Foreword - HKU Libraries
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Foreword - HKU Libraries

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UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONGLIBRARYThis book was a giftfromHong Kong. Territory Development Dept.

ContentsFOREWORDAN OVERVIEWCTRL Nd/£DATE "CLASS NOAUTHOR NO 1{ABOUND12INTRODUCTION3THE BIRTH OF THE TERRITORY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT ANDITS SUBSEQUENT EVOLUTIONTHE NEW TOWN MASTER BUILDERThe Strategic Planning ContextDevelopment at the Sub-regional LevelDevelopment PlanningDevelopment Programme and Resource AllocationImplementation and ManagementDistrict Board LiaisonDevelopment ControlTHE SUCCESS STORYPopulation Build-up and HousingLand ProductionInfrastructure ProvisionWater supplyRoads and TunnelsRailwaysOther transport meansSewerage and sewage treatmentStorm waterPublic utilitiesCommunity FacilitiesLandscapingCycle TracksPROFILES OF NEW TOWNS AND RURAL TOWNSHIPSTsuen WanSha TinTuen MunTaiPoFanling/Sheung ShuiYuen LongTseung Kwan O -Tin Shui WaiRural TownshipsRural Planning and Improvement Strategy67779111212L313141515151617181919202426L>727283031323334363738

THE FUTURE HORIZONS 39Development in North Lantau 39Other New Urban Areas 40West Kowloon Reclamation 41Green Island Reclamation 41Central and Wan Chai Reclamation 42Hung Horn Bay Reclamation 42Redevelopment 42Port Development 44Tseung Kwan O port development 45River trade terminal in Tuen Mun 45Industrial Development 45CONCLUSION 46

ForewordHong Kong is a dynamic city. It has a dynamic pace of growthand has risen to be an important economic and financial centrein the whole of Asia. The success story is unparalleled. TheTerritory derives its competitive edge from the resourcefulnessand industry of the people living within the confines of less than80 square kilometres of its total land area. To a certain extent,the productivity of the people here is fuelled by a generalcognisance of the fact that their rising expectations of life andbetter living environment are being catered or planned for. Thegradual coming to fruition of the new town programme over thepast two decades has contributed in no small measure toinstilling such confidence. Local people and visitors alike havewitnessed the rising of one new town after another offeringmore attractive milieus than even existing urban developments -a cogent corollary to Government's commitment to thisprescription for prosperity. From inception to implementationof the programme, the Territory Development Department hasbeen the confluence of the streams of ideas and efforts from allquarters. Their two decades of work on the new towns havebeen highlighted by a probably unequalled tone of success evenby world standards. One readily appreciates that a high degreeof professionalism, and quality, has been maintained throughoutthese years in delivering to the people of Hong Kong suchprodigious and vibrant packages — our burgeoning, flourishingnew towns.James BlakeSecretary for Works

An OverviewThe year 1993 connotes an important milestone for theTerritory Development Department. It not only adds anotherpage in the annals of the new town development in Hong Kong,but also has significance in heralding the 20th year of sustainedefforts of the Department since its inception in 1973. The closeassociation of the Department with the success of the new townshas been a source of gratification and encouragement to myselfand all members of the Department. I wish to take thisopportunity to express my appreciation to all those who havethroughout these years provided advice and assistance to thenew town programme: the Policy Branches, the policy boardsand committees, the various District Boards and their subcommittees,the other Government and private sectors, ourconsultants, contractors and works agents. My thanks are alsodue to all the staff in the Department for providingwholehearted support and making appreciable contribution toour course of providing a large proportion of the people ofHong Kong with a better place to live in and a better livingenvironment. Building on 20 years of new town experience theprospects of further and better transfiguration of the changingface of Hong Kong are promising. We have in our hands theingredients of the recipe for success. The future will be workingfor us but, no doubt, will pose new challenges as well.Cu,C K ChowDirector of Territory Development

te Birth Of The Territory Developnnj"There must be a beginning of any great matter, but the continuing unto the enduntil it is finished yields the true glory."— Sir Francis DrakeSince its earliest years, Hong Kong has been beset by a lack of suitable buildingland. The original settlements along the seashore of Hong Kong Island soonexpanded up the easier slopes and ridges of the surrounding hills, and thenon to land reclaimed from the shallower areas of the sea.The New Territories, although mainly mountainous country, contain limitedareas of flat land around the older settlements. Their development was largelycircumscribed by the Kowloon foothills, which imposed a physical barrier, andby lack of major public infrastructure systems. The Hong Kong Government'sdecision to develop new towns in the New Territories was the first real,planned attempt to breach the physical barrier of the Kowloon foothills.In October 1972, the Governor-in-Council launched a major HousingProgramme, with the aim of providing adequate housing for another 1.8million people, in addition to the 1.5 million already in public housing estates,by the mid-1980s. The policy seeks to rehouse all Hong Kong's remainingsquatters; to provide self-contained accommodation for all households; torelieve overcrowding; and to provide housing for those who must be rehousedas a consequence of development.The predecessor to the Territories Department, the New TerritoriesDevelopment Department (NTDD), was created in 1973 to plan and toimplement the New Town Development Programmes. NTDD initiallyconsisted of three New Town Development Offices, namely Sha Tin, TuenMun and Tsuen Wan, and a New Territories Development Branch responsiblefor development in other rural townships in the New Territories. Subsequentexpansion took place to cater for the Department's expanding operation map.Opportunity to take on additional development responsibilities in the urbanareas of Hong Kong and Kowloon was afforded by the amalgamation in 1986of the Urban Area Development Office with NTDD to form the TerritoryDevelopment Department (TDD). The Department enjoyed new growth,followed by further restructuring. With the establishment of the PlanningDepartment in 1990, town planning layout preparation function for the newtowns was transferred from TDD.

•MMMMH|^HHM|EvolutionThe present organisation of the Department comprises a headquarters andseveral regional Development Offices, each responsible for developmentprojects within the respective regions. The development offices and theheadquarters are staffed by multi-disciplinary teams of engineers, architects,landscape architects and forestry and agricultural officers, and during the1970s and 1980s, also town planners.The Department is headed by the Director of Territory Development andassisted by a Deputy Director. The Headquarters provides general direction tothe regional Development Offices each operating under a Project Manager,who is assisted by a Deputy Project Manager in most of the Offices.The changing pattern of territorial development needs is responded to bycorresponding changes in the geographic boundaries of the DevelopmentOffices of the Department and its organization structure. This allows forgreater flexibility to best match with the changing demands as projects advancein individual new towns and new development areas are added.Multi-disciplinary set-up in a typical Development OfficeProject ManagerDeputy Project ManagerTechnicalSecretaryContractAdviserArchitectsLandscapeArchitectsEngineersPlanners(up to 1990)General & Technical SupportThe line of command of a typical DevelopmentOffice

