Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Driver's Handbook - Transport

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Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Driver's Handbook - Transport

Tasmanian Heavy VehicleDriver’s HandbookDepartment of Infrastructure, business Energy unit name and Resources here


AcknowledgementsWe would like to acknowledge the RTA as the original developer of the HeavyVehicle Driver Handbook. The Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resourceshas adapted the RTA version to Tasmania requirements.This handbook is owned and maintain by the Department of Infrastructure, Energyand Resources. Any requests to reproduce information or diagrams contained inthe Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Drivers’ Handbook must be made in writing to theDepartment.This publication incorporated information to help heavy vehicle drivers drive safelyand responsibly in Tasmania. It does not contain all of the road rules.While every effort is made to ensure that the information is accurate and conformsto Tasmanian legislation, this publication must not be construed as a legalinterpretation of legislation.All enquiries regarding this publication should be directed to the TransportEnquiry Service on 1300 851 225 or the Department of Infrastructure, Energy andResources, GPO Box 1002, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001.Version 1 - March 2010


Heavy vehicle handbookThis handbook is only a general interpretation of the law, made easy tounderstand by using plain English. Laws change often so make sure youhave the most recent handbook.• other Transport publications• Tasmanian Road Rules Handbook• The Vehicle Operations Branch publishes a number of informationbulletins about vehicle loading, dimensions, configurations andstandards. Information bulletins may be found at www.transport.tas.gov.au/standards. They include:• Vehicle Access Mass and Dimensions• B-Double Information Bulletin• Truck and Dog Trailer Information Bulletin• Load Restraint Guide• Heavy Vehicle Gazette NoticeFor further information on vehicle registration and driver licensing pleasevisit www.transport.tas.gov.au.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


IntroductionThe Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Drivers’ Handbook will help you understandthe special rules and regulations that apply to you and your heavy vehicle.It is a useful guide outlining rules and regulations, skills and correct attituderequired by professional drivers.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


ContentsHow to use this handbook 7Licences 9Licence classes9LR (light rigid licence) ....................................................................................... 10MR (medium rigid licence) ............................................................................... 11HR (heavy rigid licence) ................................................................................... 12HC (heavy combination licence) ....................................................................... 14MC (Multi-combination licence) ........................................................................ 15Learning to drive heavy vehicles16Do you need a heavy vehicle learner licence................................................................... 16How to get a heavy vehicle learner licence ...................................................... 16What requirements apply to learning to drive heavy vehicles? ........................ 17P1 and P2 licence holders................................................................................ 17Exemptions from the eligibility criteria .............................................................. 17Visiting or moving here from interstate or New Zealand .................................. 17Visiting or moving interstate ............................................................................. 18Visiting or moving here from overseas ............................................................. 19Medical conditions ............................................................................................ 20Driving tests ...................................................................................................... 20External service providers ................................................................................ 21Approved training organisations ....................................................................... 21Summary22What you should know about licences ............................................................. 22Driver management 23Health of professional drivers ........................................................................... 23Driver fatigue24Signs of driver fatigue ...................................................................................... 25Tips on managing driver fatigue ....................................................................... 25Roadside rest areas ......................................................................................... 26The National Driving Hours Regulation ............................................................ 26Driver Fatigue is an Occupational Health and Safety issue ........................27Record keeping ................................................................................................ 29Alcohol, drugs and professional drivers31Effects of alcohol on driving ............................................................................. 31Getting back to zero takes time ........................................................................ 32What does not sober you up ............................................................................ 32Drugs and professional drivers ......................................................................... 32Seatbelts35Entering and exiting a vehicle36Summary37What you should know about driver management ........................................... 37Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Safe driving 38Low risk driving38Observation ...................................................................................................... 38Speed management ......................................................................................... 38Road positioning ............................................................................................... 38Crash avoidance space .................................................................................... 38Vehicle controls ................................................................................................ 41Basic driving techniques44Hills ................................................................................................................... 44Before entering a sharp curve .......................................................................... 45Slowing and stopping ....................................................................................... 45Animals and Vehicles....................................................................................... 45Summary46What you should know about safe driving........................................................ 46Heavy vehicle road rules 47Speed limits ...................................................................................................... 47Driving in wet conditions ................................................................................... 47Intersections ..................................................................................................... 47Reversing.......................................................................................................... 49Overtaking ........................................................................................................ 49Lane changing .................................................................................................. 50Restricted areas B-Double operation ............................................................... 50Light traffic roads .............................................................................................. 50Load limit sign................................................................................................... 50No trucks sign ................................................................................................... 51Trucks must enter sign .................................................................................... 51Where heavy vehicles can stand or park ......................................................... 51Bus lanes .......................................................................................................... 51Buses ................................................................................................................ 52Warning triangles .............................................................................................. 53Fires .................................................................................................................. 53Summary55What you should know about heavy vehicle road rules ................................... 55Knowing the vehicle 56Roadworthiness ................................................................................................ 56Body/cab condition ........................................................................................... 56Brakes............................................................................................................... 56Couplings .......................................................................................................... 60Driving controls ................................................................................................. 61Electrical system ............................................................................................... 61Engine............................................................................................................... 61Exhaust system ................................................................................................ 61Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Fuel system ...................................................................................................... 61Gear boxes ....................................................................................................... 62Lights and indicators......................................................................................... 63Rear marking plates ......................................................................................... 65Rust and corrosion ........................................................................................... 66Seats and seatbelts .......................................................................................... 66Steering ............................................................................................................ 66Structure ........................................................................................................... 66Suspension ....................................................................................................... 66Wheels and tyres .............................................................................................. 66Windscreen and windows ................................................................................. 67Pre-departure checks67Pre-departure safety checks............................................................................. 69Dealing with problems ...................................................................................... 69Defect reporting ................................................................................................ 69Uncoupling and coupling70Uncoupling a semi-trailer ................................................................................. 70Coupling a semi-trailer .................................................................................... 71Uncoupling a truck and trailer ........................................................................ 73Coupling a truck and trailer ............................................................................ 74Summary75What you should know about maintenance ................................................... 75Vehicle dimensions and loading 76Minimising dimensions ..................................................................................... 76Statutory limits .................................................................................................. 76Maximum width ................................................................................................. 77Rear overhang .................................................................................................. 77Load shift .......................................................................................................... 78How to carry a load safely ................................................................................ 79Loading 79Projecting loads ............................................................................................. 79Dangerous projections ..................................................................................... 79Warning requirements on projections .............................................................. 79Dangerous projections .................................................................................. 81Load distribution and arrangement .................................................................. 81Positioning the load .......................................................................................... 82Securing the load ............................................................................................ 83Load restraints 83Blocking ........................................................................................................... 85Stakes in pockets ............................................................................................ 85Crowned loads ................................................................................................. 86Divided crowned loads .................................................................................... 86Dunnage ........................................................................................................ 87Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Gates/fencing ................................................................................................. 87Containers ........................................................................................................ 88Lashings ........................................................................................................... 88Ropes ............................................................................................................... 89Belly wrapping .................................................................................................. 89Large pipe loads ............................................................................................... 90Load anchorage points .................................................................................... 90Friction .............................................................................................................. 90Sheets and tarpaulins ...................................................................................... 91Dangerous goods 91The correct licence ........................................................................................... 92Risks ................................................................................................................. 93Oversize vehicle permits 95General permit types ........................................................................................ 95Summary97What you should know about heavy vehicle dimensions and loading ............. 97Penalties 98Traffic offences98Demerit points .................................................................................................. 98Period of good behaviour ................................................................................. 98Excessive Speeding offences........................................................................... 99Alcohol and drug offences ................................................................................ 99Speed limiter offences .................................................................................... 100Heavy vehicle checking stations .................................................................... 100Truckalyser ..................................................................................................... 100Noise pollution ............................................................................................... 100Smoke from engines....................................................................................... 101Defect notices 101Formal warning .............................................................................................. 102Minor defect .................................................................................................... 102Major defect .................................................................................................... 102Major defect – use prohibited ......................................................................... 103DIER transport inspectors .............................................................................. 103Summary105What you should know about penalties ......................................................... 105Driver knowledge test questions 106Industry glossary 109Index 113Useful contacts 116Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


How to use this handbookThis handbook is divided into sections to make it easy to find what youneed to know to operate a heavy vehicle safely on Tasmanian roads. At theend of each section is a summary of the information.You will need to refer to this handbook if you are taking the driving test toget your heavy vehicle driver licence, or if you are undertaking a heavyvehicle training course. It is also helpful for experienced drivers who wantto check current rules and practice. To find information on a specific topic,go to the Index at the back of the handbook where subjects are listed withpage numbers. You will also find a glossary of terms in the back to explainthe meaning of words used in the heavy vehicle industry.1Section 2 Licences explains:The licensing system for drivers of heavy vehicles including the skills andqualifications you need to drive a particular vehicle.Section 3 Driver management explains:The need for professional drivers to be aware of their fitness, and theirresponsibilities, in particular the laws on alcohol, drugs, fatigue, recordkeepingand seatbelts.Section 4 Safe driving explains:Important low risk driving behaviours such as observation, speedmanagement, road positioning and crash avoidance space.Section 5 Heavy vehicle road rules explains:A detailed coverage of the road rules that govern heavy vehicles and roadusers.Section 6 Knowing the vehicle explains:The requirements for keeping your vehicle roadworthy covering mostvehicle components and functions such as checking, testing, maintenanceand inspections. This section includes user friendly checklists.Checklist iconChecklists are provided to guide you through procedures andgeneral checks. This icon will help you locate them.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


1Section 7 Vehicle dimensions and loading explains:The dimensions of vehicles and allowable loads; ways to secure anddistribute loads, types of loads such as dangerous goods and vehicle typesincluding B-doubles.Section 8 Penalties explains:Penalties for traffic offences and offences directly related to driving heavyvehicles.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Licences2You must have a heavy vehicle licence to drive heavy vehicles in Tasmania.As a heavy vehicle licence holder, you have additional obligations andresponsibilities to the people you share the road with. This handbookcontains information that will guide you towards the skills and knowledgeyou need to hold a heavy vehicle driver licence.For more information on your car driver licence, refer to the TasmanianRoad Rules Handbook.Licence classesThe following diagram shows the National Hierarchy of Heavy VehicleLicence Classes. You may drive any class of vehicle appearing below yourlicence category on the diagram.Mutli-Combination (MC)Any motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, other than a motorcycle.Heavy Combination (HC)Prime mover with a single semi-trailer and a dolly (or an unladenconverter dolly); or a rigid motor vehicle towing a trailer with a GVMgreater than 9 tonnes and an unladen converter dolly.Heavy Rigid (HR)A motor vehicle (other than a motorcycle) including an articulated bus butnot any other type of articulated vehicle, that has 3 or more axles anda GVM greater than 8 tonnes. Able to tow a trailer of no more than 9tonnes.Medium Rigid (MR)A motor vehicle (other than a motorcycle) with a GVM greater than 8tonnes and no more than 2 axles. Able to tow a trailer of no more than 9tonnes.Light Rigid (LR)A motor vehicle (other than a motorcycle) with a GVM of 8 tonnes or lessbut greater than 4.5 tonnes, or has a GVM of 8 tonnes or less and seatsmore than 12 adults (including the driver); able to tow a trailer of nomore than 9 tonnes. Able to tow a trailer of no more than 9 tonnes.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• LR (light rigid licence)The vehicle you want to driverigiDYesNumber of passengers including the driverMay have more than 12 adults including the driver.GVMGVM not greater than 8T.Any towed trailer must not weigh greater than 9T GVM.What you need to get this licence• Be at least 19 years old• Have held an Australian car licence (other than a learner licence) for atleast 12 months• Pass a driving test or prescribed training course*• Go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• pass a driver knowledge test (before or after the driving test ortraining course)• complete an application form• show evidence of identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass an eyesight test• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’ve passed adriving test or completed a prescribed training course and• pay the licence extension fee*driving tests are conducted by External Service Providers and training courses are conductedby Approved Training Organisations, see page 2110Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• MR (medium rigid licence)The vehicle you want to driverigiDYesNumber of axles2GVMGVM greater than 8T.Any towed trailer must not weigh greater than 9T GVM.What you need to get this licence• Be at least 19 years old• Have held an Australian car licence (other than a learner licence) for atleast 12 months• Pass a driving test or prescribed training course• Go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• pass a driver knowledge test (before or after the driving test ortraining course)• complete an application form• show evidence of identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass an eyesight test• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’ve passed adriving test or completed a prescribed training course and• pay the licence extension feeTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 11


2• HR (heavy rigid licence)The vehicle you want to drive (note the number of axles)rigiDYesNote: articulated buses are treated as rigid vehicles.Number of axles3 or moreGVMGVM greater than 8T.Any towed trailer must not weigh greater than 9T GVM.What you need to get this licence• Be at least 20 years old• Have held an Australian car licence (other than a learner licence) for atleast 2 years and an LR or MR licence for at least 12 months• If you currently hold an LR licence you must get an HR learner licencebefore doing a driving test or training course (see page 16)• If you’ve held an LR or MR licence for less than 12 months you mustsuccessfully complete a prescribed training course• If you’ve held an LR or MR licence for at least 12 months you must passeither a driving test or prescribed training course• Go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• pass a driver knowledge test if you haven’t already done so (beforeor after the driving test or training course)• complete an application form12Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• show evidence of identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass an eyesight test• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’ve passed adriving test or completed a prescribed training course and• pay the licence extension feeTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 13


