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GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC BACKGROUNDMONITORING FOR SELECTEDENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERSWMO GAW DATA FOR 1993al Atmosphere Watch Report NO.96ITO No. 6311 7 NOV. 199+VOLUME 1Atmospheric AerosolOptical Depth


GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC BACKGROUND MONITORING FOR SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERSWMO GAW DATA FOR 1993VOLUME IATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHPREPARED BYNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE, DATA AND INFORMATION SERVICENATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTRE, 151 PATTON AVENUE, ASHEVILLE, NC 28801-5001A joint publication of the World Meteorological Organization,the US Environmental Protection Agency and theUS Department of Commerce/National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration,in cooperation with theUnited Nations Environment Programme(Global Environment Monitoring System)WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONWMO Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Programme Report


TABLE OF CONTENTSPageINTRODUCTION .SECTION I - ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Sunphotometer Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I-iI-iData Tables Description '. . . . . . . . . . . .. I-iiList of stations of which the data are included in this volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I-vSECTION II - AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH, DAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS . .. 1-1


INTRODUCTION1. Global Atmosphere Watch Data for (year/s). Volume I - Atmospheric AerosolOptical Depth - is sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in cooperationwith the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the U.S. NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA).2. The publication presents data produced from the observational records submittedfrom stations in the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), and other cooperatingnetworks operated by certain WMO Member countries.3. The WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) system was established in 1989 onthe basis of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) and theWMO Global Ozone Observing System G0 3 0S) to which were integrated other relevantresearch and monitoring activities. The operation and further development of GAWare adirect contribution to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and to the GlobalEnvironment Monitoring System (GEMS/UNEP).4. The purpose and long term aim of the GAWare to provide data and otherinformation on the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of thebackground atmosphere from all parts of the globe required to improve the understanding ofthe behaviour of the atmosphere and its interactions with the oceans and the biosphere and tothe enable prediction of the future state of the Earth system.5. The Global Atmosphere Watch is operated in accordance with several resolutionsand other decisions of the relevant WMO bodies, and in particular the WMO TechnicalRegulations. The WMO networks under the ,GAW include global and regional stations.6. GAW Global stations (until 1989 known as baseline air pollution stations) areestablished to carry out extensive research and monitoring programmes aimed at providingmeasurements needed to address atmospheric environment issues of global scale andimportance such as climate change and the depletion of the ozone layer. As far as feasible,each station in this category is located in a remote area representative of a particularecosystem or climate zone, where:(i)(ii)(iii)no significant changes in land-use practices are expected for the coming decadeswithin a reasonable distance (30-50 km) in all directions from the station; awayfrom major population and industrial centres and major highways,effects of natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and severedust storms are not frequently experienced,it can be reasonably assumed that the ambient air at the station is entirely free ofthe influence of local pollution sources and nearly free of the effects of regionalpollution sources at least 60% of the time evenly distributed over the year.(i)


7. GAW Regional stations (until 1989 known as regional stations and regional stationswith extended programmes) perform a more flexible observation programme, primarily toprovide measurements needed to assess regional aspects of global issues and to addressatmospheric environment problems of concern in various regions. These include theproduction and distribution of tropospheric ozone, biospheric emissions of trace gases that caninfluence climate, the impact of acidic deposition of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, thehemispheric transport of both gases and aerosols such as soil dust from arid regions. Stationsin this category are normally located:(i)(ii)preferably in rural areas sufficiently far away from population and industrialcentres, so that most of the year the station is not unduly affected by local sourcesof air pollution;where a full programme of surface meteorological observations is carried out, andan upper air station is, if not co-located, at least not farther away than 50-70 km.8. However, if a GAW station only measures total column ozone and/or the verticaldistribution of ozone, then there are less stringent restriction on its siting/location.9. All GAW stations are expected to have sufficient longevity, so as to ensure that thetrends in the values of the parameters measured are representative of conditions within thestation's airshed.Background of GAW Data publication and the deposition of data to the various data centres1. Initially only turbidity data were processed and published. The annual publicationknown then as "Atmospheric Turbidity Data for the World," began in 1971. Withthe addition of precipitation chemistry data in 1972, the publication's name waschanged to "Atmospheric Turbidity and Precipitation Chemistry Data for theWorld." In 1975, with the addition of flask sample carbon dioxide data, the titlebecame "Global Monitoring of the Environment for Selected AtmosphericConstituents." In 1978, when continuous carbon diox,ide and suspended particulatedata were added, the title became "Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring forSelected Environmental Parameters BAPMoN Data for (year/s)." In 1992, as aresult of the consolidation of WMO activities involving the composition and relatedphysical characteristics of the atmosphere into the Global Atmosphere Watch, thepublication's title was changed to its present name.2. Starting with the 1981 data year and ending with the 1991 data year, the GAW datawere published as follows:- BAPMoN data appeared in two volumes, with turbiditydata in Volume I and the remaining measurements, except those of ozone, inVolume 11. Ozone data were, and continue to be, published by the WMO WorldOzone Data Centre operated by the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service inthe red-covered "Ozone Data for the World" books which, starting with the datayear 1992, will have reference on the cover to GAW. Participating stationscontinue to be encouraged to report their data on diskettes, with the goal ofcompleting the changeover from the current standard handwritten data forms todiskettes by December 1993. -(ii)


3. Starting with the 1992 data year, GAW Data are published in four" volumes asfollows:(GAW Data Volume I -.(,"'.>, i }GAW Data Volume 11 -r' 1 {.. FIGAW Data Volume III -GAW Data Volume IV -Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth (prepared at the NationalClimatic Data Centre (NCDC), Federal Building, Asheville,North Carolina 28801, USA, and published by WMO),Precipitation Chemistry and suspended particles (prepared atthe WMO Collaborating Centre on Background Air PollutionData Exposures and Analysis Research Branch, AtmosphericResearch and Exposure Assessment Laboratory,Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research TrianglePark, North Carolina 27711, USA, and published by WMO)("Red Book") - Ozone Data for the World (published at theWorld Ozone Data Centre, Atmospheric Environment Service(AES), 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, Ontario, CanadaM3H 5T4, in cooperation with WMO),Greenhouse and other atmospheric gases (published by theWMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, JapanMeteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo 100, Japan in cooperation with WMO).4. Submission of data to the Centres for processing, archiving, and publication haschanged over the years and can be summarized as follows:(a)(b)Member countries used, and continue to send, atmospheric aerosol opticaldepth observations to the National Climatic Data Centre, Asheville, N.C.where the data are edited and used as input to the tabulations given in GAWData Volume I.Each country is responsible for the collection and chemical analysis ofsamples and the submission of data of precipitation chemistry, suspendedparticulate matter, continuous and/or grab sample, carbon dioxide or othergreenhouses gases, including ozone to the corresponding data centre.Exceptionally, certain participating countries with no suitable laboratorystaff or facilities, by special arrangement with the WMO Secretariat,transmitted precipitation and SPM samples from their stations through theIAEA to the laboratories of Meteorological Services of Czechoslovakia andthe Federal Republic ofGermany for analysis. This arrangement wasterminated in 1991.·Discussions on the possible reformating of "Solar Radiation and Radiation BalanceData," currently published by the WMO World Radiation Data Centre, S1. Petersburg, and itspossible inclusion in the GAW Data Series were initiated in May 1992.(iii)


(c)(d)Until 30 September 1990, all the data in (b) above, except 'ozone, weresubmitted to the NCDC from where they were passed on to the WMOCollaborating Centre at the EPA, in Research Triangle Park, NorthCarolina, for processing and preparation for publication in GAW DataVolume n. Since 1 October 1990, only the data of precipitation chemistryand suspended particulate matter are so reported and published.Since the inception of G0 3 0S, participating Member Countries have beensending data on total column ozone, on the vertical distribution of ozone andon background surface ozone to the WMO World Ozone Data Centre, AES,Downsview, Ontario, Canada, for publication in the "Ozone Data for theWorld." Starting with the 1992 data year, this publication has becomeGAW·Data Volume In.(e) . Starting on 1 October 1990, the WMO Global Data Centre for GreenhouseGases, established in September 1989 at the Japan Meteorological Agency inTokyo, became operational. As of that date, the WDCGG took over fromthe NCDC, Asheville, N.C., and the Centre at EPA, Research TrianglePark, N.C., the responsibility for the systematic central collection,processing, archiving, and publication of data on the concentration ofgreenhouse and other atmospheric trace gases (except ozone) which willhenceforth be published in GAW Data Volume IV, and no longer in GAWData Volume n.(f)Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) (formerlyGeophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC» stations submitatmospheric flask sample carbon dioxide data to NOAA. in Boulder,Colorado, USA for analysis. Data tables are prepared and sent to theappropriate WMO Data Centre for inclusion in the appropriate GAW DateVolume (WDCGG, Tokyo, and Data Volume IV as from 1 October 1990).(iv)


REFERENCESWMO-No. 491 (1988): International Operations Handbook for Measurement of BackgroundAtmospheric Pollution, Provisional Edition, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No. 723 (1989): Forty-first Session of the Executive Council, Geneva, 5-17 June1989, Abridged Report with Resolutions, Annex to paragraph 5.4.4 of theGeneral Summary, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-Press Release No. 441 (1989). Japan Meteorological Agency designated as WorldMeteorological Organization World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, Geneva,Switzerland.WMO/WDCGG-No. 1 (1991): Data Reporting Manual of the WMO World Data Centre forGreenhouse Gases (WDCGG), Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No. 763 (1992): The WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme1992-2001, Third WMO Long-Term Plan, Part Il, Vol. 3, Programme 3.1 ­Global Atmosphere Watch, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO-No. 49: Technical Regulations, Volume I - General Meteorological Standards andRecommended Practices, Chapter B.2 - Global Atmosphere (GAW) (Inpreparation).(v)


SECTION I:ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHSunphotometer Aerosol Optical Depth measurementsThe atmospheric aerosol optical depth, '!A~' derived from sunpl1otometer measurements is themonochromatic extinction coefficient at wavelength A' considering vertical transmission, foraerosols with radii of about 0.1 to 1.0 micron. It is defined in equation (1):where:(1)I,\.is the irradiance at wavelength A at the observing point.is the extraterrestrial irradiance at wavelength A at the mean sun-earthdistance.Sis the factor for converting lo,\. to actual sun-earth distance.is the Rayleigh optical depth (for scattering by air molecules).is the ozone optical depth (for absorption).is the aerosol optical depth.is the relative optical air mass.The sunphotometer does not measure the spectral irradiance but rather provides a meterdeflection (J ) which is proportional to I. Similarly, the instrument calibration factor, J o,is the meter }eading when the irradianac~ is 1 , 0Values. of the relative optical air mass riadfrom the diopter scale on the sunphotometer ale used on station to determine turbidity values.For this report, air mass values are recomputed using latitude, longitude, elevation, and thetime of observation. The extinction optical depths 'tr and 't3 are adjusted for the elevationof the observation site. Calculations of 'tA , Angstrotn's turbidity coefficient p, andwavelength exponent a are given in this putlication. The relationship among these variablesis:A = wavelength in microns. .When measurements are made with the single wavelength Volz instrument, a is assumed tobe 1.3. For the dual-wavelength sunphotometers, a is calculated from aerosol optical depthmeasurements at the two wavelength, Al and A2 (generally 500 and 380 nanometers (nm)respectively) as follows:(2)I-i


et =In('t'A A 2/'t'A A 1)In 0'1/1.. 2 )(3)Angstrom's turbidity coefficient ~. is computed fromJ3= 't'AAA I1(4)which is derived from (2).The following discussion is designed to help the reader interpret the data in this report. Moredetailed information can be gained from the list of references provided at the end of the text.et (ALPHA), the wavelength exponent, is related to the size distribution of the particlesconstituting the aerosol. Its average value is about 1.3. Large values of et indicate arelatively higher ratio of small particles to large particles (large particles have radii > 0.5microns).The particle number density (m-4) is defined as:n (r) = dN(r}drand(5)n (r o ) is the particle number density at an arbitrary fixed particle radius r o ' e.g., r o = 1 p.m.r is the particle radius of the measured aerosol.For the purposes ofthis report, et is independent of wavelength. et has a range of about 0 to4 but generally it is within the range of 0.5 to 2.5. Negative alpha values may appear in thisreport. These are thought to be associated with anomalous particle distributions but mayoccasionally be noise introduced by limits in instrumental accuracy when 't'All - 't' Al2'P (BETA), the turbidity coefficient defined in equation (4) above, i~ computed usingwavelength, but is actually independent of I.. because of the "canceling" effect of "tAA whichis wavelength dependent. P 0.2 asrelatively hazy for near sea level readings.Data Tables DescriptionData in this edition are presented in a new form which conserves space and allows for the'publication of aerosol optical depth in one to four wavelength regions. Data are presented forstations listed by ascending NCDC number. Delayed data are presented under the stationI-ii


heading beginning with the earliest date. The station headings give information pertaining togeographical location, elevation, WMO, and NCDC number, the instrument wavelengths, andthe sum of the extinction optical depths for Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption. Theextinction optical depths are calculated for the station elevation using Elterman'stables.When changes occur during the year, the table headings are changed to reflect currentinformation.The data tabulated in this publication are the daily mean 'tAA. values, a (alpha), andthe number of observations. The alpha value given for each day is calculated from the meanaerosol optical depth for the first two wavelengths. For single-wavelength instruments, alphais assumed to 1.3. The synphotometer monthly mean a and Jl values are computed from themonthly mean of all observed 'tAAl and 'tA.\.2 values.Although data which result in negative daily mean alpha values for consecutivedays are regarded as questionable, the daily mean 'tAA. and a values are printed. Observedaerosol optical depth data which produce values of a < -0.8 and> 3.5 are retained onmagnetic tape but are not included in the published data.The data have been calculated, listed by computer, and checked for errors.Because of apparent cloud obstruction or instrument malfunction, some observations havebeen eliminated. Any errors noted in listings should be brought to the attention of theNational Climatic Data Center.Data submissions and use:Whereas atmospheric aerosol optical depth was being measured at 89 stations in 40countries as of 31 December 1988 (see WMO/TD-No. 284), the Appendix shows that datafrom only 18 stations in 12 countries were received at NCDC and are included in thisvolume, with delayed data (Le., for years prior to 1992) from 8 stations for 1991.. In preparing the data tables, the observational records from the stations were usedas submitted. The data tables should therefore be used with care. Additional information(e.g., instrument types and calibration, station history, etc.) may he obtained from contactpersons at individual stations (see Table X, WMO/TD-No. 284 for stations included in thisvolume).Eventual users of data contained in this volume are also requested to be kindenough to identify the data as originating from stations in the "WMO Turbidity Networkunder the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)."REFERENCESAngstrom, Anders (1961): Techniques ofDetennining the Turbidity ofthe Atmosphere,Tellus XIII, 1961..Angstrom, Anders (1963): The Parameters ofAtmospheric Turbidity, Tellus XVI, 1964.I-iii


