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Lok On PsA Desalting PlantACCNO.DATE OF ACC. /. /»CLASS NO.AUTHOR NO.REGOU^QMkter-a vital resourceNext time you pour a drink of water, and use abucket of the precious liquid to wash the glassout, consider the year 2000.That's when water, or the lack of it, will havereplaced energy at the top of the world's crisistable, according to the United Nations.Already today, 1,200-million people aroundthe world lack proper drinking water and 25,000people die every day of water-related illnesses.This stark warning was sounded in BuenosAires in 1977 at the first United Nations conferenceever called to discuss the growing shortageof man's most vital resource -- drinkingwater. And Argentina's Secretary-General forWater Resources, Luis Juareguy, summed up theextent of world-wide concern when he said:"The notion that drinking water is a natural andinexhaustible resource is on the way out."Of course that notion has never really foundmuch acceptance in Hong Kong, which hassuffered chronic water shortages for most of its136-year history despite the fact that annualmonsoons can dump anything up to 2,200 mmof rain on it in a year.It's not the rainfall that's the problem. It'sholding enough of it to provide a year-roundwater supply.Faced with this situation, and having exhaustedthe conventional methods of catchment, storage,and supply - and some pretty unconventionalones — the territory has now turned to the seato solve the problem of water for its 4.6 millionpeople.It has built one of the world's largest desaltingplants.Hong Kong has now turned to the sea to solve itsproblem of providing adequate water for its 4.6 millionpeople.


Desalination...a modern technologyOnly in this century has technology advancedsufficiently to allow serious consideration ofpractical ways to desalinate seawater.It was the Scotsman, James Weir, who pavedthe way in the field of desalination.He found a method of removing "scale", i.e. ahard deposit of chemical salt such as magnesiumhydroxide or calcium carbonate, which formedon the heating surface and impeded the heattransfer necessary to effect desalination.In 1884, by using a heating element in theshape of a coil which was free to expand orcontract, he was able to "crack-off" this scaleby alternately passing hot and cold waterthrough the coil.Scientists in Britain, America and Francequickly realised that Weir's success made possiblethe large-scale conversion of salt water into freshby distillation, and they began building smallunits, primarily for ships.The first land-based desalination plant wasinstalled by the British in Egypt in 1912, producinga mere 1.4 cubic metres a day. The aridMiddle East countries had a natural need for theprocess, and it grew in size and sophisticationthere. By 1930 Kuwait had a plant capable ofturning out 455 cubic metres of water a day.Not until the mid-'5Os, however, did thebreak-through come that forms the basis ofmodern-day land-based desalination. Thismethod was further developed and perfected byProfessor R.S. Silver of Glasgow University(then working with G.J. Weir Ltd.) and Dr. AFrankel of Richardsons West garth & Co. Ltd.,simultaneously — but quite separately — in thelate '50s.Known as the "multi-stage flash" process(M.S.F.) it is a method by which seawater isspontaneously boiled through a series ofchambers at successively lower temperatures andpressures. The vapour given off is condensedinto pure water at each stage.As many of us know, the lower the atmosphericpressure, the lower the temperature atwhich a liquid will boil and vaporise — a kettlewill boil faster on a mountain-top than in avalley, where atmospheric pressure is greater.Kuwait took a lead once more, commissioningan American firm to build a 2275 cubic metres aday "multi-stage flash" desalter in 1956.Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Iran and Israel graduallyfollowed suit, firmly establishing the MiddleEast as the practical world centre of the desalinationprocess. Today their biggest plant — predictablyin Kuwait — produces 114,000 cubicmetres of fresh water a day.Italy, Holland, Dutch Antilles and islands likeMalta, Jersey, Guernsey, and the (U.S.) VirginIslands joined the desalter club, as did a fewothers in the Caribbean such as Cuba, while theUnited States built one in Key West off Florida.However, it is Hong Kong that has now takenover a pioneering role in "flash" desalting withits mammoth plant at Ldk On Pai near the NewTown of Tuen Mun.The Lok On Pai desalter is capable of producing181,800 cubic metres of fresh water aday.


