Annual-Report-2014

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Annual-Report-2014

INTRODUCTIONThere has never been a more critical moment for people who care about Hawaii to come together, to addressenvironmental and sustainability issues, to make the economy and the environment work hand-in-hand and to protect ourquality of life. Today, we face daunting uncertainties and risks linked to climate change, ocean acidification, and risingsea levels, to name a few. Numbers and statistics help express the magnitude of some changes, but comprehending themeaning of staggering numbers, percentages and predictions, or deciding what we should do to respond, is not easy. Forexample, if we know the world’s oceans are 30% more acidic than they were 100 years ago, what does that mean forHawaii; what should we do?Fortunately, more and more people are thinking and talking about these issues, especially our keiki, and taking action,particularly our kupuna, reminding us all to think of the next generation. Fortunately, many of our predecessors thoughtabout sustainability issues and set up systems to ensure we take care of our water and land. Fortunately, we live in a placewith aloha, where there is a community spirit to help one another as well as dedicated emergency responders willing totake action at a moment’s notice.High stakes, risk and challenge often lead to innovation and adjustment, and we already are witnessing exciting ideasemerging here in Hawaii. Just last year the state legislature passed the Aloha + Challenge resolution (Senate ConcurrentResolution 69 Senate Draft 1), setting six statewide sustainability targets to achieve by 2030, in clean energytransformation, local food production, natural resource management, waste reduction, smart growth, climate resilience,green job creation and education. These targets provide a shared framework to set priorities, take action, and trackprogress. In July of 2014, our mayors and the state’s chief executive formally endorsed and signed the Aloha + Challenge.Similarly, the Hawaii Green Growth (HGG) initiative has taken root and is becoming an established collaborationamong government, non-profit organizations, business and academia to advance action with an integrated approach tosustainability. The partnership honors Hawaiian cultural values and focuses on the interdependence of food, energy,natural resources, waste, smart growth, climate change, workforce development and education. HGG is working to build adiversified green and blue economy for a more resilient, sustainable future in Hawaii.Last but not least, preparations have begun for September 2016, when the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) World Conservation Congress (WCC) will be held in Hawaii, providing us with a window of opportunity tocollaborate with leaders around the world, learn about and share solutions, and prepare to create a better future. With thisone event, we have a chance to showcase the best of Hawaii and influence global decisions. There is a lot of work to do.OEQC, THE EC, AND THE ANNUAL REPORTWay back in 1970, the state legislature passed groundbreaking legislation to create the Office of Environmental QualityControl (OEQC) in recognition that our economy and environment are equally important. In fact, they are inextricablyintertwined, and our economy depends on our environment in more ways than we can imagine. Also, the EnvironmentalCouncil (“EC”) was created to advise the governor, all state agencies, and the legislature on environmental issues. Now,and every year, the EC publishes an Annual Report to provide information on the state of the environment to help identifypriorities for the people of Hawaii—decision makers in particular.i


TABLE OF CONTENTSTable of CotentsIntroduction .............................................................................................................................................................................. iIntroduction to the Council ..................................................................................................................................................... 1Introduction to the Office of Environmental Quality Control................................................................................................. 3Volunteers ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4Sustainability Vision ............................................................................................................................................................... 6World Conservation Congress .............................................................................................................................................. 10Climate Change in Hawaii ................................................................................................................................................... 14Focus on Invasive Species .................................................................................................................................................... 16Genuine Progress Indicator-Hawaii ..................................................................................................................................... 19GPI-HI Researchers .............................................................................................................................................................. 20GPI-HI 2014 – Invasive Species ........................................................................................................................................... 21Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 35References ............................................................................................................................................................................. 36FiguresFigure 1. Ecosystem Service ................................................................................................................................................. 25Figure 2. Miconia calvescens (habit) .................................................................................................................................... 27Figure 3. Wasmannia auropunctata ...................................................................................................................................... 29Figure 4. Uchochloa mutica .................................................................................................................................................. 31TablesTable 1. Major Players Involved with Invasive Species in Hawaii ..................................................................................... 23Table 2. Ecosystems Services Impacted by Invasive Species on Ecosystem Types ............................................................. 26Cover photo: Wiliwili seed, Forest and Kim StarrIn 2005, a tiny new invasive wasp was spread across the state, laying its eggs inside wiliwili leaves, which weakened and killed wiliwili trees.Biologists statewide quickly collected as many of the seeds of native wiliwili as possible in the hopes that they could someday be replanted. HawaiiDepartment of Agriculture’s Biocontrol Program worked quickly to find, study, and release a natural enemy, saving the wiliwili from extinction.i


INTTRODUUCTIONN TO THE T COOUNCI ILThe EC serves as the liaison between the Director of the OEQC and the general public on issues concerning“ecology anddenvironmental quality.” The EC consists of 14 dedicated and conscientious volunteers appointed by the Governor anddconfirmed by the Hawai‘i State Senate. Currently the EChas nine members, among which is the Director of the OEQC,who serves as an ex officio member and makes the total number of members to be 15.Members of the EC represent “a broad and balancedrepresentation of educational, business, and environmentallyypertinent disciplines and professions, such as the natural and social sciences, thehumanities,architecture, engineering,environmental consulting, public health, and planning; educational research institutions with environmentalcompetence;agriculture, real estate, visitor industry, construction, media, andd voluntary community and environmental groups(Chapter 341-3(c) ), Hawai‘i Revised Statutes).The EC is responsible for promulgating theadministrative rules for Chapter 343, Hawai‘i Revised Statutes, codified asHawai‘i Administrative Rules11-200, EnvironmentalImpact Statement Rules and 11-201, Rules of Practice anddProcedure. The ECalso reviews and provides concurrence on agency exemption lists.MarkAmbler, ChairMark has been amember of the ECsince May 2012and currentlyserves as its Chair.Born and raised inKailua, Hawai‘i,Mark receiveddegrees from‘Iolani HighSchool andtheUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Mark’sdevoted to pursuitcareer hasof innovative beenandsustainable environmental engineering. Heis a Professional Engineer registered inHawai‘i and a ProjectManagementProfessional. These certifications representa career demonstrating technical andleadership training aswell as professionalexperience.Mark has championedimplementation of sustainable concepts,such as Green Roofs and GreenandSustainable remediation in Hawai‘i, andhas had the opportunity to share thosepositive examples across the country.Scott Glenn, Vice ChairScott has servedon thee EC since2011 and servesas Vice Chair ofthe Council. Heservedd as Chairof the Council in2013. He is aproject managerat Cardno. HereceivedhisMaster’s Degree in Urban & RegionalPlanningfromUH in 2009. Scottspecializesinasset management,environmental planning and compliance,environmental review, and climate changeadaptation planning. Scott helped createbetter data and data analysis tools such asthe Genuine Progress Indicator r as well asenhancethe Council’s role incommunicatingthe public’s concern aboutenvironmental quality to decision makers.As the Rules Committee Chair, Scott leadsthe Council’s effort to modernize the EISadministrative rules.Jessica Wooley, Member Ex OfficioJessica is Directorfor the OEQC.Before, she was thestate Representativefor District 48(Windward Oahu) ),andmost recentlyserved as Chair of othe Committee onAgriculture in theState House. Shewas elected in 2008, after5 years workingcloselywith community and familyorganizations and raising her two children.Director Wooley also worked as anattorney at Legal Aid (1998-2000), aneconomist at UH (1999), and at the Officeof the Attorney General as a DeputyAttorney General underGovernorsCayetano and Lingle (2000-2003). Wooleygraduated with a B.A. in Economics frommthe University of California, Santa Cruz,and received her M.S. in Agricultural andResource Economics and her J.D. from theUniversityof California at Berkeley.Throughout her personal academic andprofessional career, she has maintained aconsistent focus on the connectionsbetween the environment and the economy,including issues relatingto agriculture,land use, poverty, and water resources.1


Koalani Kaulukukui, MemberKoalani was raisedon Hawai‘i Islandand then attendedKamehamehaSchools, KaplamaCampus, receivedher B.A. fromtheUH EnvironmentalCenter. She earneda J.D. andCertificate in Environmental Law fromtheWilliam S. Richardson School of Law in2006. She has worked as an associateattorney for Earthjustice and as a policyadvocate for the Office of HawaiianAffairs (OHA). She is currently Counselfor Environmental Law and Native Rightsat the OHA. As a member oftheEnvironmental Council, Koa hopes tohelpshape environmental policy that ensures arobustfuture for our keiki withoutcompromising the cultural and naturalresources of our islands.Charles Prentiss, MemberChuck is citymanager and aretired city plannerwith the City andCounty of Honolulu.He holds degrees ineconomics, planning,and governmentmanagement. He isa former r ExecutiveSecretary of theHonolulu CityPlanningCommission, a Vietnam veterann pilot, anda retired Lieutenant Colonel of the Hawai‘iNational Guard. Chuck is also President ofHawai‘i’sThousandFriendsandChairperson of the Kailua NeighborhoodBoard. Chuck possesses a strong belief incitizen participation in government. Forhim, “participation aids in governmentopenness and honesty, and provides acountervailing force to special interests ingovernment decisions. In Hawai‘i, theenvironment is our economy.”John Richards, MemberJohn was bornand raised on acattle ranch onHawai‘i Island.John has lived indifferent parts of othe world for bothschoolingandmilitary service,which lent him aunique perspective on sustainable land andresources use. As the sixth generation of ohis family here, John has a desire to see theislands thrive: “The Council offers theopportunity to help the systems that protectthe islands. A careful balance must befound to ensure business has what it needsto functionn well, while protecting the spirit,lands and people of Hawai‘i. Laws andtheir application can eithermake us greateror limit our potential. TheCouncil has theopportunity to facilitate the former.”Joseph Shacat, MemberJoseph attendedMiami University(Ohio), where hestudied philosophyand environmentalscience. He movedto Hawai‘i in 2001,where he earned aM.S. degreeeinOceanographyandan Executive MBA from the UH ShidlerCollege of Business. He currently works asthe Environmental Compliance Managerfor Grace Pacific LLC. He has advocatedfor improving environmental performancein theconstructionn industry throughcooperation with government agencies andactiveengagementwith industryassociations,including the GeneralContractorsAssociation of Hawaii,AssociatedGeneralContractors ofAmerica, and National Asphalt PavementAssociation. Also, Joseph volunteers onthe boards of Honolulu Clean Cities, theHawaii Yacht RacingAssociation, and theWaikiki Yacht Club.Mary Steiner,MemberMary has servedin a variety ofroles on the EC,including as pastChair. Havingspent almost 20years as CEO ofThe OutdoorCircle, Mary isnow the policyadvocatefor the HawaiiannHumaneSociety. She also acts as the Hawai‘iCampaign Manager for the non-profitCompassion andChoices, an organizationthat works to improve care and expandchoice at the end of life. Mary has severalgoals before completing her term with theEnvironmentalCouncil. These includehelping OEQC to obtain proper staffinglevels and funding, providing support todemystifythe environmentalreviewprocess so that the grassroots, projectproponents and developers alikee are able tounderstand the procedures. Mary stronglybelieves that a strong economy goes hand-in-hand with a healthy environment.Glenn Teves, MemberGlenn has been aCounty ExtensionAgent for the UHHCollege of oTropicalAgriculture andHuman Resourceon Moloka‘i forthe last 32 years.He also serves onthe UH Professional Assembly Board of oDirectors and Moloka‘iCommunityServices Council. He is involved inagriculture, water, and land use issues onMoloka‘i. Glenn has served as a memberof the DLNR Water Working Group andalso the Maui Community Plan AdvisoryCommittee. He is a Hawaiian Homesteadfarmer in Ho‘olehua and grows fruits, taro,and othervegetables for the localmarket. ”What makes Hawai‘i special areits unique environment, and especially itsisland communities. Thesee are inextricablyconnected,and we must preserve bothequally. This only comes throughdeliberate and diligent planning.”2


