harmonic filters & capacitor banks - ECT Sales & Service

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harmonic filters & capacitor banks - ECT Sales & Service

Agenda• An overview of Transmission andDistribution system equipment forPower Factor Improvement andHarmonic Mitigation, including:– Typical wiring schemes– Optional equipment


MEDIUM and HIGH VOLTAGE FILTERS& CAPACITOR BANKSBenefits :• Power Factor improvement• Release of power transmission and transformer capacity• Reduction of power system losses• Improved voltage regulation.


MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGEFILTER & CAPACITORS BANKSTYPE FIXED AUTOMATICDISTRIBUTION POLEDISTRIBUTION PADSUBSTATIONMETAL ENCLOSEDSUBSTATIONRACK MOUNTED


MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKSCONNECTION SCHEMES•Grounded Wye.•Ungrounded Wye.•Ungrounded Wye-Wye.•“H-Bridge”.


MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKSGROUNDED BANKSAdvantages:• Fused banks don´t require unbalance protection system.• Lower cost for base insulators on banks higher than 15kV.• A C.T. in the neutral conductor is less expensive than a P.T. for theunbalance protection system.• Less interruption forces for switching devices higher 34.5 kV.• On small banks, No overvoltage on remaining healthy phases at singlephase faulting.


MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKSUNGROUNDED BANKSAdvantages:•There is no 3rd order harmonic current route.This reduces interference problems with communication devices,resonance overvoltages, false fuse operation, etc..•On series groups, the fault current of a faulted device is limited by theimpedances of the other two healthy phases. Reduces fuse costs.•No requirement for ground connection, unless the voltage between neutraland ground is needed for the unbalance protection system.


PROTECTION SCHEMESMEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKST CABC5 1N86Apartarrayos59NTP59NTP


DISTRIBUTION POLE MOUNTEDCAPACITOR BANKCapacity :Voltage :150 - 3600 kVARup to 34.5 kVConfiguration :Fixed or AutomaticService :OutdoorMounting : iron structurePad Mount systems are also available


DISTRIBUTION PAD MOUNTEDCAPACITOR BANKCapacity :Voltage :600 to 2400 kVAr typicalup to 34.5 kVConfiguration : Fixed or AutomaticService :OutdoorMounting : Outdoor N3R Cabinet


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKCONTROL CIRCUITElectrical diagramABCFuse or circuitbreakerCapacitor SwitchCapacitorC.T.P.F.ControlP.T.N


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKOPTIONAL EQUIPMENT


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKSTypes of Control MethodsPower Factor Control• Voltage:• Current:• Vars :need P.T.need C.T.need P.T. & C.T.


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKS• Closing delay to allow for capacitordischarge.• Intelligent operation on bidirectionalenergy flow conditions.• Autodiagnostic system.Control Features


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANKS•Time delay selection to prevent falseoperation due to momentary systemdisturbancesControl Features• Programmable time period based operation• Signal aquisition for remote access.• Front panel access and display.


DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR BANK• Front panel interface for communicationand programming PC/software.• Selectable response to current, voltageand power factor signals.• Operations counter.•Automatic reports and graphics creation.Control Features


SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKSMetal Enclosed type


SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKSMetal Enclosed typeIndustrial Power Systems applicationsCapacity :Voltage :Anyup to 34.5 kVConnection : Fixed or AutomaticService :Type :indoor / outdoorN1, N12 or N3R cabinet


SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS& CAPACITOR BANKS52ControlCapSwitch59 protection relay


SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKRack mountingIndustrial and Utility Power System applicationsCapacity :Voltage :Anyup to 230 kV.Connection : Fixed or AutomaticService :OutdoorInstallation : Galvanized iron structure


SUBSTATION CAPACITOR BANKSRack mounted type


SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS


SUBSTATION HARMONIC FILTERS


Components of MV & HV Systems• Capacitor Cells• Circuit protective devices• Surge Arresters• Reactors (for capacitor protection)• Switches• Insulators• Enclosures• Controls• Protective Relays


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSMedium & High Voltage Cells


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSMedium & High Voltage Cells•Capacitor GENERAL ELECTRIC.•Single phase,•Complies with IEEE/ANSI # 18, IEC 871-1, NOM-001•Operation in 50 / 60 Hertz systems.•1 or 2 bushings.•Maximum over rated current percentage 180%.•Maximum over rated voltage percentage 110 %.•Capacitance tolerance + 0 - 10 % .•Maximum ambient temperature +50 °C.•Internal discharge resistors.•Service indoor/outdoor.•Manufactured with polypropylene material.•Horizontal or vertical mounting.•Impregnant material free of policlored bifenils (PCB´s), no askarels.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSPower fuse circuit-breakers