housing, community needs, majorprivate development schemes,environmental protection, planningstandards, strategic planning, portdevelopment and the provision ofland for industrial uses.In managing the tight developmentprogrammes, the variable factors arethe non-static development target,housing mix and fluctuations of theprivate-sector developments. Aflexible approach is adopted bymaking logistical decisions incrementallyso as to avoid prejudice to anysubsequent necessary adjustments tothe land use plan or the worksprogramme. The flexible approachonly comes through an appropriateimplementation process and thecorresponding management system.The general process ofimplementing physical developmentof a new town includes land useplanning, engineering feasibility andconstruction of physical works.The Strategic PlanningContextDevelopment of the new towns givesfull significance to the TerritorialDevelopment Strategy (TDS) whichwas first completed in 1984. ThisStrategy established a broad longtermland use-transportenvironmentalplanning frameworkwithin which the necessary land andinfrastructure can be provided,having regard to resource availabilityto enable Hong Kong to continue togrow as an international city. It setsout options for development with aview to maximising the effectivenessof the provision of housing, industry,recreation facilities and transportinfrastructure.Development at the SubregionalLevelstrategies bridge the TDS and districtplanning and development for thefive sub-regions in Hong Kong,namely the Metroplan area, NorthEast New Territories (NENT), SouthEast New Territories (SENT), NorthWest New Territories (NWNT) andSouth West New Territories (SWNT).Development PlanningWithin the framework of the TDSand sub-regional developmentstrategies, district OutlineDevelopment Plans (ODPs) areprepared to set out detailed land useand transport links. It also sets thescene for the preparation of moredetailed Layout Plans (LPs) whichcover a much smaller area, essentialfor both engineering design workand subsequent implementation ofdevelopment proposals.Both ODPs and LPs are nonstatutory,but are binding onGovernment departments. Theseplans pledge constant review byGovernment and scrutiny by theDistrict Boards before approval.Implementation of ODPs and LPs isco-ordinated through districtDevelopment Programmes.Guiding development at the subregionallevel are the sub-regionaldevelopment strategies. TheseFeasibility studies provide input to developmentstrategy and evolve development programmes

Outline Development Plans such as this will generate detailed town planning input

Development Programmeand Resource AllocationEach new town has a plan for anultimate population and an optimalhousing mix. Sites are set aside forpublic housing estates, HomeOwnership Schemes (HOS) orPublic Sector Participation Schemes(PSPS), private residentialdevelopment of various types ofdensity, village housing and otheruses to achieve the planned balanceddevelopment. Based on the plannedpopulation the amount of landrequired for commercial,institutional, industrial, recreationaland other community facilities willbe reserved on the town plansaccording to the planning standardsand guidelines in order to meet theneed at a district or local level.A Development Programme is thenprepared for each new town tomonitor the whole process fromplanning to completion. It containsa huge collection of developmentdata and provides the framework forplanning, resource allocation,serviced land availability, populationbuild-up and works programme. TheProgramme is well received by utilitycompanies, transport companies andprivate developers as a reference fortheir future development planning.Capital ExpenditureNew Towns/Rural Townships/New Urban Development Areas(All Heads & Public Housing)Tsuen Wan Sha Tin Tnen Mun Tseung Tin Shui Wai/ Tai Po Fanling/ Tung Rural New UrbanKwan O Yuen Long Sheung Chung/ Townships DevelopmentShui Tai Ho AreasExpenditure u>:U.:?.9:ii Adjusted bvTPI)Foirrast Expenditure I I Forecast Total Expenditureirom 1.4.93 to 31.3.9* | | (at cuirent prices - excluding Territocy W'ide Projects)Territory Development DepartmentCapital Expenditure on New Towns

A typical Development Programme can contain up to 300 projects. Itundergoes annual updating and provides the basis for Government to coordinatedevelopment and to decide on the annual and 5-year budget in thelight of the financial situation. For overall programming control andmonitoring of construction activities, each new town has a Works ProgressCommittee chaired by the Director of the Territory Development Department.In order to ensure a balanced development of public and private housing, jobopportunities and community facilities at each phase of the population buildup,a rolling programme is prepared which sets out the schedule of workplanned for the next ten years and forecasts the financial resources requiredover the next five years. This schedule groups engineering works into a seriesof 'packages' which include all those works required to produce oncompletion of the package, a balanced development of housing, industry andcommunity facilities.Financial resources for implementing Government's share of theDevelopment Programme are allocated for a five-year period under theResource Allocation System. Guidelines on expenditure for existing and newcommitments are given prior to finalisation of a particular year's worksprogramme and after considering the bids for the 5-year expenditure from allthe Project Managers.The development of the new towns has a base price, but the return more thanmultiplies itself, quantifiable and otherwise. From 1973 to mid-1992, publiccapital expenditure invested in the new towns and rural townships has beennearing $120 billion. When all the 9 new towns are complete, the total willhave topped $260 billion dollars. This figure will be overtaken by privatesector investment, providing solid assets for the territory and its future.10

Implementation andManagementThe overall development processgenerally follows several provensteps. When a new towndevelopment receives policyapproval, the process commenceswith planning and engineeringfeasibility studies from which ODPsand works programmes areprepared. These studies takeaccount of development potentialand constraints.Works agencies to undertake thedesign and construction of the worksitems are identified. Governmentdepartments, such as theArchitectural Services Department,usually undertake the design ofschools and community facilities.Public housing, which forms a majorpart of the housing component inthe new towns, is provided by theHousing Authority, with siteformation and provision of theinfrastructure being arranged byDevelopment Offices of theDepartment, often throughappointed consultants.At the interdepartmental committeelevel, three bodies control planningand programming. The LandDevelopment Policy Committeemakes all policy and strategicdecisions. The DevelopmentProgress Committee approves theODPs and major related planningmatters. The Development CoordinationCommittee makesrecommendations on the annualpreparation of DevelopmentProgrammes. Representatives atvarious appropriate levels of relevantGovernment Secretariat Branchesand Departments sit on all threeCommittees.Administrative control of the newtowns operates at different levels. Atthe Council level, the Public WorksSub Committee of FinanceCommittee of the Legislative Councilcontrols the progression ofindividual projects.At departmental level, the TerritoryDevelopment Department headquarterscontrols the resources to beallocated to the Development Officesfor their project implementationaccording to overall policy objectives.Each Development Office isresponsible for the smoothprogression of their projects,including adequate financial control,statutory procedures and technicalmanagement. Statutory proceduresprovide for affected citizens to havethe opportunity to express theirreason for objection and seekcompensation.The implementation of the plansthen starts with the acquisition andclearance of land, when necessary,followed by site formation and theprovision of essential infrastructure.The formed land then becomesavailable for development. The sitesare allocated to the developmentagency Departments or sold bypublic auction for privatedevelopment.The breakdown into projects by thenature of work (such as landformation, transport and drainage),and by their location, facilitatesengineering control. Minimumproject cost is the key note in takingaccount of the common constructionsequence and methods.The main objectives are timely coordinationbetween land formationand drainage, between landdevelopment and external transportaccess, between building developmentand local infrastructure,between population or industrybuild-up and sewage treatment.The successful implementation ofthe overall development programmein a new town depends on the closeco-operation of various governmentdepartments and consultants. TheWorks Progress Committee providessuch a forum.A Works Progress Committee at work11

