Pericles and The Peloponnesian War

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Pericles and The Peloponnesian War

10. Januar 2011Grusswort Neujahrs-Apéro der Nachbarschaft von Novartis, BASF, Huntsman, Syngentader Quartiere Kleinhüningen, Klybeck, Rosenthal und St. JohannSehr geehrte Damen und HerrenLiebe Nachbarn von BASF, Huntsman, Novartis und SyngentaLiebe FirmenvertreterinnenIch wünsche Ihnen ein gutes neues Jahr und möchte mich herzlich bei den vier UnternehmenBASF, Huntsman, Novartis und Syngenta für die Einladung bedanken. Der Jahreswechsel bietetwie immer die Möglichkeit etwas in die Vergangenheit zurückzublicken, in die Zukunft zuschauen und Vorsätze zu fassen. Daran will ich mich mit diesem kurzen Grusswort halten.In den vergangenen Jahren haben in Basel allgemein und in der chemischen und der Life-Sciences-Industrie grosse Veränderungen stattgefunden.In den Gebäuden der vier gastgebenden Unternehmen als Teil dieser Branchen wird immerweniger in grossen Mengen produziert. Immer mehr finden sich darin jedoch kleinere, aberhochspezialisierte Produktionsformen, Forschung und Entwicklung. Von diesen grossen Veränderungenhaben nicht alle Menschen in gleichem Masse profitieren können. Der schnelle Wandelhat auch dazu geführt, dass Menschen ihre Stellen verloren haben und sich umorientierenmussten. Diese Veränderungen waren zum Teil schmerzhaft. Zum Teil sind sie bis heute sichtundspürbar. Die chemische und die Life-Sciences-Industrie haben aber nicht einfach Stellengestrichen. Es wurden im Gegenteil in beiden Branchen neue Stellen geschaffen. In der Life-Sciences-Industrie sogar soviele, dass heute in Basel und Umgebung mehr Personen in diesemBereich arbeiten als je zuvor. Die Unternehmen aus der chemischen und der Life-Sciences-Industrie leisten auch einen sehr wichtigen Beitrag dazu, dass Basel und die Schweiz die weltweiteWirtschaftskrise sehr gut überstanden haben.Die Arbeitslosigkeit hat nicht so stark zugenommen wie befürchtet und wir müssen nicht einschneidendeKürzungen bei den staatlichen Leistungen vornehmen wie dies in anderen Ländernder Fall ist. Über diese Stabilität, die auch dank dem vorhergehenden Wandel gesichertwerden konnte, können wir froh sein und ohne Zweifel sagen: Die chemische und die Life-Sciences-Industrie sind wichtig für Basel, als Arbeitgeber, als Steuerzahler und nicht zuletztauch als Nachbar.Denn auch als Nachbarn haben sich die vier gastgebenden Unternehmen verändert. Sie begegnenuns schon länger nicht mehr als anpackende Industrie- oder Fabrikarbeiter, dafür immeröfter als smarte Forscher und hochspezialisierte Produzenten. Dementsprechend verändernsich auch ihre Arbeitsgebiete. Immer weniger sind diese geprägt von schmutzigen Backsteinund Betonbauten und immer mehr von gläsernen Labors mit grünen Vorgärten und kleinen,aber komplexen Produktionsstätten.Auch die grossen Tanks und Lagerhallen die von lärmenden Last- und Eisenbahnwagen gefülltund entleert werden, gehören an vielen Orten der Vergangenheit an. Die dadurch entstehendenLücken hinterlassen Raum und Potenziale für Innovationen und die Entwicklung neuer Technologien.Diese Entwicklungen können nicht nur für die Region Basel im Allgemeinen, sondern fürsie als unmittelbare Nachbarn im Speziellen sehr positiv sein. Denn, sie haben das Potential,die Lebensqualität an ihrem Wohnort zu erhöhen.


Delian League


Athenian Democracy They had a strong faith in their democratic system: Direct Democracy: People gather in large meetings Every citizen has an equal vote on laws and policies United States Representative Democracy: Citizens choose smaller groups to make laws and governmentdecisions Do we still have forms of Direct Democracy inAmerica?


Athenian Democracy The population of Athens was large Number of citizens was small percentage Mid-400s, 43,000 in citizens assembly Men over 18 years old Father was a citizen 6,000 attended meetings held every 10 days Assembly: Passed all laws Elected officials Made decisions on war and foreign affairs 10 officials, generals, carried out laws and policies


Biography Gather with your 1 st Base Partner Turn to page 361 in your book Read about Pericles Complete Then and Now US Constitution


Age of Pericles Pericles: Favorite general Elected over and over formore than 30 years 461 B.C. to 429 B.C. Supported artists,architects, writers, andphilosophers 3 Goals for Athens: Beautify it Rebuilt Athens after Persiahad destroyed it New temples statues Protect it Larger navy Long walls Strengthen democracy People’s talent moreimportant than social status Allowed lower-class to run foroffice


Check What is the difference between direct democracy andrepresentative democracy? What is an example ofeach type of democracy? Direct Democracy: All citizens vote on laws Ancient Athens Representative Democracy: Elected officials vote on laws United States of America What do philosophers ponder? Philosophers are people who ponder questions about life.