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSFuses• Expulsion type fuse or current limiting fuse toprevent over -demand currents or faults.• Individual fuse per capacitor cell.• Rated for system voltage.• 1.6 rated current of capacitor.• Indoor / outdoor service.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSFusesExpulsion typeCurrent limiting type


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSEXTERNALLY VS. INTERNALLYFUSEDFeature Externally Fused Internally FusedOperation principleLossesSecurityExternal fuse coordinated withthe case rupture curveLower, just one element,0.07 W/kVarVery high, fuses coordinatedwith case rupture curve.Each internal package has onefuse for protection (10-15typically)Higher, fuses per package,several for one capacitor,0.5 W/kVAR.Good, but there is a probability ofpackage short circuit causingcase explosionHeating Minimum, the fuse is external Internal fuses heat dielectric andimpregnant.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSEXTERNALLY VS. INTERNALLYFUSEDFeature Externally Fused Internally FusedFailure identification. Inmediatly and visual Difficult, location of faultedelement is not visible.Main application Any kind of banks. Banks in transmission systems(115kV and higher)Protection easeApplication on filtersVery High, the relay detectsperfectly the failure of one unitIn case of failure of one unitalarm or triggering, avoidsfurther problemsLow, the relay can´t be ajusted todetect the failure of one packageinside the capacitor unitThe loss of capacitance isgradual, increases stress ofsecondary equipment


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSSurge Arresters•Station or Distribution Surge Arresters.•System voltage type.•Polymer or porcelain.•Indoor / Outdoor service.•Helps overvoltage discharge to groundduring capacitor bank switching or nearbycapacitor operations.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSReactorsInrush currentlimiting reactorHarmonic filterreactor


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSGrounding Switch• Connects the three phases and neutralterminals of the capacitor bank to ground todischarge remaining energy afterdisconnecting the bank.• Required for mantainance.• Specified according to the system.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSCapacitor Switch• Oil or Vacuum Switch.• System voltage and bank capacity rated.• One or three phase.• Management of pure capacitive currentswitching.• Prevent reclosing between contacts.• Indoor / Outdoor service.• Position indicator.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSInsulators• Post station type insulator.• Manufactured under IEC or ANSI standards.• Rated Voltage and BIL according to the system.• Indoor / Outdoor service.• Porcelain or polymer.• To support racks and buses.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSStructuresRacksMetal Enclosures


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSMulti-functional control.Includes measurement and control functions.Control based on:VoltageCurrentReactive PowerDemandorTimeControls


MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKSUNBALANCE RELAY•The individual fusing of the capacitors must be coordinatedwith the unbalance relay, in order to isolate a faulted capacitor,prior to trigger the hole bank out of service and giving a way tolocate the faulted capacitor.•The unbalance relay must have enough sensivity to give analarm when one unit fails and trigger the bank when variousunits fail, preventing an overvoltage of 110% rated voltage.


MEDIUM & HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORBANKSUNBALANCE RELAY•It must have a time delay to prevent false operation due toinrush, line to ground faults, atmospheric discharge, nearbyequipment operation and unsynchronizied operation of thecapacitor bank 3 phase switch.•The protection scheme must inhibit automatic reclosing ofthe capacitor bank switch after an overvoltage trigger event.


HARMONIC FILTERS & CAPACITOR BANKSA brand you can trust.• Compliance with international standards• High quality systems, ISO-9001 facility• Technical expertise and support• Market leader for reactive power compensation in México.• Large market for reactive compensation due to stiff penalties


UTILITIES• CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad)• Luz y Fuerza del Centro• Iberdrola• PEMEX – Petrochemical• Grupo Mexico – MiningSTEEL PRODUCERS / MILLS• HYLSA – Steel Mill• Deacero – Steel Producer• IMSA – Steel plant• ISPAT – Steel Mill• SERSIINSA – Steel producer• SICARTSA – Steel producer• Siemens – Industrial manufacturing• IEM – Transformer manufacturingPAPER MILLS• Kimberly Clark• Carton y Papel de MexicoSOME OF OUR MV & HV REFERENCES

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