Experimental plantBefore deciding on a large-scale plant, an experimentalmulti-stage flash distillation plantcapable of producing 228 cubic metres a daywas established in February, 1971 at Lok OnPai, a tiny point on the Pearl River side of HongKong's New Territories. The river, flowing downfrom Canton, meets the South China Sea in thisarea, so coastal water at the estuary is less salinethan normal, especially during the rainy season.The purpose of the trial, which spanned 20months, was to assess the best plant operatingparameters under local seawater conditions; togather information on the corrosive and erosiveeffects of the local seawater on construction andtubing materials; and to establish the effect ofthe distillate on the existing fresh water distributionpipelines.Among other things, it was discovered thatthe aluminium-brass material used for theevaporator condenser tubes — one of the mostcostly capital items — had performed as well asthe cupro-nickel which is normally used and ismore expensive.This finding has resulted in substantial savingsin the capital cost of the plant.The experimental plant at Lok On Pai.


Construction startsIn May, 1971 the Hong Kong Governmentofficially announced that it intended to build alarge-scale desalter at Lok On Pai on a piece ofland measuring about 9 hectares.By January 1972, the government decided onits capacity 181,800 cubic metres a day.Provision was also made for future extension to272,000 cubic metres a day. The total budgetedcost of the project was HKS480 million.June of that year saw site formation andmarine works contracted out to a local constructionfirm.Next the Asian Development Bank agreed on1st August to loan US$21.5 million to coverpart of the cost of the plant, repayable over 10years from 1976.That settled, the Hong Kong Government,within the month, went ahead and awarded themain plant contract to a Japanese firm.So, as 1972 drew to a close, the commitmentshad been undertaken and preparation work hadbegun, with a whole host of on-site constructionsand innovations to follow in the four years ittook to finish the Lok On Pai scheme.The enormous job of completing design specificationsfor the plant, involving countless manhoursof research, sheer creativity and mathematicalprecision, was carried out by a Waterworks'project team from the Hong Kong PublicWorks Department in conjunction with consultingengineers.In addition to the main plant and civil contracts,more than 20 others were let to local aswell as international firms.The desalter now consists of:• two chimneys more than 122 metres high.• an ancillary plant building 244 metres long by24 metres high housing the local controlpanels, six turbo-generators, six boilers,auxiliary condensers and a number of pumps;and• the six evaporators, each 45 metres long, 17metres wide and 11 metres high.The evaporators are set three on each side ofthe control and administration building.Along the seawall to the right are a berth forfuel barges and two submarine pipes carryingbriny, "used" seawater back into an offshorechannel for dispersal.A large, squat building jutting out to the seaalong the seawall houses the seawater intakeequipment, and directly beside it is a dock witha 50 tonne Goliath crane. This crane runs onrailway tracks installed to handle heavy andbulky equipment during construction and subsequentmaintenance.Fuel for the boilers is stored in mild steel bulkstorage tanks, and chemicals are stored in aseparate chemical house.Works in progress. Fuel day tanks and chimney No. 2under construction.The fuel oil storage tanks (right), the Goliath crane(below right) and the ancillary plant (right extreme).


Plant and equipmentThe plant, working at full capacity, draws in asmuch as 50,000 cubic metres of seawater anhour through large-diameter pipes, more than 3metres below low-water mark, situated at thefront of the seawall intake building.At the intake building coarse screens first removedebris from the water, and in a secondstage, finer screens eliminate smaller, suspendedsubstances such as seaweed, shells and marinelife.Chlorine is then added to suppress marinegrowth and the water is drawn through topumps in the west end of the ancillary plantbuilding.Before the seawater is fed into the evaporator,sulphuric acid is added to get rid of alkaline saltssuch as magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate,the presence of which would causescale to be formed on the heating surfaces,affecting the efficiency of the plant.The seawater, after acid treatment, decarbonationand deaeration, enters the evaporators,which is where desalination actually takes place.Each evaporator at Lok On Pai is capable ofproducing 30,300 cubic metres of fresh water aday using the multi-stage flash principle.Most of the pumps which move the seawaterand the distilled water through the plant aredriven by steam turbines.The plant's own generators, which can producealmost 14 MW of electricity — enough toprovide domestic supply for 35,000 households- are also driven by the steam turbines.Steam is generated from six oil-fired boilerson the chimney side of the ancillary plantbuilding. Each of these boilers can produce125,000 kg of steam per hour at 400°C and apressure of 32 kg/cm 2 .Exhaust gases from the boilers pass into theatmosphere through two chimneys, each ofwhich has three flues, one for each boiler.Refinements like automatic-combustion controland closed circuit TV scanners (which cankeep a watch on the chimneys) have helped tominimise air pollution.The six oil-fired boilers (right) at Lok On Pai havefacilities (opposite page) for automatic combustioncontrol and closed circuit TV scanning to minimise airpollution.