District Board LiaisonTerritory Development Department provides liaison between District Boardsor their relevant committees and all Works Departments. Project Managers ortheir representatives of regional Development Offices attend meetings ofDistrict Boards within their regional areas, consult District Boards on theannual Development Programme and other matters related to development,and often co-ordinate the responses of other Works Departments to concernsraised by the District Board.Development ControlThe Department also provides advice on engineering, landscaping,architectural and aesthetic aspects of development proposals for the purposeof improving the environment in the development areas. Requests from theBuildings and Lands Department and the Planning Department for advice aremet on lease conditions, Town Planning Board applications, masterdevelopment plans and building plans. Through the mechanism of planningand development control, private development is co-ordinated in a logical andcomplementary pattern.In 1992, the Department examined almost 4,800 private developmentproposals and planning applications and gave advice and comment on about300 ODPs and planning briefs.12

The Success Story"In all things, success depends uponprevious preparation, and withoutsuch preparation there is sure to befailure."Population Build-UpNew Towns/Rural Townships/New Urban Development Areas— ConfuciusPopulation Build-up andHousingTo-day thriving new communitieshave sprouted from the designatedarea in the New Territories. Theypatently demonstrate the success ofthe new town programme. Theyounger generation of new towns aremaking steady and speedy headway.Statistics on the build-up and designpopulation of the new towns on fulldevelopment show that Tsuen Wan,Sha Tin and Tuen Mun head up thelist in terms of population. Ingeneral, the housing mix in newtowns is aimed at a ratio of 60%public housing and 40% privatehousing, subject to variations to suitlocal conditions.Early development in the new townswas public housing-led to contributetowards the Housing Programme.However, private development is nowrapidly catching up and will continueto gain momentum.Population Build-UpTerritory Development DepartmentNew Towns/Rural Townships/New Urban Development AreaTerritory Development DepartmentThe present population designcapacity of the eight new towns atSha Tin, Tai Po, Fanling/SheungShui, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai,Tuen Mun, Tsuen Wan, TseungKwan O and rural townships is 3.5million. Up to early 1993, about 2.5million people choose to live in thenew towns.Not only are the congested urbanareas relieved by the new townprogramme through 'decanting' ofpopulation, but the programme hasalso helped to decentralise theindustries. Land is vital particularlyfor labour-extensive and capitalintensivetypes of industries and forplants that require large sites andground level operation.There are other spin-offs. Problemsassociated with existing high densityurban development, such asinadequate infrastructure andcommunity facilities could be solved,or at least alleviated.The concept of 'self-containment'and 'balanced development' hasbeen a goal for new town planningand development in Hong Kong.'Self-containment' means that newtowns can satisfy the basic needs of itsinhabitants in terms of housing,employment, educational, recreationaland other communityfacilities — to lessen the dependenceof a new town on the old urbancentres. A balanced development isto achieve a community composed ofpeople of diverse socio-economicstatus and skills, in a harmonioussocial mix.If self-containment is high, thenthere is less demand for travel toother new towns and to the urbanarea. Generally, survey has indicatedthat self-containment has increasedand is associated with the new townsreaching maturity and providing anincreasing variety of shops, schools,other facilities, and jobs.

LAND FORMED IN DEVELOPMENT AREASYEARTSUENWANhaSHATINhaTUENMUNhaTSEUNGKWANO/s\I Kl N(,haTINSHUIWAI/YUEN LONGhaTAIPOhaFANLING/SHEUNGSHUIhaISLANDShaURBANEXPANSIONAREAhaTOTALhaI'pTo 1990190918191315510"4121345924 114383831991183229381724IS14178199243-1033(-»21364137297SUB-TOTAL197018S8135458179712S851024628488581993(F,st)After 1993 < EM i956411219o28~S4sss212405us2810769~2S109tlS3003260TOTAL2^4320881641119010581378645104084 112424Land already formed : 8858 haLand to he formed : 356(i haLand ProductionServiced land production is basic tothe development process in the newtowns. Because the bulk of theTerritory is very hilly terrain, muchdevelopment depends on thereclamation of land from the sea,river valleys and other low-lying landprone to flooding.Reclamation involves a continuoussearch for sources of suitable fillmaterials. The most commonmethod in the past has been toextract fill from hillside 'borrowareas'. Borrow areas are selected toyield top layers of soft, decomposedrock, which is excavated, transportedand dumped in or near the sea. Thisapproach to reclamation isparticularly productive because manyborrow areas themselves, onceexcavated can be levelled to formplatforms for development.Reclamation from the sea is alsoadvantageous in minimising landacquisition costs. Because of thespeed and less environmentalproblems, marine fill is now beingused extensively in recent majorreclamation projects.Total reclamation area at the variousnew towns now exceeds 3,000 ha,and the nearly 8,800 ha of landformed is equivalent to about 170%of the total old urban areas of thewhole territory. River channels fordrainage purposes have extendedover 66 km, about half the distancefrom Hong Kong to Guangzhou.Additional river training works willdrain the northern New Territories.Before building on the areareclaimed, the land must be madesafe. First, seawalls or rock bunds areconstructed to prevent erosion. The50 km of seawall built in the newtowns bears testimony to the scope ofwork involved. The underlying mudwithin reclamation areas can becovered with fill material, or if thislayer is particularly deep, it may bedredged and removed to specialmarine dumps.Alternatively, a deep mud layer canbe covered with a sand drainageblanket linking with a series ofvertical wick drains laid on aregularly spaced grid: the pore wateris forced up through these drains bypressure from the fill material, soaccelerating the normalconsolidation process. The newfilling material is then compacted toprovide firm surface layer.The scale is massive at the West Kowloon reclamation area near Yau Ma TeiThe formed land can then be'serviced' with engineeringinfrastructure. Essential utilities andother services are laid underground,including drainage, sewerage, waterand gas pipes, and electricity andtelephone cables. Construction workon buildings is timed to correspondwith the availability of sendees.1 1

