENT ACTION TO COMBAT CLIMATECHANGE AND ITS IMPACTSThis is a crucial sustainable development objective for bothdeveloped and developing countries. It has been given thehighest score of all the goals for developed countries, 7.1out of a maximum of 8.Although some progress has been made in limitinggreenhouse gas emissions in some countries global emissionscontinue to rise and the prospects for damaging climatechange are worsening. Tougher targets and more vigorousimplementation will be needed, particularly from thosedeveloped and middle income countries that have beenmoving in the wrong direction. While acknowledging thatthis subject is being negotiated separately under the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), it will be important to translate the results ofthose negotiations into the SDGs and to ensure that theyrepresent a sufficiently ambitious set of targets fordeveloped and middle income countries to build into theirsustainable development strategies.UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS23

www.stakeholderforum.orgWhile all the targets under goal 13 are scored highly, Target13.2 on integrating climate change measures into nationalpolicies and strategies and Target 13.3 on improvingeducation, awareness and capacity on climate change areidentified as the priorities for developed countries, bothscoring a maximum of 8. While the objective ofstrengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to climaterelated hazards and disasters (Target 13.1) is a relevant areaof focus for developed and developing countries alike, it isprimarily, and rightly, focused on those countries that aremost vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.GOAL 14. CONSERVE AND SUSTAINABLY USE THE OCEANS,SEAS AND MARINE RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTThe oceans and seas are global commons, and it is importantthat all countries should contribute to managing them moresustainably. Goal 14 is given an overall score of 4.4 fordeveloped countries.Some developed countries have been amongst the worstoffenders in terms of creating marine pollution anddepleting fish stocks and other marine resources. Thetargets proposed in this goal urge that basic conservationmeasures should be put in place by 2020 and all but onewere scored highly in terms of their relevance for developedcountries. Target 14.7 was given an overall score of 0 due toits focus on Small Island Developing States and leastdeveloped countries and therefore low applicability fordeveloped countries.In particular, Targets 14.4 and 14.6 on the related issues ofending overfishing, illegal and destructive fishing practicesand prohibiting damaging fisheries subsidies were identifiedas sustainable development priorities for developedcountries scored 6.7 and 5.7 respectively. Target 14.2 on thesustainable management and protection of marine andcostal ecosystems, Target 14.3 on addressing the impacts ofocean acidification and Target 14.5 on the conservation ofcostal and marine areas follow closely behind, all withscores of 14.7.GOAL 15. PROTECT, RESTORE AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLEUSE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, SUSTAINABLY MANAGEFORESTS, COMBAT DESERTIFICATION, AND HALT ANDREVERSE LAND DEGRADATION AND HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSSThis goal and the targets under it are relevant to bothdeveloped and developing countries. It is given a score of2.7 for developed countries in our assessment.Developed countries have a mixed record in terms ofprotecting land, soil, forests, biodiversity and ecosystemsboth within their own countries and in the impact of theirtrade and investment in other parts of the world. More effortwill be needed to achieve a sustainable situation and thespecific targets proposed in this goal. Target 15.5 which urgescountries to take urgent and significant action to reducedegradation of the natural habitat and halt biodiversity losswas identified as being particularly relevant and importantfor developed countries, with a score of 4.7. This wasfollowed by Target 15.6 on fair and equitable sharing ofbenefits and Target 15.7 on ending poaching and traffickingof protected species, which scored 4 and 3.7 respectively.GOAL 16. PROMOTE PEACEFUL AND INCLUSIVE SOCIETIESFOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, PROVIDE ACCESS TOJUSTICE FOR ALL AND BUILD EFFECTIVE, ACCOUNTABLEAND INCLUSIVE INSTITUTIONS AT ALL LEVELSThis goal and targets are relevant to all countries. It is givena score of 2.7 for developed countries.All countries will need to review the adequacy of theirinstitutional and judicial processes for the advancement ofsustainable development, and the achievement of thespecific targets set out under this goal.Target 16.6 to develop effective, accountable and transparentinstitutions at all levels was identified as the key priority fordeveloped countries under this goal, scoring highly in all threecategories and overall. Targets on reducing violence (16.1),reducing illicit financial and arms flows (16.4) and ensuringresponsive, inclusive, participatory and representativedecision-making at all levels (16.7) also scored highly.24 UNIVERSAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

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