CoolingSea water |inNon-condensablegases to atmosphereCondensatefor re-useor to drainHeating steamfrom boilerGases liberatedfrom treatedfeed water undervacuumE J ectorRk: r "s.Air andcarbon dioxideAcidInjectionK Rejected hot[I f ( v sea waterSea water pumpDe-aeratorCooling seaunder ^~^water intakeDecarbonatorvacuumSteamfrom boilerRe circulating brinePartition plateNon-condensableNon-condensable gases ^— ' ~~?~ n i i Treatedgases to ejectorHeat exchangerfrom flash chamber f ee( j waf ertubes/32.2°C127°CI I Condensate backto boiler121.1°CIChamber No. 1)/orificeI l\\46.1°C 44.1°C 41.8°CChamber No. 25 Chamber No. 26 Chamber No. 27Brinere circulatingpumpHEATINPUT SECTION HEAT RECOVERY SECTION HEAT REJECTION SECTIONI^> Sea-water1 '% BrineI% SteamiII]/ Condensate^> Vapoury DistillateNon-condensable gasesAcid injection for scalepreventionChemicals injection for productwater treatmentDistillate .pumpIJ Concentrated brinedischarged to seaChemicalsinjectionProduct7^k water to37.4 C reservoirInterconnectingpipesTube plateSIMPLIFIED FLOW DIAGRAM OF A MULTI-STAGE FLASH EVAPORATOR AT LOK ON PAI


Multi - stage flash distillationOf the 50,000 cubic metres of seawater drawninto the desalting plant at Lok On Pai everyhour, about 25 per cent is channelled off forsuch purposes as cooling motor and pumpbearings, possible use in fire-fighting, etc.The other 75 per cent is used in the evaporator.Most of this -- some 45 per cent of theoriginal intake -- is returned to the sea afterbeing used as cooling water.The remaining 30 per cent is treated (asdescribed under Plant and Equipment) and fedas "make-up" water to the evaporator, where itis mixed with the "recirculating brine" - i.e.concentrated seawater which is already recirculatingcontinuously in the system.The addition of this water is to "make-up"for (a) the volume of salt water converted intofresh water (about one-eighth of the total volumebeing circulated), and (b) that amount of concentratedseawater which is being continuouslyrejected to the sea to avoid over-concentrationof the recirculating brine.The simplified diagram on page 8 broadlyillustrates how this conversion of seawater intofresh water takes place in the evaporator.One of the six multi-stage evaporators at Lok On Pai.


The evaporator is divided into three distinctsections: the Heat Input Section, the HeatRecovery Section, and the Heat RejectionSection.The sea water is heated under pressure in theHeat Input Section (i.e. the brine heater) toboiling point, and then passed through a seriesof chambers - 28 in the case of Lok On Paievaporator - which are at successively lowerpressures.Due to reducing pressure, the hot "brine"boils instantaneously (or "flashes") in each ofthe chambers, giving off water vapour.The water vapour so produced is salt-free, butthe violent agitation caused through "flashing"results in droplets of salt-water being thrownupwards.The water vapour is therefore allowed to passthrough a vapour separator, which interceptsany such droplets and prevents them from beingcarried over into the "product tray" whichreceives the distilled water.The vapour then comes into contact with therelatively cool tube bundles (carrying "recirculatingbrine") in the Heat Recovery Section,which comprises 25 of the 28 chambers. It condenseson the outside of the tubes — which aresituated above the product water trays — anddrips into the trays. In the process of condensing,it releases its latent heat to the recirculatingbrine within the tubes, raising its temperature.10A colour coding is used to indicate different liquids inthe pipes of the plant.