Infrastructure ProvisionWater supplyIndividual new towns make use ofservice networks of water mains,pumping stations, service reservoirsand other installations. The supplyfrom local reservoirs has beensupplemented by water from China.In line with the overall developmentof the town, new service reservoirsand treatment works are plannedand constructed to meet forecastneeds.Roads and TunnelsThe high density of traffic in HongKong, combined with the difficultterrain and the dense buildingdevelopment, imposes a constantchallenge to planners and engineers.To cope with the ever increasingdemands, an extensive highwayconstruction programme has beencontinuing for many years. Hand inhand with the external highwayconstruction, TDD has planned andimplemented high standard trunkroads and service roads within thenew towns for internal circulationand external link to other parts ofthe Territory. By now, over 750 kmof carriageway criss-cross the newtowns.A major link between the new townsand the urban areas has beenprovided by the New TerritoriesCircular Road. It was constructed orup-graded in stages. With its recentfinal completion of the north westsection near Yuen Long the wholeCircular Road is now a dual threelanehighway providing high speedconnections between the new townsthemselves and the urban areas.Road Tunnels are also constructed toshorten the travelling time betweennew towns and the urban areas. Newtunnels completed recently includethe Tseung Kwan O Tunnel, theShing Mun Tunnel and the Tate'sCairn Tunnel.Roads and flyovers at Yuen Chau Tsai interchange in Tat Po

RailwaysThe KCRC railway has been a greatasset in the development of newtowns to the North East such as ShaTin, Tai Po and Fanling/SheungShui. The railway has been doubletrackedand electrified as far as LoWu at the border with China. Thefull development of Ma On Shan willargue for a rail system. The efficientLight Rail Transit System in TuenMun is well patronized. It providesfast linkage with Yuen Long and TinShui Wai. The urban Mass TransitSystem is extended to Tsuen Wan,and extensions to other new townsare being planned.A LRTS station in Tuen MunThe Kowloon Tong railway stationprovides a major transport interchange16

Other transport meansAs far as practicable, the new towns have beendesigned to embody a comprehensive networkof pedestrian and cycle routes, some gradeseparated,to provide for the needs of residents.Termini for buses and mini-buses areconveniently located at housing areas,commercial centres and railway stations.Termini for differentconveniently locatedmodes of transport areKwong Fuk Bridge in Tai Po provides convenientpedestrian accessInnovative design of a footbridge which provides cross-river link in Sha Tin17

already served by comprehensivesewage collection and treatmentsystems. The first phase of thesewage treatment works in TseungKwan O is in operation and thesystem will be expanded to cover thewhole new town, including theIndustrial Estate.Savage treatment works in Sha Tin near Shatin Race CourseSewerage and sewagetreatmentThe efforts throughout the years toreduce the pollution of the harbourand surrounding waters haveresulted in the provision of sewerageand sewage treatment systems in allthe developed new towns to cater forthe existing and planned population.In the North West New Territories,the sewage from Yuen Long receivesfull biological treatment prior to itsdischarge towards Deep Bay. TheNorth West New TerritoriesSewerage Scheme, also serving TinShui Wai, was formally commissionedin May 1993. Sewage collected fromthe development areas is first treatedat a treatment plant and thenpumped through a 9-kilometre sewertunnel of 3-metre diameter fordisposal through a long submarineoutfall to deep waters.At present the Tolo Harbour is stillbeing polluted by sewage dischargedfrom unsewered villages and someuncontrolled industrial developments.'First-aid' measures havebeen implemented to provide dryweather flow interceptors atpollution sources as an interimimprovement. Industrial sewage isbeing controlled by the imposition ofanti-pollution clauses in the leaseconditions.The long term solution beingpursued to improve the ToloHarbour is to provide sewers for theresidual areas within the Tolocatchment area so that effluent canbe intercepted, transported andfinally treated.The Tolo Harbour Nutrient RemovalEffluent Exported Scheme will alsotransfer treated effluent from thesewage treatment works to Kai TakNullah by pumping mains and gravitytunnel.W 7 ith the planned new towndevelopment in North Lantau,sewage treatment works and theassociated facilities are now beingdesigned to cater for the anticipatedsewage flows from the urbandevelopment. The level of treatmentwill be upgraded in future whennecessary in order to comply with theWater Quality Objectives.The sewerage system for Tuen Mun issubstantially in place and includes aninverted siphon system under theTuen Mun Nullah to carry awaysewage to the Pillar Point TreatmentWorks. Sha Tin and most of Tai Poand Fanling/Sheung Shui areis

Storm waterEngineers have specially designedseawalls and river-walls to resisttyphoon or tidal flooding andindividual new towns are drained byefficient storm water systems.Altogether 120 km of drainage boxculvert are in place.Low-lying areas of the NewTerritories are traditionallysusceptible to flooding caused byheavy rains. The situation wasexacerbated by indiscriminateprivate uses which reduced thebuffer action of ponds andagricultural land. The developmentof the new towns boost up measuresto implement flood protection worksin and around the adjoining lowlyingvillages. Such works consist ofearth bunds, flood channels andpumping installations.Public utilitiesRoad Carriageway Built 746 kmCycle Tracks Built 106kmFootbridges Built 293 Nos. ,%Subways BuiltBox Culverts Built173Nos.1 19 kmRiver Channels Built 66 kmMain Drains Built284 kmTrunk Sewers Built 233 kmft*Capacity of Sewage 813 cu.m/miiTreatment PlantsSeawall Built49kmLand Reclaimed 3,061 ha.Typhoon Shelter 283 haAnchorage ConstructedExcavation164 million cu.m.Filling250 million cu.m.Land Provided 4,461 ha.Territory Development DepartmentNew Town infrastructure providedDuring each phase of thedevelopment of a new town,Government has maintained closeliaison with the public utilitycompanies. Trunk main runsthrough the Lion Rock Tunnel andsites have been developed for theCompany's gas-holder and controlequipment. The main power linesand telephone cables generallyfollow the new town road systems.There are also major electricity substationsand telephone exchanges, allsuitably located in each new town tocater for the planned developmentand population. Other utilities arewell planned and co-ordinated, mostof the utilities being channelledunderground for safety andenvironmental reasons.No. of Trees Planted : 5.0 million Nos.Annual Planting Rate : 0.5 million Nos.Current Area of Parks : 364 ha.Ultimate Area of Parks : 907 ha.SchoolCommunity Centres &: Elderly HornRecreational & Cultural CentresMarketsPolice & Fire Stations, MagistraciesClinics & Ambulance DepotsPost Office:Hospitals (No. of beds)CurrentTerritory Development DepartmentNew Town communityfacilities19

Schools are always near to the homes ofstudentsCommunity FacilitiesThe new towns have been planned ascomplete communities incorporatingall necessary supporting facilities andservices to meet different needs andtastes. As the new towns continue togrow, so will the number and rangeof these facilities. Not only do thesocial, community and recreationfacilities have to be provided at theright time; they also have to becorrectly sited, within or as close aspossible to housing areas.Community facilities planned andprovided are complementary to thecarefully landscaped open spaces.Many of the new towns are nested invalleys, near river channels and baysand surrounded by hill slopes, richwith natural vegetation and creatingHospital in Tuen Mun20