Bullrich, Kurt (1964): Scattered Radiation in the Atmosphere and the Natural Aerosol.Advances in Geophysics, Vo!. 10, pp. 99-260.CSAGI (Comite Special de l'Annee Geophysique International), (1958): RadiationInstruments and Measurements. Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Vo!. 5,part VI, London, Pergamon Press, pp. 398-410.Elterman, L. (1968): UV, Visible and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, Air ForceCambridge Research Laboratories.Mason, J.B. (1965): Aerosols (Section 5.5), Handbook of Geophysics and SpaceEnvironments, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories.McCormick, R.A.: Atmospheric Turbidity. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting ofthe Air Pollution Control Association, June 11-16, 1967, Cleveland, Ohio.WMO - No. 229, (1974): WMO Operations Manualfor Sampling and Analysis Techniquesfor Chemical Constituents in Air and Precipitation, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO - No. 491, (1988): WMO International Operations Handbook for Measurement ofBackground Atmospheric Pollution, Provisional Edition, Geneva, Switzerland.WMO/TD-No. 284 (1988): Summary Report on the Status ofthe WMO Background AirPollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) as at 31 December 1987. (N.B. The updateas at 31 December 1989 is in preparation.)I-iv


LIST OF STATIONS Of ~HICH THE DATA ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME (see text)NCOC No. \M) No. Ilame of the COtKltrv NAME OF THE STATION latitude Longitude ALtitude Year PagesDeg "'in HeIII Deg "'in Hell (.) Frc. To02320 03162 United Kingdom Eskdalemuir 55 19 N 3 12 W 242 1993 1-1 1-207060 80241 Colombia Gaviotas 4 33 N 70 55 W 171 1993 1-2 1-312152 -- United Kingdom Lima (O'oIS Cumu lus) 57 0 N 20 0 W 10 1993 1-3 1-312185 -- China Un An 30 18 N 119 44 E 132 1993 1-3 1-412200 10393 Germany Lindenberg 52 12 N 14 7 E 120 1993 1-4 1-612800 -- China Longfengshan 44 44 N 127 36 E 331 Prior (1991) 1-6 1-7Prior (1992) 1-8 1-101993 1-11 1-1313255 16420 ItalY Messina 38 12 N 15 33 E 54 1993 1-13 1-1813260 67585 Zambia Mfuwe 14 16 S 31 56 E 570 1993 1-18 1-2013315 16134 Italy Monte Cirnone 44 12 N 10 42 E 2165 1993 1-20 1-2118950 47513 Japan Ryori 39 2 N 141 50 E 230 Prior (1991) 1-21 1-22Prior (1992) 1-22 1-2419420 16360 Italv Santa Maria Di Leuca 39 49 N 18. 21 E 104 1993 1-24 1-2819430 -- China Shanadianzi 40 39 N 117 7 E 260 Prior (1992) 1-28 1-291993 1-29 1-3219433 62301 Egypt Sidi Barrani 31 38 N 25 54 E 24 Prior (1992) 1-32 1-331993 1-33 1-3720050 60738 Tunisia Thala 35 33 N 8 41 E 1091 1993 1-38 1-3920080 60680 Algeria Tamanrasset 22 47 N 5 31 E 1377 1993 1-39 1-4420700 16429 Italy Trapani/Birgi 37 55 N 12 30 E 7 1993 1-44 1-4822175 16090 ItalY Verona 45 23 N 10 52 E 67 1993 1-48 I-5222370 16217 Italy Viterbo 42 26 N 12 4 E 300 1993 I-52 I-55


LIST OF STATIONS Of YHICH THE DATA ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME (see text)lCOC Mo. IM) No. lIa111l! of the COWItrv IIAME Of THE STATION Latitude Longitude Altitude Year PatlesDeg "in HeIII Deg Nin HeIII (.) Fr~ To22700 62751 Sudan Wild Hedani 14 24 N 33 29 E 405 1993 I-55 I-5722701 62751 Sudan Wad Hedsni 14 24 N 33 29 E 405 1993 I-57 1-6025250 -. Hong Kong Yuen Ng Fan 22 22 N 114 20 E 86 Prior (1992) 1-60 1-611993 1-61 1-6225251 -- Hong Kong . Yuen N9 Fan 22 22 N 114 20 E 86 Prior (1992) 1-62 1-631993 1-63 1-6325252 -. Hom~ Kong Yuen HQ Fan 22 22 N 114 20 E 86 Prior (1992) 1-63 1-641993 1-64 1-65


NCDC 2320WMO 0311>2AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSESKDALEMUIR, UNITED KINGDOM55 1'3N 3 12WALTITUDE(NATURAL242 MLOGARITHMS)YEAR1'3'33MONTH DAY1 202531>8.317.25'3N12500.255.1nN12ALPHA.7181.21>01>75.272.183N12778.317.225N DAY MONTH1 20 12 25MONTHLY MEAN .27'3 3 .202 3 1.043 .213 3 .2% 3 BETA .0'38MONTH DAY2 1731>8.277N3500.122N3ALPHA2.1>7'31>75.112N3778.1'34N DAY MONTH3 17 2MONTHLY MEAN .277 3 .122 3 2.1>7'3 .112 3 .1'34 3 BETA .01'3MONTH DAY3 13b8.407N1500.21'3N1ALPHA2.0221>75.214N1778.310N DAY MONTH1 1 333333418232431.388.388.41>5.387.4'35221.201.175.245.215.2282212.1402.5'382.0%1. '31 82.521.17'3.178.253.212.228221.258.2'3'3.374.300.37322141823243133333MONTHLY MEAN .423 8 .213 8 2.23'3 .212 8 .323 8 BETA .045MONTH DAY 3b84 30 1.2'37N3500.714N3ALPHA1. '3481>75.4'35N3778.582N DAY MONTH3 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.2'37 3 .714 3 1. '348 .4'35 3 .582 3 BETA .185MONTH DAY5 I>3b8.1>05N2500.235N2ALPHA3.08'31>75.211N2778.381>N DAY MONTH2 I> 5MONTHLY MEAN .1>05 2 .235 2 3.08'3 .211 2 .381> 2 BETA .028MONTH DAYI> 2731>8.581N3500.185N3ALPHA3.731>1>75.173N3778.371>N DAY MONTH3 27 I>MONTHLY MEAN .581 3 .185 3 3.731> .173 3 .37b 3 BETA .014MONTH DAY7 113b8.552N1500.203N1ALPHA3.21>21>75.1%N1778.357N DAY MONTH1 11 7MONTHLY MEAN .552 .203 3.21>2 .1% .357 BETA .021MONTH DAY8 313&8.'340N2500.204N2ALPHA3.174&75.1 b 1N2778.28'3N DAY MONTH2 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .540 2 .204 2 3.174 .11>1 2 .28'3 2 BETA .023MONTH DAY'3 222831>8.508.351N12500.181>.135N12ALPHA3.2823.121>1>75.11>7.117N12778.2'31N DAY MONTH1 22 '3.213 2 28MONTHLY MEAN .403 3 .152 3 3.1'31.133 3 .23'3 3 BETA .017I -


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS{NATURALLOGARITHMS}NCDC 2320WMO 031E>2MONTH DAY10 1410 1510 lE>10 173E>8.321.31E>.302.28E>ESKDALEMUIR. UNITED KINGDOM55 l~N 3 12WN2223500.117.115.108.0~7N2223ALPHA3.28~3.2~~3. %73.511E>75.%~.112.108.0~5N2223ALTITUDE778.b74.212.207. 1 ~3242 MN DAY MONTH2 14 102 15 102 1E, 103 17 10YEAR 1~~3MONTHLY MEAN .304 ~ .108 ~ 3.377 .207 '3 .307 '3 BETA .010MONTH11DAY1711 2311 2E>3E>8.40E>.452.215N2500.251.251.102N2ALPHA1.57E>1 . ~2E>2.438E>75.20E>.177.0~7N2778.251.208.150N DAY MONTH2 17 11232E,1111MONTHLY MEAN .370 4 .213 4 1 . 7~5 .172 4 .215 4 BETA .0E,2NCDC 70E>0WMO 80241MONTH DAY 5001 10 2.053GAVIOTAS. COLOMBIA4 33N 70 55WN3E>751 . ~35N3ALPHA.0~87781.80E>N3ALTITUDE 171 M YEAR l~C338E,21.873N DAY MONTH1 10 1MONTHLY MEAN 2.05331 . ~353.0~81.80E>31.873BETA 1. 8E,2NCDC 70E>0WMO 80241MONTH DA Y %81 11 1. 84~18 1. 54~1~ 1.7%20 1. ~7524 1. ~37GAVIOTAS. COLOMBIA4 33N 70 55HN322335001 . 74~1. E>E>O1. E>E>71 . 82~1.838N32233ALPHA.181-.225.171.251.172E>751 . 78~1.7371. E>551.85'31 . 8~8N32233ALTITUDE 171 M YEAR 1~~38E,21. B351.7701. E>8E,1. BE,51. '317N3DAY11MONTH12 182 1 ~3 203 2430 1. ~2E>31.8173.1881. '34531.8'353 30MONTHLY MEAN 1.854lE>1.772lE>.1481.82'3lE,1.840lE, BETA 1.5~'3MONTH DAY 3E>82 7 2. 1 ~1N35002.1 E>E>N3ALPHA.038E,752.157N3BE,22.0E,E,N DAY MONTH3722210 2.02011 2. 188221 . 85~2.04022.271.22'31.8E,82.02E,221.8E,32.04322101122215 2.28232.2283.0772.1 E,332.1503152217 2.31E>32.0~43.32'32.08732.0'3'3317221~ 2.44832.1%3.4142.11232.12031'32MONTHLY MEAN 2.258 1 E> 2.108 lE> .224 2.084 lE, 2.. 070 lb BETA 1.805MONTH DAY %83 1E> 2. 120N35001 . ~27N3ALPHA.310E,751. '340N38E,21. '370N DAY MONTH3 lE> 3318 2.05121.7352.5471. E, 7421. E>b'321833327 2.83328 2.301222. %E>2.03022.588.4102.2111 . ~44222.2271. '34522272833330 2.E>1222.24~2.48'32.11122.1472303MONTHLY MEAN 2.3E>0 11 2.04~ 11 .4bOl.~73 11 1. '38'3 11 BETA 1.4'308 7 2.381 2 1 . ~72 2 .E,142.%5 2 2.11f, 2 7 8I - 2


NCDC 70&0HMO 80241MONTH8DAY3&818 1. '3'33GAVIOTAS, COLOMBIA4 33N 70 55H.N35001.742AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSN3ALPHA.43'3E>752.128N3(NATURAL LOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 171 M YEAR 1'3'338&2 N DAY MONTH1.028 3 18 8MONTHLY MEAN 2.148 5 1.834 5 .515 2.303 5 1.487 5 BETA 1.283MONTH DAY'3 18'3 1'33&82.E>342. E>11N135002.5122.541N13ALPHA.153.08'3E>752.4002.404N138E>2.0002.377No3DAY MONTH18 '31'3 '3MONTHLY MEAN 2.E>1E> 4 2.534 4 .105 2.403 4 2.377 3 BETA 2.3%MONTH DAY 3E>811 & 2. 12E>N35001.71E>N3ALPHA.E>'3'3E>751.302N38E>21. '344N DAY MONTH3 & 1111111& 2.22&22 2.04&331.80E>1. E>5033.&82.7021.4371.350332.0E>21.872331&221111MONTHLY MEAN 2.133 '3 1.724 '3 .E>'34 1.3E>3 '3 1. '35'3 '3 BETA 1.0E>E>MONTH DAY 3E>812 20 2.5'37N2500.E>44ALPHA4.548E>752.070N28E>22.1 E>3N DAY MONTH2 20 121212121222 2.5'342E> 2.50228 2.E>4230 2.2712223.E>24.524.E>73.550N222234.E>485.0'374.4E>14.&252.0532.0132.0451.81722232.1202.0E>52.1181.8'352223222&283012121212MONTHLY MEAN 2.4'3'3 11 .5'38 11 4.E>E>3 1. '383 11 2.0% 11 BETA .024NCDC 12152HMOLIMA 10HS CUMULUS), U KINGDOM57 ON 20 OHALT I TU DE 10 M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH DAY'3 2'3500.7'33N33&82.3&7N3ALPHA3. %E>E>751.203N3778.%E>N DAY MONTH3 2'3 '3MONTHLY MEAN .7'33 3 2.3E>7 3 3. %E> 1.203 3 .%E> 3 BETA .0E>7NCDC 12185HMOLIN AN, REPUBLIC OF CHINA30 18N 11'3 44EALTITUDE 132 M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH DAY5 253&8.'343N35001.255N3ALPHA-.'333778.E>E>E>N3DAY MONTH25 5MONTHLY MEAN .'343 3 1.255 3 -.'333 .E>&E> 3 8ETA 2.3'35MONTH DAYE> 23&8.443N2500.307N2ALPHA1.1'35778.21'3N2DAY MONTH2 &MONTHLY MEAN .443 2 .307 2 1.1'35 .21'3 2 BETA .134MONTH DAY7 12%8.3'34N3500.255N3ALPHA1.41 E>778.1'30N1DAY MONTH12 7MONTHLY MEAN .3'34 3 .255 . 3 1.41 E> .1'30 BETA .0%MONTH DAY'3 2'3 33E>8.570.800N33500.%0.533N33ALPHA1.5031.321778.254.324N23DAY MONTH2 '33 '3I - 3


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12185WMOMONTH'3'3DAY3&85 1.0777 . '383LI N AN.30 18NN33I 1'3500.73'3.&7444EN33CHINAALPHA1.22&1.230778.430.405N33AL TI TUDE 132 M YEAR 1'393DAY MONTH5 '37 9MONTHLY MEAN .857 12 .577 12 1.2'34 .3&2 1 I BETA .235NCDC 12200WMO 103'33MONTH DAYI II 2I 3I 4I 5242730313'32.5b0.4'34.8&4.&'3'3.'301.853.&07.43'3.58'3LINDENBERG. GERMANY52 12N 14 7ENIIIII4'32.583.50'3.818.&&1.842.8'3'3.&&3.472.&20NIIIIIALPHA-. 178-. 128.240.245.2'3'3-.233-.388-.31'3-.22'3773.571.4&0.£:>81.5'32.750.'310.£:>82.450.&12N11II1ALT nUDE1032.548.424.5'3'3.528.&&8.88&.£:>50.415.5'33120 MN DAY MONTHI 1 II 2 II 3 I1 4 I1 5 I24273031YEAR 1'393MONTHLY MEAN .&&7 '3 .&74 '3 -.045 .&34 '3 .5'30 '3 BETA .E.%MONTH DAY 3'322 2 1.08122224202223.535.450.405.'334NI4'321.087.5b4.50&.45b.'303NIALPHA-.025-.234-.510-.525. 1537731.032.4'31.524.4£:>&.7'3'3N11032.'38'3,.440.511.44E..734N DAY MONTH1 2 242022232222MONTHLY MEAN .&81 5 .703 5 -. 140 .&&2 5 .£:>24 5 BETA .77E.MONTH DAY3 I3 233333333333'321.3031.8754 1.84&5 1.253'3 . &8814 1. &01I£:> 1.08521 .88'324 .58'325 . &&42& .54731 .72'3NII4'321.2051.8141.7271. 185.7071.5731.043.8'30.£:>21.703.583.710NIIALPHA.345. 145.2'32.245- . I 1&.080.174-.003-.235- .25b-.281. I 13773.'3581. &001.34&.'335.5'331.410.833.812.£:>00.£:>'34.574.£:>00NI11032.8421.4741. I 14.782.5331.288.724.7&4.573.&&2.538.540N DAY MONTHI I 312345'314I£:>2124252&313333333333MONTHLY MEAN 1.08'3 12 1.0&3 12 .105 .'313 12 .820 12 BETA .'387MONTH DAY 3'324 2 1. 10'3NI4'32.'38'3N1ALPHA.503773.757N11032.&&0N DAY MONTH1 2 444444441 I .82412 .84&22 1.4&524 1. 17225 .72'32& .5'3127 .735.82£:>.8121.3741.0&3.718.5%.&&7-.010,182.282.429.071- .03£:>.428.7£:>3.£:>881 .151.B3£:>.&32.514.550.723.&291.05b.740.5'30.477.49911124422 424252&274444I - 4