INTRODUCTION TO THE OEQCINTRODUCTION TOTHE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CONTROLLTheOEQC was establishedin 1970 toostimulate, expand, and coordinate efforts toomaintain the optimum qualityof the state’ senvironment.The OEQC implementsChapter 343, Hawai‘i Revised Statutes,which governs the environmental reviewwprocess. Office planners review hundredsof environmentaldisclosure documents anddrespond to thousands of inquiries each yearfromagencies, the public, and the privatesectors.The OEQC (clockwise from top left) ): Linda Hijirida, Herman Tuiolosega, Les Segundo,Director Jessica Wooley, and Genevieve Hilliard.Twice a month, the OEQC publishes theEnvironmental Notice, which announcesthe availability of EnvironmentalAssessments and Environmental ImpactStatements undergoing public review, aswell as other local, state, and federalactivities of public interest.Jessica Wooley, as OEQC Director, provides advice and assistance to private industry, government agencies, anddcommunity groups regarding Chapter 343, Hawai‘i Revised Statutes. The OEQCis also empowered by law to conductresearch, develop legislative initiatives, do public outreach, and recommend programs for the long-range implementationnof environmentalquality control.The OEQC staff also providessupport to the EC regarding amendments to the administrativerules, exemption lists, anddthe Council’s annual report. The OEQC is attached to theHawai‘i Department of Health for administrative purposes.This year, the OEQC released its new EA and EIS MapViewer and its Citizen’s Guide to the Hawaii EnvironmentalPolicy Act. Thesee tools help proponents andthe public better engage the environmental review process.3


VOOLUNT TEERSOEQC VolunteersPeter MyungI am currently volunteering forOEQC. I think improving the earth’senvironment is very important for ournext generations. I am workingwillingly and happily with our staff.Nourah AbualsaudI am currently a graduate student atHawaii Pacific University, majoringinGlobal LeadershipandSustainable Development, focusingon sustainable development issues. Iam planning to pursue a Ph.D. inEnvironmentalDevelopment.PolicyandKelsey AndersonI ama third yearlaw studentattending the William S.RichardsonSchoolof Law,University of Hawaii at Mnoa.My coursework included classessuch as EnvironmentalLaw,EnvironmentalClinic,Administrative Law, and Land UseManagement & Control. Mahalofor the opportunity tobuild on myin-class education byvolunteeringwith OEQC!Kaimana PineLove,respect and thewillingness to work. I believethat people can affect changeliving by thosewords. TheOEQC mission inspires me tohelp grow its relationship withcommunitiesin Hawaiithrough my passion for art andtechnology.LiamdeClive-LoweI amvery passionateaboutcontributing to theenvironmentalprogress oflegislation,streamlining state government, andhelping to make Hawaii a moresustainable place. I feel so gratefulfor the opportunity to volunteer atOEQC.Meg DeLisleI moved back to Hawaii afterpursuing my Master’s degree inEnvironmental Sciencee at Universityof Colorado, Denver. I received myB.S. inMarine Biology from UH. Iamvery passionateabout theenvironment and conservation of ournaturalresources. Volunteering atOEQChas given me a chance to bepart of the solutionas Hawaiinavigates its environmental policiestowards a more sustainable future. Iam so happy to be part of any effortthat helps save andprotect ourprecious ina!4


GPI Research AssistantsBrandon TaoBrandon is an undergraduatestudent majoring in Environmental Studies at HawaiiPacific University, where he isalso pursuing a graduate certificate in EnvironmentalPolicy and Leadership. He aspires to continue his education in environmental policy,with concentrations in resource management and marine conservation. In addition to hiseducation goals, he hopes to eventually work in the public sector or with a non-governmental organization.Monique SchaferMoniqueis completing her B.S. in Environmentall Science at Hawaii Pacific University. Sheplans oncontinuing work in the environmental field by going tograduate school to pursue amaster's degree in Environmental Science and Management. Her research interests includewater resource management, ecological restoration, , and land-use policy.Lisa Hinano ReyLisa will graduate fromthe College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR)at UH with a B.S. inNatural Resource and Environmental Management inMay of 2015.Previously she attended Windward Community College where she earned a Certificate in theMarine Options Program. She helps to preserve andd protect the land the ocean and the cultureby engaging in environmental restoration projects at several levels, policy, education, outreachas well as hands on in-field community based restoration. She grew up in Kneohe andspeaks English, Tahitian and French.Ben SouthwellBen Southwell is a veteran and a graduate student at Hawaii Pacific University in the M.A. in Globall Leadership and SustainableDevelopment (GLSD) program. He has an undergraduate degree in politicall science and international affairs. For his capstone projectin GLSD, he is interested in game theory and climate change. Upon graduating, Ben intendss to remain a student, eventually acquiring aPh.D. . in political science.Also thank you to Jade McMillen.5


IV. Local Food Production30% locally produced food by 2030The Aloha + Challenge sets forth an ambitious goal; by 2030, 30% of the food consumed in the state must be producedlocally. While this goal is attainable, if we wish to achieve this standard in time, we must understand the underlyingimportance of local food production and its fundamental benefits for disaster preparedness, human health, the economy,education, and our worldwide carbon footprint.Disaster PreparednessAs of today, Hawaii only grows about 10% of its foodlocally; the remaining 90% is imported, whichcontributes heavily to our exorbitant fossil fuelemissions and hurts our economy and environment inmultiple ways, exposing us to potential risks anduncertainty. Imagine if the entire state were to loseaccess to imported foods, due to a sudden naturaldisaster that cut off trade with the mainland. Forced tocontinue off the locally produced foods, we could onlyfeed our population for 10 days, after which, we wouldhave limited food left to survive.HealthAll citizens of Hawaii deserve to have food that is fresh,healthy and local. However, the bulk of the food that isimported into Hawaii is processed; even those importedfoods that are not processed likely end up losingnutrients during the importation process. Not only arelocally grown foods nutritious and fresh, moreimportantly, they also establish a direct connectionbetween the farm and the plate, thereby promoting aculture of respect for the ina. Issues such as economicdisparity and food deserts also should be exposed andeliminated, wherever and whenever they occur.EconomyAs demand for locally-produced food increases, newlocal agriculture operations will be formed and existingsmall agricultural businesses strengthened, in turncreating hundreds of middle-class jobs. As the supply oflocal food increases, competition will increase as well—thereby driving and stimulating the local economy.Reduced dependence on imported food supplies will alsostimulate the local economy and protect us fromunwanted price or supply changes.EducationPublic schools provide one of the most effective andpotentially far-reaching methods for delivering locallyproducedfood to the citizens of Hawaii. Our keikishould have the chance to build a connection with thefood they consume. By teaching our students about localfood at a young age, we will pave the way for the futurefarmers, chefs, and agricultural entrepreneurs of Hawaii.Carbon FootprintNot only does increasing our locally produced foodbenefit Hawaii’s environment, it also decreases ourcarbon emissions. When we import our foods fromelsewhere across the world, every bite we consume hastraveled thousands of miles to reach our mouths. Thistakes a toll on the global atmosphere, and hence,contributes to the crisis of our ever-warming planet.With each of these issues playing an essential role in the vision for local foods in Hawaii, we now have an opportunity tobuild a sustainable future for Hawaii and make the Aloha + Challenge a reality. To accomplish this seeminglyunconquerable feat, we must implement positive incentive-based strategies that will increase the demand for localagriculture, support innovative agribusinesses, and create comprehensive farm-to-school programs.8


V. Department Of SustainabilityThe implementing force behind the Aloha + ChallengeSustainability issues must be better organized in government to reflect critical and myriad environmental and economicneeds in Hawaii. Existing relevant agencies should be consolidated and united in a Department of Sustainability, therebyeliminating inefficiencies created by programs that are now scattered among multiple agencies, making government moreresponsive, and providing authorization for an agency to implement the Aloha + Challenge.The Department of Sustainability would focus on coordinating and advancing all of Hawaii’s environmental initiatives,most notably, the Aloha + Challenge. Based on the fundamental goals of efficiency, collaboration, and action, theDepartment of Sustainability would provide a single, unified agency directly responsible for coordinating environmentalprojects between state agencies, local businesses, and the public. As the implementing force behind the Aloha + Challenge,the Department of Sustainability would have the ability to help execute the six sustainability goals, thereby givingHawaii the best chance at a sustainable environment for generations to come.There is a real need to consider consolidate existing environmental and sustainability programs in Hawaii that are nowscattered and often disconnected. Currently, for example, our Environmental Health Administration lies within theHawaii Department of Health (HDOH). Also, the OEQC is an attached agency to the HDOH, and the EC is anindependent advisory board but also attached to HDOH. At the same time, there are programs within the HawaiiDepartment of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) (pesticides) and theDepartment of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism that focus on the environment and sustainability.It was a common practice in the early 1970s for states to organize environmental programs within health departments.However, as the need for more environmental prioritization grew over the following decades, states began to unify theirenvironmental offices under new departments—ones that were dedicated to the mission of environmental sustainability.The time has come for Hawaii to do the same. Due to our unique geographic isolation at the center of the Pacific, criticalissues such as climate change and sea-level rise will have a major impact on Hawaii’s environmental landscape. It is ofthe utmost importance that we confront these monumental challenges before they become crises we cannot solve. If weare to take on these seemingly overwhelming obstacles, we must advance swiftly in a unified and coordinated effort. Theestablishment of the Department of Sustainability is perhaps our best chance at tackling these challenges effectively.EfficiencyReorganizing the Environmental Health Administration as the core of the new Department of Sustainability wouldincrease the state’s responsiveness to environmental issues, business interests, and the general public. Not only would theincreased responsiveness lead to vastly improved efficiency, it would also promote more accountability and effectiveness.CollaborationThe Department of Sustainability would be uniquely positioned to coordinate with other agencies by interconnecting theenvironmental efforts of transportation, land use, water management, development, city planning, health, agriculture andeducation. Through deeper and broader collaboration, Hawaii would be better prepared to take on environmentalchallenges, promote sustainable and green growth, and find real solutions that will last for generations.ActionThe Department of Sustainability would be the implementing force behind the Aloha + Challenge. This new, agile, andcollaborative department is exactly what the Aloha + Challenge needs to reach its full potential for sustainability inHawaii. Over the coming 15 years until 2030, the Department of Sustainability would be responsible for launchingsustainability initiatives to help Hawaii reach the six sustainability goals of the Aloha + Challenge.9