A swimming pool complex provides recreation for the sportivegreen belts around the towns. Sucha setting lends itself easily tolandscape treatment to tone downthe inevitable high rise buildingspredominant in the townscape.Where there are major drainagechannels traversing the towns, theriver banks turn into landscapedpromenades, complete with a systemof footpaths and cycle tracks for easyaccess by the public. Town parks andswimming pool complexes areprovided as a general rule. Thus,inhabitants can enjoy both activerecreation and passive recreation.Open space has always been at apremium in the crowded urban areaswhere many children have grown upwithout proper play areas. To fulfilsuch expectations, the new townshave been specifically designed witheach housing estate having its ownplaygrounds, open space, sports andrecreation facilities. Over 40 sportscomplexes and indoor recreationcentres have mushroomed over thenew towns.Medical sendees enter the scene withgeneral clinics and hospitals. Thesewill be reinforced when the towns arereaching full development. Youthcentres, homes for the elderly anddisabled and nurseries help toprovide a comprehensive socialwelfare system.The current catalogue registers some13 hospitals with over 8,400 beds, 34clinics, 16 ambulance depots, 47 postoffices, 38 police stations, 34 firestations, 3 cultural complexes, 18libraries and 263 community andyouth/children centres. On theeducation side, 509 schools are built,many within or adjacent to individualpublic housing estates, providing alllevels of education and specialeducation. The statistics alone willillustrate the size of the Programmeand the importance of adhering tothe provision of these facilities.Indoor recreation centres offer a variety of activities at all times21

Landscaping has enhanced the views atthe Tai Po Central Town SquareLandscapingIn a quiet but proactive way the TDDlandscape team has influenced thetotal outdoor living environment inthe new towns and has ensured thebest possible surroundings for thepopulation.Following the overall principlesestablished by the master landscapeplan, landscape architects providethe input in the preparation ofplanning layouts for each area. Theyare also involved in the process ofdevelopment control.On major road corridors landscapinginput is obvious from the routeselection stage to the restoration ofcut slopes by hydroseeding andplanting. Roadside trees have beenplanted, amenity areas created andincidental open spaces provided.Mass planting has screened off trafficto reduce noise and air pollution.—UK'Landscape architects have also beenLam Tsuen river promenade has received full landscaping treatmentinterest of some otherwise stolidengineering structures. Murals havebeen designed for subways andretaining walls; colour schemes havebeen provided for footbridges;colourful noise barriers have beenerected; and innovative treatmentsfor the normally sterile spaces understructures have evolved. A safe andattractive environment is there togreet the motorists, cyclists,pedestrians and generally theinhabitants alike.24

Sha Tin Central Park has been plannedwith a variety of featuresBy carefully influencing thelandform, and retaining sufficientoverburden to ensure the success ofsubsequent revegetation works,borrow areas have, within a relativelyshort period, blended with theadjacent natural landscape. In somecases, it is evident that therevegetated end product is animprovement on the original.Natural environment, scenic areasand sites of historical, archaeologicalor scientific interest are preserved. Ahappy union of planning withlandscaping is manifested by theubiquitous green belts zoned alongthe fringes of the new town as ameans to restrain urban sprawl.are being planted each year. Inaddition, 300 ha of borrow areas onhillsides around the new towns havebeen afforested and restored.In a variety of ways, landscape workshave enlivened 746 km of new roads,106 km of cycle tracks, 66 km of riverchannels and hundreds ofGovernment buildings includingschools, games halls, town halls andfire stations.The landscape of a city is everchanging and there is no doubt thatthe individual townscapes will furtherimprove as the vegetation maturesand the parks and open spacesdevelop through good ongoingmanagement.The Department has alreadycompleted 364 ha of new parks andopen spaces, and almost 500 ha areadditionally in the pipeline. It is alsointeresting to note that 5 milliontrees have been planted (or about 2trees for every resident of the NewTerritories) and a further 0.5 millionA District Open Space in Tai Po shows well co-ordinated designs25

The cycle tracks are proving popular to commuters and holidaymakers alikeCycle TracksThese are gaining popularity among new town inhabitants and city dwellersalike. The cycle track networks of Sha Tin and Tai Po and their Tolo Harbourconnection are examples of providing a safe and attractive means to cyclearound the town and to explore the neighbouring countryside. The networks,some 75 km in total length, serve to link all the main housing, industrial andshopping centres, as well as other recreational and community facilities. Cycletracks at first were proposed principally as commuting routes. However, inrecent years there has been an incredible growth in recreational cycling. Thisis in part due to the cycle tracks being segregated from vehicular trafficthroughout, with cycle parking, landscaped rest areas, picnic areas, andshelters provided along the route.26

es Of New Towns And Rural Townshi''Near some fair town, I'd have a private Seat,Built uniform., not little, nor too great."—John PomfretTsuen WanLocated just beyond the established urban area of northwestKowloon and served by the Mass Transit Railway since 1984,Tsuen Wan is one of the most accessible, and the largest ofHong Kong's new towns. Development of the town startedin the 1950s. By now, Tsuen Wan has become one of theTerritory's key industrial and population centres, providingabout 360,000 jobs and housing about 720,000 people.Tsing Tsuen BridgeThe current thinking is that the economic activities ofTsuen Wan should be consolidated and the population bethinned out to the level of about 650,000 persons by theyear 2011. New development sites could 'decant' thepopulation of the older areas. Further reclamation at theTsuen Wan Bay is possible to provide space for expansion ofthe Tsuen Wan Town Centre. Another area of concertedefforts is to redevelop the existing dilapidated housing stockto improve living environment. The redevelopment processhas been set in motion.A number of strategic transport links are planned throughthe new town to ensure its increased accessibility to otherparts of the Territory. These include Route 3, Route 5 andthe Airport Railway, which will enhance its linkages withWest Kowloon, Lantau, North-west New Territories, andChina.A bird's eye view of Tsuen WanA photograph of Tsuen Wan and northern Tsing Yi taken in 197627

Ma On Shan is following the development footsteps ofSha TinShaTinPanoramic view of Sha TinThis second largest new town issituated around the southern end ofTolo Harbour. Since 1976, Sha Tinhas been transformed from a ruraltownship of 37,000 people to amodern city housing over 530,000residents. This figure is expected toincrease to some 600,000 by the endof the decade.Although the developmentof Sha Tin proper issubstantially completed,work is progressing on itsextension at Ma On Shansince 1981. Developmentsites spread initiallyaround the Shing MunRiver valley while laterstages, including Ma OnShan, have increasingrecourse to sea reclamation.Extensive rivertraining work has turnedpart of the Shing MunRiver into a smooth manmadechannel over 4.5km long and 200 m wide,suitable for canoeing,rowing and Dragon Boatracing.