2• Hc (heavy combination licence)The vehicle you want to drive (note the number of axles)Articulated vehicle or heavy rigid vehicle trailercombination including unladen dollyYesNumber of axles3 or moreGVMAny towed trailer with GVM of more than 9T.What you need to get this licence• Be at least 20 years old• Have held an Australian car licence (other than a learner licence) for atleast 2 years and an MR or HR licence for at least 12 months• If you currently hold an MR licence you must get an HC learner licencebefore doing a driving test or training course (see page 16)• If you’ve held an MR or HR licence for less than 12 months you mustsuccessfully complete a prescribed training course• If you’ve held an MR or HR licence for at least 12 months you must passeither a driving test or prescribed training course• Go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• pass a driver knowledge test if you haven’t already done so (beforeor after the driving test or training course)• complete an application form• show evidence of identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass an eyesight test• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’ve passed adriving test or completed a prescribed training course and• pay the licence extension fee14Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• Mc (Multi-combination licence)The vehicle you want to driveB-doubleYesWhat you need to get this licence• Be at least 21 years old• Have held an HR or HC licence for at least 12 months• If you currently hold an HR licence you must get an MC learner licencebefore doing the training course (see page 16)• Successfully complete a prescribed training course• Go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• complete an application form• show evidence of identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass an eyesight test• produce a medical assessment that shows you are fit to drive atthe commercial medical standards• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’vecompleted a prescribed training course and• pay the licence extension feeTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 15


2Learning to drive heavy vehicles• do you need a heavy vehicle learner licenceYou don’t need to get a learner licence, if you’re learning to drive –• a heavy vehicle in the next licence class in the National Hierarchy ofLicence Classes e.g. you have a medium rigid licence and you want tolearn to drive a heavy rigid vehicle• a medium rigid vehicle and you’ve got a car licence. In these cases,you can learn to drive a heavy vehicle on your existing licence.You must get a learner licence if you’re learning to drive a class of vehiclemore than one class above your existing licence in the National Hierarchyof Licence Classes. For example, if you hold a car licence and you want aheavy rigid licence, you must get a heavy vehicle learner licence.• How TO get a heavy vehicle learner licenceTo get a heavy vehicle learner licence, you must visit a Service Tasmaniashop and—• complete an application form• show Evidence of Identity (this may be your driver licence)• pass a driver knowledge test (there is no need to book for this test and itis free of charge)• pass an eyesight test• pay the learner licence feeYour learner licence will be shown as a code on your driver licence.Your heavy vehicle learner licence will be valid for the same time as yournormal licence (they will expire at the same time). If you renew your normallicence, your heavy vehicle learner licence will also be renewed.See page 106 for the heavy vehicle driver knowledge testquestions and answers.16Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• What requirements apply to learning to driveheavy vehicles?When you’re learning to drive a heavy vehicle (whether or not you’rerequired to get a learner licence) you must -• have a person sitting* next to you who holds a licence of the same orhigher class of the heavy vehicle you are learning to drive (not a learneror provisional) and has held that licence for at least 12 months• have L-plates clearly displayed at the front and rear of the vehicle• not exceed 80 km/hr unless a lower speed limit applies• have zero blood alcohol in your bodyThese requirements apply whether or not you’re required to hold a heavyvehicle learner licence.* if you’re learning to drive a bus, this person must be seated in the seatnearest to you.• P1 and P2 licence holdersIf you are a P1 or P2 licence holder, you can apply for a heavy vehiclelicence provided you meet the minimum age and experience criteria (seepages 10 to 15). This means that you must be the minimum age andhave held an Australian licence of the relevant class (other than a learnerlicence) for the minimum amount of time required by law.• exemptions from the eligibility criteriaIf you don’t meet the minimum age and experience criteria you can applyfor an exemption. To apply for an exemption, you must• be at least 17 years old• have held an Australian car licence (other than a learner licence) for atleast 12 months, and• complete an application, available at www.transport.tas.gov.auIf you are granted an exemption, you will need to pass a PrescribedTraining Course before you get your heavy vehicle licence.• visiting or moving here from interstate or newZealandYou can drive in Tasmania on your interstate or New Zealand heavy vehicledriver licence for up to 3 months.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 17


2When driving on your interstate or New Zealand licence -• it must be current (it is not expired, suspended or cancelled)• have your licence with you when driving• only drive the type of vehicle you’re licensed to drive• obey all Tasmanian road rules and traffic law• obey all conditions on your licence• remember that if you commit a demerit point offence, the demerit pointsmay be recorded against you in your home state or territoryAfter 3 months you must get a Tasmanian licence. If you don’t you will bedriving unlicensed.To get a Tasmanian licence, go to a Service Tasmania shop and -• complete an application form• show Evidence of Identity (this may be your driver licence)• hand in your interstate licence or show your New Zealand licence• have your photo taken• provide your signatureYou’ll get a free Tasmanian licence of the same glass and type as yourinterstate licence. Generally, it will have the same conditions and expirydate as your interstate licence. You’ll need to pay a fee to transfer yourNew Zealand licence.• visiting or moving interstateYou can drive interstate on your Tasmanian heavy vehicle driver licence.When driving interstate on your Tasmanian driver licence -• it must be current (it is not expired, suspended or cancelled)• have your licence with you• only drive the type of vehicle you’re licensed to drive• obey all road rules and traffic law that are operational in that state orterritory• obey all conditions on your licence• remember that if you commit a demerit point offence, the demerit pointsmay be recorded against you in Tasmania18Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2If you’re in another state or territory for 3 months or more you must get alicence from that state or territory. Contact the transport authority in thatstate or territory to find out more information.• visiting or moving here from overseasYou can drive in Tasmania on your overseas heavy vehicle licence if you -• are a visitor OR• have a temporary visa OR• have held a permanent visa for less than 3 monthsWhen driving on your overseas licence -• it must be current (not expired, suspended or cancelled)• have your overseas licence with youIf your overseas licence is not in English, you must also carry -• an official English translation of your overseas licence OR• a current International Driving PermitYou must get a Tasmanian licence within 3 months of being issued apermanent visa. If you don’t, you will be driving unlicensed.To get a Tasmanian licence you must first pass a heavy vehicle driving testfor the class of vehicle you are licensed to drive. Then, go to a ServiceTasmania shop and -• complete an application form• show Evidence of Identity• show your overseas licence• pass a driver knowledge test• produce a Certificate of Competence to show that you’ve passed adriving test• pay the licence fee• have your photo taken• provide your signatureTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 19


2• Medical CONDITIONSIf you have a Light Rigid (LR) licence, you must meet the private medicalstandards.If you have a Medium Rigid (MR) or above licence, you must meet thecommercial medical standards.If your existing medical condition changes, or if you get a medical conditionthat may affect your driving, you must ring 1300 851 225 as soon aspossible. You are required by law to notify the Registrar of any medicalcondition that may affect your driving.• Driving testsHow much does a driving test cost?You will need to contact the External Service Providers to find out the costof a driving test. The total cost will depend on whether you use an ExternalService Provider’s vehicle or take your own.Each External Service Provider may have a different cost for the drivingtest.What does the test consist of?You will be tested in the following major areas -• the Pre-Departure Check – you will be required to demonstrate tothe testing officer that your heavy vehicle is in a fit, reliable and safecondition using visual and manual inspections• the practical on-road driving test – you’ll be required to -• demonstrate your ability to handle a heavy vehicle under a range ofgeneral traffic conditions• demonstrate two reversing manoeuvres, including a left turnreverse into a designated area and a straight-line reverse at least 2lengths of the vehicle combinationAt the end of the test, you’ll be given a de-briefing to discuss yourperformance and your result.For more information on the heavy vehicle driving test, visit www.transport.tas.gov.au/pdf/licence_information/test_specs.pdf.20Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


2• External service providersThe following organisations are authorised to deliver heavy vehicle drivertesting in Tasmania:DECA 1300 365 400Driver Safety Services 6248 5455OnRoad OffRoad Training 1300 732 377TransTrain 1300 665 170 or 6423 2110• approved training organisationsThe following organisations are authorised to deliver heavy vehicle drivertraining in Tasmania:DECA 1300 365 400Driver Safety Services 6248 5455OnRoad OffRoad Training 1300 732 377TransTrain 1300 665 170 or 6423 2110Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 21


Driver management3Driving a heavy vehicle can be demanding. It is important to abide by the driverfatigue laws and regulations and generally take care of your health, in theinterest of public safety and your own wellbeing.A heavy vehicle driver spends a lot of time on the road. The work isdemanding and you are responsible for heavy loads, dangerous goods andpassengers. It is very important that you are in good health for your ownsafety and that of the public.• Health of professional driversThe most important ways to stay healthy and keep on top of your job are -• get enough sleep• eat a well-balanced diet• exercise regularly• try to relieve stressEnough sleepThe need for sleep varies among individuals with some people needingmore sleep than others. Make sure that you get most of your sleep at nighttime – it is better than daytime sleep. Regular night sleep of about seven toeight hours is one of the best ways to manage driver fatigue.See the following pages in this section on managing driver fatigue and forinformation on the legal minimum work and rest time.Diet and exerciseTo stay fit and healthy for your job your weight needs to be within anacceptable range. Eating the right foods and taking regular exercise isthe only answer. Ask your GP for advice or check these websites forinformation: www.ntc.gov.au and www.austroads.com.au.Try to relieve stressStress affects your driving. If you are having problems at home or at work,you are up to five times more likely to be involved in a crash. Your GP canadvise you on where to go for help.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 23


3Driver fatigueDriver fatigue is one of the biggest causes of crashes for heavy vehicledrivers. Many of these crashes occur late at night or early in the morning.As a professional driver, you need to understand what causes fatigue andhow to pick up on the early warning signs so that you can do somethingabout it before it affects your driving.Fatigue is caused by a number of factors, including -Sleep factors• getting less sleep than you need• getting less sleep than you need over a number of days• trying to sleep during the dayTime of day factors• working when you should normally be asleep• working in the early hours of the morning• working in the early afternoon after a heavy lunch• sleeping during the day when you would normally be awakeWork factors• long driving hours• night time driving• irregular hours and early starting times• tight scheduling• insufficient time to recover from previous work• doing non-driving physical work such as loading and unloading• poor driving conditions such as hot or wet weather• monotonous drivingPhysical factors• poor health and fitness• emotional issues• medical sleep problems24Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


3• Signs of driver fatigueDriver fatigue severely impairs your concentration and judgment; it slowsyour reaction time. Watch for these early warning signs of driver fatigue -• yawning• poor concentration• tired or sore eyes• restlessness• drowsiness• slow reactions• boredom• feeling irritable• making fewer and larger steering corrections• missing road signs and taking wrong turns• having difficulty staying in the lane• microsleeps where you ‘nod off’ for a short time• Tips on managing driver fatigue• Resting and sleeping are the two most important ways to combatfatigue. Have a good night’s sleep before you start your trip, and evenhave an afternoon nap before starting back on a night shift. You canalso take rests early on in the trip before you start feeling fatigued.• Be aware of the causes and effects of fatigue and recognise the earlywarning signs. Make sure you stop and rest as soon as possible whenyou realise you are becoming fatigued. Do not try and push on, especiallyin those ‘body clock’ danger times of night/early morning and afternoon.• Plan your trip ahead of time to allow for rest breaks.• Plan your rest breaks to happen before you start feeling fatigued, orplan where to stop if you do start to feel fatigued. If you can, plan restbreaks for when your body clock will tell you to be asleep (ie afternoon,night/early morning) because that is when you are most likely to becomefatigued.• Try and have a regular sleep and waking schedule on every day of theweek.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 25


3• Have at least two nights of unrestricted sleep to repay ‘sleep debt’ tobecome completely refreshed.• Look after your health and fitness with regular exercise and a healthydiet.• Never drink alcohol before or during your trip.• Never drive longer than the legal work and rest hours, or agree to aroster that is longer than the legal work and rest hours.• Roadside rest areasRest areas are available 24 hours a day year round and are clearlysignposted. Service centres, petrol stations, parks and country towns areother places you can stop and take a break from driving.• The National Driving Hours RegulationThe Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2001 sets themaximum hours of driving, working, and minimum hours of rest for heavytrucks and commercial bus drivers.Driving And Work limitsThe driving and work limits are like speed limits. They state the maximumtime allowed in ideal conditions, that is, when drivers are well rested andalert. If you are likely to be fatigued for any reason you should not try to dothe maximum time allowed.Rest limitsThe rest requirements are the minimum you should have, even when youfeel well rested and alert. If you feel fatigued, you may need more rest. Beprepared to take additional rest breaks throughout your trip. When you feeltired, stop, take a break or have a sleep.Driving, other Work And rest limitsThe tables that follow set the maximum driving, other work limits and theminimum rest requirements provided by the Regulation.In a period referred to in column one, a driver must not drive or do otherwork for more than the period referred to in column two. A driver must alsohave a total rest time for a period of not less than the time referred to incolumn three.26Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