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12200WMO 103'33LINDENBERG. GERMANY52 12N 14 7EALTITUDE120 MYEAR1'3'33MONTH DAY4 283'32.858N14'32.'307N1ALPHA-.24E>773.737N11032.E>71N DAY MONTH1 28 4MONTHLY MEAN .'325 '3 .883 '3 .204 .737 '3 .E>72 '3 BETA .7E>4MONTH DAY5 85 '35 105 115 125 135 143'321.2021.112.7541.144.'3051.2271.071N11111114'321.11 '31.0E>8.7701.0%.87b1.2011.004N1111111ALPHA.315.177-.0'31.188.144.0'35.282773.'317.'343.73'3.%0.77'31.131.823N11111111032.838.887.71b.8'3'3.7341.0'38.751N1111111DAY MONTH8 5'3 510 511 512 513 514 555517181'3.E>E>'3.4E>8.773.E>55.4'31.715111.0'34-.211.345.511.470. %4.4E>0.453.50317181'3555521 .'377.'373.01'3.E>8'3.58'32155525 . '33'32E> 1.0%.8831.12E>.272-.283.E>77.8'35.588.753252E>55MONTHLY MEAN .'34E> 13 .'321 13 . lIb .777 13 .713 13 BETA .848MONTH DAY 3'32E> 41.27bN14'321.17'3N1ALPHA.358773.'34E>N11032.85'3N DAY MONTH1 4 bMONTHLY MEAN 1.27E> 1.17'3 .358 .'34E> .85'3 BETA .'314NCDC 12200WMO 103'33LINDENBERG. GERMANY52 12N 14 7EALTITUDE 120 M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH DAY 3'34b '31.02'3bbbb1 b18212'330.b54.E>5'3.552.877.b7'3N14'321.010.b73.bE>O.573.857.b58N1ALPHA.083-.134-.005-.1 bb.101.138773.'317.E>%.58'3.5%.774.574N11032.88b.b4b.553.543.743.538N DAY MONTH1 '3 E>1 b18212'330bE>bE>MONTHLY MEAN .741 .73'3 .018 .E>78 .E>51 E> BETA .72'3MONTH DAY7 17 277777773'34.45'3.482'3 .'3'3110 1.08'314 .'37521 .84'32'3 .74130 .E>1831 . b 1'3N114'32.482.4'31.'37b1.017.'323.783,734."'11.577N11ALPHA-.222-.080.0E>5.307.247.%5.038.053.31E>773.4bE>.4E>0.'317.817.785.E>I'3.S80.517.480N111032.457.. 44'3.'304.745.741.555.50E>.481.450N DAY MONTH1 1 71 2 7'31014212'330317777777MONTHLY MEAN .758 '3 .733 '3 .153 .E>27 '3 .588 '3 BETA .E>57MONTH DAY8 18 38 118 133'34.E>83.4'3'3.454.55'3N14'32.E>3'3.4'34.475.%0N1ALPHA.301773.50E>.043 .438-.207 .452-.012 .50'3I - 5N11032.4E>4.417.438.4'35N DAY MONTH1 1 831113888


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12200WMO 10393MONTH DAY8 148 158 lE>8 178 1888882224394.E>74.805.7921.272.488.900.587.4E>0.431LINDENBERG, GERMANY52 12N 14 7EN11111492.E>48.758.7521.203.507.900.5%.47E>.457N11111ALPHA.17£'.270.2213.252-.1 E>E>.001-.0£'3-.157-.2£'E>773. %2.E>5g.E>1E>.13%.4134.7133.%2.447.44E>N11111'ALTITUDE1032.540.638.%4.914.494.737.558.438.443120 MN DAY MONTH1 14 81 15 81 1 E> 81 17 81 18 822242829YEAR 113938888MONTHLY MEAN .E>E>2 13 .E>51 13 .073 .575 13 .549 13 BETA .E>18MONTH DAY9 E>9 799999394. %7.4389 .73218 1. E>1219 1. 38E>20 . E>2521 .58E>30 . E>37N11492.572.4E>4.7171.28E>1.072.58E>. E>11.E>30N11ALPHA-.0%-.255.01311.0171.1%.288-.1130.053773.52E>.453.£'25.1346.773.4134.524. %4N111032.518.457.584.850.721.475.503.552N DAY MONTH1 b 91 7 991819202130999999MONTHLY MEAN .823 8 .742 8 .4E>5 .613 8 .582 8 BETA .534MONTH DAY10 410101010101010lE>18193031394.798.48E>.728.389.52E>.502.512N1492.759.4813.710.421.538.505.511N1ALPHA.22E>-.025.113-.354-.0137-.027.013773.645.4413.613.415.504.453.424N11032.612.440.586.420.505.443.401N DAY MONTH1 4 1010 1016 101819303110101010MONTHLY MEAN . %3 7 .%2 7 .011 .501 7 .487 7 BETA .557MONTH DAY11 1111111394.77712 .6£'313 . E>4123 1.590N14132.748.648.£'131.41313N1ALPHA.170.102.197.266773.£'04.55£>.5141.162N11032.553.528.4811.011N DAY MONTH1 1 11121323111111MONTHLY MEAN .918 4 .877 4 .203 .7013 4 .643 4 BETA .759MONTH DAY12 2812 2912 30394.859.758.713N1114132.842.7E>1.7113N111ALPHA.0130- 019-.040773.721.702.674N1111032.688.704.£'73N DAY MONTH1 28 121 213 121 30 12MONTHLY MEAN .777 3 .774 3 .014 .61313 3 .£'88 3 BETA .7£'bNCDC 12800WMOMONTH DAY10 31010573E>8.E>57.774.648LONGFENGSHAN, CHINA44 44N 127 3£,EN33500.577.E>13.542N33ALPHA.424.7£'0778.817.830.582 .77bI-£'N33ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR 19q1DAY3MONTH105 107 10


NCDC 12800WMOLONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 31>EAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR 1'3'31MONTH DAY10 810 '331>8.1>54.745N33500.545.1>08N33ALPHA.5'34.&&2778.770.7'33N33DAY MONTH8 10'3 1010101314.801>.1>4723.1>1>'3.55723.1>0'3.485.'310.71>1>23131410101020.1>513.571>3.3'3'3.71>33201010102223.814.81812.1>55.&&712.70'3.&&4.813.8751222231010101010282'331.1>47.1>'30.471223.535.5'31.430223.1>21.501>.2%.75'3.785.1>01223282'331101010MONTHLY MEAN .1>75 31 .571 31 .547 .77'3 31 BETA .3'31MONTH DAY11 131>8.533N3500.41>5N3ALPHA.447778.1>43N3DAY MONTH1 1111111111111111111111115 .7208 .87011 .81513 .71711> .85717 1.04320 .1>0021 . '34424 .50525 .4'3821> . '3752222132332.57'3.717.1>1>5.1>5'3.1>'31>.822.515.741>.447.440.8052222132332.70'3.&31.1>1>1>.278.1>81.775.503.771.3'3'3.401>.1>27.725.851.782.80'3.751.844.&28.813.552.557.-841>22221323325811131 I>172021242521>1111111111111111111111MONTHLY MEAN .713 21> .5'3'3 21> . %7 .708 21> BETA .404MONTH DAY12 112 312 412 712 812 1012 1112 1212 1412 1512 1712 1812 1'312 2012 2112 2412 2512 21>12 2712.... 2'312 3031>8.531.73'31.040.1>20.1>17.711.832.573.1>221.1'3'3. %1.535.5'37.785.5'35.1>5'3.5'33.701.581>.1>'33.1>2'3N321332233233313333333500.4'33.1>31.871.555.54'3.558.&%.503.5711.012.517.4'38.541.1>1'3.541.573.520.&01.547.5'38.554N321332233233313'333333ALPHA.247.517.57'3.3&0.380.7'30.773.423.278.553.21>1.23'3.325.775.314.457.425.4'3'3.227.481.415778.5'32.741:885.1>21>.1>10.&&8.721.552.5'3'3. '324.5'33.577.&00.E.%.5'31.&04.%1.&13.57'3.&18.&04N321332233233313333333DAY MONTH1 123478101112141517181'32021242521>272'3301212121212121212121212121212121212121212MONTHLY MEAN .1>57 55 .571> 55 .427 .&2& 55 BETA .428I - 7


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12800WMOMONTH DAY1 41 5101415181'3282'330313&81.244.581.55'3.&&&.&&'3.70&.703.8811.148.'351.8&7LONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 3&EN13331332233500.&29.530.50&.5&&.529.&3&.&14.730.%1.808.&99N13331332233ALPHA2.22&.301.32&.531.7&8.340.442.&13.580.528.703778.&&9.&02.&04.&31.582.72&.712.851.975.8&&.7&7N13331332233All I TUDE 331 M YEAR 19'32DAY MONTH4 15 1101415181928293031MONTHLY MEAN .780 27 .&53 27 .584 .727 27 8ETA .435MONTH DAY2 12222222222222223&8.7884 .8105 .8'388 .703'3 .75510 .75811 .84812 .'33&13 .8541'3 .8272021.8321.10422 .88225 . '30&27N333333133333333500.&&0.&87. 728.588.&7&.&94.£:.73.822,7&1.7&1.709.719.925.74&.7&8.818N333333133333333ALPHA.581.540.&84.583.3&2.288.75&.425.37&.537.505.474.577.545.538.438778.753.773.824.7&1.837.8&3.870.931.907.873.877.8931.008.913N333333133333333DAY MONTH1 24589101112131&192021222527222222222222222MONTHLY MEAN .855 44 .732 44 .507 .871 44 8ETA .515MONTH DAY3 13 23 33&8.8811.015.'355N332500.772.8&4.82&N332ALPHA.427.527.473778.'3811.0421.047N332DAY MONTH1 32 33 3335 1.033& 1.09732.87&.90&32.540.&241.0721.122325&333333333338 1.34711 1.04012 1.00817 1.05021 1.04022 . '3932& 1.22727 1.13828 1.238322332321.147.924.852.899.898.8&71.02&.%31.02732233232.523.384.54'3.509.477.442.583.'544.&091.3071.07&1.1271.1721.1181.1311.3121.2051.25832233232811121721222&2728333333333MONTHLY MEAN 1.05& 34 34 .510 1.125 34 8ETA .&34MONTH DAY4 24 33&81.25&1.189N235001.0&71.054N23ALPHA.532.3927781.3&21.329DAY MONTH2 43 4N2334& 1.0383.9123.4221.242&449 1.24321.0792.4&31.421294I - 8


NCDC 12800WMOMONTH4DAY20 1.373LONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 3E>E%8 N 5001.110AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSNALPHA.E>'347781.%1N(NATURAL LOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR 1'3'32DAY MONTH20 4MONTHL Y MEAN 1.187 11 1.027 11 .470 1.331 11 8ETA .742MONTH DAY5 25 33E>81.32'31.3'35N115001.1301.1 E>2N11ALPHA.52'3.5'357781.4371.4&2N11DAY MONTH2 53 555555510 1.12'314 1.44818 1. E>'3E>1'3 1.5112E> 1.28130 1.1 '30322223.'3801.2151.1751.2581.0881.032322223.4E>3.5721.197.5%.534.4&41.3711.%01.2041.5'381.5111.41 '33222231014181'32&30555555MONTHLY MEAN 1.347 lE> 1.113 lE> .E>24 1.438 1& 8ETA .722MONTHE>DAY53E>81.234E> 1'3 1.241E> 27 1.381N225001.1021.0581.1'35N22ALPHA.3E>8.520.4727781.55'31.4531.5'39N22DAY5MONTH&1'3 &27E>MONTHLY MEAN 1.2'34 5 1 .131 5 .441 1.554 5 8ETA .833MONTH DAY7 47 57 E>7777773E>81. E>851.5'381.5538'31.2451.1%11 1.2'37121.3%14 1.43328 1.145N2312335001.3711.3141.2821.1111.0831.1221.2311.2E>1.'380N231233ALPHA.E>72.&38.&27.372.323.472.2&9.417.5057781.3'H1.5501.51&1.4'321.4071.4871.4'321.5301.338N231233DAY MONTH4 75 7& 78911121428777777MONTHLY MEAN 1.424 17 1.227 17 .485 1.484 17 BETA .877MONTH DAY 3E>88 1 1.0E>1888888888 1.050'3 1.0851'3 1.21320 1.15'325 1.3512E> 1.414271.77328 1.33'3N331211113500.'354.%'3.'3441.008.'3811.0901.1421.4071.125N331211113ALPHA.34£..2£.2.455.&04.54&.701.&95.753.%87781 .33£.1.3%1.3011.3951.2921.3701.3&41.4911.350N331892 1'31 201 251 2E>1 273 28DAY MONTH1 888888888MONTHLY MEAN 1.222 lE> 1.045 lE> .511 1.358 1& BETA .734MONTH DAY 3E>8 N 500 N ALPHA 778'3 4 1.440 1 1.225 1 .528 1.4&9'3 7 .'312 3 .8E>4 3 .178 1.174'3 '3 1.042 2 .941 2 .331 1.298I - 9N132DAY4MONTH97 '3'3 '3