The story of how this came to be is a testimony of “taroroots”tenacity, passion and commitment—of a growingarmy of people who agreed never to say “we give up”because we believed in a vision so potent that it engagedthe hearts and minds of the most powerful people in ourcountry including the Governor of Hawaii and thePresident of the United States!The story of how this came to be is atestimony of “taro-roots” tenacity,passion and commitmentWhile I soon become the elected leader for this effort, ittook an army of dedicated people from the conservation,environmental, and foundation community to pull it off.To list all of their names would be folly as the list wouldbe pages long and I would leave someone out! Year afteryear, we worked at building support in Hawaii andWashington DC and developing a strategy to overcomethe political resistance within the US Department ofState (DoS), which had kept the WCC out of the UnitedStated since the IUCN’s founding 70 years ago!This was a mammoth undertaking and there were notonly the countless trips to Washington, but in 2010, mywife Hau‘oli and I flew to Switzerland to meet with theleadership of IUCN and to begin building therelationships that would become allow us to come tointimately understand this large and complexorganization and what they wanted to get from holdingthe world’s largest conservation gathering on earth everyfour years. From Switzerland we flew to Barcelona tomeet with the hosts of the 2008 WCC and to hear firsthandwhat it took to host a WCC and what they felt theygot out of it. It was an amazing trip and as we flew backhalfway around the world on our way home I knew thenthat if we were given the opportunity we could host thebest WCC that IUCN would ever see and that it wouldenergize and inspire conservation efforts in Hawaii andaround the world.In September 2012, as the world gathered in Jeju, Koreafor the 2012 WCC our efforts seemed to reach acrescendo. In the summer months leading up to the 2012WCC, our committed partners opened their checkbooksand we raised close to $250,000 in funding from varioussources including foundations, state government, NGOs,and individuals. As the funding came in, we were able toput together an amazing delegation of close to 60 peoplethat included 40 members of our science/conservationcommunity (including 3 from Micronesia and Palau and2 from San Diego Zoo), 12 native Hawaiian hula dancers,3 VIPs with 3 support staff, and four support staffincluding two Koreans (one also spoke Spanish) to helpwith translations. We built the five most beautiful boothsat the Congress for outreach and conducted twosignificant outreach events including a VIP reception forover 250 dignitaries and a traditional hula performanceby Unukupukupu (a traditional dance troupe) conductedon the world stage and attended by thousands ofdelegates from around the world. Over 20 members ofour delegation were participants and/or moderators in 10Workshops, 4 Knowledge Cafes and numerous postersessions. Each of these individuals also presented aunique perspective on how Hawaii is playing a leadingrole in the global conservation community.As 2012 came to a close, we felt really good about ourstrategy and our prospects of success and eagerlyanticipated the call from IUCN for “An Expression ofInterest” that would solicit proposals from countrieswanted to host the 2016 WCC. Then, on a rainy day inDecember, Senator Inouye died and our whole worldseemed to fall apart. Both Senator Inouye and Akaka hadbeen our champions encouraging us on year after yearand assuring us that when the time came they would helpto secure the support of the DoS. Its support wasessential—without it we could not submit a bid toIUCN—as only IUCN member counties (there are over160 of them) could host a WCC according to the IUCN’sbylaws.This requirement was logical since a host had to 1)ensure access and visas for all qualified IUCN delegatesfrom around the world and 2) provide the substantialfinancial resources needed to host this massive globalevent.Overnight, our vision went from being bright andpowerful to being a dim flickering light—it seemed tome that it was like a candle that was sputtering tryingdesperately to stay lit.11


Overnight, our vision went from beingbright and powerful to being a dimflickering light—it seemed to me that itwas like a candle that was sputteringtrying desperately to stay lit.Our darkest moment was in February 2013 when allseemed lost, but it was then that Dr. Steve Montgomerycame to our rescue and with his bold and embracingcharacter and die-hard attitude. He almost singlehandedlyreignited our flame and pulled us up and out ofthe dark hole of despair.With that new burst of energy, we sought and found anew champion in the honorable Governor NeilAbercrombie. The Governor realized what this couldmean for Hawaii and for his own vision of pushingHawaii to become a global model of sustainability. TheGovernor was already a champion of the Hawaii GreenGrowth Initiative that had been inspired by AudreyNewman and the Global Island Partnership and he hadappointed a State Sustainability Coordinator to facilitatehis vision so…it was not too much of a stretch for him tograsp that this was an opportunity for Hawaii thatwould never be presented again.At the 11th hour the Governor agreed to sign a letter of“Expression of Interest” and put the full weight of hisadministration behind our effort. This was atransformational moment, as it signified the transitionfrom a completely organic “taro-root” effort to one ledby a government entity. When I realized that theGovernor now “owned” it, I knew that we had turned thecorner and we were back on track and that our dreamwas still very much alive. The Governor appointedEsther Kia‘aina to be the First Deputy to the DLNR andthe person to lead this effort for his administration.Eventually through his connections and efforts theGovernor secured a passionate letter of support fromPresident Obama and the support of Patrick Kennedy theUnder Secretary of State for Management at the DoS.Hawaii’s successful hosting of APEC was one of thekey factors that came into play in securing this highlevelsupport.What was interesting looking back was that over theyears our focus and effort was directed at developing astrategy that would allow us to be able to submit a bid toIUCN. We never really thought about what we wouldhave to do if we were allowed to submit a bid!As amazing as that seems to me now, I think that isbecause we were so confident that if that time ever camethat we would blow the competition away just becausewe have so much to offer here, from the best conventioncenter and hospitality industry in the world to a deeplycommitted and innovative conservation community. Weknew in our heart of hearts that hosting 10,000 delegatesfrom 160 counties was something we could do betterthan anyone else.While we clearly believed this, when we saw thecompetition it was intimidating as it included somespectacular locations and countries willing to put uphuge amounts of money to host this prestigious event.The completion included: Abu Dhabi (UAE), Hungary,Istanbul (Turkey), Liverpool (UK), Northern Ireland(UK), Panama, and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Eventuallythe competition narrowed down to Hawaii and Turkeyand IUCN scheduled site visits to each location. InFebruary 2014, a team from IUCN’s headquarters inSwitzerland arrived in Hawaii to inspect our facilitiesand test the commitment of our state.What they experienced over the weekthey were with us transformed their viewsof Hawaii and took them far beyond thefalse vision of Hawaii as a land of surfand shopping to one of deep culturalconnections that fuel some of the mostamazing conservation work on the planet.They saw rainbows, whales jumping, the volcanoerupting, and the most beautiful landscapes on earth.They also met with the Governor and other politicalleaders as well as the leaders of our conservationcommunity. When they left we knew that Turkey couldnot stand a chance!12


While this story has up to this point been about thejourney of bringing the WCC to Hawaii, what isimportant now is for the citizens of Hawaii to begin toengage in the process of hosting the WCC and to createyour own dream of what it can leave behind as a legacy.If all we do is host the best WCC theworld has ever known and we do notcreate catalytic and transformationalchange, then I would say we will havemissed the opportunity of a lifetime.What lies before us is an uncharted ocean and it is up tous to navigate our canoe to the destination we envision.It is not by accident that the Hklea is embarking onits own unprecedented voyage around the world that willshare our values and commitments with far flungcommunities and peoples. Our planet is hurting and weneed to lead and inspire others so they too can care forisland earth. Together we can do it.I encourage everyone to get involved now and to findout how to participate and to begin thinking about bigideas that will be a legacy that is left when the 2016WCC is over and the delegates have all gone home.What are the commitments that our local, state andfederal governments can make when the world is herethat will transform the way we do business and care forthe precious environment that makes Hawaii so uniquein the world?13


CLIMATECHANGE INHAWAIICL LIMATECHANGE INHAWAIIREPORTRecent historical data indicate that climate is already changing in Hawai‘i. Temperatures are rising, especially at higherelevations (Giambelluca et al. 2008), wheree most of the remaining native forest iss found. Precipitation is declining (Diazand Giambelluca 2012), and solar radiationon the upper slopes of the highest mountains is increasing due to reduceddcloudcover (Longman et al. 2014). These changes are consistent withh an observedchange in the atmospheree over Hawai‘ i.The trade wind inversion (TWI), a layer of air at around 7,000 ft above sea level, acts as a cap on the growth of clouds.The TWI can occur with or without trade winds, but it always tends to limit clouds and rainfall. The number of days peryear with a TWI present over our islands has increased (Cao et al., 2007). This seems to be associated with a change innlarge-scale circulation of the tropical atmosphere, which has resulted in more descending air over the islandss (Longman et eal. inreview). Whether or not these changes are the result of global warming is not yet knownn (Frazier et al. 2014). But,projections of future climate inHawai‘i based on statistical downscaling of globall climate models (Timm and Diaz 2009,Elison Timm et al. 2011, Elison Timm et al. 2013, Elison Timm et al. in press) indicate that changes in precipitation willcontinue throughout this century (see the figure below). Wet season rainfall is expected to decrease severely in the drierareasof the islands, where most people live, where resorts and golf courses are located, and where irrigatedagriculture isfound. This projected change inrainfall, if it becomes reality, will have large impacts on natural ecosystems and people innHawai‘i in the coming decades.Change in wet season rainfall for the Hawaiian Islands based on statistical downscaling ofthe ensemble median of 32 CMIP5 RCP8.5 global model runs forr the 2071-2099 average(Elison Timm etal. in press).14


References CitedCao, G., Giambelluca, T.W., Stevens, D., anddSchroeder, T. 2007. Inversion variability in theHawaiian trade wind regime. Journal of Climate 20:1145-1160.Diaz, H.F., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2012. Changesin atmospheric circulation patterns associated withhhigh and low rainfall regimes in the HawaiiannIslands region on multiple time scales. Global anddPlanetary Change 98-99: 97-108, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.08.011.Thomas Giambelluca is a professorr of Geography at the Universityof Hawai‘iat Mnoa, who specializes in climatology and hydrology of tropicalenvironments. Dr. Giambelluca received B.S. and M.A. degrees in Geographyfromthe Universityof Miami (Florida), and a Ph.D. in Geography from theUniversity of Hawai‘i at Mnoa. Dr. Giambelluca’s research is focused onland-atmosphere interaction under changing land cover and changing globalclimate. In Hawai‘ i, one aspect ofhis work aims at improving understandingof Hawai‘i’s climate, how it has changed over the past century, howit is likelyto change in the future, and how thechanges have and will affect hydrologicalprocesses and terrestrial ecosystems. He also studies the effects of biologicalinvasions in Hawai‘i, particularly by alien tree species, on water, soils, andcarbon storage.Elison Timm, O., Diaz, H.F., Giambelluca, T.W. .,and Takahashi, M. 2011. Projection of changes innthe frequency of heavy rain events over Hawai‘ ibased on leading Pacific climate modes. Journal of oGeophysical Research 116, D04109, doi:10.1029/2010JD014923.Elison Timm, O., Takahashi, M., Giambelluca,T.W., and Diaz, H.F. 2013. On the relation betweennlarge-scale circulation pattern and heavy rain eventsover the Hawaiian Islands: Recent trends and futurechanges. Journalof GeophysicalResearch-Atmospheres, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50314.Elison Timm, O.,Giambelluca, T.W., andDiaz, H.F. In press. Statistical downscaling of rainfall changes in Hawai‘ ibasedon theCMIP5 global modelprojections.Journalof Geophysical Research-Atmospheres,Oscillation and PacificDecadal Oscillation on secular rainfall variations inHawai‘i. Abstract GC43B-0718 presented at the AmericannGeophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, December 2014.doi:10.1002/2014JD022059.Frazier, A.G., Elison Timm, O., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2014. The influence of El-Niño SouthernGiambelluca, T.W., Diaz, H.F., and Luke, M.S.A. 2008. Secular temperature changes in Hawai‘i. Geophysical ResearchhLetters 35, L12702, doi: 10.1029/2008GL034377.Longman, R.J., Giambelluca, T.W., Alliss, R.J., and Barnes, M. 2014. Temporal solar radiationchange at high elevationsin Hawai‘i. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119: 6022-6033, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021322.Longman, R.J., Diaz, H.F., and Giambelluca, T.W. In review. Sustained increasee in lower tropospheric subsidence overthe central tropical North Pacific. Submittedto Journal of Climate.Timm, O., and Diaz, H.F. 2009. Synoptic-statistical approach to regional downscaling of IPCC twenty-first-centuryyclimateprojections:seasonalrainfall over the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Climate 22, 4261–4280,doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2833.1.15