3• Driver Fatigue is an Occupational Health andSafety IssueEmployers and employees may be held responsible for driver fatiguecrashes.Tasmanian law places obligations upon employers to ensure the health,safety and welfare of their employees in the workplace. Employers, inconsultation with employees, must identify risks to health and safety,assess the risks, then eliminate the risks or where this is not reasonablypracticable, control the risks.Responsibilities under OHS legislation are broad and include employers,employees and self employed persons. The Act provides severe penaltieswhere it is established the employer has failed to meet that duty. It isimportant that employers and employees adopt principles and practices tomanage driver fatigue within those limits to ensure that they fulfil their dutyof care.Standard hours - Solo and two-up heavy truck DriversTotal period Maximum work time Minimum rest timeIn any period of….5 hours and 30minutesA driver must not workfor more than a total of…5 hours24 hours 1 14 hours (maximum 12hours driving)7 days (168 hours) 72 hoursAnd must have atleast…30 minutes, either in oneperiod or as two periodof 15 minutes each10 hours, including onecontinuous period of 6hours 296 hours, including onecontinuous period of 24hours 31. The 24 hours period means any period of 24 hours. It does not necessarily mean midnight to midnight.2. These continuous rest periods must be taken away from the vehicle unless the vehicle is fitted withan approved sleeper berth.3. Rest period of 2 hours or more must be taken away from the vehicle.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 27


3Standard hours - solo commercial bus driverTotal periodIn any period of….5 hours and 30minutesMaximum worktimeA driver must notwork for more thana total of…Minimum rest timeAnd must have at least…5 hours 30 minutes, either in oneperiod or as two periods of 15minutes each24 hours 1 14 hours (max 12hours driving)10 hours rest, 6 hours awayfrom bus4 weeks (672 hours) 288 hours 384 hours with a period of 96hours as one period of fourcontinuous periods, each of24 hours or more, totalling96 hours 2 or two separateperiods not on bus, one ofat least 72 continuous hoursand the other at least 24continuous hours, or twoseparate periods not in or onthe bus each of 48 continuoushours.1. The 24 hours period means any period of 24 hours. It does not necessarily mean midnight tomidnight.2. These continuous rest periods must be taken away from the vehicle unless the vehicle is fitted withan approved sleeper berth.DefinitionsDrivers of the following types of vehicles must comply with the drivinghours, other work and rest provisions of the Regulation.Commercial buses – In Tasmania commercial bus is a motor vehicleconstructed principally to carry persons and equipped for reward.Note: Drivers are reminded that if they wish to drive a regular passengerservice bus, long distance bus, charter bus or tourist bus seating more thaneight persons, they must hold the relevant driver authority.Heavy trucks are motor vehicles that have a GVM that exceeds 2828tonnes or truck and trailer combinations with a combined GVM exceeding2828 tonnes.28Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


3Driving time is the time spent by a driver in the driver’s seat of acommercial bus or heavy truck with the engine running. Driving timeincludes time spent as a solo or two-up driver and includes the timeinstructing another person to drive.Working includes time spent driving a commercial bus or heavy vehicleand can also mean:• loading or unloading• inspecting, servicing or repairing the vehicle• inspecting or attending to the load or attending• the passengers of a commercial bus• cleaning or refuelling the vehicle• performing marketing tasks in relation to managing driver fatigue– driving, other work and rest limits when operating the vehicle• helping with or supervising any activity previously mentioned orrecording information or completing a document in accordance with theRegulation or in relation to the operation of the vehicle• performing any other work including driving other types of motorvehicles in association with a journeyRest is any period of at least 295 minutes that is not driving or otherwork.• Record KeepingNational Driver Log BooksThe National Driver Log Book may be purchased from any Service Tasmaniashop.When am I required to complete a National Driver LogBook?You must carry and complete a log book when you drive a heavy truckgreater than 12 tonnes GVM or truck and trailer combinations with acombined GVM greater than 12 tonnes.What you must record in the log bookYou must record driving, other work and rest time in your log book.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 29


3The log book must show -• your name• driver licence number• state of licence• the day of the week• the dateDuring the journey you must -• record vehicle registration number and the place where changes ofactivity occur• record your driving, working and rest periods• complete the daily sheet by recording the total number of hours for eachactivity• when the page is completed, sign the daily sheet to certify that theentries are correctLog book exemptionsYou do not have to carry and complete a log book when you drive -• under a Trade Plate• unladen vehicle for testing for performance, demonstrating toprospective purchaser and a test drive• an ambulance, heavy truck or commercial bus for urgent purposesarising from drought, fire or similar emergency• exemption approved by the Commission• under the direction of an Authorised Officer• a motor homeDriver baseThe driver base is the garage address of the vehicle and should be shownon the registration certificate.If a driver normally works and receives instructions from a place that is notthe garage address of the vehicle, the driver may nominate this alternativeplace as the driver base by writing the nominated address in the tableprovided in the front of the log book.30Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


3Looking after your log bookThe log book is issued to you personally. It is an offence to -• let anyone else use or borrow it• have more than one log book containing pages which have not beenused or cancelled• remove the application page or any original pages• alter, deface or destroy any page• make any false entriesAlcohol, drugs and professional driversIt is illegal to drive while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, includingsome over-the-counter and prescription medicines.• Effects of alcohol on drivingAlcohol is a depressant and reduces your ability to drive safely because it -• slows brain functions so that you can’t respond to situations, makedecisions or react quickly• reduces your ability to judge speed and distance• gives you false confidence that leads to taking risks• makes it hard to do more than one thing at a time• affects your sense of balance and coordination• makes you sleepyYour BAC must be zero when you drive a -• Heavy vehicle with a GVM of more than 4.5 tonnes.• Public passenger vehicle such as a bus or a coach.• Vehicle which carries a dangerous load.Even one drink can put you over the legal limit.You need to take into account any drinks you have had.It takes the body an hour or more to get rid of the alcohol fromone standard drink.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 31


3SeatbeltsIt is important for truck and bus drivers to wear a seatbelt. Any driver orpassenger must wear a seatbelt properly adjusted and securely fastenedwherever there is one available. If there is an empty seat with a seatbelt,a passenger must move to that seat. The driver will not be penalised ifthere is no seatbelt and the vehicle has been manufactured before therequirement for seatbelts commenced.Compulsory seatbelt laws have been in place for heavy vehicle driverssince 1999.Vehicles that have been modified by the installation of non-original seats(eg driver’s suspension seat) must have suitable seatbelts in order forthose vehicles to comply with mandatory equipment requirements andprovide the driver with a suitable level of comfort.It is an offence to remove a fitted seatbelt from a vehicle.If you remove it you may be breached for not wearing itas well as for removing it.The driver is responsibleDrivers are responsible for all passengers, particularly children, beingproperly restrained in a seatbelt or approved child restraint where seat beltsare fitted. There are fines and demerit points for a driver who is not wearinga seatbelt and who fails to ensure that passengers use seatbelts.Passengers aged 16 years and over who do not use an available seatbeltwill also be individually fined.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 35


3Entering and exiting a vehicleFor safety there is a procedure for entering and exiting a heavy vehicle.To enter the vehicle the driver must check for traffic before moving out fromthe line of the vehicle and again before opening the door. When enteringthe vehicle the driver must use available steps and grab handles to climbinto the vehicle, maintaining three points of contact at all times.To exit the vehicle the driver must check again for traffic before opening thedoor. When exiting the vehicle the driver must exit facing the vehicle usingavailable steps and grabs (not jumping) while maintaining three points ofcontact.Route bus drivers also need to be aware of this procedure.36Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


4Safe drivingLow risk drivingAs a professional driver you should at all times display ‘low risk’ driving.Only drive when you are alert, respect other road users and know how tocontrol your vehicle.Driving is never risk free, but you should aim to drive ‘low risk’. A low riskdriver has good observation, speed management and road positioningskills.• ObservationThe key to good observation is scanning.• Speed managementDrive at a speed that is within the speed limit and that will allow you to reactand completely stop within the distance you can see is clear. When you seepotential hazards, slow down and prepare to stop. If you cannot see at leastfive seconds ahead you must slow down. Slow down on wet, icy or gravelroads where it will take longer for your vehicle to stop.• Road positioningPosition your vehicle to maximise the distance from hazards (this is alsoreferred to as buffering). For example, moving left at the crest of a hill tocreate space from oncoming vehicles, or moving away from a parked car toavoid doors opening and pedestrian movement.• Crash avoidance spaceA low risk driver maintains a crash avoidance space completely around thevehicle. The crash avoidance space is managed by adjusting the vehicle’sspeed and road position.To determine the crash avoidance space to the front of the vehicle you needto take into account two key factors – reaction time and response time.Reaction time is the time the driver needs to -• see the information• perceive what it means• decide on a response• instigate that response38Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


4A heavy vehicle driver who is fit, concentrating, and alert, and not affectedby alcohol, drugs, fatigue or a distraction, will still require about 1.5 secondsto react.Response time is the time required to take action. Generally a minimumof two to three seconds is needed to respond. In many situations brakingmay be the only possible response. Swerving is rarely appropriate and canresult in a more severe crash, for example a head-on collision.A total of at least four seconds crash avoidance space is needed to reactand respond to a situation in front of you. You may need even longer inpoor conditions such as rain or darkness.The four-second gap can be used when following another vehicle or if thereis potential for something to move into your crash avoidance space.Following another vehicleFour-second crash avoidance space. To calculate a four-second crashavoidance space when following another vehicle use this basic technique:as the rear of the vehicle in front of you passes an object at the side ofthe road such as a power pole, tree or sign, start a four-second count ‘onethousand and one, one thousand and two, one thousand and three, onethousand and four’.If your vehicle passes the object you picked before you finish the foursecondcount, you are following too closely. Your crash avoidance space isnot large enough. Slow down, and repeat the count again until the foursecondcrash avoidance space is achieved.In poor driving conditions, such as rain, night or gravel roads, it maybe necessary to increase your crash avoidance space to five or moreseconds.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 39


4Potential for something to move into the crashavoidance spaceThe four-second gap can also be used for situations where there ispotential for something to move into the crash avoidance space, forexample, a car in an adjacent street could fail to give way and pull out. Lowrisk drivers experienced in maintaining a four-second following distanceare able to mentally judge a four-second crash avoidance space in front oftheir vehicle. If there is potential for a hazard to enter this crash avoidancespace, reduce your speed and create a buffer. It is necessary to maintainthe crash avoidance space for all potentially hazardous situations, includingblind corners and crests.Many of the crashes that occur in Tasmania could be avoided if driversactively maintained their crash avoidance space.LEGAL Minimum distances between large vehiclesAll vehicles 7.5 metres or longer must keep the following minimumdistances between long vehicles -• 60 metresThis rule does not apply on multi-lane roads, in built-up areas or whenovertaking.Legal requirements. By law large vehicles must maintain the minimum or greaterfollowing distance.40Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


4• Vehicle controlsSpring brakes or ‘maxi-brakes’Most fully air-braked vehicles on the road are equipped with spring-loadedparking brakes. These brakes rely on air pressure to hold them in the OFFposition. See “brake failure” on page 42.Trailer brakeSome vehicles are fitted with a hand operated trailer brake. This isa separate valve operated by hand which applies the trailer brakeindependently of the footbrake. The trailer brakes must not be usedfor normal braking as they will wear, overheat or burn out, and lose theireffectiveness completely. A trailer with ineffective brakes attached to atowing vehicle with effective brakes can cause it to jack-knife or rollover if itbrakes heavily.A trailer hand brake may be applied if necessary to prevent thevehicle from rolling backwards and to avoid transmission shockload when moving off on a hill. Trailer brakes are not parkingbrakes and should not be used as such.Controlling speed• Brake early and gradually.• Where possible, brake when your vehicle is driving in a straight line.• Allow for the weight of the load – a loaded vehicle takes far morebraking effort to slow down than an unloaded one.• Brake according to the road surface – allow more braking distanceif the road is gravel, steep or slippery.• Ease off the brakes as the vehicle slows down.• Always test the brakes immediately after driving through deep water aswet brakes do not perform well.The service brake should be used under allnormal conditions.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 41


4Brake failureBrakes kept in good condition rarely fail. Most brake failures occur becauseof -• loss of air pressure• loss of hydraulic pressure• brake fade (boiling of hydraulic fluid) continuous braking on long hill– bad driving practice• poorly maintained brakesJack-knife and trailer swingYou can reduce the chances of jack-knife or trailer swing by making surethat all brakes and tyres are in good condition and that the load is evenlydistributed between axle groups. You should be especially careful in wetweather.Trailer swing is where the trailerslides dangerously.A jack-knife is where the prime moverand trailer lock against each other.42Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