As a result of this heat recovery, only alimited input of additional heat is necessary inthe Heat Input Section to raise the temperatureof the recirculating brine to make it "flash"again on re-entering the first flash chamber.In the third section - - the Heat RejectionSection — comprising the last three chambers ofthe evaporator - the condensing water vapourreleases its latent heat to the screened andchlorinated cool new seawater which is passingthrough the tube bundles (see the diagram onpage 8).A part of this seawater, which has gained intemperature as a result of absorbing this latentheat, is rejected to the sea. Another part of theseawater is treated and fed into the system as"make-up" water to join the recirculating brine.The recirculating brine itself becomes moreand more concentrated as it passes through theflashing chamber. Upon reaching the lastchamber, it will have become approximatelytwice as concentrated as the intake seawater.To avoid over concentration which wouldresult in calcium sulphate scaling, part of thisconcentrated brine is rejected to the sea.The remainder is mixed with the fresh "makeup"seawater and recirculated back through thetube bundles towards the brine heater.The fresh water produced at the desalter is pumped tothe Tai Lam Chung reservoir.The fresh water which is produced in theevaporators is pumped out and chemicallytreated before being delivered to the nearby TaiLam Chung Reservoir to join Hong Kong's watersupply system.The chemical treatment reduces the corrosivenessand improves the palatability of the ultrapurewater.I


Production beginsOfficial acceptance tests on the first evaporatorunit began in June, 1975, followed by tests onthree further units in the same year. Tests onthe fifth and sixth units were completed by mid-1976.The whole complex was officially opened bythe Governor of Hong Kong, Sir MurrayMacLehose, on 15th October 1975."It is an immense relief to have this newsource of supply, equal to about one fifth of fulldaily consumption, which is independent ofrainfall," he said."How completely typical of Hong Kong isthis story of engineering achievement, both inits vitality and determination to overcomenatural difficulties, and in the opportunities itoffers to men of enterprise from all over theworld to help us to build bravely for our future."The control room (left) and the computer facilities(right) at Lok On Pal.


TAI LAM CHUNG RESERVOIRTOTUENMUNTREATMENT WORKSPRODUCT WATERSUPPLY TUNNELLOK ON PAIDESALTING PLANTVTOTSUEN WANTREATMENTWORKSTERRITORIESCASTLEPEAKTAI LAM CHUNGRESERVOIRSITE OF LOK ON PAIDESALTING PLANTKOWLOONHONG KONGISLANDSHQJV114°00JVKV2QAOOOKEY PLAN1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10SCALE