Like other new towns, Sha Tin offersa wide range of jobs, socialrecreation and community facilitiesand a controlled mix of public andprivate housing. The New TownPlaza, the Town Park, the HongKong Sports Institute and theRacecourse (which itself encloses thebeautiful Penfold Park) are allfeatures which have contributed tothe success of this modern town.Sha Tin is linked with Kowloon viathe Lion Rock Tunnel Road and TaiPo Road. Tate's Cairn Tunnelfurther provides an additionalstrategic highway linking north-eastKowloon and Sha Tin and further onto Ma On Shan. In the west, Route 5(Shing Mun Tunnel) gives directaccess to Tsuen Wan.Sha Tin by nightSha Tin Town Square commands a prime location

egular hovercraft services to CentralDistrict on Hong Kong Island.The population here reached the410,000 mark in 1993 and willeventually increase to 540,000. Thisgrowth will draw on continueddevelopment of public and privatehousing on land reclaimed fromCastle Peak Bay and in the adjacentTuen Mun Valley.Tuen Mun has established itself as athriving and expanding lightindustrial centre. Lightmanufacturing industries have beenbenefited by the provision of 40 ha ofland for such purpose.A view of Tuen Mun Town ParkTuen MunAlong with Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin,Tuen Mun formed the trio of 'firstgeneration' new towns. Because it ismore distantly located some 30 kmfrom Kowloon, plans were drawn upat an early stage to secure goodtransport links with establishedurban areas. Today, it is served bythe six-lane Tuen Mun Highway,which hugs the rugged coastlineeastwards to Tsuen Wan, and bvThe town also offers an impressivearray of social community andrecreation facilities, which areexpanding to meet populationgrowth. Projects like the Town Park,Town Centre development and thenew Light Rail Transit System(LRTS) are making Tuen Munincreasingly attractive. The LRTS,which is similar to a modern fasttrain, is providing convenient accessto all parts of the town and toconnect it with the neighbouringnew 7 towns of Yuen Long and TinShui Wai. New extensions are beingactively planned.Tuen Mun neiv town30

TaiPoThis former traditional market centre at the westernend of Tolo Harbour entered the list of new townsin 1979. The 1981 population of 40,000 trebledwithin just five years. Tai Po will approach its targetpopulation of over 270,000 by the end of the 1990s.The urban form of Tai Po takes advantage of theimpressive coastal setting and background crescentof mountains. Much of its development has beenfacilitated by sea reclamation. Tai Po's eighteenpublic housing estates (including Home OwnershipSchemes and Private Sector Participation Schemes)are planned to provide homes for 160,000 residents.Local employment opportunities have been boostedby the successful industrial estates, createdspecificaHv to attract high technology industries.The e/ectrification and double-tracking of theKowloon-Canton Railway, together with thecompletion of the coastal section of the NewTerritories Circular Road, now make it possible totravel from Tai Po to the heart of the main urbanareas in less than 30 minutes, halving the previousjourney time.Tai Po Industrial Estate where high-technology industries thrivePanoramic view of Tai Po in 1953Panoramic view of Tai Po in 1993

Fanling/Sheung ShuiThis northernmost of Hong Kong'snew towns is well located to benefitfrom increasing cross-border tradewith China. The settlement occupiesa wholly inland site largelysurrounded by fertile agriculturalhinterland. Former areas ofagricultural land have been raisedabove flood level to enmesh severalexisting communities into anintegrated urban design.The new town covers an area of 800ha which will provide new homes,jobs and day-to-day facilities for over200,000 people by the mid-1990s.Fanling joined the family of newtowns in 1979 when its populationstood at less than 50,000. Today it ishome to more than 150,000. Muchof this recent growth is the result ofextensive public housingdevelopment. However, increasingnew private housing schemes cominginto play will blend with the existingdevelopment. In contrast, Fanling/-Sheung Shui has a rich local heritage,which is being assimilated into thenew town plan. Provision has beenmade to retain and expandtraditional market towns of SheungShui, Shek Wu Hui and Luen WoHui into an integrated new town withupgraded urban facilities.Fanling/Sheung ShuiYuen Long new town32

Yuen Long Town ParkYuen LongLike the other 'second generation'new towns of Tai Po andFanling/Sheung Shui, Yuen Longwas a long-established marketcommunity before being listed as anew town in 1978. It is situated inthe North West New Territories. Bythe early 1990s Yuen Long was morethan halfway towards its populationtarget of about 160,000 — this isexpected upon full development atthe turn of the century. The YuenLong Industrial Estate beingdeveloped to the north of the newtown covers more than 70 ha. It issucceeding its counterpart in Tai Poto become Hong Kong's secondmajor industrial estate, both beingmanaged by the Hong KongIndustrial Estates Corporation.Private investment in the estate isstimulated by population growth inYuen Long and the adjacent newtown of Tin Shui Wai, and byimproved road communications withboth the main urban areas andChina.There is a long-term road proposal(Route 3) to link the North WestNew Territories with the main urbanareas. This route will run south fromYuen Long new town into a tunnelbeneath Tai Lam Country Park,connecting to Yau Kom Tau at TsuenWan, and from there penetrating tothe heart of Kowloon.33

Tseung Kwan OAmongst the various new towns,Tseung Kwan O is the closest to theexisting urban area. Designed for atotal population of over 400,000 ithas a dramatic setting close to thescenic coastal and mountainousrecreation areas of Sai Kung District.Phased development, extensively onreclamation, started in 1982. WithPhase I moving towards completion,Phases II and III works have startedbut the whole engineering works willnot be completed until about theyear 2010. Population intake startedat a figure of about 8,000 in 1988 andthe total now stands at 120,000.Tseung Kwan O commands eightdistricts. Six of them are mainly forresidential uses and two for industrialuses. Development is well under wayto generate large-scale reclamation,site formation, roads and drains,public housing, community facilitiesand other supporting infrastructureand facilities. The principal externallink to the existing urban area ofKowloon is via a twin-tube TseungKwan O tunnel. An area for deepwaterfront industry is set aside in thelatest proposed port development inTseung Kwan O.A 'full ration'of housing,communityfacilities andinfrastructuresat TseungKwan O

Reclamation work for the TseungKwan O Industrial Estate has startedwith an initial phase to provideabout 26 ha of serviced land by early1994. All civil engineering works inthe remaining area are scheduled forcompletion by 1996. Here, hightechnologyindustries will see furthergrowth in about 90 ha of land.Just outside the new town, the HongKong University of Science andTechnology is located in Clear WaterBay of Sai Kung District. TheUniversity has capacity foraccommodating 7,000 students.Land for the Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate being reclaimed from the sea—--g^ —A full view of Tseung Kwan O new town in the makingA preview of the Town Centreand other developments inTseung Kwan O seen througha physical model

The Governor officiating at the opening ceremony of the Tin Shui Wai new town and putting an LRTStrain into operationTin Shui WaiA vast expanse of fish ponds in theNorth West New Territories has beenreclaimed using dredged marine fillmaterials to form 460 ha of landfrom which Hong Kong's eighth newtown is rising. An initial developmentof 169 ha for a population of 135,000is being carried out jointly byGovernment and private enterprisewhile 71 ha are also being servicedfor development by Government.The remaining 220 ha of formedland will be developed to suit thefuture development strategy for theNorth West New Territories.Population has been steadilyincreasing since the first intake inApril 1992. This will rise sharply in1993 as several public housing andprivate residential developments arecompleted.Access to the main highway system ofthe Territory will be through two newmajor roads, one already completedand the other under construction.An extension from the Tuen Mun -Yuen Long Light Rail Transit Systemcommenced operation in January1993.