4Loss of pressure in air brakesWhenever you drive, make sure there is enough air pressure for at leastfive brake applications. Air brakes can fail because of a leak in the air linesor over-use. Stop immediately if the low air pressure warning devicecomes on. You should stop by gearing down until the vehicle is slowenough to apply the brakes.Most vehicles fitted with full air system brakes are usually fitted with springparking brakes, also known as maxi-brakes, where air pressure is requiredto keep them off.On some older vehicles the spring brakes may come on when the airpressure is very low. You should monitor the air pressure gauges oftenas low air pressure can happen anytime. When the gauge shows low airpressure, release the brakes at least twice, so you can move the vehicle toa safe area.Loss of hydraulic brakesWhat to do if your hydraulic brakes fail -• change gears down• pump the brakes – sometimes pumping themcan partially restore hydraulic brakes• use the emergency parking brakeTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 43


4Basic driving techniques• HillsBefore going down a hillReduce speed and select the correct gear before beginning the descent.If you try to gear down but you miss the gear, stop the vehiclewith the brakes immediately, then select the correct gear.Attempting to coast while you struggle with the gears is verydangerous. Do not try to change gears while going downhillas you can lose control of the vehicle.Braking going down hillsBrake failure can be prevented by good driving techniques.If you use the brakes to slow a vehicle travelling down hill it can causeoverheating. This leads to brake fade, or brake burn-out in which the brakelinings completely lose their grip and are no longer effective.Going down hills• Select a gear low enough to slow down the vehiclewithout the constant use of brakes.• If you miss the gear when trying to gear down, stop the vehiclewith the brakes immediately, then select the correct gear. It is verydangerous to coast while you struggle with the gears.• Use auxiliary brakes to help control the vehicle speed.• Reserve your service brakes for coping with emergencies,traffic conditions or sharp corners.• Try to brake on straight sections of road where possibleas this reduces the chance of skidding.• Avoid fanning (repeatedly applying and releasing) the brakesas this leads to an increase in brake temperature and failure dueto brake burn out. In air brake systems, fanning wastes compressed air,reducing the reserve available for an emergency.44Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


4Going up hills• Shift down early to prevent engine ‘lugging’. Lugging is shudderingor excessive vibration in the engine.• Use engine torque (the turning force available at the crankshaft)efficiently. Do not let engine revs fall below the maximum torque speed.• Shifting down two or more gears at once may be necessarywhen going up a steep hill.• Before entering a sharp curveReduce speed and select the correct gear before you enter the curve. Thegear you select should have the engine revs near the maximum torquelevel as specified by the engine manufacturer, allowing you to acceleratesmoothly out of the turn.• Slowing and stoppingWhen slowing or stopping a heavy vehicle it is best to use your brakes only.However, when driving down a steep hill it may be necessary to remain in alow gear to control the vehicle’s speed.Never drive out of gear. This is extremely dangerous and can lead to loss ofvehicle control and overheated brakes.You must select a low gear before commencingsteep descents.• Animals and vehiclesA driver or passenger must not lead an animal including by tethering whilethe vehicle is moving.Animals that are being transported must be seated or housed inappropriate areas. Drivers must not drive with an animal in the drivers lap.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 45


4Summary• What you should know about safe drivingAfter reading this section, you should know -• how to calculate a four-second crash avoidance space (followingdistance)• how to control your speed going down hills• what to do in case of brake failure• the reasons for jack-knife and trailer swing• how animals must be transportedNotes.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Heavy vehicle road rules5As a professional driver it’s your responsibility to know the road rules thatapply to all vehicles, especially heavy vehicles.• Speed limitsIn Tasmania the maximum speed-limit applying to a driver for a length ofroad to which a speed-limit applies is the number of kilometres per hourindicated by the number on the speed-limit sign. This is the case for bothlight and heavy vehicle drivers.However, if the number on the speed-limit sign is over 100 and the driver isdriving a bus with a GVM over 5 tonnes or another vehicle with a GVM over12 tonnes, the maximum speed limit applying to the driver for the length ofroad is 100 kilometres per hour.NOTE: Driving to the road and weather conditions may mean driving at aspeed slower than the maximum speed limit permitted.SPEED LIMITERSSpeed limiters are devices that limit a vehicle’s maximum speed. If yourvehicle falls into one of the following groups, it must be speed limited to amaximum of 100 kilometres per hour -• a bus with a GVM over 14.5 tonnes that was built after 1 January 1988• a heavy goods vehicle including prime movers, with a GVM over 15tonnes that were built after 1 January 1988• Driving in wet conditionsWet roads reduce tyre grip and can result in loss of control.You should drive at a speed that allows you to brake gradually and stopwithin the distance you can see. The safe speed for your vehicle and itsload may be much lower than the posted speed limit.To avoid skidding, slow down when approaching cornersand select an appropriate gear to maintain vehicle controlwithout the need for braking.• IntersectionsThe Road Rules allow long vehicles to straddle an adjacent lane in orderto make turns. However, the vehicle must be displaying a “Do not overtaketurning vehicle” sign.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 47


5At intersections you may have to swing wide to make a left turn. At markedintersections -• position your vehicle so that any vehicles behind cannot pass on yourleft• position yourself to get the best view possible of the road you areturning intoBus and truck drivers need to start a left turn further into the intersectionthan a car so that the back wheels do not run over the kerb.Crossing or entering trafficYou must choose a suitably large gap in the traffic to get across anintersection, enter a new street or merge with traffic.Consider the size and weight of your vehicle when crossing or enteringintersections, changing lanes, and making other manoeuvres. Alsoremember that a loaded vehicle will accelerate slower than an empty one.Before moving from a stationary position at the side ofthe road or a median strip parking area, you must signalfor at least five seconds, check mirrors and blind spots.TurningTrucks and buses need more space to turn wide or cut into traffic so allowenough space on either side of your vehicle to avoid sideswiping other roadusers or objects.Turning right from a one way streetA vehicle (or vehicle and trailer) that is 7.5 metres or longer and has a “Donot overtake turning vehicle” sign displayed on the back, can turn right fromthe lane on the immediate left of the far right lane.Plan your turn early so that you are in the correct part of the intersectionand you have time to signal. Avoid turning too soon because the side ofyour vehicle may hit vehicles on your right as the back of your vehicle cutsin to the turn.In a road with two right turn lanes, always use the turning lane on the farleft.48Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


5If there is a fire in your vehicle -• stop it well away from anything else which may burn• notify emergency services (dial 000)• use the correct fire extinguisher• if the trailer is on fire, and it is safe to do so, uncouple theprime mover and move it away• if the engine is on fire, try not to open the bonnet any morethan necessary. Spray the fire extinguisher through louvres,or from the underside of the vehicle.• where the load is on fire in a van or box trailer, open the doorsslowly and only far enough to let you use the extinguisher properly.54Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Summary5• What you should know about Heavy vehicle roadrulesAfter reading this section, you should know -• speed limits that apply to heavy vehicles• rules for turning at intersections, overtaking and reversing• restrictions that apply to heavy vehicles• rules for stopping at bus stops• guidelines on how to manage firesNotes.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 55


6Knowing the vehicleHeavy vehicles come in a variety of configurations.It’s your responsibility to know your vehicle. Regular checks and servicesare required by law to minimise the risk of breakdown and ensure yourvehicle is roadworthy.• RoadworthinessThe driver and the owner/operator are responsible for a vehicle’sroadworthiness. A roadworthy vehicle is a safe one that offers advantagesto both driver and operator as well as other road users. Unroadworthyvehicles can be heavily fined, especially if they are involved in a crash.It is very important to check your vehicle is roadworthy. Pre-departurechecks can save time and expense later on and reduce the chance of acrash resulting from mechanical failure.To make sure that your vehicle remains roadworthy, you should carry outdaily pre-departure checks and more ‘in depth’ weekly inspections. Refer tothe checklists in this section as a guide. This icon will help you locatethem.• BODY/CAB CONDITIONAll door latches or hinges must be secure and working well. The cabin mustbe sealed from engine and fuel areas.• BRAKESAIR BRAKE OPERATIONMost heavy vehicles have full air brakes. It is important that brakes areproperly adjusted and well maintained.When you apply the foot brake pedal you are opening a valve that allowspressurised air to flow to the brake chambers at each wheel. Thereforebraking effectiveness depends on how far you depress the pedal, unlike acar where the braking effectiveness depends on how hard you depress thepedal.It is very important to check your brakes properly and regularly, and to referto the manufacturer’s manual. Use the following procedure as a guide onlyand get a professional to service your brakes often.56Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


6inspection of hydraulic brakesStep 1: External check1 Check for line damage and leaks.2 Check wheel backing plates and brake hoses for any signs ofleaks or damage, such as chafed hoses or pipes.3 Check around the master cylinder and hydraulic oil reservoir forleaks. Also check that the reservoir is full.Step 2: System check1 Check the feel of the brake pedal when you apply the foot brake.If the pedal sinks down further than usual or if it feels spongy,there may be a leak or air in the system.2 Keep full pressure on the pedal – it should continue to be hard. Ifthe pedal starts to sink, there may be a leak in the system.3 Vacuum brakes – check booster retention with full vacuum andthe engine off. When you apply the pedal it should stay downwithout resistance. The vacuum must be available soon after theengine is started with low vacuum available after 30 seconds andnormal working vacuum after 60 seconds.4 Check that the vehicle does not pull to one side when you brakewith the vehicle moving, off road if possible.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 57


6inspection of air brakesStep 1: Secure the vehicle1 Put on the parking brake.2 Switch off the engine.3 Where manual valves are fitted to air tanks, drain daily.It is illegal to discharge fluid on the ground as it can be washed downdrains and is an environmental hazard.Step 2: Drain all air tanksOn vehicles with a dual circuit braking system, drain one system first.Check to make sure that only one gauge indicates no pressure, thendrain the other system. If both gauges show no pressure after drainingone system, do not use the vehicle before your brakes have beenchecked by a professional.Step 3: Refill the system1 Start engine and run at fast idle – do not race the engine.2 Check that:• Any low air pressure warning signals (if fitted) are operating as aresult of having no air in the system.• The low air pressure warning signals (if fitted) operate at about 410kPa.• The time it takes for air pressure to build up from 0 to 80 per centof maximum pressure limit (refer to manufacturer’s specification) isnot longer than five minutes.3 Allow maximum pressure to build up and turn off engine.Step 4: System check1 Chock the wheels and release the park brake.2 Apply the foot brake fully and check the drop in air pressureon the gauge. The drop in pressure per minute should not exceedthe following:– Truck 20 kPa.– Truck and trailer an extra 5 kPa per trailer.58Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


63 Apply the foot brake another four times, holding it down on thefourth application. The pressure should not have fallen by morethan half normal system operating pressure and the low warningsignal should not have activated.If it has, do not use the vehicle before your brake system hasbeen checked by a professional.4 Recharge air system.Step 5: Trailer check1 Turn the engine off.2 Disconnect the air hoses between the hauling unit and trailer(articulated vehicles and truck/trailer combinations). The trailerbrakes must automatically come on and remain on for at least 15minutes. This is to check if the breakaway system is operational.3 Check the tractor protection system of the hauling unit after airhas stopped being released from the hauling unit trailer air linefittings. If these fittings contain self-sealing devices, hold themopen until no more air is released.4 Check that the:• Air pressure is in excess of 300 kPa.• Service brakes still work.• Spring brakes (if fitted) have not come on.Step 6: External check1 Re-connect air hoses.2 Apply the park brake.3 Walk around the vehicle and listen carefully for air leaks.Step 7: Final check1 Start the engine to recharge the air system.2 Release and re-apply the park brake and walk aroundthe vehicle again and listen carefully for air leaks.These ‘general checks’ do not replace the need for thoroughinspections of the systems.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 59


6• REAR MARKING PLATESAll motor vehicles with a GVM exceeding 12 tonnes and trailers with a GTMover 10 tonnes must be fitted with retroreflective marking plates at the rear.A prime mover and semi-trailer combination must display rear markingplates on the rear of the prime mover and the rear of the trailer.Rear marking plates may also display DO NOT OVERTAKE TURNINGVEHICLE in black letters 50 millimetres high as shown if the vehicleexceeds 7.5 metres in length. See section 5 Heavy vehicle road rulesfor details. Only use plates with approved retroreflective material. Do notmodify or use alternative plates except those described previously.Keep the plates clean and in good condition. Plates must not be covered orobscured by any vehicle equipment or load.When a hauling unit vehicle is rated with a GCM exceeding 12 tonnesor the sum of the laden mass of the trailer and hauling unit exceeds 12tonnes, rear marking plates must be fitted to the rearmost trailer beingtowed.Rear marking plate rules do not apply to route buses used only in urbanareas.The marking plate shown on page 71 may be an acceptable alternative, ifthe first option is not practicable, provided it meets specific dimensions andlocations. For further information refer to Standards Bulletin VSB12 – RearMarking Plates.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 65