NCDC 12800WMOMONTHDAI1& .qq82021. q781.04722 1.484273&8.qqOLONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 3&EN2112500.8qq.844.8801.235.854AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSN2112ALPHA.340.480.%8.5QQ.4817781.2521.1301.1521.4031.11 QN2112(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR 1QQ2DAY1&20212227MONTHMONTHLY MEAN 1.0q5 13 .%5 13 .413 1.254 13 BETA .725MONTH10DAY410 510 &10101010101010101010101010103&8.844.7q3.8q3.q2111 .71&12 .77&13 .7&114 .71&15 .7181& .77417 .&4718 .&731q .&q820 .70121 .q232& .&7327 .73&N33233333333333133500.7&1.725.775.7Q3.&&5.710.&QQ.&&0.&5&.817.&OQ.&31.&38.&3&.788.&13.&58N33233333333333133ALPHA.337.2Q2.4&1.4Ql.242.28Q.27Q.2&5.2Q4-.178.lQ7.210.2Q4.318.51&.305.%57781.010.Q741.082.QQl.Q27. Q42.Q32.8Ql.884.QO&.843.8&2.847.84&.Q87.80&.833N33233333333333133DAY MONTH4 105 10& 101011 1012 1013 1014 1015 101& 1017 1018 10Iq 1020 1021 102& 1027 10MONTHLY MEAN .753 48 .&Ql 48 .283 .QOQ 48 BETA .%8MONTH11DAY111 21111111111111.11141011151&%8.7q3.q43.557.&44.&40.813.85120 . %327 . &q830 1.%4N12333322500.&78.805.513.58&.578.&&8.70Q.5%.&041.221N12333322ALPHA.511.515.273.310.331.&40.5Q5.lb3.47&.3&0778.874.Q81.&QQ.734.7.23.7Q7.821.&&8.7851.077N12333322DAY MONTH1 112 1141011151 &2027301111111111111111MONTHLY MEAN .747 21 .&&5 21 .381 .7Q3 21 BETA .510MONTH DAY12 212123412121212121212102022252q3031%8.770.53q.814.&7&.&%.q07.5q7.727.7&1.583N232323123500.&&0.484. &85 ..&02.582.747.480.543.&Q7.517N232323123ALPHA.503.. 347.%3.380.584.&35.717.Q52.2QO.3%778.787.5Ql.7Q3.&47.&83.7&4.581.&23.784.b20N232323123DAY MONTH2 123 124 12102022252Q303112121212121212MONTHLY MEAN .&78 22 .581 22 .501 .&73 22 BETA .411I - 10


NCDC 12800WMOMONTH DA)1 21 31 41 58 .50510 .1>1 '311 .81112 .80221 .71722 1.02724 .1>182'331>8.802.570.1>'31.742.888LONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 31>EN13213313313500.1>1>5.523.57'3.1>04.512.554.1>54.704.1>22.8f>2.532.1>'34AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSN13213313313ALPHA.1>0'3.27'3.575.1>1>'3-.043.%2.705.425.41>4.570.4'33.B0577B.1>%.1>2'3.705.1>50.1>27.1>1>3.714.753.714.878.1>1>'3.71>4N13213313313(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR 1'3'33DAY MONTH2 13 14 15 181011122122242'3MONTHLY MEAN .1>81> 25 .5'3'3 25 .441 .1>'31 25 BETA .441MONTH22DAY2431>8.852.7852 7 1.1102 8 . '301>2 '3 .8012 12 .802221511>.825.'341>2 1'3 . '3'312 24 .8'352 25 .8432 21> . '347N21333332331500.1>83.1>1'3.8%.71>8.1>53.1>'32.705.7%.821.71>1.724.71>4N21333332331ALPHA.721.772.1>'37.53'3.1>1>5.484.514.%5.b13.527.4'35.70377B.B31.724.'32B.870.808.B72.894.'33'31.001>.'355.'330.'338N21333332331OAY MONTH2 2478'3121511>1'3242521>22222222222MONTHLY MEAN .878 2B .735 2B .57'3 .8% 28 BETA .492MONTH DAY 31>83 1 1.0043 2 1.0213 3 1.0543 28 ,. 1733 2'3 1.4003 7 . '3583 8 1.0123 10 1.1 '353312131.11>8. '311>3 15 . '3313 18 1.1323 22 1.0513 21> 1.258N 5003 .8122 .B483 .9213 .8043 .8302 .'3842 .'3BO3 .7B53 .8142 .'3783 .'3142 1.01>72 1.0012 1.15BN ALPHA3 .1>'322 .1>073 .8173 .5733 .1>452 .1>322 .5753 .5043 .4412 .4783 .4582 .53'32 Sl'32 .1>1B7781.0141.0881.0041.0371.043, .2041.2201.0431.0%1 . 178­1.181>1.3571 .3131.401>N3233738210212313315218322221>2 282 29DAY MONTH1 32 33 333333333333MONTHLY MEAN 1.071 35 .B% 35 .580 1.137 35 BETA .5'3'3MONTH DAY 31>84 4 1.1104 5 1.2074 10 1.581>4 13 1.472N112500.'341>1.0031.2521.215N112ALPHA.522.1>05.773.1>257781.2431.2701.4231.500N112DAY MONTH4 45 410 413 4I - 11


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)NCDC 12800WMOLONGFENGSHAN, CHINA44 44N 127 3bEAll ITUDE 331 M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH OAT 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA 778 NDAY MONTH444444415 1.5481b 1. 2b418 1.32820' 1. 52b23 1. b2728 1.15330 1.35123231.2b21.0751.0781.2751.3531.0171.1502323.bb5.529.b81.588.b03.407.52b1.5021.3b01.3391.%31.5731.37b1.449232315lb18202328304444444MONTHLY MEAN 1.3b4 18 1.142 18 .579 1.424 18 BETA .7b5MONTH DAY 3b85 3 1.418N25001.220N2ALPHA.4927781.%3N2DAY MONTH35511 1.30'31.lb4.3831.5591155514 1.30315 1.453121.1331 .13312.458.8131.4881.5521214155551'3 1.b3131.08831 .3211.4b43195522 1.2351.0'35.3921.475225524 1.3021.158.3801.519245552b 1.3bO27 1.41'31.1411.185.570.. 5881.4'341 .51 b2b27555530 1.2311.0%.3801.49230MONTHLY MEAN 1.414 14 1.13'3 14 .JOb 1.512 14 BETA .b'38MONTH DAY 3b8b 10 1.&14N15001 .314N1ALPHA.b717781. bObN1DAY MONTH10 b13 1.43121.2342.4821.5038213bb28 1.3102'3 1.24'3211.1%1.08821.410.44031 .9'851.4b3212829bbMONTHLY MEAN 1.3'31 1.1'37 .490 1.573 BETA .853MONTH DAY 3b87 15 1.405N25001.222N2ALPHA.4%7781. E.04N2DAY MONTH15 7718 1.20531.00333.3181.4b23187720 1. 2bb31.11b3.4131.4783207727 1.4211.177.b141.480277MONTHLY MEAN 1 .2~4 1.1303 .417 1.501, BETA .853MONTH DAY 3b88 b 1.245N15001.0035N1ALPHA.4187781.413N1DAY MONTHb 8811 1.3731.15'3.553 1.438118820 1.2231.021.590 1.3222088825 1.1332b 1. lb'31.0051.024.393 1.2%.433 1.307252E.8888281.2432'3 1.1231.073.03'31.481 '1.340.40~ 1.290282'3881 - 12


NCDC 12800WMOLONGFENGSHAN. CHINA44 44N 127 3&EAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 331 M YEAR lQQ3MONTHLY MEAN 1.21 & 7 1.053 7 .470 1.344 7 BETA .7&0MONTH DAYq 2q 3q 4%81.0831.0041.0%N331500.q81.q18.q54N331ALPHA.322.2Q3.4537781.2771.2371.24&N331DAY MONTH2 Q3 '34 Qqq& 1.0277 1.03&33.q28.q3833.330.3231.2331.22733Q'3qqqq 1.1731011.%81.1 q31321.024.8q41.075132.441.2&0.33Q1.2721.1821.372132&7Q1011'3'3'3q14 1.11721.00q2.3321.324214'3q1& 1.4081.187.5571.33Q1&'3qqq18 1.03820 . qqq21 1.0072.q48.8&&.8702.2%.4&&.4771.28Q1.1451.1442182021'3'3q2& 1. Oql2.Q322.5121.22122&'3MONTHLY MEAN 1.0&8 28 .Q57 28 .358 1. 251 28 BETA .747MONTH DAY10 110 23&B.q38.q50N11500.805.850N11ALPHA.4%.3&37781.0711.05&N11DAY MONTH1 102 10101010101010101010101010105 .883& . q727 1.03412 .77813 .74214 .73115 . q151& 1.00217 .8&418 .70720 1.33&2&27.745.&&q323333112333.775.843.8Q4.700.&73.&&3.7&5.821.770.&431.08Q.&47.5Q4323333112333.427.4&4.475.341.320.321.582.&48.37&.310.&&8.4&1.3Q21.0021.1221.0&4.Q35.'304.8Q8.Q80.9'301.035.8571.15&.81'3.783352&373123133 141 1511&21731820332&2710101010101010101010101010MONTHLY MEAN .83q 33 .737 33 .422 .'350 33 BETA .550MONTH DAY11 111111111111111111111&7B q1824252&282'33&8.5&'3. 780.74'3.730.738. 785.758~5CJ2.82&.&01.4'33N32231213213500.4'37.&34.&12.58&.587.&37.57'3.529.705.473.442N32231213·213ALPHA.441.&74.&5Q.717.74'3.E.81.880.36'3.515.782.35&778.&Bl.808.7'38.711.71'3.7&'3.&&'3.&30.7&8.582.550N32231213213DAY MONTH1 11&78'31824252&282'3111111111 11111111111MONTHLY MEAN .&75 23 .5&4 23 .58& .&'34 23 BETA .37&NCDC 13255WMO 1&420MESSINA. ITALY38 12N 15 33EALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH DAY1 51 &500.2&7.284N22380.312.34'3N22ALPHA.557.745DAY MONTH5 1& 1I - 13


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 11>420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 7 .272 2 .314 .2 .522 7 1'3 .27'3 3 .32'3 3 .1>08 '310 .252 3 .288 3 .4% 1011 .1>11 1 .1>15 1 .027 1112 .213 2 .253 2 .1>22 1213 .353 2 .3% 2 .417 1314 .308 2 .370 2 .1>73 141I> .384 2 .448 2 .%4 1I>18 .31>5 .437 .1>58 1820 .355 2 .411> 2 .5}3 2021 .431 2 .512 2 .(,24 2122 .2'38 2 .31>1 2 .1>'35 2223 .323 1 .31>4 1 .440 2324 .21>2 1 .307 1 .578 2421> .730 1 .778 1 .23& 2&27 .220 2 .237 2 .2&2 2728 .271 1 .312 1 .512 282'3 .2'33 2 .32'3 2 .411> 2'330 .432 3 .457 3 .20'3 30MONTHLY MEAN .328 3'3 .375 3'3 .485 BETA .235MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .31>5 3 .417 3 .481 1 22 2 .254 3 .282 3 .381 2 22 3 .205 3 .227 3 .374 3 22 I> .40'3 2 .445 2 .313 I> 22 7 .353 3 .383 3 .2'32 7 22 11 .412 2 .507 2 .755 11 22 12 .414 2 .503 2 ,713 12 22 13 .4% 3 .57'3 3 .873 13 22 15 .371> 3 .4% 3 .704 15 22 11> .410 1 .477 1 .551 11> 22 21 .218 2 .221> 2 .124 21 .22 23 .21>4 2 .304 2 .501> 23 22 21> .41>8 .1>08 .'352 21> 22 28 .301 2 .2~1 2 -.243 2B 2MONTHLY MEAN .342 32 .3'35 32 .52'3 BETA .237MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 2 .283 1 .284 1 .005 2 33 3 .251 3 .2% 3 .&02 3 33 7 .407 .4'31 .1>8& 7 33 8 .48'3 .1>21 .8&'3 8 33 11 .448 3 .%3 3 .834 11 33 12 .312 3 .3'35 3 .853 12 33 13 .325 3 .412 3 :8&4 13 33 14 .288 3 .35'3 3 .802 14 33 15 .445 3 .%0 3 ;841 15 33 17 .&% 2 .7'34 2 .478 17 33 1'3 .255 3 .2'32 3 .4'35 1'3 33 20 .220 3 .25'3 3 .1>01 20 33 22 .382 3 .4&2 3 .&'38 22 33 23 .452 3 .573 3 .81>1 23 33 24 .57(" 3 .1>58 3 .4'30 24 33 25 .53'3 1 .1>21 1 .51'3 25 33 28 .33& 3 .422 3 .833 28 33 2'3 .31>8 2 .43'3 2 .&47 2'3 33 30 .412 2 .525 2 .88& 30 3I - 14


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA, ITALY ALT I TUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 31 .425 3 .554 3 .%7 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .384 4'3 .4&8 4'3 .725 BETA .232MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 .27'3 3 .%3 3 .'351 1 44 2 . 411 2 .4'30 2 .&43 2 44 3 .2% 2 .332 2 .415 3 44 & .270 2 .328 2 .714 & 44 7 .187 1 .215 1 .508 7 44 8 . 17'3 1 .244 1 1.121 8 44 10 .505 2 .&54 2 .'338 10 44 13 .28'3 3 .352 3 .71'3 13 44 15 .273 .337 .7&3 15 44 17 .405 3 .552 3 1.133 17 44 18 .714 1 .'340 1 1.003 18 44 1'3 .545 2 .&87 2 .843 1'3 44 20 .271 2 .3&1 2 1.045 20 44 21 .34& 3 .444 3 .'312 21 44 22 .3'33 1 .541 1 1 . 1&5 22 44 24 .341 3 .4&0 3 1 .0'31 24 44 2'3 .321 .384 .&47 2'3 44 30 .3'33 .503 .'302 30 4MONTHLY MEAN .354 34 .452 34 .8'33 BETA .1'31MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 .550 2 .747 2 1.113 1 55 4 .418 3 .551 3 1.005 4 55 5 .438 3 .587 3 1.0&4 5 5MONTHLY MEAN .45'3 8 .&13 8 1.05'3 BETA .220MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 17 .251 2 .4&3 2 2.230 17 && 18 .200 3 .34& 3 1 . '393 18 && 19 .214 3 .3&0 3 1 ',8'35 19 && 20 .424 2 .710 2 1.872 20 && 21 .483 2 .&98 2 1.340 21 && 22 .4&1 3 .&49 3 1.243 22 && 23 .510 2 .&33 2 .788 23 && 24 .429 3 .&1& 3 1.321 24 && 25 .2&& 3 .431 3 1 .7&0 25 && 2& .2'30 3 .452 3 1 . &23 2& && 27 .33& 2 .504 2 1.479 27 && 28 .382 3 .593 3 1 . &02 28 (,& 29 .43& 3 .58& 3 1.078 29 (,El 30 .537 3 .72& 3 1.098 30 €;MONTHLY MEAN .3&'3 37 .548 37 1.444 BETA . 13(,MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .411 3 .5% 3 1.351 1 77 2 .388 1 .582 1 1.473 2 77 3 .218 1 .341 1 1 . &33 3 77 4 .&48 3 .783 3 .&88 4 77 5 .747 3 .881 3 .&01 5 77 & .893 1 1.024 1 .499 & 77 7 .349 2 .485 2 1.1% 7 77 8 .311 1 .457 1 1.407 8 77 9 .278 4 .425 4 1.54& 9 77 10 .413 3 .5&7 3 1.152 10 77 11 .5&5 3 .707 3 .818 11 77 12 .121 1 .215 1 2.081 12 7I - 15