Technical DataA. Desalting Principle:Multi-stage flash distillation.B. No. of Desalting Units Installed:Six units installed with provision for extending to nine units when required.C. Distillate Output:30 300 m 3 /d each unit, or 181 800 m 3 /d for six units. Extensible to 272 700 m 3 /d by addingthree extra units.D. Evaporator Design Parameters:1. Top brine temperature - 121.1 °C2. Bottom brine temperature — 39.1°C3. Brine heater steam temperature — 127°C4. Performance ratio 4.5 kg nett distillate output per 1,000 kJ heat input at the brine heater.5. Recirculating brine concentration ratio — 1.74 at the brine heater; 2.00 at the laststage.6. Heat-transfer coefficients :-(a) Brine heater: 2.00 kW/m 2 °C(b) Heat recovery stages: 3.10kW/m 2 °C(c) Heat rejection stages: 2.27kW/m 2 °C7. Velocities in tubes:-(a) Brine heater: 1.85 m/s(b) Heat recovery stages: 1.85 m/s(c) Heat rejection stages: 1.98 m/s8. Mean boiling point elevation - 0.9 2°C.9. Total dissolved solids in distillate — 25 ppm maximum.10. C>2 content after deaerator — 0.1 ppm maximum, (further reduced to 10 ppb afterinjection of Sodium Sulphite).11. Product outlet temperature - 7°C above seawater temperature.12. Brine flow in channel - 800 m 3 /hm approx.E. Evaporator Physical Particulars:1. No. of heat recovery stages — 25.2. No. of heat rejection stages - 3.3. No. of tiers-2.4. No. of stages in top tier - 13.5. No. of stages in bottom tier — 15.6. Roof of top tier - 10.92 m above datum.7. Floor of bottom tier — 2.50 m above datum.8. Width over shell - 12.45 m9. Width over waterboxes — 16.85 m10. Length of top tier - 35.38 m11. Length of bottom tier -44.12m12. Weight empty - 1.98 x 10 6 kg13. Weight in normal operation - 3.32 x 10 6 kgF.14. Evaporator tubes and tube plates:-Tube boreTube Wall ThicknessTube materialTube plate materialNo. of tubesNo. of passes per stageBrine heater31.75 mm0.9144 mmAluminium-BrassNaval Brass40942Heat recoverystages31.75 mm0.9144mmAluminium-BrassNaval Brass516501Heat rejectionstages24.5 mm0.9144 mmAluminium-BrassNaval Brass5874115. Waterbox lining:(a) Brine heater: 2.00 mm thick of 90/10 Cu-Ni.(b) Heat-recovery stages: 2.00 mm thick of 90/10 Cu-Ni for stages above 80°C; coatingof epoxy resin for stages below 80°C.(c) Heat-rejection stages: lined with epoxy resin.16. Demister material — 100 mm thick knitted stainless steel.17. Overall diameter of brine heater — 2.93 m.18. Overall length of brine heater - 14.70 m.Scale Prevention:(a) Calcium sulphate:By limiting top brine temperature to 121.1°C and concentration ratio to 1.74 at brineheater.(b) Calcium carbonate:By feed treatment with 98% sulphuric acid followed by separate atmosphericdecarbonation and vacuum deaeration before entry to the evaporator.15


G. Physical Data for Acid Injection & Corrosion — Protection System:1. Acid day tank —Unlined mild steel, having a capacity of 5,700 litre, externally protected by chlorinatedrubber paint.2. Acid pipework & nozzles -Carbon-steel pipe lined with teflon or glass. Injection nozzles made of teflon. All valvesglass or teflon lined.3. Acid pump -Two per evaporator, of the diaphram type, each having a capacity of 500 kg/h against ahead of 40 m of water.4. Acid safety douches -Provided as a safety measure for personnel. Automatic drenching system.5. Turbulator-Carbon-steel cylindrical shell with PVC baffles and lined with neoprene. Size: 0.6 m dia.x 3 m long.6. Delay vessel -Designed for a retention time of 15.6 seconds, made of carbon-steel and lined withneoprene, having a capacity of 11,300 litre.7. Decarbonator -Of atmospheric spray and tray type, made of carbon-steel and lined with epoxy and fibreglass. 2-off forced draught fans. Size: 5.7 x 5.7 x 4.55 m high.8. Vacuum deaerator -Carbon-steel shell lined with epoxy and fibre glass, packed with PVC material. Max. gasremoval rate of 79.0 kg/h. Size: 8 x 4 x 3.7 m high. Connected to steam — jet ejectorsfor vacuum system.9. Caustic-soda tank -Made of coated mild steel having a capacity of 200 litre. Used for brine pH correction.10. Caustic soda pump -A chemical pump having a capacity of 0.0056 litre per second. Used for brine pHcorrection.11. Antifoam tank -Made of coated mild steel having a capacity of 250 litre.12. Ferrous Sulphate Dosing Equipment -One set of trolley mounted Ferrous Sulphate injection equipment for periodic dosing of10% solution of heptahydrate ferrous sulphate to the evaporator and other tube bundlesfor protection against corrosion.The equipment consists of a pump capable of dosing at the rate of 4 m 3 /h, a tank of 600litre capacity and associated valves, pipes, nozzles, etc.13. Sodium Sulphite Dosing Equipment -A chemical pump capable of dosing 10% by weight of Sodium Sulphite solution at therate of 100 litre/h, provided for reducing the dissolved oxygen in the feed water after thedeaerator to approx. 10 p.p.b., complete with an epoxy coated mild steel tank of 4 m 3capacity.14. Cathodic Protection -The sea water system and evaporator waterboxes are protected against corrosion by bothsacrificial anodes and impressed current system.H. Evaporator Stage Vacuum:Maintained by steam jet ejectors. Total steam consumption 1,800 kg/h per set ofevaporator steam jet ejectors. Inlet steam pressure is 19.6 bar gauge.I. Venting:Top two evaporator stages individually vented. Remainder cascaded on each tier.J. Evaporator Tube Protection and Cleaning:Evaporator tubes protected by periodic injection of Ferrous Sulphate. Fouling to be minimisedby the circulation of sponge rubber balls, which are injected into the tubes by means of aTaprogge on load tube - cleaning equipment.K. Boilers:Six off, 125 tonne/h, forced-draught, bottom-supported, indoor-type, oil-fired boilers withfront firing. Steam temperature and pressure at 400°C and 31.4 bar gauge respectively.Alternative steam/electric drives for FD fan and boiler feed-pump. Chemical dosing usingSodium Phosphate (or caustic soda) and Hydrazine. Shunt deaerator system incorporate4 infeed train. Furnace designed for minimum refractory. Spray-type attemperator. Tubular airheater with auxiliary steam air heater. Associated demineralising plant for makeup consistingof automatic-duty/standby mixed-bed ion-exchange systems.Triple-flue, brick-lined chimneys in reinforced concrete shell (1 chimney for 3 boilers).Height 126m.L. Turbine Generating Sets:Six 2-stage turbine generator sets, each capable of generating 2.8 MVA of electricity at 0.8power factor and 3.3 kV for the plant internal use.16