6Typical fitting of alternative style class 2 plate (type 1).• RUST AND CORROSIONAny structure, chassis, frame etc must not have advanced rust. Any panelseparating the driver or passenger from fuel or engine fumes must not haveadvanced rust – that is rust which would cause the metal to collapse in acrash.• SEATS AND SEATBELTSSeat frames or mountings must be structurally sound with all seatbeltsundamaged and working properly.• STEERINGThe steering wheel must be undamaged and firmly attached to the steeringcolumn. All steering components must be secure, undamaged and not haveexcessive free play.• STRUCTUREAny structure, chassis, frame etc must not be distorted, cracked ordamaged.• SUSPENSIONSuspension springs must not sag or be modified and all suspensioncomponents must be aligned and undamaged.• WHEELS AND TYRESAll wheels must be properly attached to the vehicle with the right numberand type of nuts and studs and wheel rims must not be cracked or bent.All tyres must have at least 1.5 millimetres tread depth over 75 per cent oftyre surfaces which normally contact the road. All tyres must have correctair pressure. Manufacturer’s recommendations are a good guide.66Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


6wheels and tyresRims (dents in flanges, loose lugs and nuts, rust trails,cracks in rim assembly)................................................................ .Tyres (tread minimum legal depth of 1.5 millimetres).................... .Tyre inflation correct....................................................................... .Tyre cuts, damage, dual tyres touching, rocks lodgedbetween duals.............................................................................. .Spare wheel(s)/tyre(s).................................................................. .generalRegistration label(s) current and attached........................................ .Windscreen wipers....................................................................... .Warning triangles......................................................................... .Fire extinguishers.......................................................................... .Other.................................................................................................................................................................................................. .• PRE-DEPARTURE SAFETY CHECKSIt is very important to check your vehicle before you drive, particularlyitems that have been reported defective. These checks can save timeand expense later on, reducing the chance of component failure andsubsequent loss of vehicle control, which may result in an accident.These inspections should be conducted prior to shift start (no matter whatthe time of day) and always following the manufacturer’s recommendations.The areas you need to cover are listed in this section.• DEALING WITH PROBLEMSIf the vehicle you are driving has a maintenance or mechanical problem,you must make a written report on a form supplied by the owner.Keep a record of all repairs and check that the fault has been fixed. Take itback to the repairer if the problem persists.• DEFECT REPORTINGIf the vehicle you are driving has a maintenance or mechanical problem,inform the owner of all symptoms in a written report.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 69


6Uncoupling and couplingUncoupling and coupling a prime mover and semitrailer is a task which canlead to serious accidents, injury and vehicle damage. Follow these steps toperform the task correctly.• Uncoupling a semi-trailerstep 1 - secure the vehicle1 Before uncoupling:• Make sure your semi-trailer is parked on a level area.• Ensure the vehicle is on a surface firm enough to support the trailerlanding gear and its load.• Make sure the prime mover and semi-trailer are in a straight line.2 You will then need to:• Apply the parking brakes and tractor/trailer protection valve.• Ensure trailer security by giving it a ‘tug test’ with the prime moverto see if the trailer moves or by chocking the trailer wheels.• Always use chocks when you have to park a semi-trailer on agrade. It is best to chock the semi-trailer’s front axle in case thelanding legs collapse and the rear axle(s) lifts.• When you uncouple on soft ground, put suitably strong timber orother flat supports under the landing gear.• Large pressure drops during a static brake check may indicate thatthere is a problem. Always have this checked.step 2 - trailer check1 Lower the landing gear ensuring firm and even contact with the ground.2 Raise the trailer until a gap is visible at the fifth wheel (turntable).3 Secure the landing gear handle.step 3 - uncoupling the trailer1 Release the turntable jaws. If the release handle cannot be moved, thejaws may be under load.2 Take the pressure off by gently rocking the prime mover forward andback and then try to release again.70Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


63 Move forward slowly. Release the prime mover parking brakeand slowly drive forward in a straight line until the fifth wheelis just clear of the trailer skid plate, making sure the trailer stays put,using the trailer brakes if necessary.4 Apply prime mover park brake.step 4 - final check1 Disconnect the air hoses and electrical cables from the trailer.2 Stow hoses and cables properly on the prime mover making sure thatthe connectors are kept free of dust and water, and that they cannot getcaught on the tail shaft.3 Drive away slowly. Ensure the driver’s door is closed whenever thevehicle is moving.• coupling a semi-trailerstep 1 - position the vehicle1 Reverse the prime mover into position, lined up straight in front of the trailer,stopping the prime mover with the skid plate just touching the trailer.2 Apply the parking brake.step 2 - trailer check1 Check the trailer skid plate, kingpin, turntable jaws, airlines, leads andconnections for damage.2 Make sure the turntable jaws are open.3 If the trailer:• Has a block welded to the skid plate about 30 cm behind thekingpin, make sure the top of the turntable is the type which turnsand is unlocked.• Is without the block the turntable will need to be locked in position.Make sure the top of the turntable is well greased when it is used inthe locked position.step 3 - securing the trailer1 Ensure trailer is secure. Place chocks behind at least one wheel. If the traileris equipped with spring brakes, the trailer brakes should already be on.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 71


62 Check that the turntable and kingpin are lined up and that the primemover will clear the trailer.3 Check and adjust the height of the skid plate to the turntable. The heightof the trailer skid plate should be slightly lower than the centre of theturntable. About five centimetres is ideal.If the trailer is too low, the prime mover chassis or edge of the turntablecan hit the trailer front instead of going under.On a trailer that is too high, the turntable may not properly latch onto the kingpin, or the turntable could even pass beneath the kingpin,allowing the prime mover cab to hit the trailer.step 4 - trailer check1 Connect air hoses and electrical cables (do not forget to twist lock ringon bayonet fittings)2 Set tractor protection valve (if fitted) to normal.3 Apply the trailer brake.4 Check brake air pressure.step 5 - coupling the trailer1 Reverse the prime mover slowly under the trailer until the turntable jawslock around the kingpin.You should hear the jaws close and lock into place.2 Raise landing gear just clear of the ground.3 Perform a ‘tug test’ to check the trailer is locked on by trying to move offin first gear with the trailer brakes on.The prime mover should not move.4 Repeat this check to be absolutely sure.5 Check that the coupling release lever is in the locked position and thereis no gap between the turntable and the trailer skid plate.A visible gap between the turntable and the trailer skid plate may meanthe trailer is set too high.Try lowering the trailer on the landing gear slightly and the gap shouldclose but if it does not check for any problems.6 Check that the turntable jaws are closed correctly and have locked on tothe kingpin.Make sure that the head of the pin is not sitting on top of the jaws.7 Fully raise the landing gear and stow the handle.72Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Summary6• What you should know about maintenanceAfter reading this section, you should know -• how to conduct a pre-departure check• what to do should you become aware of a mechanical or maintenanceproblem• how to inspect and check brakes and air pressure• how to couple and uncouple a trailerNotes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 75


7 Vehicle dimensions and loadingIt is the responsibility of the driver to ensure the vehicle does not exceeddimension or mass limits and that the load is appropriately restrained.• Minimising DimensionsA person must not use a vehicle or combination unless it is loaded so as tominimise its dimensions.• statutory limitsAny vehicle that exceeds the following dimensions (Table 1) or mass limits(Table 2) MUST operate in accordance with an exemption or specific permitwhen used on a public street. See section following on permits.Table 1vehicle dimensionsType of vehicle orcombinationAny rigid vehicleAny vehicle and trailercombination (includingprime mover – semitrailers).DimensionLengthWidthHeightRear overhangLengthWidthHeightRear overhangStatutory Limit (m)12.52.54.34.4 double deck busLesser of 3.7m and 60% of thewheelbase192.54.34.6 Live stock carrier, or avehicle carrying vehicles onmore than one deck.Lesser of 3.7m and 60% of thewheelbase76Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7Table 2axle mass limitsSingle Axle orAxle GroupAxle DescriptionGeneral AccessMass Limit(tonnes)Steer axle 2 tyres 6.0Twin steer axlegroupSingle axleTandem axle group(load sharing)Tri-axle groups(load sharing)Non-load sharing suspension systemLoad sharing suspension system10.011.04 tyres 8.5 Pig Trailer9.08 or more tyres 15.0 Pig Trailer12 or more tyres on a trailer (min 1.2axle spacing)16.518.0 Pig Trailer20.0GROSS MASS 42.5• Maximum widthThe width of a vehicle is to be measured without taking into account any ofthe following -• anti-skid devices mounted on wheels• central tyre inflation systems• lights• mirrors• reflectors• signalling devices• tyre pressure gauges• Rear OverhangThe rear overhang of a vehicle means the distance between the rearoverhang line and the rear most point of the vehicle, inclusive of any load.The rear overhang line of a vehicle is –• the centre line of the rear axle if there is a single axle at the rear of the vehicle; or• the centre line of the rear axle group if there is an axle group at the rearof the vehicle.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 77


7The maximum rear overhang of a rigid vehicle, including any load is thelesser of -• 3.7 metres or• 60% of the wheelbase.The maximum length of a rigid vehicle, inclusive of any load carried is 12.5metres.The maximum length of a truck and trailer or prime mover and semi trailer,inclusive of any load carried is 19.0 metres.If the load exceeds the allowable dimensions a more appropriate vehiclemust be used.W/B=Wheelbase R/OH=Rear Overhang m=MetresExample: WB - 7.00mx 60%= 4.20mMaximum permitted 3.7m• Load shiftWhen moving, a vehicle’s load can move from forces caused by changesof speed, braking, accelerating, cornering, travelling over uneven roadsurfaces, and slopes.Loads must be secured to ensure the load does not move.78Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• How to carry a load safelyTo carry a load safely and prevent danger to any person, or damage to anyproperty you must -• choose a suitable vehicle• position the load correctly• use suitable and adequate restraint equipment• use appropriate driving methodsLoadingThe Vehicle and Traffic (Vehicle Operations) Regulations 2001 stipulate themass, and dimensions for all vehicles and loads used on a public street inTasmania.Vehicle manufacturers set the gross mass (GVM/GCM/GTM) limits for eachvehicle model.A vehicle must not be operated at a mass limit that will exceed the lesser ofthe -• manufacturer’s GVM/GCM/GTM• manufacturer’s individual component rating (ie axles, springs, tyres etc)• statutory mass limitsIt is the operator’s responsibility to make sure these limits are notexceeded.THE COST OF OVERLOADINGMillions of dollars are spent every year to repair damagedroads and bridges.Even a little overloading causes a lot of damage to roads andbridges, which everyone must pay for. It is very important forthe future of Tasmanian roads and the heavy vehicle industrythat you do not overload your vehicle.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 79


7• Projecting loadsThis information applies to all vehicles. For details regarding loads onvehicles refer to the information bulletins on General Access Mass andDimensions, Rear Overhang and Oversize Vehicles and Loads.This diagram shows the allowable projected load limits.• Dangerous projectionsA person must not use, or cause or permit the use of, a vehicle with a loadthat projects in a way that is dangerous to a person or property, even if thedimension limits and warning requirements specified in the regulations arecomplied with.• Warning requirements on projectionsDuring daylight, a person must not use, a vehicle carrying a load if the loadprojects more than -• 1.2 metres in front of the vehicle; or• 1.2 metres behind the vehicle, unless a red flag is affixed to the rearextremity of the load.At night, a person must not use, a vehicle carrying a load if the loadprojects more than -• 1.2 metres in front of the vehicle; or• 1.2 metres behind the vehicle, unless a red light is affixed to, and clearlydisplayed at, the rear extremity of the load.80Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• Dangerous projectionsA load with any potentially dangerous projection should be placed tominimise risk to the driver and any other person.The potentially dangerous projectionis correctly positioned to minimisethe risk of load shift.The load is incorrectly positionedand projections are potentiallydangerous in the event of load shift.• Load distribution and arrangementAn overloaded vehicle is unsafe to drive, inefficient to operate anddamages the road.Poor load distribution can cause -• loss of steering• loss of traction under power• wheel lock-up under braking resulting in a jackknife or trailer swing• vehicle roll-over on a roundabout or when changing lanesThe weight of the load should be evenly distributed.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 81


7The weight of the load needs to be evenly distributed.It is very important to have even distribution of maximumpermitted weight because:• Maximum permitted axle loads will not be exceeded.• Driving control is improved through the wheels.• The chassis frame will not be damaged by twistingor bending.• Positioning the loadFor stability, the load should be spread close to the centre line of thevehicle. You should stack the heavier things at the bottom. Loading a heavyitem on one side may result in twisting and stress on the chassis frame, oroverloading of axle housings, wheel bearings and tyres. This could be badenough to -• allow the brakes to lock on the wheels on the lighter side• cause flat spots on the tyres• skid on a wet surfaceProblems may occur in a rigid vehicle, when a very heavy small load isplaced against the headboard. This could cause -• the chassis frame to bend, perhaps permanently• overloading in the front tyres• irregular tyre wear or even a blowoutAvoid these problems by placing any small heavy load just ahead of therear axle.82Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7If you need to place a load back from the headboard to distribute weight,the load should be blocked so that it cannot move forward. Unless it isblocked, even the heaviest load will move forward if you stop suddenly.• Securing the loadThe following information is a guide only. Detailed information on securingyour load is available in the Load Restraint Guide.The way your vehicle is loaded is very important for your safety and for thesafety of others. You are legally responsible for your load and any damageor injury it may cause.Driving over bumps in the road, around curves and corners, andaccelerating and braking can cause your load to move. The force of animpact can move a load that is unstable or not properly secured and youcan lose control of your vehicle.The weight of your load should also be evenly distributed so you cancontrol your vehicle properly.Load restraintsA load restraint system on a vehicle should be capable of restraining thefollowing percentages of the weight of the load from shifting -• 20 per cent upward• 80 per cent forward• 50 per cent rearward• 50 per cent sideways20% upwards and 80% forward.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 83