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 13255 MESSINA, ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1£>420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 13 .228 2 .3£>8 2 1.743 13 77 14 .201 2 .332 2 1.825 14 77 15 .2£>1 3 .435 3 1.8£>£> 15 77 1£> .1£>7 3 .2'37 3 2.0'34 1£> 77 17 .144 3 .25'3 3 2.153 17 77 1'3 .322 3 .541 3 1.885 1'3 77 20 .281 3 .4£>£> 3 1 .83'3 20 77 21 .2£>3 1 .422 1 1.720 21 77 22 .240 3 .378 3 1. £>58 22 77 23 .277 3 .44£> 3 1 .741 23 77 24 .243 3 .3'34 3 1.752 24 77 25 .221 3 .387 3 2.044 25 77 2£> .258 3 .403 3 1. £>31 2£> 77 27 .335 3 .51'3 3 1 .5'33 27 77 28 .328 3 .527 3 1.724 28 77 2'3 .278 3 .455 3 1 .7'33 2'3 77 30 .2£>8 3 .442 3 1.824 30 77 31 .188 3 .325 3 1 . '3 '3 '3 31 7MONTHLY MEAN. .324 7£> .481 7£> 1.434 BETA .120MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .230 3 .38'3 3 1. '321 1 88 2 .383 3 .587 3 1.554 2 88 3 . 3£>0 3 .557 3 1 .5'30 3 88 4 .430 3 .£>48 3 1 .4'33 4 88 5 .401 4 .£>27 4 1. £,30 5 88 £> .304 3 .436 3 1: 330 £> 66 7 .362 3 .570 3 1 .45'3 7 66 6 .302 3 .437 3 1.352 6 66 ~ .37£> 1 .512 1 1.12.7 '3 86 10 .332 3 .505 3 1.530 10 86 11 .23& 2 .373 2 1 . £>5'3 11 66 12 .35'3 4 .555 4 1.564 12 86 .13 .35'3 3 .570 3 1. £>63 13 66 14 .317 3 .503 3 1.£>84 14 88 15 .425 3 .£>87 3 1 .74'3 15 66 1£> .473 3 .728 3 1.%5 1£> 88 17 .4£>2 2 .712 2 1.57& 17 88 18 .447 3 .&'33 3 1.5% 18 86 .1 '3 .5'38 3 .'313 3 1.5AO 1'3 86 20' .465 3 .7&3 3 1. &50 20 66 21 .420 3 .&42 3 1.540 21 68 22 .3'30 3 .&03 3 1 .58'3 22 68 23 .417 3 .&41 3 1.%& 23 88· 24 .300 3 .475 3 1. &&8 24 86 25 .426 3 .5'33 3 1.1'30 i5 6B 26 .&&4 3 .625 3 .7'32 26 66 2'3 .528 2 .71'3 2 1. 130 2"'3 66 31 .452 2 .£>57 2 1. 35'3 31 6MONTHLY MEAN .401 60 .&0& 80 1 . 4 '3'3 BETA .142MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 . 3£,0 4 .545 4 1 .50'3 1 '3'3 2 .405 2 .5'31 2 1.375 2 '3'3 3 .503 3 .702 3 1.215 3 '3'3 4 .332 3 .4% 3 .1.4&5 4 '3'3 5 .341 3 .4BO 3 1.248 5 '3'3 & .236 3 .352 3 1.423 & '3'3 7 .430 4 . %8 4 1.015 7 '3'3 8 .4&7 3 . &11 3 '. '378 8 '3'3 '3 .3'3'3 3 .504 3 .8% '3 '3'3 10 .488 1 .575 1 .&00 10 '3'3 12 .203 1 .300 1 1.412 12 '3'3 13 .1 B8 3 .282 3 1.485 13 '3'3 14 .235 3 .357 3 1.52& 14 '3'3 15 .201 3 .285 3 1.2&5 15 '3':l 1£> .204 & .2'37 £> 1.375 1& '3'3 17 .1 b'3 4 .248 4 1 .3'3'3 17 '3'3 18 .221 3 .282 3 .B77 18 '3'3 1'3 .313 3 .405 3 .'341 1'3 '3'3 20 .324 3 .42b 3 1.002 20 '3'3 21 .308 3 .3'38 3 .':130 21 '3I - 1 £>


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY ALTITUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO lb420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 22 .522 3 .b'3'3 3 1.0&4 22 '3'3 23 .51& 3 .705 3 1.135 23 '3'3 24 · %7 3 .4'35 3 1 .0'35 24 '3'3 25 .1&& 12 .235 12 1.2% 25 '3'3 2& .220 2 .322 2 1.383 2& '3'3 27 .21'3 5 .308 5 1.241 27 '3'3 28 .4b5 2 .541 2 .5% 28 '3'3 30 .24'3 5 .351 5 1.252 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .2'3'3 % .412 % 1 .171 BETA .133MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 .32& 3 .4b2 3 1.271 1 1010 2 .33& 1 .378 1 .428 2 1010 4 .175 3 .215 3 .748 4 1010 5 .1'37 7 .28& 7 1.355 5 1010 & .148 3 .210 3 1.282 & 1010 7 .173 5 .238 5 1.1&0 7 1010 8 .3'35 1 .43& 1 .3&0 8 1010 10 · 1'37 5 .2% 5 .'3% 10 1010 11 · 1'37 3 .2% 3 .'147 11 1010 12 .23'3 4 .334 4 1.221 12 1010 13 .355 3 .421 3 .&23 13 1010 15 .412 1 .45'3 1 .3'32 15 1010 1& .450 3 .502 3 .404 lb 1010 17 .455 3 .518 3 .47'3 17 1010 1'3 .404 2 .481 2 .&3'3 1'3 1010 21 .54'3 .&84 .7'3'3 21 1010 24 .284 .343 .&'38 24 1010 28 .344 4 .438 4 .888 28 1010 2'3 .477 3 .585 3 .744 2'3 1010 30 .5'38 1 .E.73 1 .430 30 1010 31 .338 2 .445 2 1.003 31 10MONTHLY MEAN .." .2'34 5'3 .371 5'3 .845 BETA .lb4MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 3 .38E. 3 .428 3 .374 3 1111 E. .. 1'30 2 .-252 2 1.022 E. 1111 7 .25'3 1 .218 1 -.E.21 7 1111 '3 .140 2 .200 2 1 .28'3 '3 1111 10 · 1'33 2 .2E.2 2 1.112 10 1111 11 .1'32 1 .245 1 .88& 11 1111 12 .258 3 .332 3 .'313 12 1111 14 .2'34 2 .387 2 1.001 14 1111 15 .2E.5 3 .355 3 1 .0E.'3 15 1111 lE. .20'3 2 .258 2 .777 lE. 111 I 17 .283 3 .3'34 3 1.204 17 1111 20 .17'3 3 .227 3 .8E.B 20 1111 22 .1E.E. 2 .215 '2 .'348 22 1111 23 .25'l 3 .32'::1 3 .873 23 1111 2E. .20E. I .241 I .577 2E. 1111 27 .234 2 .285 2 .717 27 1111 2'3 .185 .235 .85'3 2'3 1111 30 .217 .275 .B% 30 11MONTHLY MEAN .238 37 .301 37 .854 BETA .13212 2 .252 2 .302 2 .&71 2 12I - 17


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 13255 MESSINA. ITALY AL TI TUDE 54 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO lE>420 38 12N 15 33EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 3 .144 2 .174 2 .E>'30 3 1212 4 .4% 1 .513 1 .432 4 1212 5 .180 3 .220 3 .743 5 1212 £> .187 1 .235 1 .833 E> 1212 7 .532 1 .E>£>5 1 .815 7 1212 8 .20& 2 .251 2 .715 8 1212 9 .210 2 .310 2 1.422 '3 1212 10 .171 2 .212 2 .788 10 1212 11 .133 2 .1&8 2 .857 11 1212 12 .231 1 .252 1 .30'3 12 1212 13 .145 E> .174 E> .E>E>5 13 1212 15 .374 1 .385 1 .105 15 1212 lE> .1'38 3 .230 3 .540 lE> 1212 17 .154 1 .158 1 .084 17 1212 .. 18, .1&'3 E> . 1'35 E> .51& 18 1212 1'3 .242 1 .287 1 .E>13 1'3 1212 20 .174 3 .188 3 .287 20 1212 21 .285 1 .337 1 .&12 21 1'212 22 .223 1 .238 1 .23'3 22 1212 23 .218 2 .228 2 . lE>4. 23 1212 24 .25'3 1 .288 1 .387 24 1212 25 .144 1 .138 1 -.173 25 1212 27 .131 .141 .24'3 27 1212 30 .202 2 .241 2 .E>40 30 1212 3) .233 2 .23E> 2 .052 31 12MONTHLY MEAN. .202 51 .235 51 . %1 BETA .137NCDC 132bO MFUWE. ZAMBIA ALTITUDE 570 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO E>7585 14 lE>S 31 %EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 & .140 2 E> 55 7 .07'3 2 7 55 8 .114 3 8 55 10 .135 2 10 55 11 .134 2 \1 55, 12 .087 1 12 55 14 .072 2 14 55 15 .. .10& 3 15 55 1& .104 3 lE> 55 17 .082 1 17 55 1'3 - .125 2 1,'3 ·55 2" .123 2 21 55 22 .053 1 2-2 55 23 .120 2 23 55 24 .0&3 2 24 55 25 .11'3 2 25 55 2E>. .0&2 2 2& 55, 27 .0'35 3 27 55 28 .072 1 28 55 2'3 .115 2 2'3 55 30 .0'32 3 30 55 3.1 .0'31 3 31 5MONTHLY MEAN .102 4E> 1.300 BETA .041MONTH DAy 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 1 .0E>8 1 1 E>E> 2 .Ob8 1 2 {,E> 3 .04E> 1 3 E>& 4 .110 2 4 E>E> 5 .0&5 1 5 E>E> b .088 3 {, {,E> 7 .045 1 7 E>& 8 .087 3 8 f..E> '3 .087 3 '3 E>E> 10 .054 2 10 E>E> 11 .085 3 11 E>E> 12 .085 3 12 {,E> 13 .085 3 13 E>b 14 .085 3 14 E>I - 18


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC l32bO MFUHE. ZAMBIA ALTITUDE 570 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO b75B5 14 lbS 31 %EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTHb 15 .05'3 1 15 bb lb .OB4 3 1& &b 17 .058 1 17 bb 18 .058 1 18 bb 1'3 .103 2 1'3 bb 21 .057 1 21 b& 22 .102 2 22 bb 23 .0% 1 23 && 24 .0% 1 24 bb 27 .102 2 27 bb 28 .102 2 28 &b 2'3 .0% 1 2'3 bb 30 .055 1 30 &MONTHLY MEAN .081 4'3 1.300 BETA .033MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .055 1 1 77 3 .048 1 3 77 4 .102 2 4 77 5 .14'3 1 5 77 b .103 2 & 77 7 .150 1 7 77 '3 .053 2 '3 77 10 .051 1 10 77 11 .104 2 11 77 12 .057 1 12 77 13 .057 1 13 77 15 .055 1 15 77 1& .05'3 1 1& 77 17 .108 2 17 77 18 .0bO 1 18 77 22 .0f,2 22 77 23 .0f,3 23 77 24 .Ob3 24 77 27 .. 0f,3 1 27 77 28 .0'3'3 3 28 77 2'3 .0'3'3 3 2'3 7MONTHLY MEAN .084 30 1.300 BETA .034MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 3 .070 2 3 88 4 .105 3 4 88 5 .105 3 5 88 E, .075 1 f, 88 '3 .07f, 2 '3 88 10 .111 3 10 88 11 .112 3 11 88 12 .113 3 12 88 13 .133 2 13 88 15 .078 15 88 17 .138 2 17 88 18 .120 3 18 88 20 .122 3 20 88 21 .123 3 21 88 22 .08'3 2 22 88 23 .12& 3 23 88 28 .153 2 28 88 2'3 .104 1 2'3 88 30 .1% 2 30 8MONTHLY MEAN .114 44 1.300 BETA .04bI - 1'3


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 132E>0 MFUWE. ZAMBIA ALTITUDE 570 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO E>75B5 14 lE>S 31' 5E>EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 2 .155 1 2 1010 3 .157 1 3 1010 4 .134 2 4 1010 5 .204 2 5 1010 '3 .114 1 '3 1010 10 . 1E> E> 1 10 1010 11 .211 2 11 1010 14 .170 14 1010 lE> .145 2 lE> 1010 17 .217 2 17 1010 1'3 .175 1 1'3 1010 20 .17E> 1 20 1010 21 .148 2 21 1010 22 .221 2 22 1010 23 .178 1 23 1010 28 .182 28 1010 2'3 .183 2'3 10MONTHLY MEAN .17E> 24 1.300 BETA .071NCDC 13315 MONTE CIMONE. ITALY ALTITUDE 21e.S M YEAR l'3'nWMO lE>134 44 12N 10 42EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 E> .100 2 .117 2 .587 E> 1lE> . DE> '3 4 .08'3 4 .88'3 lE>17 .044 3 .071 3 1.771 1721 .0E>4 2 .0E>7 2 .201 2122 .137 2 .15'3 2 .533 2223 .22'3 1 .23E> 1 .113 23MONTHLY MEAN .08'3 14 · 1DE> 14 .E>73 BETA .05E>MONTH DAY SOD N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 E> .118 3 .13E> 3 .510 e. 22 B .OB4 4 .114 4 1 .0'34 8 22 10 .072 4 .0'37 4 1.075 10 22 11 .0e.8 2 .0'34 2 1.2013 11 22 20 .087 3 .11'3 3 1.157 20 22 23 .123 2 .100 2 -.750 23 2MONTHLY MEAN .0'30 18 .111 18 .7513 BETA .053MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 13 .107 1 .174 1 1 .7e.5 13 33 14 .0'30 2 · 1e.e. 2 2.230 14 33 18 .055 4 .083 4 1 .4'31 18 3MONTHLY MEAN .072 7 .120 7 1 .82& BETA .020MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 18 .127 4 .1'32 4 1.514 18 4MONTHLY MEAN .127 4 · 1'32 4 1.514 BETA .044MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 22 .0E>7 4 .113 4 1.1311 22 5I - 20