INVVASIV VE E SPE ECIES I N HAWWAIIREPORTFocus onInvasive SpeciesThe Hawaiian archipelago is the most isolated group of islands in the world,with the nearest continent more than 2,400 miles away. For moree than 70million years, the volcanic islands of the archipelago have been created as theearth’s crust moves over ‘hotspots’, or holes in the middle of ocean floor,which are then conveyed awayto weather and erode. Unlike other islands, theHawaiian Islands were never close to any land mass, a key factor that limitedthe arrival and successful establishment of many commoncontinental species.Despite this isolation, the first plant and animal species were able to arrive andcolonize millions of years ago, carried by the wind, ocean currents, and even Christy Martin, project manager and publiccwithin or attachedto birds. Millions of years, extreme isolation, and diverse information officer for CGAPS, theeCoordinating Group on Alien Pest Species.physical habitats led to more than 18,000 native Hawaiian species, , many ofCGAPS’s mission is to coordinate anddwhich are found only in Hawaii. In fact, Hawaii has the highest number of catalyze actionamong government and non--and manageeinvasive species in Hawaii, as well assToday, Hawaii’sisolation provides limited protection against the arrival of communicate key issues to the public.endemic species inthe world.government partners to preventnew species, as the purposeful and accidental transport of new species viaplanes and ships is a daily occurrence. Frombeing 100%food self-sufficient little more than 200 years ago,Hawaii nowwimports 80-90% of the food consumed locally, and is equally dependent on imports for goods and energy. Each plane or oship— —its people, its cargo, or the vessel itself—can bring with it new, potentially harmful species alongsidethe useful or obenign new species.There are steps that we can and should take to protect Hawaii frominvasive species, and they fall generally into thecategories of prevention, earlydetection/rapid response, and control or mitigation of the most harmful non-eradicablepestss to reduce their impact.Prevention (Pre-entry and Port of Entry)The most cost-effective measures are pre-entry of such an agreement is the Hawaii Department of Agriculture’s request to haveChristmas trees grown in Oregon and Washington physically shaken to remove pests before being loaded and shipped tooHawaii. An example of a lawis the law restricting theimportation and possession of snakes. It should bea priority tooregularly identify and set in place agreements, laws, and procedural measures that can keep pests offshore, and laws ormeasures that could prevent a pest from moving from oneisland to another.For the most part, federal and state agencies are not inspecting for the same things and are restricted from sharingginterception information with each other. Once shipments arrive at ports, inspection of foreign goods is conducted byyfederal agencies looking for pests of national significance, while inspection of domestic goods is the responsibility of theHawaii Department of Agriculture, The State’s actionable pest list is more comprehensivee and targeted to pests of oagreements and laws to keep unwanted pests from being legally or ointentionally imported. One exampleHawaii than the Federal list.16


A second major problem is that the HDOA does not have adequate, much less optimal, inspection facilities at most seaand air ports. Until very recently, boxes were inspected on the tarmac at some ports, where potential invasive speciescould easily escape. Unless we get serious and address these gaps with better inter-agency cooperation and better facilities,we will very soon be overwhelmed.Early Detection & Rapid ResponseInvasive species can get through even the most rigorous prevention networks, and this is to be expected. A consistent andproperly funded early detection system should be the next line of defense. In the past, there have been successful detectionprograms that have greatly aided the response to an invasion:HDOH used to maintain hundreds ofmosquito surveillance traps at ports of entryand throughout the islands to monitor fordiseases like West Nile Virus and newmosquitoes such as the Anopheles speciesthat could reintroduce malaria to the islands.Despite the 2009 budget cuts which resultedin the loss of 40 staff and the anddismantling of the surveillance system, fourtraps kept at Honolulu International Airportdetected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes at leastfive times since. These mosquitoes are themost efficient transmitters of dengue fever.Early detection also proved important infinding the coconut rhinoceros beetle inDecember 2013. Survey traps for severaldifferent pests that were not known to occurin Hawaii, but that were highly likely toarrive were placed around the state in 2013.Just a few months later, one of those trapscaptured a coconut rhinoceros beetle, whichset in motion the rapid response team withthe goal of eradication. However, fundingfor such early detection surveys are largelyvia soft funds. If funding for such a surveyhad been received in 2012, the infestationmay have been detected at an earlier stage.Invasive Species Potential and Current Effects to HawaiiUpon arrival, some species remain benign or beneficial, but others become invasive —theyreproduce and spread quickly, causing harm to the environment, the economy, agriculture,or public health. The multi-faceted costs of just a few unwanted invasive pests arestaggering:If brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) were to become established in Hawaii,economists estimated a $2 billion dollar annual impact to the powerinfrastructure, public health, and visitor industry alone. Yet brown tree snakeshave also caused the extinction of 10 of 12 of Guam’s native forest bird species,and the ongoing lack of birds on the island has cascading effects, such as areduction in natural seed dispersal and forest regeneration, and an increase ininsects and their impacts on agriculture.In the ocean, invasive seaweeds overgrow and smother near shore reefs, reducingthe food, habitat, and shelter space for a wide variety of fish and invertebrates thatdepend on the reefs. Hawaii’s reefs also generate $800 million annually andprotect the shoreline from storms and the impacts of climate change.The arrival and subsequent discovery of the plant disease commonly known ashia rust (Puccinia psidii) in 2005 was a wake-up call to resource managers asthe disease spread across the state, sickening and killing large tracts of rose apple,skipping over its very close cousins, hia trees. Research now shows that anyadditional imports of this plant disease could attack hia instead, a critical blowto 1 million acres of watershed forests and the most sacred of Hawaiian culturalplants.The arrival and establishment of mosquitoes carrying human diseases likemalaria, dengue fever, or chikungunya would have a huge impact on residents,businesses, and the visitor industry.Existing invasive species, such as strawberry guava (Psidium cattlianum),continue to spread into watershed forests statewide, outcompeting and replacingnative forest plants and reducing habitat for the animals that rely on nativeforests. Strawberry guava forests also transpire up to 50% more water into theatmosphere compared to native hia forests, which impacts water resources.The island-based Invasive Species Committees also focus on early detection and rapid response of plants and animals thatno single agency has the authority or capacity to address. They work across jurisdictions and property lines, to focus onearly detection and control or eradication of high-risk invasive species that may otherwise become established.17


In 2014 the Invasive Species Committees have provided critical capacity to HDOA in the little fire ant and coconutrhinoceros beetle responses, while continuing work detecting and controlling priority pests like miconia (Miconiacalvescens), pampas grass (Cortaderia spp.), and devil weed (Chromolaena odorata). Despite clear examples of whatthese species can do if allowed to become widespread, these committees continue to rely on grants year to year.One unique attribute that Hawaii has is an opportunity to reduce or stop the spread of pests from one island to the next.This has historically not been a focus or priority, and will require additional effort on every island. Each pest that arrivesand spreads from island to island by commerce and travel is a clear indicator of need.Control of Widespread PestsIt is often said that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. However, this should not be used as a reason to payless attention to those invasive species that are already present, yet if allowed to continue to multiply and spreadunfettered, would impart unacceptable levels of damage on natural resources or public health. Two examples illustrate thespectrum of effort required to control widespread pests:The spread of little fire ants into watershed forests, agricultural crops, and communities statewide will have anunacceptably high cost on nearly every aspect of our lives in Hawaii. It is irresponsible to not do everything in our powerto slow or stop the spread of these invasive stinging ants. This type of infestation may take great effort and funding overtime to properly manage.On the other hand, for certain widespread invasive plants and insect pests, it is possible to find one or two natural enemiesthat keep that invasive species’ population under control in its native range. The most recent success of finding the naturalenemy for the wiliwili gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) was an example of what can and should be done to find longtermsuppression of 100 additional widespread invasive species. The cost of finding and studying potential naturalenemies, or biocontrol, was relatively low and upfront, and the ongoing control of the gall wasp is allowing native wiliwili(Erythrina sandwicensis) to survive, at no additional staff or control costs. However, continuing or expanding capacity todo this work will require the state to invest in a new quarantine containment facility for testing the efficacy andenvironmental safety of natural predators.The agencies responsible for managing widespread pests and ultimately minimizing their impacts have a number ofmandates that they are asked to prioritize for limited funds. Positions cut over the past several decades, most recently in2009, must be reinstated, funded, and filled to continue this cost-effective work.We can also support the sustainability goals outlined in the Aloha + Challenge, including increasing local agriculture andclean energy production, and ensuring the resiliency of watersheds and reefs.Having a well-rounded invasive species program is possible, but success is attainable only if decision makers, businessleaders, and we the people place a higher priority on protecting our islands. For more information, visit www.cgaps.org .18


GENUINEE PROGRESS INDICATOR-HAWAI‘IGENUINEPROGRESINDICATOR-HAWAIIGPI-HIGross domestic product(GDP) was originally designedd solely as a measure of economic activity in order to gauge the health of an economy. Yet now,any risein GDP is assumed to be an increase in what is good for society overall. GDP overlooks incidental costs tosociety, such as environmentalpollution or income inequality, as well as unrecognizedbenefits, such as unpaid housework or volunteerism. In somecases, environmental harm cannactuallyincrease GDP (i.e., via clean upexpenditures).The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) goes “beyond GDP” to more fully capture what is good for society. The GPI framework, first designed in 1997,is a holistic measure, consisting of multiple factors spread across threee categories: economic, environmental, and social. GPI acknowledges costs thateconomic growth imposes on society, whether a loss offorests or a losss in leisure time, , and adjusts thee measure of progress accordingly. The costs anddbenefitsare assigned dollar values foreasy comparison. At times when it is difficult to calculate direct values, best available estimates are useddinstead. The objectives are not to calculate precise numbers, but rather to illustrate the overall trends inn true progress. Moreover, GPI raises awarenessof the importance to society of other values besides the economic activities used to calculate GDP.For Hawaii, a recentlydeveloped “Island Style” GPI goes even further beyond GDP, to capture the costs of economic growth relevant to our uniqueeisland setting. As the Island Style GPIdevelops further, the framework will be modified to reflect costs associated with the loss ofcoral reefs, theespread of invasive species, or even homelessness.For more information on GPI and GPI Island Style:http://oeqc.doh.hawaii.gov/Shared%20Documents/Environmental__Council/Annual_Reports/Annual-Report-2013.pdfAbove: Ohia lehua blossom, CCAGPS CBelow: Kappaphycus spp. (Invasive algae), Jennifer Smith19