M. Major Pumps:1. Seawater pump -Vertical turbine driven, wet-well type. Duty: 5,683 m 3 /h at 36 m head of water. (Onemotor-driven standby pump for every 3 steam-driven pumps).2. Recirculating brine pump —Turbine-driven, caisson-type. Duty: 7,241,000 kg/h at 86 m head of water.3. Evaporator-feed pump -Turbine-driven, caisson type. Duty: 2,602 m 3 /h at 92 m head of water.4. Blowdown pump -Motor driven, caisson type. Duty: 1,270 m 3 /h at 23 m head of water.5. Product-extract pump —Turbine-driven, caisson type. Duty: 1,270 m 3 /h at 92 m head of water.N. Product Treatment:4-pass shell and tube type heat exchanger with aluminium brass tubes and naval brasstube sheets. Size: 2.0m dia. x 8.09m long, for product cooling. Treatment by injection ofCO2 and Ca(OH) 2 to increase both the pH and hardness, thereby rendering the treateddistillate less corrosive.O. Chlorination Equipment:Three 19 kg/h electro-chlorinators installed in the screenhouse for protection of the seawatersystem against marine fouling. Conventional chlorination equipment provided as a standby.Dosing to about 1 ppm C\i.P. Screening Plant:Bar screens and band screens. Total seawater handling capacity about 1.6 x 10 6 m 3 /d.Q. Compressor Plant:Four motor-driven compressors, service pressure 7.35 bar gauge. Separate systems for valueactuation and general services (workshops, etc.).R. Electrical Systems:Principal distribution at 3.3 kV. Secondary distribution at 415V. D.C. system at 110V frombatteries.S. Instrumentation System:Conventional system with electrical signal-transmission. All essential functions arrangedfor local control and reading with some repeated to panels in the central control room fromwhere running control exercised. Data and event-logging systems. Provision for futureautomatic computer control.T. Fuel Consumption:About 1050 tonne of class C furnace fuel-oil per day when producing 181 800 m 3 /d ofdistillate.U. Fuel Storage Tanks:Two steel tanks of 24.4 m diameter x 14.6 m high, with a total capacity of 12,904 tonne ofclass C furnace fuel-oil.V. Acid Storage TanksThree steel tanks of 10.7 m diameter x 4.9m x high with a storage capacity of about 750 tonneof acid each; one of the three tanks being used as an empty reserve tank under normaloperation.W. Corrosion Monitoring System:1 No. corrator/corrosometer probe point 10 Nos. corrosometer probe points and 40 Nos.ultrasonic thickness gauge probe points provided on each evaporator. The monitoringequipment comprises 1 set of Magna Corrosometer type CK2 and probes, 1 set of MagnaCorrator Model 1180 complete with Programmer, Recorder, probes and cabling and 1 set ofKraut-Kramer ultrasonic digital metal thickness gauge type DPDM1 and measuring probe.17