750% rearward and sideways.Loads must be secured to prevent -• any part of the load hanging over or sticking out of the vehicle in a waywhich could hurt someone, damage property or cause a hazard to otherroad users• any part of the load being dislodged or falling out of the vehicleIt is against the law to drive a vehicle where the load is not secured. Youcan stop your load from moving by -• lashings secured to the vehicle chassis, including -• cross bearers• outriggers• tie rails and similar arrangements• blocking arrangements such as• load racks• headboards• bulkheads• stakes in pockets• transverse beams• shoring bars• chocks, dunnage, etc84Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• containing the load by using a truck with solid sides and tailgate, atanker or a shipping container• covering loose loads such as sand or gravel with sheets or tarpaulins• BlockingThe most important part of the blocking is the headboard or bulkhead. Itis best to put most loads right against the headboard to prevent the loadacting like a battering ram if it moves forward. If other restraints fail in asudden stop, the load might break the headboard. This could damage thecabin and leave you severely injured.The headboard and extra blocking canbe used to stop load shift.The load is not secured and could shift.The load is correctly blockedagainst the headboard.Many vehicles carry loads that could crush the driver’s cab if the loadshifted forward under sudden braking. If you carry loads such as coils,sheet steel, steel pipes, structural steel and timber, you should have asolidly constructed bulkhead instead of a normal headboard.When carrying a load of metal bars, it is particularly important to ensurethat all bars are secured and unable to move out of the stack. One bar thatmoves could go through the bulkhead.• Stakes in pocketsThese or stanchions may be used in conjunction with lashings to preventlong rigid loads such as pipes, logs etc from moving sideways.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 85


7Stakes or stanchions should be used to prevent sideways movement.• crowned loadsIt is important that long rigid loads such as pipes, logs etc be crowned toensure the load is lashed securely without ‘gaps’. Gaps in the load mayallow it to move and cause the lashings to become loose.To restrain movement in loadssuch as pipes, they need to be crownedand have no gaps.The gaps in this load can causepotentially dangerous load shift.• Divided crowned loadsIn some cases it may be necessary to divide the load into two or morestacks to crown it effectively. This can be achieved by attaching thelashings along the middle of the deck.86A load that is divided to minimise thechance of movement.A load with substantial gaps that wouldallow potentially dangerous movement.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• DunnageThis is packing placed under or between parts of the load. It is used toallow loading and unloading with forklifts or lifting slings. It is usually madeof rectangular or square hardwood or softwood and must be strong enoughto support the weight of the load placed upon it.A load with multiple layers or rows must have all dunnage placed directlyabove the bottom dunnage. Tie-down lashings must only be placed atthese positions along the load to ensure that the lashings do not loosen orovertighten if the vehicle chassis flexes.Long rigid loads such as large diameter steel pipes must be supported in twopositions to allow the vehicle to flex. Additional dunnage (and lashings) will needto be used along the lengths of more flexible loads such as plastic pipes etc.Dunnage needs to be vertically aligned to The dunnage is placed irregularly andminimise movement when under lashings. could loosen or overtighten lashingswhen the vehicle is operating.• Gates/fencingA load can also be secured with sidegates, tailgates and other blocks. Thesidegates have to be strong enough not to be forced out by the weight ofthe load. Other blocks should be secured and braced. You should close andlock the tailgate of your vehicle unless the load is too long. Never carry anyseparate part of the load on the tailgate.Where small pipes or logs are carried, suitable sidegates or othercontainment methods should be used to prevent sideways movement.A load secured from sidewaysmovement by gates and fencing.A load not secured fromsideways movement.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 87


7• ContainersVehicles used to carry containers must be equipped with special devicesknown as ‘twist locks’. Containers have special corner-pieces which fitinto the twist-locks on the vehicle. They can then be locked into place.Sometimes frames with twist-locks can be attached to the vehicle. Theseframes need to be securely bolted to the chassis.A container is not properly secured unless the twist-locks are used. Thisapplies whether the container is full or empty. A vehicle without twistlocksshould not be used to carry containers. Decommissioned containers (thosenot carrying a load) can be chained to a vehicle for transport.A twist lock used to secure a container.• LashingsThese and other fastening devices such asdogchains, cables, clamps, load binders mustbe in good condition. A chain is not goodenough if even one link is deeply gouged,pitted or worn. Make sure the lashings aretight enough to stop any movement. Makesure the type of lashing you use is strongenough to fasten in place.The lashings should be protected from anysharp edges on the load or on the vehicle.When using more than one lashing, securethem separately so if one line fails the otherswill hold.A correctly lashedand fastened load.88Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• RopesRopes used for lashing loadsshould be tensioned by either asingle or double ‘truckies hitch’.The greater the tie down angleof the lashing to the load, thegreater the lashing tensionwill be on the load. Angles ofless than 30 degrees are notrecommended.The greater the angle of the lashing to the load the greater the lashing tension willbe. Angles less than 30˚ are not recommended.• Belly wrappingBelly wrapping may be used to prevent large diameter pipes or bars fromrolling. When belly wrapping, the lashings must be looped over the topof the load to provide tie-down. Lashings that are looped underneath arounded load will not prevent the load from rolling.The lashings must be looped overthe top to prevent rolling.The load could roll dangerously.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 89


7• Large pipe loadsWhen placed across the vehicle, all upper layer pipes in the load should beindividually tied down so that all pipes in the load are positively clamped toprevent sideways movement.All pipes need to be clamped to prevent sideways movement.• Load anchorage pointsYou cannot rely on traditional rope hooks or rings to hold anything otherthan light loads.Vehicles should have load anchorage points fixed to the vehicle so that themain chassis frame takes the force of the load.The chassis frame should be used asan anchorage point.You should not rely on non anchoragepoints to take anything other thanlight loads.• FrictionFriction cannot stop your load from moving but it can be a great help. Tomake the best use of friction, the base of the load and the platform shouldbe kept clean, dry and free from grease. A slippery platform surface isalways dangerous.90Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• Sheets and tarpaulinsExcept in the case of very light bulk loads, sheets and tarpaulins are notstrong enough to hold down loads, they only protect the load from theweather. Sand, gravel, etc. should always be covered.Secured sheets and tarpaulins can be used to protect loads from the weather.Dangerous goodsInformation on the transport of dangerous goods is available from theDepartment of Transport and Regional Services website.For copies of the codes The Australian Code for the Transport ofDangerous Goods by Road and Rail or Australian Code for the Transport ofExplosives by Road and Rail contact the National Transport Commission atwww.ntc.gov.au.An example of a petroleum fuel compliance plate.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 91


7In the event of a crash you mustCall the police or fire brigade on 000.Not touch spilled chemicals and avoid breathing fumesand dust.Wash off any chemicals with plenty of water if you are splashed.Keep people away from the crash site.Show the shipping documents and emergency procedure guideto the police or fire brigade when they arrive.• The correct licenceAny driver of a vehicle which carries bulk dangerous goods must belicensed for that purpose. To find out if your vehicle is defined as carryingbulk dangerous goods, contact Workplace Standards on 1300 366 322.Dangerous goods vehicle drivers are subject to the Australian Code for theTransport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail administered in Tasmaniaby Workplace Standards Tasmania.The driver must -• be at least 21 years old• have held a driver licence for the class of vehicle, which is to carry thedangerous goods• have successfully completed an approved training course• submit a medical certificate• have a satisfactory driving historyFor details on dangerous goods, refer to the National Transport commissionat www.ntc.gov.au or contact Workplace Standards Tasmania on 1300 366322.Dangerous goods vehicles are prohibited from travelling incertain areas at certain times. Please contact WorkplaceStandards Tasmania for more information.92Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7• RisksMany vehicles carry dangerous loads including substances which areflammable, toxic, infectious, radioactive or corrosive.A crash, leakage or fire involving a vehicle carrying dangerous goods couldcause extensive damage, death or serious injury to many people.Vehicles carrying flammable loads must be fitted with a switch that isolatesthe battery and so reduces the risk of fire.In the event of a leakage or accident follow the procedureoutlined on your emergency procedure guide. The procedurevaries for different materials so make sure you carry the rightcard.Workplace Standards Tasmania can provide you withprofessional, technical and scientific information and advice.Call 1300 366 322.Checklist for dangerous goods:Consignment papersMake sure you have these (shipping documents) that showwhat you are carrying.Proper labellingMake sure your vehicle is properly labelled.For bulk dangerous goods it should have:A hazard warning diamond at the front and rear.Information as required by the EPA which should beshown on three emergency information panels, one atthe rear of the vehicle and one on each side, and shouldinclude:– The name of the substance.– United Nations (UN) identification number.– Emergency action code.– Emergency telephone number.– Name and telephone number of the responsiblecompany that can be contacted.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 93


7Carry appropriate guidesYou must keep the Emergency Procedures Guide, a ‘product’card which gives a guide to the emergency procedures thatapply to the particular hazardous substance which you arecarrying, together with the Vehicle Fire Card, on or near theinside of either cabin door. You are permitted to carry theInitial Emergency Response Guide instead of carrying boththe product card and vehicle fire card as the guide providessimilar information to the cards. The guide book and cards arepublished by Standards Australia.Tank inspectionsInspect the tank or other containers before and after loading andfrequently throughout the journey.Hatch inspectionsInspect the hatches of the tanker and make sure the seals are ingood condition. Make sure that all filling points are closed. If theyare not, the tank could leak a lot in a rollover. The vapour from anopen filling point could impair your driving.Protective clothingCarry sufficient protective clothing so that you will be able toattend to any small leaks. You may be able to stop them beforethey become serious problems.94Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


7Oversize vehicle permitsIf the dimensions or mass of a vehicle exceed current Tasmanianregulations then an exemption or permit is required. A permit applicationmay be obtained by calling the Vehicle Operations Branch of theDepartment of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources (DIER) on (03) 62335347.• General permit typesGeneral permits are available under Gazette Notice, this Notice includespermits for the following -• B-doubles• truck and dog trailer combinations• higher mass limits for vehicles with road-friendly suspension• vehicles or combinations with steer axle loads of up to 6.5 tonnes• prime movers fitted with twinsteer axle groups• vehicles carrying oversize and overmass load• exemption of vehicles carrying oversize indivisible items• exemption of combinations carrying overmass indivisible items• transport of rowing boats, surfboats and gliders• special exemption for transport of hay• special exemption for transport of overseas export freight containers• special exemption for transport of high-cube freight containers• transport of special-purpose logs• exemption of 14.6-metre semi-trailers• exemption of 14.9-metre refrigerated semi-trailers• exemption of certain low loaders• exemption of certain combinations• agricultural machinery• trucks used to spread fertilizer• trucks fitted with spreader boxesTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 95


7It also provides advice on the following;• B-double and truck and dog trailer road network• axle spacing and mass schedule• pilot vehicles• road network for vehicles with road-friendly suspension96Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Summary7• What you should know about heavy vehicledimensions and loadingAfter reading this section, you should know -• the maximum height and width for heavy vehicles• how to distribute a load evenly and safely• general restraint and loading requirements fordifferent types of loads• what you need to do if carrying dangerous goodsNotes.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 97


8PenaltiesTraffic offencesPenalties for breaking the traffic laws include fines, disqualification fromdriving, licence cancellation or suspension. For a very serious offencelike drink driving, you may be fined, disqualified from driving or even go toprison.• Demerit pointsFor certain traffic offences you will have demerit points recorded againstyou. There is a limit to the number of points you can build up before yourlicence is suspended.This table shows the length of licence suspension depending on thenumber of demerit points recorded.DriverLearner/provisionallicence holderUnlicensed driver*Full licence holderNumber of demerit points4 in 12 months and/or 12 in 3years12 - 14 in 3 yearsPeriod ofsuspension3 months15 - 19 in 3 years 4 months20 or more in 3 years 5 months12 -14 in 3 years 3 months15 - 19 in 3 years 4 months20 or more in 3 years 5 months* An unlicensed driver has a period of ineligibility to hold a licence, instead of asuspension period.• period of Good behaviourIf your full (not a learner or provisional) licence is about to be suspendedbecause of demerit points, you can enter into a period of good behaviourfor 12 months.During your period of good behaviour if you get more than one demeritpoint recorded against you, your licence will be suspended for twice theoriginal length of the licence suspension.98Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