GPI-HI RESEARRCHER RSGPI-HIDr. Regina Ostergaard-KlemAssociate ProfessorEnvironmental ScienceCollege ofNatural andComputational SciencesHawai‘i Pacific UniversityRegina Ostergaard-Klemis anAssociate Professor ofEnvironmental Science in the College of Natural andComputational Sciences at Hawaii Pacific University(HPU). She holds a PhD in Systems Analysis andEconomics for Public DecisionMaking fromThe JohnsHopkins University. Prior to joining HPU, she was aFulbright Scholar in Lodz, Poland; a Science andDiplomacy Fellowwith the American Association forthe Advancement of Science (AAAS); and anenvironmental policy advisor at the US Agency forInternational Development.Dr. Ostergaard-Klem teaches in both the undergraduateeEnvironmentalScience/Studiesprogramand themaster’s programin Global Leadership andSustainableDevelopment. Her teaching is concentratedin the fieldsof environmental economics, ecologicall economics,industrial ecology, environmental policy, and naturalresource management. Her research interests are focusedon alternative measures for social welfare, and the nexusbetween the twodisciplines of ecologicalandenvironmental economics.Dr. Kirsten L.L. OlesonAssistant ProfessorEcologicall EconomicsDepartment of Natural Resourcesand Environmental ManagementUniversityof Hawai‘iDr. Kirsten Oleson is an AssistantProfessor of Ecological Economicsat the University of Hawai‘i atMnoa. She holds a Ph.D.fromStanford’s InterdisciplinaryProgram innEnvironment and Resources. Prior to joining theUniversity of Hawai‘i, she was a Fellow with Stanford’ sPublic Policy Program, a National Science FoundationnPostdoctoral Fellow studying social-ecological systemsin Madagascar, and a World Bank staff member.Natural capital, such as land, water, andbiodiversity,supports human well-being, yet this crucial capital isdepletedand degradedbecause it is generallyyunaccountedfor in standarddecision-makinggframeworks. Dr. Oleson’s research addresses this byyintegrating economics and theenvironment along threerelated tracks: Building “greenaccounting” methods tooimprove the metrics we use to signal economic“progress.” These accounting tools seek tooinclude environmental and social changes; e.g. .,loss of forested land or gains in education, ratherthan focusingsolely on theeconomy’ sproductive sector. They also aim totrack globalimpacts of consumption. Linking watershed-scale ecological modelinggwith economic modelsto assess theoutcomes of oresource development alternatives. Studying coastal communities’ natural resourcemanagement.20


GPI-HI 2014 – INVASIVE SPECIESGPI-HIIntroductionIn Hawaii, a close tie exists between invasive speciesand the economy. The introduction (whether intentionalor unintentional) of a harmful invasive species is often abyproduct of economic activity, particularly when thetrade of economic goods provides the vector andpathway for its spread. Once a harmful invasive speciesestablishes itself, however, the biological invasion(bioinvasion) damages the environment, society, and/orthe economy and presents high costs to prevent, control,or mitigate further harm. Nowhere are the impacts ofbioinvasions more pronounced than within an islandsetting; interestingly enough, those islands with thehighest Gross Domestic Products (GDPs) have thehighest number of invasive species (Meyers, 2014).Likewise, the influx of invasive species to Hawaii haspotential to affect or involve nearly all activities withinthe state (OTA, 1993).The 2012 and 2013 Environmental Council AnnualReports showcased the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)as a holistic approach to more fully capture the economicas well as social and environmental costs and benefitswithin the state. The GPI framework recognizes costs,such as pollution or loss of leisure time, or benefits likevolunteerism, that are not incorporated into conventionalmeasures such as gross domestic product. Through ourexperience of applying GPI to the island setting ofHawaii, we identified unique local features andrecommended changes to the standard framework toincorporate them (Ostergaard-Klem & Oleson, 2014). Tobuild upon the GPI in the two previous annual reports,this current report explores the ways in which GPI couldbe further applied to the unique circumstances ofHawaii through a specific issue – invasive speciesThe framework for GPI includes indicators tracking theloss of acres of wetlands, forest, and farmland, i.e., thechange in a quantity. GPI does not incorporate invasivespecies per se. Through GPI, we propose a furtherexamination of this significant issue to track not only thequantity (acres), but also the quality (native versusinvasive) of those land types. When ecosystem functionsare damaged due to invasive species, the ecosystemservices provided by those areas are compromised. Thedrop in ecosystems services has an associated cost tosociety that is not captured by other measures. Through areview of existing literature and interviews with expertsin Hawaii, the following report provides background oninvasive species in Hawaii, an introduction toecosystems services, relevant examples from fourdifferent ecosystem types, and next steps aimed atincorporating the economics of invasive species intobroader discussion and actions.BackgroundAs defined by the IUCN, an invasive species is ananimal, plant, or other organism introduced by humansto an area outside its naturally occurring location, whereit becomes “established and disperse, generating anegative impact on the local ecosystem and otherspecies” (IUCN, n.d.). According to the UN Conventionon Biological Diversity (CBD), to become invasive, thespecies must “arrive, survive, and thrive.” (UN CBD,n.d.). Bioinvasions typically entail four stages:introduction, establishment, naturalization and spread,and damage creation (Marbuah, et al., 2014). Certaincharacteristics of the invading species, such as toleranceto climatic conditions, rapid growth and reproductionrates, or wide ranges of dispersal, make it particularlywell suited to the new location and lead to successfulbioinvasion.In the US, researchers estimate that over 50,000 alien(i.e., non-native) invasive species have already beenintroduced and the number continues to rise (Pimental,et al., 2005). Some non-natives species, such as wheat,rice, and livestock, are staples in our economy, whileothers have led to major economic impacts onagriculture, forestry, and the environment.21


Generally, researchers estimate that as few as 10% ofintroduced species become harmful (Marbuah, et al.2014), but even a small proportion can lead to largedamages. A 2005 study across a set of non-nativespecies within the US estimated that the combineddamages and control costs resulting from invasive alienspecies reached upwards of $120 billion per year(Pimental et al., 2005).Bioinvasions threaten the biodiversity in the area ofimpact. Declines in native species can result frommultiple interacting threats, yet invasive species areconsidered the second greatest contributor to speciesextinction behind habitat destruction, with speculationthat invasive species are the first contributor in islandsettings (IUCN, n.d.). Moreover, greater than 40% of thespecies listed as threatened or endangered under theEndangered Species Act in the US are at risk due tocompetition with and pressure from non-native species.(Pimental et al., 2005).Currently there is no official statedesignation of invasive species.Invasive Species and HawaiiHawaii is the most geographically isolated island chainin the world. The flora and fauna that arrived in theislands prior to human contact via the wind, waves, ormigratory birds, are generally considered native species.Due to Hawaii’s extreme geographic isolation, many ofthe native species are endemic and can be found only inHawaii. According to the Hawaii Biological Survey(HBS), of nearly 24,000 known species of Hawaiianbiota, approximately 40% are considered endemic toHawaii (Eldredge & Evenhuis, 2002). Nonnativespecies, though, are introduced to the islands via humanmeans.Many of the species introduced to Hawaii are notconsidered harmful to the surroundings. However, thosecompetitive species that are both nonnative pluscurrently or potentially causing negative economic,environment and/or human health impacts within thestate are deemed “invasive.” The term “invasive species”takes on a range of meanings depending on the contexts,but can be synonymous with pests, nuisance species,noxious species, or weeds (CGAPS, n.d.).Currently there is no official state designation ofinvasive species. However, the HDOA regulates anumber of activities related to plant pests and noxiousweeds. HDOA defines noxious weeds as “any plantspecies which is, or which may be likely to become,injurious, harmful, or deleterious to the agricultural,horticultural, aquacultural, or livestock industry of theState and to forest and recreational areas andconservation districts of the State, as determined anddesignated by the department from time to time”(“Official Designation of Invasive Species,” 2014). Plantpests are further defined by HDOA as any pest that“could cause significant damage to agriculture, ourenvironment, and quality of life” (“Official Designationof Invasive Species,” 2014).There are an estimated 300 serious invasive species inHawaii (Kraus & Duffy, 2010). At least one half of thewild species in Hawaii are non-native and no other areain the US has a greater percentage of non-indigenousspecies established in the wild (OTA, 1993). Someestimates of the rate of new, unwanted species arrivingin the Hawaiian Islands is two million times greater thanthe natural rate (HEAR, n.d.). Additionally, Hawaii isknown as the “extinction” or “endangered species”capital, having the greatest concentration of threatenedand endangered species and the highest number ofextinct species in the US. Over 30% of the species on theFederal endangered species list are in Hawaii, includingover 40% of the listed endangered birds; this isastounding considering Hawaii makes up a mere 0.2%of the total land area of the US (Eldrege & Evenhuis,2002).In Hawaii, ongoing measures aim to control theinvasive species that are already introduced to orestablished in Hawaii. In addition to the species thatcurrently threaten the islands, there are other potentiallyinvasive species that could be detrimental to Hawaii’senvironment and economy if they were to be introducedto the island chain; this is the case for the brown treesnake and the West Nile virus. Today, invasive speciescontinue to be introduced to the islands, despite effortsto prevent them. Actions across all stages ofbioinvasions, from prevention, to rapid response, tocontrol, result from the coordinated efforts acrossgovernment agencies and other institutions within thestate (Table 1) as well as Federal agencies.22


Two unique and notable partnerships include: theHawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC) and theCoordinating Group on Alien Pest Species (CGAPS).HISC is comprised of individual invasive speciescommittees at the county level; its goal is to “protectHawaii’s unique economy, natural environment and thehealth and lifestyle of Hawaii’s people and visitors fromthe impacts of invasive species” (HISC, 2014).CGAPs is a voluntary public-private partnershipinvolving state and Federal agencies, non-profits,academia, and HISC, all working to protect Hawai‘ifrom invasive species.Table 1. Major Players Involved with Invasive Species in HawaiiAgencies and Major PlayersPrograms and ResponsibilitiesHawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC) Policy level direction, coordination, and planning amongst the statedepartments, federal agencies, and local organizationsFund dispersal for prevention, control, outreach, and researchFunding and support for island invasive species committeesHawaii Department of Land and NaturalResources (DLNR)Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA)Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW)Invasive species removal on state lands, wildlife resources management, andgame managementManagement of Watershed Partnership Programs Management of Natural Area ReservesDivision of Aquatic Resources (DAR)Removal of invasive algaeAquatic invasive species detectionPolicy development for ballast and hull foulingPlant Pest Control BranchResponsible for containment and control of plant pests which cause potentialeconomic damage to agricultureResearch and regulation of biocontrol agent Management of apiary programPlant Quarantine BranchMonitors imports and exports of plant and animalsInspection of cargo and vessels, responsible for enforcing regulations againstthe importation of regulated species Intrastate inspection, monitoring, and quarantinePesticides BranchRegulation and development of pesticides in the stateHawaii Department of Health (DOH) Disease prevention and vector controlIssue permits for use of pesticides near water resourcesCoordinating Group on Alien Pest Species(CGAPS)Public-private partnership of federal and state agencies and non-governmentalorganizations Works with above agencies and other organizations to improve interagencywork and coordinationTable 1: Major agencies and players and their responsibilities in regards to the issue of invasive species in Hawaii. Agencies coordinate with eachother, as well as with the University of Hawaii and other organizations to fulfill responsibilities and mandates (Coordinating Group on Alien PestSpecies, 2009, 2014; State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, & Hawaii Invasive SpeciesCouncil, 2014)23