NCDC 13315WMO 1E. 134MONTE CIMONE. ITALY44 12N 10 42EAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSALTITUDE(NATURAL21E.5 MLOGARITHMS)YEAR lQQ3MONTHLY MEAN .0E.7 4 .113 4 1 . Q11BETA.018MONTH DAYE. 1500.118380.1%ALPHA.520DAY MONTH1 &N221028.230.12q2.311.213N2221.0'331. B051028&&MONTHLY MEAN .15q .220 1.174 8ETA .070MONTH DAY8 58 10882122500.224.Oql. 111.230N3214380.43E..150.182.332N3214ALPHA2.4231.8321.81 E.1.330DAY MONTH5 B102122888MONTHLY MEAN .18q 10 .312 10 1 .831 BETA .053NCDC 18q50WMO 47513RYORI. JAPAN3q 2N 141 50EALTITUDE230 MYEARlQQlMONTH DAY 5004 15 1. q5q4 lE> 1.5374 1q 1. q354 22 1. qqq4 30 2.028N313323E>82.1141. E>412.0512.1 E>22.14QN31332ALPHA.248.213.1'30.257.18Q8E>21.7831.4221.8031.8101.87'3N31332E>751. B&Q1.4831. B751. QOl1.%0N DAY MONTH3 15 41 lE> 43321Q2230444MONTHLY MEAN 1.q3q 12 2.077 12 .223 1.781 12 1 . B&l 12 BETA 1.E>E>1MONTH5DAY245001.q185 28 2:0E.qN1%82.0Ql2.17bN1ALPHA.283. 1&&8&21.7151. Q51N1&751.814N DAY MONTH1 24 52.022 2B 5MONTHLY MEAN 1.'3'33 2 2.134 2 .223 1.833 2 1. Q18 2 BETA 1.708MONTH DAY 500E> 7 2.205bE>14 1. %415 1. qqON2%8 .2.3171. E.202.074N2ALPHA.1E.l.115.134BE.22.0781.4881.887N2{'752.15'31.5411. Q55N DAY MONTH2 7 E>1415MONTHLY MEAN 1.QQl 4 2.082 4 .145 1.882 4 1. '354 4 BETA 1.800MONTH DAY 5007 Q 1.781N13E>81. QOlN1ALPHA.2128&21 . &30N1£0751.712N DAY MONTH1 '3 7MONTHLY MEAN 1.781 1. '301 .212 1 . &30 1.712 BETA ,. 53BMONTH DAY 5008 '3 1.'3'328827 2.00528 1. QOlN 3E.83 2. on2 2.1103 2.02E.N323ALPHA.1E.0.1E.7.2088E.21.8E.81.8781.7E>3N323E.751. '3451. '3571. B41N DAY MONTH3 '3 823272BBBMONTHLY MEAN 1.QE>1 8 2.072 8 . 17'3 1.831 8 1. QOQ B BETA 1.732I - 21


NCDC 18'350WMO 47513~IONTH DA Y 500'3 24 1.384RYORI. JAPAN3'3 2N 141 50EN13E>81.472AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)N1ALPHA.2008E>21.271N1ALTITUDE 230 M YEAR 1'3'31E>751.338N DAY MONTH1 24 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.3841 .472.2001.2711.338BETA 1.205MONTH DAY 50010 3 2.01'310101010101014 1.4'33151.0'34lE> 1.17218 1.2E>823 1.35'32'3 1.374N12333b82.1 E>O1. %81.1541.2721.3581.4531.452N1233ALPHA.221. 15'3.175.2bE>.222.220.1808E>21.8421.3851.0021.0541.15'31.2401.271N1233b751 . '3381.4541.0551.1141.21 b1.30E>1.33E>N DAY MONTH1 3 102331415lE>18232'3101010101010MONTHLY MEAN 1.37E> 12 1.4E>5 12 .205 1.2E>1 12 1.32E> 12 BETA 1.1'34MONTH DAY11 511 E>111111111111115001.2351.20811 1.47'312 ,. 2E>013 1.17E>15 1.14'3lE> 1.31'322 1 .04E>27 ,. 1'30N23122%81.3211.3051.%31.3351.2551.2221.4171 . 1281.254N23122ALPHA.220.251.17'3.1'30.212.201.232.244.1738b21.1211.0801.3711.1521.0721.0511.1%.'3441 .110N23122E>751.184'1. 1471.43E>1.21 E>1.1321 .1071.2b41.0001 .1 b5N DAY MONTH2 5 113 E> 1112211121315lE>22271111111 11 11111MONTHLY MEAN 1.230 14 1 .314 14 .21b 1.120 14 1 .183 14 BETA 1.05'3MONTH12DAY4500.%212 '3 1.03712 20 1.21 E>12 2'3 1.353N123b81.0271. lOb1.2%1.30E>N12ALPHA.210.20'3.051-.11b8b2.855.'321. '3211.055N12E>75.'313.'387.872.'374 2N DAY MONTH1 4 12'3 1220 122'3 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.184 5 1.1% 5 .032 .%1 5 .'344 5 BETA 1.158NCDC 18'350WMO 47513RYOR I. JAPAN3'3 2N 141 50EALTITUDE 230 M YEAR 1'3'32MONTH DAY1 2500.'324N13b8.'31'3N1ALPHA-.017BE>2.717N1E>75.E>70N DAY MONTH1 2 14. '377.'3%-.070.754.70148 1.33421 .2'342-.1001.0E>12.'37'32815 1.38821 .3722-.0401.0'3221.00'321520 1.43721.43E>2.0001.10021.01822030 1.32'31.332.0071.041.'38430MONTHLY MEAN 1.283 1.2b8 -.03'3 1.002 .'330 '3 BETAl. 31 8MONTH DAY2 E>2 75001.3b41.lbE>N213b81.3481.173N21ALPHA-.03'3.01'38E>21.0E>7.8'34N21E>75.'3'30.847N DAY MONTH2 E> 2172218 1.53'31.544.0101.1'351.128 18 2I - 22


NCDC 18'350WHO 47513MONTH DAY2 1'32 205001.40e,1.42'3RYORI. JAPAN3'3 2N 141 50EN113e,B1.3B&1.41 BAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)N11ALPHA-.04B-.024BE>21.1051.132N11ALT nUDE. e,751.0371.057230 MYEARN DAY MONTH1 1'l 21 20 21'l'32MONTHLY MEAN 1.378 1.3E>'l -.020 1.077 1.008 e, BETA 1.3'3BMONTH DAY 5003 4 2.2303e,82.22BN2ALPHA-.003BE>21.742b751. €lIE>N DAY MONTH243N22N2237 2.1582.1282-.04E>1.7041. %'32 73317 2.e,502.&22-.0352.1041.'321173MONTHLY MEAN 2.285 .5 2.2e,7 5 -.027 1.7'3'3 5 1. e,58 5 BETA 2.328MONTH DAY 5004 171.'371N1%B1. '325ALPHA- .077Be,21.57'3N1e,751.4%N DAY MONTH1 17 4N13423 2.0571 . 'l'l 1-.1071. &501.50e,23442'3 2.57132.50E>-.OB32.0e,031.870 32'34MONTHLY MEAN 2.348 5 2.2B7 5 -.OBE> 1 . B8'1 5 1.714 5 BETA 2.4'l4MONTH5DAY115002.5775 15 2.5'l5N33&B2.5102.530N3ALPHA-.OBe,-.OB3BE>22.0E>32.0'l2N3e,75) . Be,2N DAY MONTH3 11 51.878 15 5MONTHLY MEAN 2.58142.5154-.0852.07041.8e,E>4 BETA 2.738MONTH DAY 500e, 2e, 2.0'38N13&82.231N1ALPHA.200BE>21. '37'3N1E>752.0E>3N DAY MONTH1 2E> e,MONTHLY MEAN 2.0'l82.231.2001. '37'32.0e,3BETA 1.827MONTH DAY 5007 20 2.104N13e,82.2&8N1ALPHA.244Be,21. '374N1e,752.052N DAY MONTH1 20 7MONTHLY MEAN 2.1042.2b8.2441. '3742.052BETA 1.777MONTH DAY 5008 4 2.3bO8 10 2.078N133&B2.5102.224N13ALPHA.202.2228E>22.2%1. '380N13e,752.323N DAY MONTH1482.040 3 10 8MONTHLY MEAN 2.14'3 4 2.2% 4 .21b 2.04'3 4 2.111 4 BETA I.B4'3MONTH DAY 500'l 3 1.8e,3'l'l'l2122,. 70'l1.e,5b28 1. e,31N2133&81.'l%1.8541.8001.754N213ALPHA.225.2E>5.272.2378e,21.7741. e,3'31.5841.581N213E>751.8171. e,721.e,181. E>0'3N DAY MONTH2 3 '313212228'3'3'3MONTHLY MEAN 1.71'l 7 1. B57 7 .252 1. E>4& 7 1. foBl 7 BETA 1.444MONTH DAY10 &10 75001.4181. &&8N22%81.5bB1. B2&N22ALPHA.32B.2'35I - 238e,21.3451.5'37N22e,751.3731. e,23N DAY MONTH2 e, 102 7 10


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 18950 RYORI. JAPAN ALTITUDE 230 M YEAR 1992WMO 47513 39 2N 141 50EMONTH DAY 500 N 358 N ALPHA 852 N 575 N DAY MONTH10 22 1.411 1.552 .331 1.344 1.354 22 1010 25 1.721 1 1.854 1 .242 1.705 1 1.594 1 25 1010 27 1.492 2 1.518 2 .254 1.450 2 1.452 2 27 1010 28 1.330 3 1.452 3 .288 1.281 3 1.299 3 28 10MONTHLY MEAN 1.480 11 1.518 11 .291 1.425 11 1.443 11 8ETA 1.209MONTH DAY 500 N 358 N ALPHA 852 N 575 N DAY MONTH11 12 1 .198 1 1.321 1 .318 1.155 1 1 . 1£>5 1 12 1111 17 1.405 1.535 .290 1.350 1.370 17 1111 18 1 . 12£> 1.283 .425 1.028 1.058 18 11MONTHLY MEAN 1.243 3 1.380 3 .340 1 .181 3 1.198 3 8ETA .982MONTH DAY 500 N 358 N ALPHA 8£>2 N 575 N DAY MONTH12 4 1.307 2 1 .44£> 2 .330 1.248 2 1 . 2£> 7 2 4 1212 18 1.085 1.181 .277 1.045 1.059 18 1212 21 1.035 1 .149 .344 .'383 .998 21 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.183 4 1.30£> 4 .321 1.131 4 1 . 148 4 BETA .947NCDC 19420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA. ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'393WHO 1£>3£>0 39 49N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 3 .220 2 .252 2 .487 3 15 .175 5 .173 £> -.04£> 55 .117 5 .11& 5 -.034 £>7 .202 5 .209 5 .11& 78 .151 4 .144 4 -.177 810 . 1£>2 4 .1&1 4 -.017 1011 .357 2 .433 2 .703 1112 .194 5 .213 5 .351 1213 .151 3 .173 3 .500 1315 .188 5 .187 £> -.021 1515 .209 4 .230 4 .351 1£>17 .389 2 .385 2 - .032 1721 .251 2 .2£>8 2 .23'3 2122 .371 4 .427 4 .512 2224 .359 4 .421 4 .577 242& .227 3 .252 3 .380 2£>27 . 1£>5 4 .179 4 .299 2728 .174 3 .171 3 -.057 282'3 .215 1 .280 1 .'35'3 2'331 .273 .355 .971 31MONTHLY MEAN .214 70 .231 70 .283 BETA . 1 7£>MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .123 1 .120 1 -.108 1 22 2 . 1&£> 3 .154 3 -.27'3 2 22 3 .171 2 .154 2 -.375 3 22 4 .238 4 .258 4 .2% 4 22 5 .141 2 .131 2 -.253 5 22 7 .241 1 .220 1 -.332 7 22 8 .2(,8 3 .307 3 .4'38 8 22 10 .222 4 .231 4 .147 10 22 13 . 3D£> 2 .349 2 .477 13 2I - 24


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA, ITALY AL TI TUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1£:,3&0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 14 . 58£:, 2 .£:'3'3 2 .31£:' 14 22 15 .4'32 2 . 5£:>4 2 .4'38 15 22 17 .2£:'7 1 .2£:'4 1 -.048 17 22 18 .42£:' 1 . 50£:, 1 .£:'27 18 22 1'3 .271 £:, .313 £:, .524 1'3 22 21 .1£:'£:' 2 . 1£:,4 2 -.040 21 22 23 .330 3 .410 3 .7'30 23 22 24 .217 3 .22'3 3 .1'34 24 22 2£:, .495 .£:'2£:' .850 2£:, 2MONTHLY MEAN .272 43 .2'3'3 . 43 .353 BETA .213MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 3 .454 2 .470 2 .12£:' 3 33 4 .3'34 2 .521 2 1.018 4 33 8 .509 3 .£:''33 3 1.123 8 33 '3 . 50£:, 5 .£:'£:'4 5 .9'30 '3 33 11 .524 3 .£:'72 3 .908 11 33 12 .488 4 .573 4 .585 12 33 13 .30'3 2 .41'3 2 1.113 13 33 14 .715 1 .8'33 1 .80'3 14 33 15 . 50£:, £:, .£:''33 £:, 1.144 15 33 1£:, .484 4 .£:'15 4 .870 1& 33 17 .708 3 .'32'3 3 .9'31 17 33 18 .'303 1 1.003 1 .382 18 33 19 .2&3 5 .345 5 .'384 19 33 20 .331 & .424 & .903 20 33 21 .30& 2 .387 2 .853 21 33 31 .3Q7 4 .539 4 1. 117 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .455 53 .585 53 .918 BETA .241MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 .3&2 7 .531 7 1.3'33 1 44 2 .31& 1 .48& 1 1.577 2 44 & .241 2 .348 2 1.331 & 44 7 .328 3 .443 3 1.098 7 44 '3 .284 & .393 & 1 .1'32 Q 44 10 .33& 3 .479 3 1.298 10 44 13 .290 1 .427 1 1.417 13 44 14 .433 2 .557 2 .'319 14 44 15 .303 2 .44& 2 1.408 15 44 1& .34& 1 .547 1 1. &&3 1& 44 19 .442 & .&21 & 1.240 19 44 20 .504 5 .723 5 1.318 20 44 21 .325 3 .479 3 1.412 21 44 22 .434 3 . &11 3 1.250 22 44 23 .517 3 .&&4 3 .'308 23 44 24 .3'31 5 .551 5 1.250 24 44 2& .&51 2 .77& 2 .&41 2& 44 27 .4&5 1 .&2'3 1 1.103 27 44 30 .443 4 .'391 4 1 . 0'35 30 4MONTHLY MEAN .394 &0 .549 &0 1.208 BETA .170MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 .&15 3 .841 3 1.137 1 55 9 .550 3 .&7'3 3 .7&5 9 55 10 .37& 4 .454 4 .&90 10 55 11 .299 2 .410 2 1.147 11 5I - 25