Daily Life in Athens Athens – 285,000 people 150,000 were citizens 43,000 men with political rights 107,000 women and children 35,000 were foreigners 100,000 were enslaved people


Daily Life in Athens:Roles of Men and Women Men: Worked in morning Exercised Attended assembly Evening enjoyed all-malegatherings Women:Main job - Home and family Married at 14 or 15 Expected to have children andtake care of homePoor women worked in fields/soldgoods in agoraMany learned to read and playmusicCould leave house only with malerelative Exception: Aspasia Not Athenian Well-educated Taught public speaking Helped shape ideas of Plato


Daily Life Slavery: Common in Athens Most homes had at least 1 People captured in battle Prisoner of war Heavy labor Women & children cooks and maids Educated slaves – tutors Some could earn moneyand buy their freedom Athenian Economy: Most Athenians – farmers Sheep, goats Wool, milk, cheese Grain, vegetables, fruit Grapes and olives Wine and oil to betraded Not enough land – trade Built large fleet of ships 400s B.C., Athens iscrossroads for people,ideas, and goods


Check What was the mainoccupation of Athenianwomen? Athenian women were incharge of taking care ofthe home and family. Who helped shape theidea’s of Plato? Aspasia helped shape theidea’s of the philosopherPlato. How did Athenian men and womenspend their time? Men Worked Exercised Went to all-male socialgatherings Voted at assembly Women Read Played music Wove cloth Took care of family and home


The Peloponnesian War431-404 B.C.SPARTA VS. ATHENS


Peloponnesian War Main Idea: Sparta and Athens go to war for control of Greece Why did they go to war? Sparta grew suspicious of Athens Sparta & Athens were 2 different societies Neither trusted the other Neither understood the other Between 460 B.C. and 445 B.C. had clashes with each other 445 B.C., signed a treaty


Delian League Changes Sparta weakens Earthquake Helot revolt 460 to 450 B.C., Athens controlled more land treated it like an empire Forced city-states to remain in league by force Used money from the league to rebuild Athens Attacked cities outside Greece to control trade routes Corinth and Thebes become allies of Sparta Distrust of Athens


Causes of Peloponnesian War Sparta and its allies feel threatened by Athens Athenians were too aggressive Demand from Sparta to Athens: If Athens didn’t free the cities under its control, it would facewar 433 B.C., Athenians interfere with Spartan Allies War breaks out in 431 B.C. What caused the lack of trust between Sparta andAthens? Lack of understanding of differing societies Perceived Athenian aggression


Pericles Funeral Oration First winter of war –funeral to honor thosewho died in battle Pericles spoke (FuneralOration) Greatness of Athens People make theirgovernment strong Everyone part of acommunity Agree to obeyconstitution Reminded Athenians ofthe power of democracy Gather with your 2 nd BasePartner Turn to Page 366 Read Primary Source:“Pericles’ Funeral Oration” When Pericles said “everyoneis equal before the law,” whatdid he mean? He meant that there are noeconomic or socialdifferences in legalmatters. Prepare to read the FuneralOration aloud.


Peloponnesian War Athens vs. Sparta Athens = Strong Navy Sparta = Strong Army


Athens Weakens Pel. War Inside its walls: Athens was overcrowded Plague in Athens kills 1 out of every 4 Athenians 429 B.C., Pericles is killed by the Plague Labor force weakened Slaves escape during Spartan invasion


Athens Weakens Pel. War (cont.) Outside its walls Food was scarce Spartans burn Athenian crops each year Small cities in Delian League forced to join Sparta Persia funds Spartan fleet/navy Why was a navy important to the success of the Spartans? Athenian navy brought supplies – able to survive inside walls 405 B.C., Nearly all of Athenian fleet captured at Aegospotami


Results Athens surrenders Gives up most of its fleet Destroys Long Walls Recognizes Sparta’s leadership What might happen now that Sparta has won thewar? Athenian empire and way of life are destroyed Democracy declines Citizens refuse to take roles in public affairs People are suspicious of one another


Results Sparta creates an empire Allies become enemies Sparta and Persia fight 371 B.C., Sparta defeated by Thebes Thebes is leader for 10 years City-states fight amongst each other Fail to check on growing power to the north Macedonia


Check What caused the Peloponnesian War? Expansion of Athenian power Spartan jealousy What effects did the Peloponnesian War have onGreece? It weakened all of Greece and left it open to conquest.

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