Overview of EcosystemServicesEcosystem services are the “goods” and “services”provided by an ecosystem that humans rely on not onlyfor physical health and survival, but also mental healthand happiness. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment,prepared by the Millennium Assessment (MA), in 2005,brought worldwide attention to the links betweenecosystem services and the factors of human well-beingthat rely upon them (Figure 1 Ecosystem Services).These services represent both the tangible and intangiblebenefits that humans derive from functioning ecosystems(MA, 2005). While ecosystems function with or withouthumans, ecosystem services are only derived at the pointof interaction with humans.The seminal study on ecosystem services, theMillennium Ecosystem Assessment, divides them intofour categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural, andsupporting. Provisioning services include food, wood,fuel, fiber, fresh water, and medicinal resources as wellas raw materials for human use. Regulating servicesinclude local flood regulation, water purification, carbonsequestration, erosion control, and pollination. Culturalservices include recreation, tourism, aesthetics, and thoseservices that are inspirational or traditional. Supportingservices, such as nutrient cycling, soil formation, andprimary production, underpin the other three categoriesof services, and give the necessary structure and functionto furnish habitats for important or native species andsupport genetic diversity. Different from provision,regulating, or cultural services, supporting servicesindirectly relate to humans yet are necessary for theproduction of all other ecosystem services (MA, 2005).Provisioning services are closely related to economicsgoods, those that can be bought and sold on a market,and are more likely to be included when assessing thevalue and importance of a given ecosystem. The otherservices are more difficult to quantify, and are thereforenot commonly included in ecosystem valuation.Nevertheless, they all are important for sustaining thehealth of ecosystems for the happiness and health ofresidents and visitors of the Hawaiian Islands (Brauman,Daily, Duarte, & Mooney, 2007).By threatening Hawaii’s biodiversity and outcompetingnative species, invasive species could be underminingthe provisioning, cultural, regulating, and supportingecosystem services on which Hawaii’s citizens aredependent. Moreover, invasive species have significantimpacts on forests, farmlands, wetlands, and near shorecoastal areas throughout the state; we discuss severalexamples below.Impacts to forests caused by invasive species such asstrawberry guava, Miconia, and ungulates includedecreased groundwater recharge, increased surface waterrunoff, and increased sedimentation in streams (Cronk &Fuller, 2013). Increased sedimentation and runoffnegatively impacts downstream ecosystems.Additionally the runoff leads to lower visibility inadjacent near shore coastal areas, directly impactingtourism, recreation activities, and aesthetics.In Hawaii’s farmlands, invasive species impact theproduction of food, decreasing food security and foodself-sufficiency. For example, fruit flies lay eggs in freshfruit and vegetables, which eventually hatch into larvaecausing extensive plant damage (State of HawaiiDepartment of Agriculture, 2012).In near shore coastal areas, productive fisheries arereliant on healthy coral and healthy native sea grass.Invasive algae destroy these critical habitats, thereforereducing the production of fisheries and causingsignificant loss to biodiversity (Molnar, Gamboa,Revenga, & Spalding, 2008). Additionally, someinvasive algae such as Hypnea musciforms form massiveblooms on reef flats; these blooms lead to reducedoccupancy rates in hotels, and reduced property values(Friedlander et al., 2008).In wetlands, non-native species threaten to outcompetethose natives that provide critical habitat and nurserygrounds for endangered waterbirds, marine organisms,and plant pollinators, among others (supporting services).24


The regulating services normally providedd by healthywetlands, such asfresh water regulation, flood control,waterpurification,ground water recharge,arecompromised in the presence of invasive species.Invasive species found across all land types havepotential to negatively impact human health, as they cancarryand transmit bacteriaa and viruses, such asleptospirosis,that can lead to seriousillness.Additionally, environments dominated bynon-nativespecies tend to provide habitat for other species thattcarrydisease, or threaten human health.Ancient and modern Hawaiians celebrate native plants,corall reefs, animals, and fishthat thrive in the forests,farmlands, wetlands, and near shore coastal areas. Thetraditional subsistence lifestyle Hawaiians once liveddwas dependent on the services provided by nativeecosystems. There is an inherent loss to culture whennnative ecosystems are destroyed. For Hawaiians, anatural resource is a cultural resource. Destroyinggnatural resources is destroying cultural resources(Hawai‘i Association of Watershed Partnerships, 2014) ).Tourism and recreational resources are also threateneddby invasive species because they threaten safety and thebeauty and uniqueness for which Hawaii isknown.Figure 1. Ecosystem ServiceThee Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) wasa multicountriesstakeholder effort involving 1300 experts in 95andd resulted in thee most comprehensive evaluation of thestatus of the world’ ’s ecosystems. The report emphasized theconnections between humans and ecosystems and theconsequences of those interactions.This figure illustrates how our well-being is intimately connected to ecosystems. Each arrow represents a flowof goods and/ /or servicesfrom ecosystemss to humans. The arrow’s widthrepresents the strength or intensity of the connection betweenthat service andour well-being. The arrow’s color depicts the likelihood that social or economic factors can support that connection. Forexample, a thick and darkarrow between provisioning services and basics needs for a good life could illustrate the critical delivery of food or clean water and thehigh potential foreconomic and social factors to ensure that the link is maintained. Notice also how each type ofecosystem services is tiedto multiple factors of well-being. .25


MethodsThe GPI application for Hawaii (GPI “Island Style”)includes environmental indicators for four differenttypes of land and marine areas: forests; farmland;wetlands; and near shore coastal areas. While wetlands,forests, and farmlands are part of the original GPIframework, near shore coastal areas was added by GPIIsland Style as a locally relevant indicator. For eachenvironmental indicator, GPI tracks biophysical changes,such as a loss in forested area, and then attaches a dollarvalue to each unit of change. The dollar amountassociated with each type of area captures the area’scontribution to social wellbeing by valuing the flow ofecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, and/orcultural). In this way, GPI is useful to track the trends inland use and associated costs or benefits. The valueassigned to each type of land is derived from past studies,most of which were done outside of Hawaii, sorepresents a gross approximation of the area’s value,In this report, we maintain that it isimportant to highlight changes in not onlyquantity (i.e., area of forest), but also howquality (i.e., forest health) impacts theecosystem services provided.In this report, we maintain that it is important tohighlight changes in not only quantity (i.e., area offorest), but also how quality (i.e., forest health) impactsthe ecosystem services provided, by further examiningthe relationships in the following formula:Impact of invasive species on area of aland type change in ecosystemfunction change in ecosystemservice change in valueFor the purpose of this report, within each of the fourecosystem types we identify one invasive species anddiscuss the associated ecosystem services that areimpacted by that species (Table 2); for example, Miconiain forested areas and potential impacts on erosion and/orwater supply.We recognize that choosing only one species is asimplification of the many interrelationships that existwithin complex systems, but is intended as illustrativeexamples for this discussion. We based our choices onresults of literature reviews and a series of interviewswith experts from invasive species committees, stateagencies, academia and others. The criteria to rankinvasive species per land type included economic,environmental, human health, and social/culturalimpacts, as well as risk and extent of spread.Table 2. Ecosystems Services Impacted by Invasive Species on Ecosystem TypesEcosystemService Forest Farmlands Wetlands CoastalSystemsInvasiveSpecies Miconia LittleFireAnt CaliforniaGrass PricklyseaweedProvisioningGroundwaterrechargeAgriculturalcrops Food FisheriesRegulating Erosionprevention PollinationRunoffprevention;waterfiltrationCarbonSequestrationCulturalRecreationHumanhealth;recreationRecreation;aestheticsTourismSupporting Geneticdiversity Habitats Habitat Habitats26


ResultsForestsBefore introductions and changes were made toHawaii’s forestss due to human settlement and evenmorerecent urban development, the forests coveredupwards of 95% of the land (Bennett & Friday, 2010).These forests provided critical ecosystemservices toHawaiians, including clean water, sites for recreation,habitat for native species, andopportunities for culturallpractices. Currentforests spanonly 36% of land areaa(Gonet al., 2006), but recent trends indicate a slightincrease in forested area. Previous GPI studies showedthat forested landhas expanded over the time frame of2001-2005, representing a gain of ecosystem servicessworthUS $11 million (State of Hawaii EnvironmentalCouncil, 2014). This value is based on economiccvaluation studies from other regions of the US that foundan acre of forest provides ecosystem services worth US$1,690 per acre.However, becausee the values assigned to forests in thepast GPI studies were derived from economic valuationsdoneoutside ofthe state, these values may notaccurately represent the true value of the forests inHawaii. Furthermore, the current methodassigns thesamevalue to anygiven acre of forest, regardless of its“quality”; i.e., theecological functioning that results inecosystem services. While overall forest area increased,the quality of the new or existing forests may havechanged in the same period. For instance,new forestssmay be plantations, and in native forests, non-nativespecies may be undermining aquifer recharge. Fourteenpercent of forest area is dominated bynon-nativeinvasive species. (Gon et al., 2006)Based on the interviews we conducted with experts inforestry and invasive species, we chose Miconiacalvescens (Common Names: Miconia, Purple Plague,and Purple Velvet Leaf) as a representative invasivespecies in forest ecosystems in Hawaii. Miconia is onthe Hawaii StateNoxious Weed List, as well as beingrecognizedas one of Hawaii’smostinvasivehorticultural plants (Hawaii Invasive Species Council,n.d.). .Figure 2. Miconia calvescens (habit)Starr, F. & K. (2003). Location: Hilo, Hawaii. Retrieved fromhttp:/ //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_031118-0108_Miconia_calvescens.jpgMiconia is a large tree growing up to 50 feet tall withhpurple colorization on the bottom of itsleaf, and iscommonly knownn in Hawaii as the “Purple Plague.” It Ihas large oval-shaped leaves and a shallowroot systemm(Figure 2). These trees are best suitedto areas at aelevation up to 1600 feet and more than 70 inches of oannual rainfall (Baruch, Pattison, & Goldstein, 2000). InnHawaii’s ideal conditions, a single plant can result in apopulation extending to almost 100 hectares in thematter of only five to 10 years (Kaiser, 2006).Miconia was originally introduced in 1961 to Oahu at athe Wahiawa Botanical Gardens, and similarly in the1970s to Maui at a botanicalgarden in the Hana area.Originating fromCentral andSouth America, the treewas brought to the islands asan ornamental plant. Thetreess were planted in backyards on most of the islandsand as a result have become widespread (Kaiser, 2006).The extent of spread on Hawaii Island (mostly on thewindward side) and Maui (well established on theeastern side) has made it exceedingly unlikely forcomplete eradication. In EastMaui alone, there is annestimated 15,000 hectares of potential Miconia invasionn(Hawaii InvasiveSpecies Council, n.d.).27