Principal ContractsItemsof WorksP.W.D.ContractNo.DescriptionName of ContractorsApprox.Cost(HK$ Million)Itemsof WorksP.W.D.ContractNo.DescriptionName of ContractorsApprox.Cost(HK$ Million)18DesaltingPlantCivilWorks302/72302A/72302B/72302C/72310/72includingsubcontracts311/72includingsubcontracts312/72includingsubcontracts322/72_Evaporators, Boilers &Auxiliary PlantElectrical InstallationInstrumentation &ControlsSteam TurbineGeneratorsSite Formation &Marine WorksAdministration BuildingPlant Foundations &Site BuildingsConstruction of SupplyTunnel and PipelineMinor civil worksincluding siteinvestigation, staffquarters, resumption,a+ r>Sasakura Engineering )Co., Ltd. (Japan) )Oilman & Co., Ltd. )(Hong Kong) )Hokushin ElectricWorks Ltd. (Japan)\) 337Hiro Zoki Co., Ltd. )(Shin Nippon )Machinery Co., Ltd.Japan)))337Gammon (HK) Ltd. 36.0Lun Sang & Co., Ltd. 3.8Gammon (HK) Ltd. 61.0Gammon (HK) Ltd. 6.74.51 10 nAuxiliary 303/72Plants304/72305/72308/72309/72337/72338/72339/72340/72Consultancy —ServicesFuel and Acid Storage,and Handling FacilitiesIntake Screen &Ancillary EquipmentSite Fire FightingInstallationsElectrochlorinatorsChemical Dosing &Chlorination EquipmentAir-conditioning forthe AdministrationBuildingLift for theAdministrationBuildingInspection Servicesfor Plant Contract No.302/72Inspection Services forPlant Sub-contractWorksChung Wah Shipbuilding &Engineering Co., Ltd.(Hong Kong)J. Blakeborough & SonsLtd. (U.K.)Wormald International(Hong Kong) Ltd.Cumberland EngineeringCo. Ltd.Paterson CandyInternational Ltd.(London)Ryoden ElectricEngineering Co. Ltd.Hitachi ElevatorEngineering Co. (HK) Ltd.Far East SuperintendenceCo. Ltd.International InspectionCo., Ltd.Total Project Cost5.53.42.01.63.40.50.10.40.117.01414480.0


The Hong KongPublic Morks DepartmentDirector of Public Works28/3/69 - 3/6/73 JJ. Robson, C.B.E., F.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E., F.I.Arb., J.P.Since 26/1/74 D.W. McDonald,C.M.G., D.A. (Dundee), A.R.I.B.A., A.R.I.A.S., H.K.I.A., J.P.Director of Water SuppliesUntil 31/10/72 A.S. Robertson, B.Sc., M.Eng., F.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E., F.I.W.E.S., J.P.1/11/72-6/10/76 W.T. Knight, O.B.E., F.I.C.E., F.I.Mun.E., J.P.Since 7/10/76 W.D.A. Tucker, M.A., F.I.C.E., M.I.W.E.S., J.P.Consulting EngineersMessrs. Binnie & Partners (Hong Kong)19


X03,7fl2flOi4[HKP] 628.1672 H7HK.P£28.1672Hong Kong. Water 1271406Supplies ^ept.Lok On Fai Desalting Plant.Date Due 1271406

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