8• excessive Speeding offencesAutomatic disqualification periods apply to drivers who commit a seriousspeeding offence -• driving more than 45 km/h above the speed limit – 6 demerit points anda four-month disqualification• driving between 38 km/h and 44 km/h above the speed limit – 6 demeritpoints and a three-month disqualificationAs these offences also carry demerit points, they may result in you gettinga demerit point suspension if you reach your demerit point limit. Thissuspension will normally start immediately after your excessive speeddisqualification.• Alcohol and drug offencesIt is against the law to drive while under the influence of alcohol and drugs,including prescribed medicines. If you are found to be driving under theinfluence of drugs or alcohol, for a first offence you may be fined up to$3600, go to prison for up to 12 months.It is an offence to drive certain vehicles (including one with a GVM inexcess of 4.5 tonnes) with alcohol in the body. If you commit a drinkdriving offence, for a first offence you may be fined up to $1200, go toprison for up to 3 months.Depending on the breath or blood alcohol reading recorded a driver can beautomatically disqualified (on the spot) from driving for 12 months.Heavier penalties apply for second or subsequent offences.It is against the law to drive with an illicit drug present in the blood.These drugs include THC (the active component of cannabis),methylamphetamine and ecstasy. For a first offence, you can be fined amaximum of $240.For more information on traffic offence and penalties, see theTasmanian Road Rules Handbook or www.transport.tas.gov.au.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 99


8• Speed limiter offencesA heavy vehicle operator commits a speed limiter offence when their heavyvehicle which is required by law to be speed limited travels more than 100 km/h.The operator will be given a fine of $250 in the form of a traffic infringementnotice. A defect notice will also be issued to repair the speed limiter fitted tothe vehicle.• Heavy Vehicle Checking StationsWeigh bridges and Checking Stations are permanent Tasmanian facilities,located along major transport routes, where any vehicles may be stoppedand inspected to see that they meet safety and roadworthiness standardsand that their drivers are complying with road transport laws.• TruckalyserTruckalysers are used by the DIER transport Inspectors to help keep yourvehicle in a safe condition. The truckalyser tests -• brakes by measuring the brake force generated at each tyre andcalculating the brake balance on each axle• steering and suspension to determine any serious and potentiallydangerous wear in any of the components.• Noise pollutionNoise can affect your physical health, cause nervous stress and annoyothers. It adds to fatigue, lowers productivity and can also increase the riskof heart disease.What you can do to reduce noise• Fit a good exhaust system -• beware of ‘cheapies’ – they can wear out faster and may not havea warranty. A noisy muffler does not mean higher performanceor better fuel consumption. Tests conducted have shown that inmany cases noisy systems were no better for backpressure or fuelconsumption.• buy quality replacement mufflers. The manufacturer’s recommendedpart is usually the best for all-round performance as well as noisecontrol.100Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


8Get your truck or bus tested for noiseAsk the muffler fitter to check that your new muffler has a low noise level.The legal noise limits vary according to GVM, manufacture date, type ofengine and whether the exhaust pipe is vertical or horizontal.During testing, the fitting of raincaps and elbows may deflect the radiationof noise for dB(A) testing, however, the microphone can be placed at anysuitable location so long as it is more than 1.0 metre from the centre of theexhaust outlet but not in the way of the gas flow.• Smoke from enginesExcessive smoke from vehicles is illegal, unpleasant and at timesdangerous. It can also lead to expensive engine repairs and time off theroad.Blue smoke normally indicates engine wear or damage. Black and greysmoke results from incomplete combustion and may be caused by a numberof factors. These examples can usually be fixed during routine maintenance -• blocked air filter• obstruction of fuel filters or water traps with dirt, grit or fuel wax• incorrect fuel pump timing• engine speed too high• incorrect valve or tappet adjustment• poor cylinder compression indicating leakage past valves or piston rings• excessive back-pressure in exhaust system• injectors misfiring or leaking• faulty turbo chargers where fitted• poor driving techniquesDefect noticesDefect notices are issued by various authorised officers of DIER ,TasmaniaPolice and Workplace Standards. There are two categories of defects– minor and major (which includes major grounded). These officers mayalso issue formal warnings.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 101


8• Formal warningType of vehicle defectThese are faults that are non-safety related and are relatively simple torepair. Owners should be advised that it is not necessary to return a FormalWarning Category Vehicle Defect Notice for clearance to DIER – these area self certification/clearance notice.How it affects youYour vehicle may continue to be used but any necessary repairs oradjustments must be made by the time specified on the notice.Empty tipper trucks can be very noisy, so drive slowly overrough roads or get rubber lining fitted to the body.You may be penalised if your vehicle blows smoke for morethan 10 seconds while under load.• Minor defectType of vehicle defectThis includes faults in a vehicle’s safety related systems that are notlikely to cause the vehicle to become unsafe during the time specified onthe notice. The vehicle may continue to be used until the expiry of timespecified.How it affects youYour vehicle may continue to be used up until the time specified on thenotice of repair. These categories of vehicle defects are of a more technicalnature and require inspection and clearance of the vehicle defect notice byeither self clearing, an authorised AIS examiner at an authorised inspectionstation or an authorised officer of DIER.• Major defectType of vehicle defect‘Major’ category vehicle defects are serious defects in a vehicle’s safetyrelated systems that would constitute an imminent and serious safety risk ifthe vehicle is operated beyond the time allowed for use – generally this is102Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


8not more than 24 hours. A yellow coloured defective vehicle label may beattached to the vehicle and a traffic infringement notice issued.How it affects youOnce repairs are completed the vehicle is to be inspected by an authorisedofficer of DIER or an authorised AIS examiner at an authorised inspectionstation for the vehicle defect notice to be cleared.It is against the law to drive or stand a vehicle with anuncleared defect notice on a public street or use a vehiclecontrary to any conditions endorsed on the defect notice.• Major defect – use prohibitedType of vehicle defectVehicles with dangerous category defects must not be driven from the pointof inspection unless the dangerous faults are repaired immediately or thevehicle is towed or carried to a place of repair.How it affects youA yellow coloured defective vehicle label is attached to the vehicle. Theissuing officer will explain the clearance procedures and where the vehiclemay be inspected. In most cases the clearance procedures are the sameas for major defects.• DIER transport inspectorsThe job of a transport Inspector is to ensure the safety of drivers andvehicles using Tasmanian roads. The inspectors enforce regulations for allvehicles, with special emphasis on:• driver behaviour• vehicle roadworthiness• driving hours• weight limit compliance• dimension limit compliance• noise and exhaust emissions• registration and licensing mattersTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 103


8They also check the performance and standard of Authorised InspectionStations and examiners.Transport Inspectors are easily recognised by their uniform and allInspectors carry identification cards that are produced on request.104Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Summary8• What you should know about penaltiesAfter reading this section, you should know -• the demerit points limit for your type of licence• why your licence may be suspended or cancelled• types of defects and how you may be affectedNotes.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 105


9Driver knowledge test questionsQuestionWhat is the maximum height allowed forheavy vehicles other than those operatingunder permit arrangements?What is the maximum width allowed forheavy vehicles other than those operatingunder permit arrangements?What is the GVM (Gross Vehicle Mass)or GCM (Gross Combination Mass) of avehicle?When do you require a permit to carry yourload?When are you required to carry portablewarning triangles?How many?Where should warning trianglesbe placed when a vehicle stops on a roadandthe vehicle is not visible at any time for atleast 200 metres in all directions?What is the total actual driving time (notincluding rest or work time) allowablein a 24hour period for heavy trucks (GVM over 12t,or forming part of combination in aggregateover 12t) and commercial buses (bus withseating capacity of more than 12 adults,carrying passengers for reward or otherbusiness purposes)?When are rear marker plates required?What is the maximum speed for heavyvehicles over 12t GVM?Answer4.3 metres(livestock carriers - 4.6 metres) (doubledecker bus - 4.4 metres)2.5 metres. Items such as rear visionmirrors and clearance lights are notincluded in the measurement.The GVM or GCM is based on the vehiclemanufacturer’s rating as indicatedon thecompliance plate fitted to the vehicle.When the vehicle or its load does not meetthe statutory length, width, height or masslimits.Information can be obtained from thePermits Officer (ph 6233 5214).Vehicles over 12t GVM must always carrythem.A minimum of three. 1 each at least 50m(no more than 150m) in front and at therear of the vehicle, and 1 at the side of thevehicle.12 hoursOn all motor vehicles over 12t GVM, andall trailers over 10t GTM.100 km/h or as per lesser posted speedlimit.What is the maximum speed for buses over5t GVM?What is the maximum speed limit for heavyvehicles under 12t GVM and buses under5t GVM?Does your heavy vehicle extension allowyou to carry bulk dangerous goods?100 km/h or as per lesser posted speedlimit110 km/h or as per lesser posted speedlimit.No106Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


9QuestionWhat is the maximum time you can park aheavy or long vehicle on a road in a built-uparea?When can you carry passengers?What does the braking distance of a heavyvehicle depend on?When do you need to enter a weighbridge?When travelling in good weather conditionsand on a highway what time gap should youleave between your heavy vehicle and thevehicle in front?What is the maximum speed limit for heavyvehicle learner drivers?A heavy vehicle is any motor vehicle greaterthan?What is the maximum speed limit (unlesssignposted otherwise) for heavy vehicles ina built-up area?Can the licensed driver of a multiplecombination vehicle legally drive a heavyrigid vehicle?Is a Learner Licence required to drive thenext class of heavy vehicle up from mycurrent licence?What is the minimum driving age for a driverof a medium rigid vehicle?Answer1 hour except when displaying anexemption permit issued by the TransportCommission.Buses may occupy a Bus Zone for longerthen one hour but must comply with signedrestrictions.A Heavy Vehicle Licence does not permityou to carry paying passengers. Yourequire a Ancillary Certificate to Drive aPublic Passenger Vehicle.Non paying passengers are not permittedto be carried in heavy vehicles that are notequipped to carry passengers. Eg trailersand the backs of trucks.On the mass of the load, the speed of thevehicle, road conditions, and on the typeand combination of the vehicle.When instructed by Transport Inspectors,Police or when a TRUCKS MUST ENTERsign is displayed.At least 4 seconds.80 km/h.4.5t GVM50km/hYes.Not if you meet the age and experiencecriteria and you are progressing one classin the hierarchy.19 years of ageTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 107


9QuestionTo obtain a light rigid or medium rigid licenceyou must have held a car licence for?What is the maximum G.V.M. of a trailer thatyou can tow with a heavy rigid vehicle?What is a heavy rigid vehicle?To obtain a heavy rigid licence you musthave held a car and a light rigid/mediumrigid licence for?What is the minimum age to obtain a heavycombination licence?What is a heavy combination vehicle?To obtain a heavy combination licencehow long must you have held a car and amedium rigid/heavy rigid licence for?What is the required minimum distancebetween long vehicles?What is the maximum G.V.M. of a trailer thatyou can tow with a medium rigid vehicle?Do I need to display L Plates when learningto drive a heavy vehicle?When are you required to carry yourlicence?Do you need a licensed driver, who holdsthe appropriate licence you are learningto drive, sitting next to you when you arelearning to drive this class of heavy vehicle?Is it compulsory to wear seat belts in heavyvehicles?When do you need to inspect the vehicleyou are driving?Answer12 months.9 tonnes.Any rigid vehicle with 3 or more axles,including trucks and buses, greater than 8tonnes G.V.MCar licence for 2 years and a light rigid/medium rigid for 12 months.20 years of agePrime mover/single semi or heavy rigidvehicle with trailer greater than 9 tonnesG.V.MCar for 2 years, medium rigid/heavy rigidfor 12 months.The required minimum distance betweenlong vehicles is 60 metres, driving on amulti-lane road or any length of road in abuilt-up area.9 tonnes.Yes.At all times when driving.Yes.Yes, if they are fitted.Prior to departing on any trip youshould inspect the vehicle for basicroadworthiness. eg lights and tyres.108Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Industry glossary10ABS – An abbreviation for anti-lock brakingsystems.“Tandem Axle Group” “Tri-axle Group” or“Quad Axle Group”.ADR – Australian Design Rule. A set ofNational Standards governing vehicledesign.Aggregate mass – Maximum allowableloaded mass of a particular vehicle orcombination.Aggregate trailer mass (ATM)– The total mass of a trailer carryingthe maximum load as specified by thetrailer manufacturer. It includes the massimposed onto the drawbar as well as themass on the axles. See also GVM.Air suspension – A suspension system inwhich the weight of the vehicle is supportedby air bags containing compressed air andthe axles are held in position longitudinallyand laterally by bushed rods.Articulated vehicle – A motor vehicleand trailer. The trailer is pivoted to andsuperimposed on the motor vehicle.Usually a “prime mover” and “semi-trailer”.Does not include pole or drawbar typetrailers.Anchor point – Fitting or attachment on avehicle or load to secure lashings.Automatic tow coupling – A “coupling”used to connect a trailer “drawbar” to themotor vehicle with a self-engaging pin andlocking mechanism.Auxiliary gearbox – A secondary gearboxthat may be located before or after themain gearbox to provide additionaloverdrive or reduction ratios.Axle – One or more shafts positioned in aline across a vehicle, on which one or morewheels intended to support the vehicle turn.Axle group – Means a “Single Axle”,Baffles – Barriers fitted crosswise andlengthwise inside tanks to limit surging offluids (or loads which behave like fluids)during acceleration, braking and cornering.B-Double – A combination of vehiclesconsisting of a prime mover towing twosemi-trailers.Bolster – A rigid support base commonlyused to support logs on jinkers, may alsobe fitted with chocks and stanchions.Bulkhead – Also known as a Cab Guardrefers to the frame work at the front of thetray body or flat top trailer.Cab chassis – A motor vehicle with onlythe cab fitted with no cargo or load carryingcapacity.Chassis – A vehicle frame includes allrunning components but no body or cabin.Chocks – Wedge shaped blocks used toprevent movement of the load.Combination vehicle – Means a motorvehicle connected to one o r more trailers.Constant mesh transmission – Atransmission in which all gears remain inmesh at all times.Contained load – A load prevented fromdislodging from the vehicle by the vehiclestructure, gates, sides, racks, headboards,stanchions or other parts of the load.Converter dolly – Means a trailer with oneaxle group or single axle fitted with a “FifthWheel Coupling” and designed to convert asemi-trailer to a “dog trailer”.Corner protectors – Material used toprotect lashings and the exposed edges ofTasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 109