Preventing further spread on these islands has becomethe main goal of non-governmental organizations,invasive species committees, and local government.Miconia is also present, but to a lesser extent, on Oahuand Kauai; only approximately 700 hectares on Oahu,mostly in the Koolau Mountains (Burnett, Kaiser, &Roumasset, 2007), and only one known population onKauai (Hawaii Invasive Species Council, n.d.). Theability to control, manage, and possibly eradicateMiconia is greater on these islands given the limitedestablishment.Once Miconia is established in a forested area, itoutcompetes and eventually displaces the native plantswithin. Such changes occur due to a few key reasons,and are particularly relevant after a disturbance such asdeforestation or fire (Baruch et al., 2000). Due to theirheight and large oval-shaped leaves, the trees easilyblock the sun from reaching the native undergrowth(Kaiser, 2006). Essentially, future growth of all other(including native) plants stops and the diversity of plantsdecrease as Miconia’s presence as a monotypic standincreases. Furthermore, native species are unable to keepup with the reproductive rate of Miconia; this invasivespecies can produce upwards of 3 million seeds in onefruiting event and will do this about two to three timesper year (Kaiser, 2006). Furthermore, Miconia can growto an adult tree in just four years.While experts agree that Miconia will negatively impactsocial and economic functions, the primary concern isthe impact to ecological functions. Experts are highlyconcerned about the risk of spread as well as thepotentially large spatial extent, as Miconia is evident onfour of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Furthermore, in asimilar situation, Tahiti is inundated with Miconiamaking up over 65% of the total land cover on the mainisland. This was after only a single plant was introducedin 1937 (Burnett et al., 2007).Many ecosystem services are provided from healthy,diverse forest systems and are likewise compromisedwhen the quality of the forest is degraded by invasivespecies. Possibly the most concerning change inecosystem function relates to the forests’ hydrologicalprocesses. In Hawaii, the forest is critical to maintainingfreshwater supplies as island residents rely heavily onthe ecosystem service associated with groundwaterrecharge. The moisture captured when clouds areintercepted by trees in higher altitude forests contributesto a 30% increase in rainfall (State of HawaiiDepartment of Land and Natural Resources, 2011).Miconia promotes decreased soil permeability, increasedsoil erosion, and transpiration (Giambelluca, Sutherland,Nanko, Mudd, & Ziegler, 2009). Miconia is known toincrease runoff therefore disrupting the groundwaterrecharge (Kaiser, 2006). These changes directly impactthe watershed quantity and quality, i.e. the large leavesare collecting most of the rainfall and therefore thewatershed is bypassed. Noticeably fewer canopy gapsoccur where Miconia is present. The “umbrella” effect ofthe leaves combined with damage from the larger dropsof water that do permeate the cover, prevent groundcover vegetation from growing, which in turncontributes to increased soil erosion and loss inbiodiversity of the forest (Giambelluca et al., 2009).In terms of control measures for Miconia, populationreduction has been the best management practice so faron the impacted islands, with the exception of Kaua‘iwhere costs are greatest and population has yet to reachan established state (Burnett et al., 2007). Eradication isalso a current control effort when not cost prohibitive(i.e., aerial spraying), nevertheless preventative policiescould be more cost effective in the long run. Invasivespecies policies that prevent Miconia from entering thestate could help stop the early establishment of thespecies. Enacting optimal polices for Miconia couldhave an estimated present value benefit of $6.5 millionon O‘ahu and $34.5 million on Maui (Burnett et al.,2007).A cost-benefit analysis conducted in Hawaii estimatedthat if left untreated, the ecological damages fromMiconia invasion could reach a total of US $627 millionover the next 40 years (Burnett et al. 2007). Estimates ofpotential expected losses from Miconia’s impact ongroundwater recharge alone and just for O‘ahu areupwards of US $137 million dollars per year (Kaiser andRoumasset 2002; Kaiser, 2006).28


FarmlandsAgriculture is thethird largest economic sector in thestate.While the number of farms within the State hasincreased since 2002, the totalarea of farmland and theaverage farm size have both decreasedd (EconomiccResearch Service,2014). Agriculture is critical to locallfood security, given estimates that 85% to 90% of foodis imported to Hawaii (Leung & Loke, 2008).Furthermore, the issue is not just about the quantity ofacresof farmland,but also the quality (i.e., productivity)of that farmland.In Hawaii, the issues of invasive species and food self-sufficiency are uniquely intertwined.The state’ssdependency on imported foodsimultaneously increasessits vulnerability to unwanted pests, particularly in thecase of imported fresh produce (Leung & Loke, 2008).Furthermore, the spread of invasive species could lead toadditional stress or damage to existing agricultural crops,further detracting from efforts to become more food self-sufficient. One example is the varroa mite, a parasite thattattacks honey bees, that was detected on O‘ahu in 2007and Hawaii Island in 2008. The mites threatencommercial beekeeping, anestimated $4 millionindustry, and could significantly impact the pollinationnof fruit trees and vegetable crops (Ramadanet al., 2008;Office of Planning, 2012). Increasing local agriculturallproduction could help Hawaii to decrease not only thedependency on outside food, but also the risk ofintroducing harmful species, and at the sametime reduceethe associated costs for pest prevention and management.Based on interviews with experts in invasive species, wechosethe Wasmannia auropunctata (Common Name:LittleFire Ant or“LFA”) as a representative invasivespecies in agricultural ecosystems (farmland) in Hawaiii(Figure 3). The Little Fire Ant is native to SouthAmerica where its distributionis constrained by otherant species (Motoki, et al., 2013). However, Hawai‘i isone of the few locations worldwide where ants arenaturally absent, giving LFA the advantage to surviveand thrive. The LFA is in found in several states withinthe US, most notably Florida and Hawaii.LFA are tiny, measuring 1/16 inch long. They are paleorange and characteristicallymove very slowly (PestControl Branch, 2007). W. auropunctatais a shade-loving species that nests in trees and other vegetation asFigure 3. Wasmannia auropunctataPhoto by April Nobile; from www.antweb.org.well as on the ground (Pacific Ant Project, 2011). W. Wauropunctata hass many traits, shared withother highlyysuccessful and destructive invasive ant species, thatmakee these ants more likely to invade new areas anddmoree likely to succeed afterthey arrive. These traitsinclude: polygyny (more thanone queenper colony) );polydomy (multiple nests per colony) and unicolonialityyor large continuous populations (Krushelnycky, Loope,& Reimer, 2005; Motoki, 2013). Like manysugar-lovinggants, , W. auropunctata will tend hemipterans such asmealybugs and soft scales for their honeydew whichhcauses plant stress and can lead to increased prevalenceof these pests on fruit (Souza, Follett, & Price, 2008).In Hawaii, LFAhad been previously intercepted, butnot established, as early as 1930. LFA currently exist onnthe islands of Hawaii, Kaua‘i, Maui, andO‘ahu. Thefirst established population of LFA was found in thestatee in March 1999 in the Puna District onthe island of oHawaii (Starr, Starr, & Loope, 2007). LFA are nowwwidely distributed on Hawaii Island (Division of oForestry and Wildlife, 2013) and the ant population istoo widespread for eradication efforts (Department of oAgriculture, 2014).29


More recently, in December 2013, LFA were detectedon O‘ahu, and by summer 2014 infestations wereidentified in nurseries in Waimanalo as well as aresidential neighborhood in Mililani. The largestinfestation yet, over 20 acres, was uncovered along theHana Highway on Maui in October 2014. HDOA iscurrently trying to determine how the ants arrived andwhat to do in response. It appears that LFA, known as“hitch hiker” ants, were inadvertently transported fromthe Big Island to the other locations on hapu‘u(Hawaiian fern) logs or in the soil of potted plants.Given the high concern for the potential damages fromLFA, HDOA enacted inter-island quarantine regulationsthat prevent the shipment of infested plants (Souza,Follett, & Price, 2008).LFA impact the agricultural sector by infesting fields,damaging crops, and stinging farm workers. (HISC, n.d.).The most consistent and detrimental agricultural impactof these ants is indirect. LFA feed on the plant sap that issecreted by other pests like aphids, scales, mealybugs,and white flies. This mutualistic relationship leads togreat increases in the abundance of these pest insects,harming agricultural output (HISC, n.d.; Krushelnycky,Loope, & Reimer, 2005). If left untreated, LFA couldpotentially reduce agricultural yields up to 50% anddamages to the agricultural sector would be about 20-30% of sales, roughly $33 million to $50 million peryear (Motoki, et al., 2013). LFA also harm livestock (e.g.cattle, hogs, poultry) by repeatedly stinging animals,causing pain and discomfort and resulting in slowergrowth, lower weight, and/or decreased output (Motoki,et al., 2013). The impact of LFA on the agriculturalsector is particularly relevant to the island of Hawaii,since the island generates one-third of all agriculturalsales in the state (Motoki et al., 2013), yet has thehighest number of occurrences of LFA.Outside the agricultural sector, LFA can infest housesand sting residents and pets, leading to painful weltslasting for days or weeks (HISC, n.d.). Other potentialfuture impacts of LFA include loss of pollinationservices, negative impacts on recreation, and decreasedgenetic diversity within LFA infested ecosystems(Motoki et al., 2013).Based on results of a 35-year model to track the impactson agriculture, human health, and other factors fromLFA on the Big Island, Motoki et al. (2013) estimatedthat increased management could lead to US $5 billionin cost savings and a significant reduction in the numberof stings (about 2 billion fewer) over the 35-year period.WetlandsWetland ecosystems worldwide provide valuableservices to humans, including food, flood control,sediment retention, habitat for biodiversity, andrecreational sites, and as such are some of the mostvaluable ecosystems on a per hectare basis (Costanza etal., 2014). In Hawaii, this vital role is no less critical tosociety, yet data suggest our wetland areas are slowlycontracting. Wetlands in Hawaii account for less than 3percent of total land area (USGS, 1997).Previous GPI studies estimated a cumulative neteconomic loss of over US $305 thousand due to loss ofwetland area between 2002-2005 (State of HawaiiEnvironmental Council, 2014). This is based on a perhectarevalue derived from a study on the continental US.This uniform value does not consider the differencebetween coastal and inland wetlands, the heavy relianceof islands on wetland ecosystem services, the culturalimportance of wetlands, or the unique nature ofHawaii’s wetlands.Hawaii’s geography and hydrological conditions resultin wetlands that are different than those in other regionsof the United States (USGS, 1997). Wetlands are definedas “areas inundated or saturated by ground or surfacewater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support,and that under normal conditions, do support aprevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life insaturated soil conditions” (US Army Corp of Engineers,1987).In Hawaii this includes wetlands along riverbanks,marshes and bogs, swamps and mudflats at river mouths,and marine wetlands, such as intertidal zones. Theseareas are often critical habitat for native and threatenedspecies, and are thus protected by state and federalagencies.30


Based on interviews, five outof five experts indicateddUchochloa mutica as one of the top three mostproblematic invaders. Uchochloa mutica also known asCalifornia Grass or “para grass,” is native to Africa.California Grass is a largecoarse perennial grasssforming dense patches up to 2.5 m tall. It is often foundin pastures and onmarshy ground, and canbe used forfodder (Stemmerman, 1981) (Figure 4).as bird watchingcan be hindered due to very densegrowth California grass monoculture, which canndiminish views and preclude seabird stopovers anddinhabitation by water birds. A decreasee in bird anddinsects could impact nearby pollination.Figure 4. Uchochloa muticaCalifornia Grass is currentlynaturalizedthroughouttHawaii and the Pacific region. First collected on Oahuin 1924, it is common in wetlands, along streams,ditches, and wet disturbed sites from sea level to 1,1000meter elevation (Erickson, 2006). Experts are uncertainnwhether it was introduced intentionallyor not. Ifintentionally introduced, it was likely for pasturelands,cattlegrazing, orfodder. Once established, Californiaagrasss is likely tospread in extent and easily invadeselsewhere throughh seed dispersal by wind orbirds.Current management for this noxious weedis on a case-by-case basis; it may be tolerated or controlled on site.No regulations currently exist and management isexpensive. Weed whacking and digging out by handrequire a work crew, whileother control methodsinclude cutting down and applying herbicide or plastic,burning, or flooding. All management requires a long-term maintenance regime to control re-propagation.Multiple impactson wetlands’ ecosystem functionsresult from the invasion of California grass. Theseenoxious weeds block waterways. California grass inwetlands grows in dense tufts that support breedinghabitat for mosquitos, which can spread human disease,and are too dense for fish and wildlife to forage.Wetlands can become unidentifiable as wetlands, bothvisually and operatively. This is because California grasssgrows a dense mat system thatt other plants and trees cangrowupon. Manyof these are themselvess problematicinvaders. Moreover, the California grass inhibits naturalregeneration and facilitates complete alteration of nativehabitat, preventing native plant recruitment and overalllsite biodiversity.Multiple ecosystem services provided by wetlands canbe negatively impacted by non-native species invasion.Nutrientcyclingand waterpurification can beinterrupted by invasion, whichh may disturb habitat fornative insects andwildlife. Recreational activities suchThee non-native plant U. mutica. Photo courtesy UF/IFAS Centerfor Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Photographer Vic Ramey.Accessed on Dec. 19, 2014 at:http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Urochloa_mutica.htmmSitess of cultural and spiritualrelevance can be greatlyydegraded by invasion of the non-native grass, which mayyoutcompete traditionally important species. Kawai NuiWetland on Windward Oahu is an important example of othis, as it is the largest wetland on the islands and of ogreatt spiritual importance. Unfortunately, nearly 90% of othe wetland is degraded by this plant. Grasss invasion cannalso inhibit or prevent kalo cultivation andrepresents aloss in local food provisioning. Other social lossesinclude aesthetic, , cultural, recreation, tourism, education,and spiritual inspiration.Coastal systemsCoral reefs are the most valuable ecosystem on a per-area basis, yet their global area is shrinking(Costanza et eal., 2014). Due totheir relative value, theHawaii GPIstudyy concentrates on coral reefs, althoughh other coastalsystems, including estuaries, seagrass beds, and shelves,provide important services.31