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA, ITALY AL TITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1£,3£,0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTHLY MEAN .4£'7 12 .£'00 12 .'314 BETA .248MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH£, 17 .230 2 .3£'0 2 1. £,37 17 £,£, 18 . %4 £, .55'3 £, 1.558 18 £,b 1'3 .240 b .407 b 1. '322 19 f,f, 2.1 .38f, 2 .545 2 1.25b 21 f,f, 23 .411 4 .5b9 4 1 . 181 23 f,f, 24 .£'07 3 .770 3 .870 24 f,f, 25 .342 5 .518 5 1 .511 25 f,f, 2f, .372 2 .5f,4 2 1. 518 2£, f,f, 27 .302 4 .473 4 1. f,34 27 6f, 28 .423 5 .f,f,9 5 1.f,72 28 f,6 2'3 .544 f, .813 f, 1.465 29 f,MONTHLY MEAN .38f, 45 .578 45 1.474 BETA .13qMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 2 .f,1f, 2 .858 2 1.207 2 77 3 .592 3 .7f,3 3 .927 3 77 4 .f,71 3 .870 3 .945 4 77 5 .5% 5 .751 5 .83'3 5 77 7 .431 1 .589 1 1.140 7 77 8 .449 3 .574 3 .894 8 77 9 .382 5 .594 5 1.f,04 9 77 10 .414 4 .f,f,2 4 1.710 10 77 11 .723 2 .901 2 .804 11 77 12 .2f,4 4 .404 4 1.547 12 77 13 .302 3 .475 3 1.646 13 77 14 .284 2 .44q 2 1.6f,7 14 77 15 .35b b .5bq f, 1 .711 15 77 If, .274 f, .418 £, 1.534 1f, 77 17 .300 4 .487 4 1.75q 17 77 18 . 270 3 .447 3. 1.833 18 77 lq .303 5 .473 5 1. 622 lq 77 20 .2q5 f, .488 f, 1.832 20 77 21 .272 5 .430 5 ,. f,f,q 21 77 22 .544 1 .7Ql 1 ".3f,5 22 77 23 .3QQ 5 .590 5 1.42Q 23 77 24 .355 4 .50Q 4 1.315 24 77 25 .328 7 .501 7 1.538 25 77 2f, .307 5 .46Q 5 1.538 2f, 77 27 .424 4 .f,74 4 1.6.8& 27 77 28 .292 5 .4£'3 5 1.&81 28 77 2Q .286 8 .443 8 1.5Q5' 2Q 77 30 .301 4 .45Q 4 1.544 30 77 31 .340 2 .546 2 1. 732 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .3£'7 117 .545 117 1 .448 BETA .134MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY HONTH8 1 .352 4 .5b4 4 1.715 1 88 2 .523 4 .830 4 1. f,7Q 2 88 £, .55b f, .. 812 f, 1.382 & 88 7 ,b14 4 .831 4 1.10Oe 7 88 8 .4£'4 7 .£,Q7 7 1.481 8 88 '3 .50':1 6 .755 & 1.432 ':l 88 10 .578 2 .828 2 1.308 10 88 1'1 .433 4 .b72 4 1. &01 11 88 12 .205 3 .330 3 1 .731 12 88 13 .248 2 ..407 2 1.7Q9 13 88 14 . 3 ':l2 8 .. £'32 8 1.742 14 88 15 .382 3 .b37 3 1.8bl 15 88 lb .441 5 .723 5 1 .80E. 16 88 17 .548 4 .844 4 1.575 17 88 18 .538 & .83':1 £, 1. &17 18 88 1':1 .557 1 .844 1 1.517 1':1 88 21 .4bb 2 . 707 2 1.518 21 88 22 .3b3 3 .571 3 1.657 22 88 23 .311 4 .497 4 1.702 23 88 24 .477 5 .&94 5 r.3b4 24 88 27 .b':lO 3 .855 3 .783 27 8I - 2b


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA. ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&3&0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 2'3 .441 & .&4& & 1.3'31 2'3 88 30 .2'3'3 3 .4&2 3 1.588 30 88 31 .302 7 .473 7 1. &35 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .44& 102 .&75 102 1.51 & 8ETA .1%MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 .55'3 1 .822 1 1.410 1 '3'3 2 .300 & .478 & 1. &'35 2 '3'3 3 .38& 8 . &11 8 1 . &71 3 '3'3 4 .303 3 .474 3 1. &33 4 '3'3 & .1'37 3 .307 3 1. &13 & '3'3 7 .240 3 .3'34 3 1.7'38 7 '3'3 12 .1&& 4 .308 4 2.257 12 '3'3 13 .177 3 .33'3 3 2.37'3 13 '39 14 .238 3 .357 3 1.477 14 99 1& .253 1 .445 1 2.057 1& 99 17 .2% 3 .457 3 2.10& 17 99 18 .203 4 .387 4 2.35'3 18 '39 1'3 .1'33 1 .351 1 2.184 19 99 20 .340 3 .500 3 1.398 20 '39 21 .40'3 4 . %2 4 1.157 21 99 23 .214 7 .38'3 7 2.1&7 23 9'3 24 .2&2 4 .3% 4 1.511 24 '39 2& .2&1 1 .340 1 .%2 2& 99 27 .15'3 3 .298 3 2.293 27 9'3 28 .1&5 1 .300 1 2.180 28 '39 30 .175 2 .244 2 1.201 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .2&& &8 .430 &8 1.752 BETA .07'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 .145 1 .271 1 2.2&2 1 1010 5 .184 5 .2'37 5 1.738 5 1010 & .145 5 .2&& 5 2.208 & 1010 8 .258 4 .413 4 1.70& 8 1010 11 .27b & .390 & 1.2&4 11 1010 12 .151 3 .22'3 3 1.514 12 1010 1& .423 4 .507 4 .&&1 1& 1010 17 .3&3 3 .459 3 .857 17 1010 1'3 .502 3 .&&& 3 1.028 19 1010 21 .44'3 .&19 1.1&9 21 1010 24 .204 .329 1.733 24 1010 2& .&23 .711 .487 2& 1010 29 .3&8 3 .505 3 1.153 29 1010 31 .390 .587 1.493 31 10MONTHLY MEAN .292 41 .413 41 1.257 BETA .122MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 1 .309 & .4&7 & 1.507 1 1111 8 .1 &1 1 .221 1 1.14& 8 1111 9 .189 1 .243 1 .'310 '3 1111 10 .18'3 2 .318 2 1.8'3'3 10 1111 11 .1&8 & .28'3 & 1.%5 11 1111 12 .251 3 .3'31 3 1. &08 12 1111 17 .175 .2'31 1.847 17 11I - 27


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3420 SANTA MARIA 01 LEUCA. ITALY ALTITUDE 104 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&3&0 3'3 4'3N 18 21EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DA)' MONTH11 23 .232 2 .315 2 1. 113 23 11MONTHLY MEAN .227 22 .351 22 1 .5'37 BETA .075MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 5 .174 1 .258 1 1.447 5 1212 & .28'3 2 .40& 2 1.237 £, 1212 7 · 1£,5 3 .271 3 1.810 7 1212 8 .1 £,7 2 .217 2 .'3&0 8 1212 '3 · 1£,0 2 .25'3 2 1.7£'2 '3 1212 10 .112 3 .188 3 1 .8'31 10 1212 11 .132 2 .208 2 1 . &£,3 11 1212 12 .105 3 .1 £,4 3 1. £,24 12 1212 13 .07£' 2 .117 2 1. S£,3 13 1212 14 .241 1 .2'30 1 .£'70 14 1212 1£, .223 2 .2'35 2 1.010 1£, 1212 17 .141 1 .212 1 1.480 17 1212 18 .114 4 .184 4 1.750 18 1212 1'3 · 11£, 3 . 1'33 3 1 . 8£, 7 1'3 1212 20 .12'3 2 .222 2 1 . '37£' 20 1212 22 .144 2 .244 2 1. '333 22 1212 23 .215 2 .24'3 2 .527 23 1212 24 .384 1 .40'3 1 .22'3 24 1212 28 .232 .2'38 .'30£' 28 12MONTHLY MEAN · 15'3 3'3 .233 3'3 1 .3'38 -BETA .0£'0NCDC 1'3430 SHANADIANZI. CHINA ALTITUDE 2£,0 M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 40 3'3N 117 7EMONTH DAY 500 N 3£>8 N ALPHA 778 N DAY MONTH'3 2 .813 3 1.511 3 2.021 .781 3 2 99 3 1.203 2 1.889 2 1.474 1.254 2 3 9'3 £, .772 3 1.403 3 1 . '351 .84£' 3 £> 9'3 7 .80& 3 1.4&7 3 1 . '352 .903 3 7 9'3 8 .&73 3 1.324 3 2.205 .793 3 8 9'3 '3 .'341 2 1. &&4 2 1.8&1 1. 010 2 '3 '3'3 10 1.10& 3 1 . '31 '3 3 1.797 1.037 3 10 9'3 14 .&0'3 1.143 2.054 .705 14 9'3 17 .927 3 1. &35 3 1.853 .%1 3 17 9'3 2£, .834 2 1.527 2 1.973 .887 2 2E. 9'3 2'3 .701 3 1 .30'3 3 2.037 . 7E.2 3 29 9MONTHLY MEAN .8s£' 28 ,. 53£, 28 1 . '30'3 .'302 28 BETA .228MONTH DAY 500 N 3£,8 N ALPHA 778 N DAY MONTH10 5 .E.OO 3 1.175 3 2.1'32 .£''31 3 5 1010 8 .£'£'0 3 1.23£' 3 2.048 .724 3 8 1010 11 .£'71 3 1 .22'3 3 1.'314 .741 3 11 1010 1& .&&7 3 1.217 3 1.%2 . 705 3 1& 1010 17 .£'21 3 1.152 3 2.015 .£>82 3 17 1010 1'3 .558 3 1 .0£''3 3 2 . 11 '3 .&38 3 1'3 1010 20 .£'14 2 1 . 1&4 2 2.085 .704 2 20 1010 24 .£'44 3 1.180 3 1.'31£' .&b8 3 24 1010 25 .b21 3 1.153 3 2.020 .b4& 3 25 1010 2& .577 2 1.10£' 2 2.122 .£'55 2 2£, 1010 27 .'355 2 1.578 2 1 . £,38 .880 2 27 10MONTHLY MEAN .£'47 30 1.1'38 30 2.007 .b'3'3 30 BETA . 1£, 1r - 28


NCDC 1'3430WMOMONTH DAY11 111111111111111111111111111111111345'310111315lE.2022252E.272'330500.E.20.530.754.'382.533.48'3.5'38.538.511.E.02.440.522.455.450.700.E.l7.E.32SHANADIANZI.40 3'3N 117 7EN %82 1.1 E.l3 .'3843 1.2523 1.5342 .'3143 .'3123 1.04'32 1.0053 .'3323 1.0422 .7512 .'3253 .8302 .84'33 1.1543 1.0283 1.0%AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)N2333233233'2232333ALPHA2.04E>2.0201. E>531.4%1.7582.0331.8312.0411.%21.7901.7491.8E>51.%12.0701. E>321. E>E.81.E.I0CHINA ALTITUDE 2E>0 M YEAR 1992778.E>E>1.582.732.885.545.545.E>10.575.551.E>19.4E>3.573.498.518.E.57.58E..E>24N23332332332232333DAY MONTH1 11345910111315lE>2022252E>27293011111111111111111111111111111111MONTHLY MEAN .5% 45 1.033 45 1.794 .E>08 45 BETA .172MONTH DAY12 11212121212121212121212121231011131415lE.172223243031500.445.437.475.458.434.41'3.401.43E..4E.l.53E..514.547.440.E.37N333323333333233E.8.808.795.824.803.781.753.721.7E>4.788.87E..845.8%.83E.1.009N ALPHA3 1.9483 1.9523 1.7973 1.8312 1.9173 1.9143 1.9123 1.8323 1.74E>3 1. E.053 1. E>203 1. E>092 2.0'333 1.502778.491.4E>9.500.482.491.457.447.483.501.%3.%0.553.490.591N33332333333323DAY MONTH1 12310111314151E>17222324303112121212121212121212121212MONTHLY MEAN .47E. 40 .822 40 1.781 .50E> 40 BETA .138NCDC 1'3430WMOMONTH DAY1 1341011121415lE.171820212324252E.2729500.805.391.382.4E,.9.E>21.E>34,481.479.483.475.430.417.44E..424.%9.702.520.499.E.E.7SHANADIANZI.40 39N 117 7EN33333233233333322323E>81.198.718.70E>.81E>1.0211.044.858.81>0.935.834.798.799.815.811.9%1.127.928.9281.149N3333323323333332232ALPHA1.2991 . '3792.0001.8021. E.211.E.2E.1.8871.9052.1581.8382.0222.1221 . '3722.1171.8251.5471.8912.022CHINA ALTITUDE 2E.0 M YEAR 1993778.703.433.433.501.585.5'32.513.514.540.S30.487.472.495.481.%8.E.90.%8.5391.773 .722I - 29N3333323323333332232DAY MONTH1 1341011121415lE.171820212324252E>2729


NCDC 1'3430WMOMONTH DAY1 301 31500.£'35.483SHANADIANZI.40 3'3N 117 7EN33%81.0&4.'310AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)N33ALPHA1. &852.0&5CHINA ALTITUDE 2&0 M YEAR 1'3'33778.&50.54&N33DAY MONTH30 131 1MONTHLY MEAN .518 58 .'310 58 1.83':1 .544 58 8ETA .145MONTH DAY2 3222222222227':I121314182223242527500.£'2'3.52':1.4£''3.£'38.501.731.£'38.5'34.£'07.£'52.£'8'3.711N3233323232323&81.08'3.'380.'3181.13'3.%'31 .2471.1731. 1171.1551.2201.2£'41.258N323332323232ALPHA1.7'342.0122.1'311.88'32.1531.7411. '3872.0582.1012.0471. ':1781.8£'0778.£'47.581.54£'.&£'1.573.747.&5&.&&&.&&3.&'l2.713.785N323332323232DAY MONTH3 27'312131418222324252722222222222MONTHLY MEAN . &11 31 1.121 31 1. '3aO .&55 31 BETA .155MONTH DAY3 13 23 3333'333333£,71115182&2831500.£'0'3.£''37.5%.770.1':>47.&47.&57.'305.7&2.87'3.775.81':>2N3332333332323&81.1801 .2781.1541 .4-581.2381.2%1 .2&31. £,071 .4141 .5581.4841.5'32N3332333'33232ALPHA2.1&11. '3752.1%2.0812.11 &2.1122.1341.8732.01&1.8&72.1182.001778.&74.7%.&8':1.82'3.733.732.742.8'3':1.837.8&2.8&0.'33&N333233333232DAY MONTH1 32 33 3&71115182&2931333333333MONTHLY MEAN .725 33 1.357 33 2.047 .788 33 BETA .175MONTH DAY4 44444444444500.7747 .77'38 .80810 .85011 . '32112 1.17715 1.2421& .80017 .77118 .7'3225 . '334N232332233323&81.5051 .5071.5881. &4&1 .77£'2.10&2.1441.5'311.54'31.5771.801N23233223332'ALPHA2.1702.1552.2042.15£:>2.1421.8':1':11.7832.2432.2772.2472.143778.885.'303.'320.'323.'3541.1281.1'30.883.87'3.8'311.00&N23233223332DAY MONTH4 478101112151&17182S444444·4444MONTHLY MEAN .87'3 28 1. &87 28 2.127 .'34'3 28 BETA .2015 8 .841 3 1. &'l0 3 2.278 .'32& 3 8 5I - 30


