Chapter 9 Physical Geography from the Andes to Amazon Chapter ...

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Chapter 9 Physical Geography from the Andes to Amazon Chapter ...

Chapter 9 Physical Geography from the Andes to AmazonChapter 10 Human Geography Blending of Cultures


Chapter 9 From the Andes to the AmazonSection 1: Landforms and ResourcesSection 2: Climate and VegetationSection 3: Human-Environment Interactions


Landforms and Resources Sierra Madre - Mexico Andes Mountains Highlands – Guiana Llanos – Columbia andVenezuela Amazon River basin – Brazil Pampas – Argentina andUruguay


Resources in Latin America Mineral deposits Include Gold, silver, iron, copper, aluminum, tin, lead, nickel Energy Reserves include Oil, coal natural gas, uranium, hydroelectric


Climate Tropical Climate Tropical Wet: Rainforest Tropical Wet and Dry:Savannahs Dry Climate Zone Semi Arid:Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay,Argentina Desert:Mexico, Chile, Argentina Mid Latitude Zones Humid Sub Tropical:Paraguay, Uruguay,Brazil Argentina MediterraneanChile Marine West CoastChile, Argentina HighlandsMountain regions


Human InteractionSlash and Burn:Terraced Farming:


UrbanizationPush Factors Factors pushing peopleout of the CountrysidePull Factors Factors pulling peopleto the City Poor Medical care Poor Education Low paying jobs Land ownership issues Better Medical Care Higher paying Jobs Better Schools


Tourism:Rio De Janeiro will host the 2016 OlympicsAdvantagesDis Advantages Brings in millions ofdollars Creates Jobs Spoil the land Congestion Increase in pollution


Chapter 10 Blending of CulturesSection 1: MexicoSection 2: Central America and the CaribbeanSection 3: Spanish Speaking South AmericaSection 4 Brazil


Spanish Conquest Tenochtitlan Industrial RRev1. Mexico


Colonialism and Independence Spanish First Europeans toencounter Latin America Hernan Cortez – Aztec Fransico Pissaro – Inca Spanish brought disease tothe new world killingmillions Enslaved the natives, Forced conversion toChristianity 1821 Mexico establishedindependence


Mexico


Long history ofarchitecture and art Public art manypaintings done onbuildings Most blend Europeanand Native influencesMexican Art


Mexican Architecture Aztec and Maya builttemples and pyramids Also blend Native andEuropean influences Spanish built missionsand huge cathedrals


Economic Cities and Factories Under Spanish wealth divided between richplantation owners and the landless peasants - Peons Longstanding gap between the rich and poor Mexico today struggles with two main economicchallenges Close the gap between the rich and poor Develop a modern industrial economy Oil is a great part of the Mexican economy NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement


Mexican Life Today Over 100 million people live in Mexico Emigration – workers travel to United States Work and School – many migrate to the UnitedStates with out education Mexico is making strides in education, 85 percent ofchildren of age are in school Need to increase spending on education to improveconditions for young people


Central America and TheCaribbean Cultural Hearth United province of Central America Panama Canal Calypso Reggae Informal economy


Native Central America: Maya A Cultural Hearth a crossroads of cultures betweenNorth America and South America Mayan built a great civilization and it spread south They Abandoned their cities about 800 A.D. still amystery Built many cities and temples in Belize, HondurasGuatemala and El Salvador Ruled by a God King


Colonial Central America: Spanish Conquest of the Aztec opened the door to Spanishdominance until 19 th century Mexico originally took the name United Provinces ofCentral America included all of Mexico and CentralAmerica 1830 split apart and became separate nations. CostaRica, Guatemala, Nicaragua Honduras, and ElSalvador Later Panama would break from Columbia Belize a former British colony became independent


Mexico and Central America


Native Caribbean First claimed by Christopher Columbus 1492 Encountered the Tainos who he named Indians Spanish settled some islands and establishedplantations Enslave natives to work many died Imported Slave labor to replace the workforce This led to a lasting influence of African culture Island claimed by Spanish, French, British, Dutchand Danish all imported slaves


Map of the Caribbean


Caribbean Independence First Independence came as a slave revolt in Haiti Revolt took over the government in 1804 fromFrance Cuba later became independent from Spain 1898 Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago did not becomeindependent until1962 from Great Britain


Cultural Blend Culture of Central America: Combines Native Elements and European influences Spanish remains the dominate language, with French andEnglish. Some Dutch and Danish Strong Catholic traditions but there are some protestantmissionaries Culture of the Caribbean: Great variety of influence African influence left a great mark on the islands Religion include Catholic, Protestant and Santeria Voodoo on Haiti Rastafarianism on Jamaica


Economics: Jobs and CitiesFarming and Trade Sugar Cain provideslargest export crop Banana, citrus fruit,tobacco, coffee, spices Low pay for farmworkers Panama CanalWhere people live andwhy Population related toeconomies Between 30-40 million Many islands citiesdensely populated Tourism large part ofeconomy


Popular Culture, Tourism andthe informal economy Music: elements of Spanish and African influence Calypso: began in Trinidad steel drums and guitars Reggae: developed in Jamaica in the 1960’s Deal with social problems Bob Marley Tourism: Increasingly important Informal economy: Out side of official channels Street vendors shoe shinners


3. Spanish Speaking South America Inca Quechua Mercosur


Spanish Speaking South America? Spain and Portugaldisputed land claims Pope Alexander VIIntervened Line of Demarcation Both Counties signedlater The Treaty ofTordesilles splitting thecontinent West is Spanish, East isPortuguese


Warrior culture Conquered the westcoast of South America Built an advancedcivilization in themountains By 1500 the Empireextend 2500 milesThe Inca


The Spanish Conquest Francisco Pissarroinvaded and conquerthe Inca Forced the natives towork as slaves Forced the Inca to moveto plantations fromtheir villages Spanish Forced theirown language whichreplaced Quechua Replaced the nativereligion withCatholicism One of the onlycivilizations conqueredstill seen today


Independence Movement Columbia Venezuela Ecuador BoliviaSimon Bolivar Once Independencewas gain the countriesfailed to work togetherJose de San Martin Argentina Chile Peru Argentina and Chilefirst to receiveIndependence


Many governments either Oligarchy or militaristic Authoritarian rule demands obedience overindividual freedom Years of colonialism had it effects Strong militaries Underdeveloped economies Social class divisionGovernment


Most economies based on agriculture Huge income gap between the rich and poor This is due to the failure to develop economicallyafter their independence Does produce a wide variety of products Crops Oil FishingEconomics


Chile’s Success Story Trades its goods with nations as far away as Japan Exports Fruits and Vegetables to North America Has huge deposits of copper Is the leader in working on improving the economicenvironment in South America

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