The structure of Hawaii’s coral reefs are influenced bythe archipelago’s exposure to ocean swell and winds(Friedlander 2008). The relative isolation of Hawaii’sreefs resulted in high endemism and thus uniqueecosystems of high conservation value (idem). Reefsalso provide significant ecosystem services, includingfood, sites for cultural practices, and opportunities forrecreation. The economic value of Hawaii’s reefs wasestimated at $360 million annually (Cesar and vanBeukering 2004), yet reefs and their associated servicesare threatened by multiple global and local stressors.Stressors include coral bleaching due to rising seasurface temperatures, coral disease, intense storms,coastal development and runoff, pollution, tourismimpacts, fishing, and invasive species.In Hawaii, the estimated number of marine species thatare non-indigenous and crytogenic (of unknown origin)was recently revised to 421, compared with 343estimated in 2009 (Gorgulia, 2013). More than 60% ofthe marine alien species were introduced to the waters ofHawaii by biofouling (hull fouling); i.e., organismsattached to the surfaces of the hulls of vessels.While the majority of invasions are due to biofouling,about six percent of the introductions are attributed toballast water emptied from ships arriving fromelsewhere (Gouglia, 2013).Acanthophora spicifera (with common name of “pricklyseaweed”) was most likely introduced to Hawaii in1952, attached to the bottom of a barge making its wayfrom Guam to Pearl Harbor, Oahu (Godwin, S., et al.,2005; Smith et al., 2002). Currently, A. spicifera isconsidered the most pervasive alien algal species inHawaii (LaPointe, et al., 2010). The species can now befound on all main Hawaiian islands (although lessabundant on the island of Hawaii), and is considered themost abundant red algae occurring in reef flats withuniform distribution around all coastlines (Godwin, S., etal., 2005; Smith et al., 2002). From its point ofintroduction, it has spread in all directions to inhabitintertidal regions, reef flats, and tide pools (Smith et al.,2002; Wang et al., 2012).The reproductive nature of A. spicifera is both asexualand sexual, contributing to its broad distribution, as itcan reproduce through both fragmentation and therelease of sexual propagules (Smith et al., 2002;O’Doherty et al., 2007). It generally takes less than twodays for a fragment of A. spicifera to attach itself to newsubstrate or the hull of a ship due to its hook-likebranches that can easily snag rock, coral, or other algalspecies (Godwin et al., (2005). Additionally, its sexualpropagules are capable of travelling long distances,aided by the tides and currents, allowing it to reproducefar away from its impact zone (Smith et al., 2002;O’Doherty et al., 2007). Its original method of arrival ashull fouling is duplicated in harbors and hulls of ships onat least four of the five main islands, facilitating itsspread to new habitats (Smith, et al., 2002).A. spicifera produces large amounts of biomass thatreduces biodiversity and alters the structure of reefecosystems (Smith et al., 2002; O’Doherty et al., 2007).These near-shore coastal regions function to providebiological support to the wide array of native species,protection to coastal regions and ecosystems, carbonstorage, aesthetic value (recreation, tourism, etc.), andextractive uses (food, aquariums, pharmaceuticals, etc.)(Cesar et al., 2004).The pervasiveness of A. spicifera threatens supportingservices (Gorgula, 2014), specifically by competing andthriving in comparison to other native red algae such asLaurencia nidifica (Wang et al., 2012). Theoverabundance of the alien algae diminishes thebiological diversity upon which sustainable ecosystemservices are highly dependent (Palumbi et al., 2009).Moreover, the alien algae presence reduces the nativealgae available to herbivores, forcing them to consumenon-native algae, of which the impact is unknown(O’Doherty et al., 2007).A. spicifera’s effect on provisioning services (i.e.,extractive uses), is limiting the available native marinefood sources. This has cultural impacts as well, byaltering the convenience of resources for subsistencefishing practices (Gorgula, 2014).While over 20 species of alien algae have beenintroduced to the Hawaiian Islands since the 1950s, onlyabout five species (including A. spicifera) are establishedand cause extensive algal blooms, altering coastalecosystems (LaPointe et al., 2010). Yet data on theecological and economic impacts of alien seaweedbioinvasions are unclear or non-existent.32


However, large impacts have been documented for somespecies. In an economic evaluation of the second mostprevalent alien seaweed, Hypnea musciformis, (Cesar, etal., 2002) measured the economic losses to the State ofHawaii in excess of $20 million, Losses included:reduced occupancy rates in hotels and condominiums;reduced property value; and direct costs of removingrotting seaweed from beaches (Cesar et al., 2002).The spread of A. spicifera is likely irreversible given itscurrent extent, but control measures can be deployed toprevent further expansion (O’Doherty et al., 2007). Thefirst often cited control measure is effective policy formanaging the spread of invasive algae via hull fouling,supplementary to the existing laws managing ships’ballast water (DLNR, 2007). One method may requirethe use of anti-fouling and highly ablative surface paints,making it difficult for algae to latch on. Another usefulcontrol measure is the introduction of native herbivores(e.g., turtles) that feed on the algae. However, little isknown about how the consumption of invasive algaeaffects these native herbivores; this is particularlyrelevant now that A. spicifera accounts for roughly 20%of their diet (O’Doherty et al., 2007).Another possible control measure addresses the positivecorrelation between storm-water run-off and invasivealgae growth. As it moves across land toward the ocean,storm water run-off accumulates anthropogenic nutrients(phosphates and nitrates) and deposits the nutrients intocoastal areas. A. spicifera grows rapidly in the nutrientrich conditions, consequently hindering the growth ofnative red algae and threatening ecosystem services. Aslong as storm water run-off contains anthropogenicnutrients, A. spicifera will have a competitive advantagein run-off zones. Improving filtration and storm waterinfrastructure could slow A. spicifera and other invasivealgae growth, allowing native algae the opportunity tothrive (LaPointe et al., (2010).Currently the only state measures regard ballast waterintake and outtake (O’Doherty et al. (2007); DLNR(2007). Similarly, A. spicifera is not on the HDOAimportation list, so is disqualified from entering Hawaii(Schluker, 2003). Nevertheless, this has done very littleto slow the growth of A. spicifera, let alone reverse theimpacts on ecosystem functions and native biologicalrichness.Special Thanks to These Experts for Their ManaoJosh Atwood, PhDInvasive Species CoordinatorHawaii Invasive Species Council, DLNRTyler BogardusWildlife BiologistGrey Boar Invasive Management SpecialistsKimberly Burnett, PhDAssociate SpecialistUniversity of Hawaii Economic Research OrganizationCharles Burrows, PhDDirector, Ahahui Malama i ka LokahiKawai Nui MarshCharles ChimeraWeed Risk Assessment SpecialistHawaii Invasive Species CouncilSonia GorgulaBallast Water and Hull Fouling CoordinatorDLNR/Pacific Cooperative Studies UnitUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaEmily MontgomeryHISC PlannerHawaii Invasive Species CouncilBrian NeilsonInvasive Species BiologistDAR, DLNRJulia ParishOISC ManagerOahu Invasive Species CouncilKim PeytonEstuary and Coastal Habitat Research ScientistDAR, DLNRCharles van ReeseGraduate Research Fellow, PhD CandidateTufts University Department of BiologyJane RubeyHawaii State CoordinatorPacific Coast Joint Venture, State PartnershipDaniel RubinoffDirector, University of Hawaii Insect MuseumPEPS, EntymologyMarjorie ZieglerExecutive DirectorConservation Council of Hawaii33


Conclusion and Next StepsThis report builds upon the GPI framework that wasintroduced in earlier annual reports for the State ofHawaii Environmental Council. It highlights how theGPI platform can be used to better recognize the costsand benefits associated with invasive species and theirmanagement. Through a review of existing literature andsemi-structured interviews with a range of experts, weassembled case studies on an invasive species in each offour different ecosystems types: forests, farmland,wetlands, and coastal systems. We discuss the closeconnection between economics and invasive species andthen tie in the concept of ecosystem services, providing astarting point for discussion for policy makers, managers,and others.To ensure that GPI meets the needs of managers andpolicy makers who seek better estimates of the economicimpacts of change, we need to better understand howecosystem quality relates to the sustained flow ofservices and benefits coming from those ecosystems.With regard to invasive species, this requires uncoveringthe linkages between invasive species and ecologicalfunction, particularly those functions critical forecosystem service delivery.An ecosystem services approach to invasive species,featured under the GPI umbrella, offers an opportunityto expand ongoing invasive species work beyond itsclassic focus on ecological function, to factor in humandimensions represented by the costs of lost ecosystemservices. Invasive species harm humans directly andindirectly, and a nature-human coupled approach mayoffer new insights into policy prioritization.This holistic approach would necessitate collaborationacross a broader audience of ecologists, economists,policy makers, the public, and other stakeholders. Itblends the discoveries of ecological processes with theevaluation of ecosystem services, to then translate intopolicy and management recommendations.Most ecosystem services are considered “non-market” inthat they are not bought or sold but rather provided bynature free of charge. If we manage the ecosystemswisely, the flow of free yet valuable services can besustained. Granted, we recognized the complexity anduncertainty related to ecosystems. Yet by placing anapproximate value on these services, the aim is toillustrate their relative economic importance, betterassess tradeoffs among policy options (including shortversuslong-term actions) and hopefully catalyzestewardship. In contrast, when a monetary unit is notassigned, the importance of these non-marketenvironmental goods and services is routinelyundervalued or even overlooked, but decisions are maderegardless.Valuing ecosystem services is a relatively new field. Ourcall to explicitly include quality at a small scale wouldrequire advances in the ecological-economic modelingof those systems. Many of the impacts of invasivespecies on ecosystem services will be difficult to convertinto monetary costs and benefits simply because we donot know either how they impact ecological function, orhow changes in ecological function alter flows ofecosystem services. Nevertheless, these criticalknowledge gaps are worthy of attention, because broaderdiscussions of the economics of invasive species canlead to better informed decisions about action, both nowand in the future.34


ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSCGAPSDLNRDoSECGDPGPIHDOAHDOHHGGHISCCoordinating Group on Alien PestSpeciesHawai‘i State Department of Land andNatural ResourcesUS Department of StateEnvironmental CouncilGross Domestic ProductGenuine Progress IndicatorHawaii Department of AgricultureHawai‘i State Department of HealthHawaii Green GrowthHawaii Invasive Species CouncilIUCNLFAMANGONTBGOEQCTWIUHWCCInternational Union for Conservation ofNatureLittle Fire AntMillennium AssessmentNon-governmental OrganizationNational Tropical Botanical GardenOffice of Environmental QualityControlTrade Wind InversionUniversity of HawaiiWorld Conservation Congress35


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