Rural TownshipsAlthough developmentin Hong Kong has ofnecessity concentratedon massive new urbandevelopment projects,the rural areas havereceived equalattention. Even to thisday, large parts of theNew Territories remainbasically rural incharacter and theirimportance to HongKong takes many forms.The numerous smalltowns and traditionalvillages, farmlands andsmall-scale industriesprovide housing andwork for manythousands of people.For urban dwellers, atrip to the attractive countryside can provide asalubrious change from the fast pace of modern cityliving.To meet such needs, the future of many rural areasmust be safeguarded. For example, over 40% of theTerritory's land area is set aside for 21 country parks,visits to which were running to over ten million a year.Outside the country parks and new town developmentareas, efforts are directed towards protecting andconserving Hong Kong's most significant naturallandscape resources while providing for selectivedevelopment. This comes through a combination oflong-term planning and development control,engineering and the co-ordination of public works.A view ofMui Wo AreaA view ofSai KungRural townships like Sai Kung, Mui Wo and Tai O andthe islands of Cheung Chau and Peng Chau followspecific and detailed development programmes.These programmes cover a wide variety of projectsaimed at improving living standards for local peopleand upgrading facilities for the increasing number ofvisitors. The programmes will spawn new housingprojects, community and recreation facilities, openspace, roads, public utilities, flood prevention,sewering and other essential services inside andbeyond the development areas.Cheung Kwai Estate, Cheung Chau

Village resile area in Tseung Kwan Oand nearby schoolRural Planning and Improvement StrategyThe maturing new towns have prompted the need for more attention to bepaid to the fringe and other rural areas. In March 1989, a comprehensivedevelopment strategy entitled 'Rural Planning Improvement Strategy 7 ' (RPIS)was endorsed by the Executive Council. The RPIS represents a majorcommitment by Government to improve the quality of life in the NewTerritories through investment in infrastructure. Some 600 villages spreadingover an extensive rural area require different degrees of improvement to theirenvirons. Safe for a few villages which are within or immediately adjacent tothe areas to be developed together with the new towns, the bulk ofimprovement works has to rely on RPIS.The overall estimate of the RPIS works programme is rising to $4,000 million.The programme is co-ordinated by TDD as the lead department and works areeither carried out by engaging consultants or by other works departments.Flood ponds and pumping stations areprotecting small villages from flooding

The Future Horizons'The empires of the future are empires of the mind."— Sir Winston ChurchillHong Kong will remain the centre of attraction of the south-east Asia region, andthe southern gateway to China. Various development projects now being eitheraccomplished or contemplated will provide a better environment, more facilities,and further scope for growth and prosperity. The Territorial DevelopmentStrategy chooses the year 2011 as the long-term reference year, when manyprojects for most of the infrastructure in the current 8 new towns will have beencompleted and community facilities largely provided. The total new townpopulation will reach the target design capacity of 3.5 million, representing abouthalf of the territorial population by then. The latest new towns at North Lantauwill begin to take shape, while the harbour reclamation areas will provide greatopportunities for urban rejuvenation with an expanded city centre and betterenvironment in the old urban areas that can match the new towns.Development in North LantauIn parallel with Government's decision to construct a new airport at Chek LapKok, a new town is being implemented in Tung Chung to provide a supportingcommunity for the new airport and development space at North Lantau. This willbe a fully comprehensive development incorporating residential, industrial andcommercial activities. All the necessary back-up infrastructure required will bethere to serve the town itself and, where practicable, the new airport.The Tung Chung new town, containing two distinct development areas at TungChung and Tai Ho, is the latest new town in Hong Kong. It provides theopportunity to create a well-planned, high amenity living environment.The present population target is that nearer the opening of the new airport, therewill be some 20,000 people. Planned population charts a rising trend from thisfigure in 1997 to around 200,000 by the year 2011.The draft ODP for the new town portrays a concentrationof high density residential developments on the coastalreclamation areas and in Tung Chung valley. These willbe within convenient walking distance from two proposedrailway stations in the east and west of Tung Chung. Lowdensity residential developments at the head of TungChung valley are within a perimeter of low intensity urbanfringe development, existing villages and villageexpansion areas.The Tung Chung town centre is located on the coastalreclamation area to the northeast of Tung Chung,capitalising on its waterfront location. Among the uses inthis area are retailing, office, hotel and private residentialdevelopments. The core of the town centre straddles theExpressway and links major development areas on bothsides. The town centre itself forms a focus for thecommercial, retail and cultural activities.Reclamation for Tung Chung new town in progress39

;A computer image of Tung Chung new town against the backdrop of the new airportUrban development in Tai Ho will head for completion in 2011accommodating some 50,000 people. The plans include a district centre tothe north of the Expressway and a nearby Tai Ho railway station.The industrial area for the new town will establish itself at Siti Ho Wan so as tosegregate the industrial uses from the residential areas.Other New Urban AreasWhile the benefits brought by new town development were witnessed by thepublic, a comprehensive approach to improving the old urban environmentwas already taken aboard, back in the 1980s. Among the objectives were toidentify large reclamation sites around the harbour and near to denselypopulated areas; to reduce population densities by spreading developmentonto these new reclamations and providing much-needed open spaces; torelocate activities of incompatible uses to more remote areas according to theoverall plan; to provide conveniently located community facilities; and toprovide major transport schemes. The new towns are becoming the norm onwhich to model urban redevelopment.

The main Harbour Reclamation projects currently beingplanned or implemented are:West Kowloon ReclamationSome 334 ha of land are to be reclaimed primarily tomeet longer-term development needs, and to boost openspace and community facility provision in adjoiningurban areas such as Mong Kok and Sham Shui Po. Asubstantial part (about 50 ha) will make its contributionto the operation of the Container Port. Other sites areearmarked for public and private housing, commercialdevelopments and strategic transport links such as theWestern Harbour Crossing and West KowloonExpressway. A proposed new industrial area will offer jobopportunities for 30,000 workers. Residential populationThe above are aerial views of West Kowloon facing newreclamationcan top the 86,000 figure. Estimated to cost $12 billion atmid-1992 prices, the project has been progressingsatisfactorily in phases for completion in 1996.Green Island ReclamationFeasibility study shows that this 187-hectare scheme couldaccommodate up to 110,000 people. The added land willimprove living conditions in the adjacent W r estern Districtby providing new facilities for the concentratedpopulation, and land for completion of the main arterialtransport network around the Western Harbour.Physical model of West Kowloon Reclamation\\