10loads and vehicles, and to allow lashings toslide freely when being tensioned.Coupling – A mechanical assembly thatprovides connection between a drawingvehicle and trailer.Cradle – A frame shaped to support anobject or load.Daylight – Means the hours betweensunrise and sunset.Deck – The load carrying platform of avehicle.Dog – A chain tensioner incorporating anover-centre locking action with a fixed orpivoting lever.Dog trailer – A trailer with two axle groups,the front group being steered by a drawbarcoupled to a towing vehicle.Drawbar length – The distance fromthe centre line of the towing pivot to thecentreline of the leading axle group of thetrailer.Drawbar stand – A leg that permits atrailer drawbar to remain clear of theground when uncoupled usually at couplingheight to allow for easier hook-up.Drive shaft – See ‘Tail shaft’.Driveline – The motor, clutch, gearbox,drive shafts, diff(s) and axle(s).Drive Train – The vehicle components thattransmit engine power to the drive wheels.Dual wheels – A matched pair of wheelsattached to each end of an axle.Dunnage – Packing material (eg pieces oftimber, plywood, mats) placed between thecargo and the truck platform, or betweenitems of cargo to level the load and/orincrease friction so the load is less likelyto move during journey. It is also usedto leave a gap between a load and theload deck, or different parts of the load, toenable forklifts tynes to be placed under forlifting.Flat rack – A steel base used to supportloads, fitted with receptacles for twist locksand provision for forklift operation.Flat top – A truck, trailer or semi-trailer thathas flat goods carrying area without sides.Forward control vehicle – A motor vehiclewith the steering wheel in the forwardquarter of the vehicles total length.Freight container – Means a box likegoods receptacle, or load platform,provided with specified corner fittings.Gates – Permanent or removable verticalframes used at the front, side or rear of avehicle’s loading deck to contain its load.Gross combination mass (GCM) – For amotor vehicle, means the greatest possiblesum of the maximum loaded mass of themotor vehicle and of any vehicles thatmay be towed by it at the same time asspecified by the manufacturer of the motorvehicle.Gross trailer mass (GTM) – Means themass transmitted to the ground by theaxles of a trailer when the trailer is loadedto its GVM and connected to a towingvehicle.Gross vehicle mass (GVM) – For avehicle, means the maximum loadedmass of the vehicle as specified by themanufacturer of the vehicle.Lashings – Fastening devices, chains,cables, ropes or webbing used to restrainloads.110Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


10Lashing capacity (LC) – The maximumforce (in kilograms) that a lashing system isdesigned to sustain in use.Load Binder – A device used fortensioning a lashing.Load capacity – The difference betweenthe GVM or GTM of a vehicle and its taremass.Load limit – The maximum load that maybe carried in, or on any motor vehicle uponthe road.Log book – Driver’s record of hours drivenand rest periods taken.Night – Means the hours between sunsetand sunrise.Pallet – A portable platform or tray ontowhich loads are placed for mechanicalhandling.Pawl – A lever or lock which protectsreverse rotation on a winch.Pole-type trailer – Means a trailer that isattached to a towing vehicle by a pole oran attachment fitted to a pole and is usuallyused for transporting loads such as logs,pipes or other long objects that can supportthemselves like beams between supports.Prime mover – A motor vehicle built andconstructed to tow a semi-trailer.Quad axle group - Means a group ofat least four axles with the extreme axlecentres at least 3.2 metres apart but notmore than 4.9 metres apart.Rear marker– Means a rear marking platedesigned and fitted in compliance with ADR45.Rear overhang – Means the distancebetween the rear overhang line and therear of the vehicle inclusive of any load.Rear overhang line – Of a vehicle means;for a vehicle with a single axle at the rear ofthe vehicle the centreline of that axle or, fora vehicle with an axle group at the rear ofthe vehicle the centreline of that group.Semi-trailer – Means a trailer (includinga pole-type trailer) that has one axlegroup towards the rear and a means ofattachment that would result in some of theload being imposed upon the prime mover.Speed limiter – A device that prevents avehicle from being driven on a level road atmore than 100 kilometres an hour.Shackle – A metal coupling link closedby a bolt which can be used for attachingchain fittings.Shackle – Also is a link attaching asuspension spring to the vehicle chassis.Single axle – Means an axle not part of anaxle group.Sling – A length of hemp-core rope,webbing or steel-wire rope with eyesformed at each end.Spreader – A transverse spar or frameused to support tarpaulins and side gates.Stanchion – A large upright fixed to theside of a vehicle for sideways restraint.Synchromesh transmission – Atransmission in which the speeds of thegears are matched or ‘synchronised’ bymeans of in-built synchronising clutchesbefore they are meshed.Tachograph – A trip recorder incorporatinga clock, speedometer and often a revcounter that inscribes a record of a journeyon circular paper graph.Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 111


10Tachometer – An instrument for measuringengine revolutions.Tandem axle group – Means a group ofat least two axles with the extreme axlecentres not more than 2m apart.Tare mass – Means the unladen mass ofthe vehicle.Tarpulin (tarp) – A waterproof materialused to cover and protect goods from theweather or prevent the load from blowingoff the vehicle.Tie rail – A round rail which skirts theperimeter of the loading deck below thecoaming rail.Trailer – A vehicle that is built to be towed,or is towed by a motor vehicle, does notinclude a vehicle used on rails or anothermotor vehicle being towed.Trailer coupling – A device that attaches atrailer to a towing vehicle.Tri-axle group – Means a group of at leastthree axles with the extreme axle centresat least 2 metres apart but not more than3.2m apart.Twist lock – Means a device fitted to, orforming part of, a vehicle and designedto secure the corner fittings of a freightcontainer.Unladen mass – The mass of a motorvehicle without a load, but including alltools, fixed cranes, oil and fuel in the tanks.112Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


Index11AAlcohol.............17, 26, 31-32, 37, 39, 99Approved training organisations.........21Articulated vehicle.................9, 12,14 59BB-Double................. 1, 15, 50, 73, 95, 96permits...................................50, 95, 96Belly Wrapping....................................89Blocking.........................................84, 85Brakes.............41-47, 52, 56, 57, 58-59,60, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70, 71-75, 82, 100Bus................... 9, 12, 17, 26, 28, 29, 30,31, 35, 36, 37, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55,64, 65, 68, 76, 101CB signals............................................52double deck.......................................76driving hours..........................28, 29, 37lanes..................................................51priority for...........................................51turning................................................48Commercial buses............26, 28, 29, 30Containers...............................88, 94, 95Coupling..................60-61, 68, 70-74, 75Crash avoidance space..................38-40Crash – in the event of........................92Crossing or entering traffic............48, 51Crowned loads....................................86DDangerous goods........23, 91, 92, 93, 97Dangerous projections..................80, 81Defect notices......69, 100, 101-103, 105Depressants............................31, 32, 34Distances between large vehicles......40Dog Trailer.................................1, 95, 96Double-declutching..........................62, 63Driver fatigue...............23-29, 33, 37, 100Driving hours regulation........................26Driving tests...........................................20Drugs................31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 99Dunnage..........................................84, 87EElectrical system....................................61EPA........................................................93External service providers.....................21FFatigue.............23, 24-29, 33, 37, 39, 100Fire.................................30, 53-54, 55, 93Flammable load.....................................93Flashing lights.................................. 63-64Friction...................................................90GGates/fencing........................................87GCM................................................65, 79Gear box.......................................... 62-63Gears................43, 44, 45, 47, 62, 63, 72GTM.................................................65, 79GVM......................... 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 28,29, 31, 47, 51, 53, 62, 65, 79, 99, 101HHealth..............................................32, 33IInspections.................. 20, 29, 56, 57, 58,59, 61, 73, 75, 94, 100, 102, 103, 104Intersections........................ 47-48, 52, 55JJack knife...................... 41, 42, 46, 60, 81Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 113


11LLaden mass.........................................65Lashing................. 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89Learning to drive.............................16-17Licence classes.....................................9LR – Light Rigid.................................10MR – Medium Rigid........................... 11HR – Heavy Rigid..............................12HC – Heavy Combination.................14MC – Multi Combination....................15Dangerous goods.........................91-94Tests...................................................20Light traffic roads.................................50Load anchorage points........................90Load restraints................................83-85Log book.........................................29-31Long vehicles.....................40, 47, 49, 51LPG and CNG................................61-62MMass limit............... 50, 51, 76-77, 79, 95Medical assessment................15, 20, 92Medical standards.........................15, 20Medication...........................................34Moving off......................................41, 73NNoise pollution....... 60, 61, 100-101, 103OOversize vehicle permits................95-96Overloading.............................79, 81, 82Overtaking............ 40, 47, 48, 49, 55, 65PPre-departure checks........56, 67, 69, 75Projected loads..............................80, 81RRear marking plates......................49, 65Reversing....... 20, 49, 55, 63, 71, 72, 74Rigid vehicle...........9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16,20, 76, 78, 82Roadside rest areas............................26Roadworthiness.............56, 67, 100, 103air brakes...... 41, 42, 43, 44, 56, 58, 68body/condition.............................56, 68electrical system................................61exhaust system.................................61fuel system........................................61lights and indicators......................63-64noise pollution...... 60, 61, 100-101, 103rear marking plate.......................49, 65rust.....................................................66seats and seatbelts...........................66smoke from engines........................101steering..............................................66structure.............................................66suspension........................................66truckalyser.......................................100vacuum..............................................57warning lights................................63-64wheels and tyres..........................66-67windscreens.......................................67Rollover..........................................41, 94Ropes............................................89, 90SSeat belts.......................................35, 66Sheets and tarpaulins...................85, 91Skidding.............................44, 47, 60, 82Slowing and stopping..........................45Smoke from engines.........................101Speed limiters..............................47, 100Speed limits........ 17, 38, 47, 55, 99, 100Speed retarders...................................60114Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


11Stakes......................................84, 85, 86Stanchions.....................................85, 86Stimulants......................................32, 33TTankers..........................................85, 94Tarpaulins......................................85, 91Three points of contact........................36Tie down angles..................................89Transport inspectors.......... 100, 103-104Trailer brake.......................41, 71, 72, 74Trailer swing............................42, 46, 81Truckalyser........................................100Turning............ 20, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 55Twist locks.....................................72, 88Tyres................42, 66-67, 69, 77, 79, 82UUncoupling......................... 54, 61, 70-75VVehicledimensions and loading...............76-91height...........................................76, 97inspection........................20, 29, 56, 69,73, 102, 103length.........................20, 51, 65, 76, 78posture...............................................68speed limits.....................17, 26, 38, 47,55, 99, 100Wwidth......................................76, 77, 97Warning triangles.................................53Weight – axle loads.......................77, 82Work & rest limits....................23, 26, 27,28, 29, 30Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook 115


12Useful contactsDepartment of Infrastructure, Energy and ResourcesMotor Registration and LicensingGeneral Enquiries 1300 851 225Interstate Callers (03) 6233 5201EmergenciesRoad & Bridges (State Roads Only) 1800 005 282Traffic Signal Faults Only 1300 139 933General Transport EnquiriesInspection Enquiries/ Bookings 1300 851 225Heavy Vehicle Permits (03) 6233 5214Vehicle Modifications (03) 6233 5214Operator Accreditation (03) 6233 5376Compliance & Enforcement (03) 6233 5347Fax (03) 6233 5210AIS Compliance (03) 6233 5401Passenger TransportGeneral Enquiries (03) 6233 5193Fax (03) 6233 5377passenger.transport@dier.tas.gov.auTransport Concession 1300 851 225Workplace Standards TasmaniaGeneral enquiries on Dangerous Goods or WorkcoverPh 1300 366 322 Website www.wst.tas.gov.au116Tasmanian Heavy Vehicle Handbook


CONTACT DETAILSDepartment of Infrastructure,Energy and ResourcesGPO Box 1002Hobart 7001Transport Enquiry Service:Phone 1300 851 225Transport:www.transport.tas.gov.auRoad Rules:www.thelaw.tas.gov.au

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