s> -. """pV i'CJ•Ji- V««> 'I t* •-;-.%,..-. . •ttt^ J^r-^^E:' A" '•• ^v w H- V- •.^ ^JV \.V-,»'^\*< H AAn artist's impression of Central and Wan Chai ReclamationCentral and Wan ChaiReclamationThis 108-hectare reclamation willfacilitate the expansion of theCentral Business District and provideland for community uses andpossible housing for up to 10,000people. New railway extensions areplanned to improve transportnetwork and a new coastal roadartery will run between the IslandEastern Corridor and ConnaughtRoad. There are a number of majorengineering problems posed, notablymethods of filling over the existingcross-harbour MTR tunnel, and howto keep the many busy ferry sendeesrunning smoothly as the piers arerelocated. The reshaping of thisprominent waterfront could secure anew landmark showpiece of HongKong.Hung Horn Bay ReclamationThe project will permit theexpansion of the KCR goodsterminal and provide land forcommercial, residential, open spaceand community facilities. Thereclamation, some 36 ha in area,includes the construction of 1,000 mof seawall, new sewerage anddrainage works and the resiting offerry piers. Year-end 1994 will see itscompletion to accommodateultimately about 20,000 persons.The waterfront promenade alongHung Horn Bay is proposed to linkwith Tsim Sha Tsui promenade andwould become a favourite place fortourists.RedevelopmentOther than the planned main thrustsinto the urban areas the existingairport site at Kai Tak is consideredas part of the strategy to providefurther port facilities and solutionspace for improvement of existingcongested living and workingconditions in south east Kowloon.

Existing development at the centralbusiness districtAt present only about 36% of the urban area population lives in public rentalhousing. The redevelopment of older estates and new public housing willsoon appear in areas such as Aldrich Bay, Kellet Bay, Ap Lei Chau, Lam TinSouth, and Diamond Hill. The existing Aldrich Bay Typhoon Shelter is givingway to 19 ha of reclaimed land to accommodate some 23,000 persons in bothpublic and private housing. The planned redevelopment of the older estateswill offer renewed opportunities to increase the provision of Home Ownershipand Private Sector Participation Schemes in urban areas. These Governmentsubsidised schemes aim to encourage better-off rental estate tenants topurchase their own flats.Physical model of Centraland Wan ChaiReclamation43

Port DevelopmentThe port of Hong Kong has asheltered, natural deep waterharbour and stands as Hong Kong'smost important natural resource.Strategically located at the mouth ofthe Pearl River on the southernChina coast, it rapidly became themain port for trading with China.With the revival of Hong Kong's roleas an entrepot, the importance ofthe harbour and port facilities as thefoundation for the territory'sphenomenal economic growth isevident. The planning of portdevelopment, in particular thecontainer terminals in Kwai Chung,has to be integrated with the overallnew town development proposal.After relinquishing its place as theworld leader in container handlingin 1990, Hong Kong again achievedthat position in 1992 handling some8 million TEU's (twenty-footequivalent units). This represents ayear-on-year growth of 29%.These high growth levels necessitatemajor expansions of port facilities.Container Terminal No. 8 (CT8),located at Stonecutters Island, KwaiChung will provide 4 additionalberths with a capacity of 1.6 millionTEU's per annum.The CT8 work also includesreclamation of 31 ha of back-upareas for container storage,container vehicle parking and otherancillary works. The wholedevelopment of CT8 is targeted to becommissioned in March 1995 withthe first berth operational inSeptember 1993.Detailed planning on CT9 hasalready been completed, a 4-berthterminal to be located on Tsing YiIsland at a site just across the narrowRambler Channel from Kwai Chung.Even with both of these terminalsReclamation area willexpand the containerterminals11

fully operational, present growthrates dictate that another terminal(CT10) will be built on a newcontainer terminal development onthe south east coast of Lantau Island.In addition to container terminals,massive investment in back-up areasand sendee facilities is also planned,covering road and bridgeinfrastructure, a freight rail andterminus and all necessary utilities.Further investigations havesubstantiated the need for cargohandling areas, typhoon shelters,ship repair and dockyard facilitiesand other essential port services.These requirements have beendrawn together in a PortDevelopment Plan and Programme,which will be reviewed regularly tomeet the changing developmentneeds of the port, in conjunctionwith new town overall developmentfor the adjacent areas.Tseung Kwan O PortDevelopmentThe latest proposed portdevelopment in Tseung Kwan Oincludes 102 ha of land for deepwaterfront industry (DWI) andpotentially hazardous installations(PHI) in Area 137 on the southeasternpart of Tseung Kwan O.Development feasibility study hasidentified stronger demand of PHIthan DWI. The study addresses suchissues as financial, engineering,planning, land transportation andmarine operation. Therecommended layout provides forPHI, DWI, roads and other facilitiesand services, in a phaseddevelopment well into the year 2000.River Trade Terminal in TuenMunPresent indications are that territoryriver trade throughput may increaseat an average annual compoundgrowth rate of 5% over the next 20years. A step forward in thisdirection is the proposed 56-hectareRiver Trade Terminal (RTT) in Area38, Tuen Mun. Its design lines up3,000 m of waterfront facilities forhandling river trade to and fromChina via the Pearl River. It willaccommodate vessels up to 3,000tonnes (Gross Registered Tonnage)or 100 m (Length Overall), whichare larger than existing river craftand equal to the largest vesselspresently allowed to use the PublicCargo Working Area in Hong Kong.Proposed port developmentIndustrial DevelopmentHong Kong enjoys a worldwidereputation as a producer andexporter of manufactured consumergoods. For many years,manufacturing has been theterritory's major employer andeconomic backbone. To maximizethe amount of land which could bemade available for industry, and alsoto provide added job opportunitiesin the new towns, areas for industrialestates are specially set aside. Seafrontage, easy access to urbancentres, proper waste treatmentfacilities and other essentialinfrastructure support are some ofthe built-in key features to broadenthe base of the industry of HongKong especially in the hightechnologyarea.45

46ConclusionIt started with a vision and foresight that the need for a dwelling place to live in is abasic right or aspiration. The realization of this requires sustained effort of allconcerned. The Territory Development Department has over the years been thecatalyst in this process of collective endeavour. Directly or indirectly, and throughthe assistance and co-operation of its advisers, agents and allies, it has helped tomake possible the almost miraculous appearance over the Territory of a wholecluster of new towns — now reaching eight in number and starting on the ninth,together staging a design total population of 3.5 million. Not only the physicalliving place is the concern of those involved in the new town development, but alsothe provision of a better living environment and a better 'quality of life'. The endresult is very much visible in the eye of the people of Hong Kong and visitors alike,and is beginning to permeate back to the old urban development. The successstory will become more publicized as the 20th anniversary of the Departmentunfolds itself. The Department looks forward to sharing the new town experienceand to further improvement in its quest for a better future for the people of HongKong.XD6 C 17337Ds

P 711.4095125 T9"20 years of New Towndevelopment[Hong Kong : the Dept. 1994 ]Date Due

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