NCDC 1'3430WMOMONTH DAY5 '35555555141822252&2728500.'31&.72&.'332.700.8&&.'305.'382.8&'3SHANADIANZI.40 3'3N 117 7EN22322332%81.8281.5831.8001.5481.74&1.7&31.8741.738AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)N22322332ALPHA2.2542.5432.1452.58'32.28'32.1742.10'32.25'3CHINA ALT ITUDE 2&0 M YEAR 1'3'337781 .011.8501.004.83'3.'3%.'3871.040.'384N22322332DAY MONTH'3 5141822252&27285555555MONTHLY MEAN .870 22 1.73'3 22 2.2&1 .%5 22 BETA .181MONTH DAY& 2& 12& 15& 18& 23b 30500.854.804.757.'3'31.815.854N332223%81. &581. &111 .4'381. '3021.&271.70&N332223ALPHA2.1&&2.2&52.2282.12&2.2522.25'37781.002.'304.847.'3'37.'327.'33&N332223DAY MONTH2 &1215182330&&&&&MONTHLY MEAN .844 15 1. &&5 15 2.21& .'338 15 BETA .182MONTH DAY 5007 1 1.048N23&81. '345N2ALPHA2.018778.'370N2DAY MONTH1 7MONTHLY MEAN 1.048 2 1. '345 2 2.018 .'370 2 BETA .25'3MONTH DAY8 88888888881&171824252&27282'3500.807.820.787.78'3.837.%'3.835. 788.78&.754N3222232333%81.5471.54'31.50&1.5211.5241.7311.5721.5021.48'31.427N3222232333ALPHA2.1252.0752.11&2.1421. '3551 .8'332.0&52.1032.0852.081778.881.87'3.8'30.8&'3.821.%7.'313.848.843.835N3222232333DAY MONTH8 81&171824252&27282'3888888888MONTHLY MEAN .818 25 1.537 25 2.05'3 .875 25 BETA .1%MONTH DAY'3 3'3 4'3 5'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'313181'3202223242'35001.0451.0&31.473.71&.710.&71.775.703.&52.&81.&87. & 11N3323333332333&81.80&1.8102.34'31.3501.33'31.2'301.4221.32'31.2551.2571.3131.18&N332333333233ALPHA1.7841.7351.5232.0&82.0&82.1331 . '3822.07'32.1332.0002.1132.1&5778.'380.%71 .20'3.800.782.742.814.7&'3.73'3. 700.733.&84N332333333233DAY MONTH3 '34 '35 '3'313181'3202223242'3I - 31


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3430HMOSHANADIANZI.40 3'3N 117 7ECHINAALTITUDE2bO MMONTHLY MEAN .800 34 1.4% 3434BETA .207MONTH DAY10 I500.bb3N23b81.27'3N2ALPHA2.145778.717DAY MONTHI 10103 1.01821.73821 .744.'332N22310101014 .57815 .758331.1111.337332.1321.854.b18.731331415101010101017 .55218 .54b1'3 .%b3331.0551.04b1.0713332. 1152.1212.081.b05.5'37.b1233317181'310101010101021 .5402223.538.b7'33331.0331.0331 .2143332.1182.12b1 .897.5'33.57'3.bb4333212223101010MONTHLY MEAN .b30 28 28 2.01'3 .b53 28 BETA .155MONTH DAY1 I I500.541N3N3ALPHA·1 .995718.575N3DAYIMONTHI I1 I13.%83.'37131.751.557313 111118.4442.84822. 109.484218 1 11 11 I111 I21222324.453.4'33.443.5122233.8b2.81b.805.8'3822332.0%1. b451 .9481.830.510.474.47'3.511223321 1 122 1123 1124 111 1I 11 I2b2728.b3'3.409.b022321.0bO.747.8142321. b541.%7.984.bOO.435.4b52322b 1127 1128 111 130.47b3.83431.827.4b7330 11MONTHLY MEAN .504 28 .877 28 1.808 .505 28 BETA . 144NCDC 1'3433HMO b23015101 BARRANI. EGYPT31 38N 25 54EALTITUDE 24 t1 YEAR 1992MONTH DAY10 7381.755N7500.253N7ALPHA4.0178b8.102N7DAY MONTH7 101010101 I.891.79'3.3b2.3513.31b3.025.122.10510 1011 10101010131415. 78'3.8b7.8bl32787.3b8.377.389327872.8083.0b82.92b· 17b.1%.2083278713141010'15 10101010171819.7bb.7'37.751887.327.31 I.2bl8873. 1383.4b53.889.182· 123.135887171810101~ 10MONTHLY MEAN .804 57 .330 57 3.277 .151 57 BETA .034MONTH DAYI I 11381.872N1500.3%NIALPHA2.8988b8· 170N1DAY MONTH11 11111 II I1125 . bOb2b .78'327 .7b828 1.0373552b.232.30b.307.4'373552b3.5413.4903.3732.705· 113.105· 122.2083552b252b272811111 1111130 .785.2'393.547.120301 IMONTHLY MEAN .785 22 .31b 22 .12b22 BETA .031I - 32


AEROSOL OPT! CAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SI DI BARRANI. EGYPT ALT ITUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3 '32WHO &2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH12 1 .&'30 3 .287 3 3.231 .135 3 1 1212 4 .728 3 .30& 3 3.18& .115 3 4 1212 5 .&0'3 8 .221 B 3.732 .0'37 8 5 1212 & .&05 8 .229 8 3.581 .104 8 & 1212 7 .717 4 .28& 4 3.385 .145 4 7 1212 8 .447 4 .182 4 3.30& .097 4 8 1212 9 .&45 & .2&5 & 3.2&8 .128 & 9 1212 10 .&52 5 .251 5 3.513 .133 5 10 1212 11 .542 2 .211 2 3.479 .105 2 11 1212 12 .7&0 2 .2'32 2 3.519 .114 2 12 1212 13 .&77 1 .272 1 3.351 .195 1 13 1212 17 .710 3 .292 3 3.2&& .131 3 17 1212 18 .5'34 1 .2% 1 3.093 .108 1 18 1212 23 .801 1 .4&7 1.989 .230 23 12MONTHLY MEAN .&38 51 .254 51 3.38& .120 51 BETA .024NCDC 19433 SIDl BARRAN I. EGYPT ALTITUDE 24 M YEAR 19'33WHO &2301 31 38N 25 54EHONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH1 1 .&28 3 .243 3 3.4% .108 3 1 11 2 .87& 3 .438 3 2.548 .192 3 2 11 3 .580 3 .213 3 3.&81 .088 -3 3 19 .709 3 .248 3 3.871 .114 3 911 .&77 2 .2&9 2 3.389 .144 2 1112 .709 7 .291 7 3.282 .123 7 1213 1.047 1 .404 1 3.50& .147 1 1314 .727 4 .284 4 3.4&3 .118 4 1417 .803 & .323 & 3.351 .143 & 1718 .737 & .304 & 3.251 .130 & 1819 .&41 9 .238 9 3.&50 .087 9 1920 .875 4 .379 4 3.073 .1&8 4 2022 1.005 & .480 & 2.723 .208 & 2225 .892 7 .3&5 7 3.289 .141 7 252& .823 3 .373 3 2.909 .181 3 2&27 .914 & .&81 & 1.081 .231 & 2728 .92& 2 .38& 2 3.219 .211 2 2829 .735 & .335 & 2.8'30 .133 & 2930 .779 & .243 & 4.27'3 .113 & 3031 .725 2 .380 2 2.37& .235 2 31MONTHLY MEAN .784 8'3 .344 89 3.032 .145 8'3 BETA .042MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH2 '5 .883 7 .350 7 3.401 .183 7 5 22 & .3'3'3 2 .241 2 1.858 . 13'3 2 & 22 7 .884 & .3&0 & 3.300 .191 & 7 22 8 .888 4 .343 4 3.500 .18& 4 8 22 '3 .834 4 .337 4 3.335 .170 4 9 22 10 .93'3 1 .3&8 1 3.445 .184 1 10 22 11 .8'31 2 .34'3 2 3.447 .1&8 2 11 22 14 .8'34 5 .347 5 3.484 .14'3 5 14 22 15 .7&4 5 .2&2 5 3.'333 .0'32 5 15 22 1& .&'30 3 .24'3 3 3.750 .118 3 lE> 22 17 . 75'5 8 .251 8 4.0% .103 9 17 :22 18 _700 & .274 & 3.445 .102 & 18 22 19 .889 & .332 & 3.&20 .138 e. 1'3 22 20 .804 8 .2'30 8 3.754 .110 8 20 22 21 .&&0 4 .25'3 4 3.437 . I 11 4 21 22 22 .529 2 .223 2 3.184 .118 2 22 22 23 .828 8 .2% 8 3.785 .138 8 23 22 2& .854 2 .337 2 3.427 .142 2 2& 22 27 .788 8 .319 8 3.327 .091 8 27 22 28 1.050 4 .535 4 2.481 .277 4 28 2MONTHLY MEAN .808 95 .314 '35 3.47& .140 '35 BETA .028I - 33


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC Ig433 SIDI BARRAN I. EGYPT ALTITUDE 24 M YEAR Igg3WMO &2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH3 1 1.1&3 3 .74& 3 1. &35 .388 3 1 33 3 .g52 5 .55g 5 1. g55 .508 5 3 33 4 .785 8 .378 8 2.&85 .184 8 4 33 5 .754 8 .387 8 2.452 .15g 8 5 33 & .g42 7 .487 7 2.425 .313 7 & 33 7 .8g0 3 .380 3 3.133 .202 3 7 33 8 .':l08 4 .333 4 3.&g7 .127 4 8 33 g .830 '5 .2&1 5 4.174 .07& 5 g 33 10 .%7 2 .373 2 3.507 .0'38 2 10 33 11 .g80 & .3&8 & 3.&00 .101 & 11 33 12 .gOg 5 .410 5 2.'330 .100 5 12 33 13 .g58 1 .470 1 2.&25 .251 1 13 33 14 1.178 & .481 & 3.2'32 .151 & 14 33 15 1.2g1 & .545 & 3.170 .21'3 & 15 33 1& 1.354 5 .&42 5 2.74& .257 5 1& 33 17 1. 2&7 5 .554 5 3.045 .203 5 17 33 18 .8'38 4 .37& 4 3.203 .145 4 18 33 Ig 1 .OE.& 7 .445 7 3.218 . 1E.O 7 1'3 33 20 .8'35 1 .381 1 3.13& .147 1 20 33 21 1.032 7 .402 7 3.4&5 .134 7 21 33 22 .8E.0 8 .28& 8 4.048 .104 8 22 33 23 .803 5 .2E.7 5 4.053 .084 5 23 33 24 .777 4 .25'3 4 4.03g .084 4 24 33 25 .78'3 4 .2&4 4 4.032 .087 4 25 33 2E. .807 4 .2E.7 4 4.0&& .08'3 4 2& 33 28 .825 7 .2'3& 7 3.775 .133 7 28 33 2g .'371 8 .377 8 3.478 .14g 8 29 33 30 .817 8 .2E.& 8 4.120 .10& 8 30 33 31 1.394 8 .807 8 2.012 .575 8 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .912 154 .417 154 3.109 .187 154-- ' BETA .048MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH4 1 1.409 2 .&90 2 2.&2& .1&& 2 1 44 2 1.108 2 .521 2 2.774 .227 2 2 44 3 1.2&4 & .504 & 3.385 .154 & 3 44 4 .8&& 5 .305 5 3.835 .115 5 4 44 5 1.052 2 .3&5 2 3.8g8 .124 2 5 44 & .&94 3 .257 3 3.&57 .088 3 & 44 7 .94& 2 .3&1 2 3.539 .152 2 7 44 8 ,932 3 .28& 3 4.348 .084 3 8 44 9 .800 8 .3&0 8 2.938 .053 8 q 44 10 .983 2 .392 2 3.382 .134 '2 lO 44 11 .874 5 .302 5 3.913 .083 5 n 44 12 1.018 4 .381 4 3.&17 .134 4 12 44 13 .'371 4 .338 4 3.88& .171 4 13 44 14 1.22'3 4 .372 4 4.3'35 .183 4 14 44 15 1.043 1 .432 1 3.245 · 1'37 ,I 15 44 1& .%0 7 .33& 7 3.8Sb .154 7 1& 44 17 1.211 4 .542 4 2.'35g .325 4 17 44 18 1.272 2 .&57 2 2.432 .42& 2 18 44 1'3 1.255 3 .Sb'3 3 2.'30'3 .338 3 1'3 44 20 1.238 1 .484 1 3.452 .175 1 20 44 21 1.074 8 .403 8 3.&0'3 .117 8 21 44 22 1.082 7 .3'35 7 3.70b .121 7 22 44 23 1.007 8 .3&5 8 3.735 .120 8 23 44 24 1.234 5 .483 5 3.453 .1&3 5 24 44 25 1.074 7 .384 7 3.780 .115 7 25 44 2& 1.028 8 .&20 8 ,., B& 1 .121 8 2E. 44 27 .'3'35 8 .345 8 3.8'3'3 .114 8 27 44 28 .'347 1 .4'31 1 2.418 .317 1 28 44 2g .g92 4 .387 4 3.4&3 .1 g4 4 2~ 44 30 1.2&'3 3 .528 3 3.224 .244 3 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.042 12g .414 12g 3.3% .148 12g 8ETA .03gMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH5 1 1.0g2 5 .448 5 3.27& .183 5 1 55 2 1.071 3 .45g 3 3.121 .1 g5 3 2 55 3 1.138 2 .4g7 2 3.052 .1 g7 2 3 55 4 1.lg7 2 .513 2 3.120 · 1'38 2 4 55 5 1.130 3 .431 3 3.548 · 13E. 3 5 55 & 1.183 7 .448 7 3.572 .330 7 E. 55 8 1.0% 5 .473 5 3.08g .23'3 5 8 55 g 1.2% 1 .551 1 3.144 .243 1 q 5I - 34


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SIDI BARRAN I • EGYPT ALTITUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO £,2301 31 3BN 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8£,8 N DAY MONTH5 10 1.31 £, 4 .53'3 .4 3.283 .2'3'3 4 10 55 11 1.0% 2 .388 2 3.£'81 .130 2 11 55 12 1.30'3 8 .451 8 3.'322 .174 8 12 55 14 1.1 £,2 3 .4'31 3 3.1 £,8 .254 3 14 55 I£, 1.207 5 .475 5 3.42'3 .240 5 I£, 55 17 1.154 £, .381 £, 4.075 .150 £, 17 55 18 1.17£' 7 .471 7 3. 3£:.5 .141 7 18 55 1'3 1.128 7 .427 7 3.578 .0'3'3 7 1'3 55 20 1.11£' 7 .422 7 3.57'3 .111 7 20 55 21 1.128 7 .405 7 3.7£'3 .102 7 21 55 22 1.227 7 .4£'4 7 3.57'3 .115 7 22 55 23 1.310 1 .508 1 3.487 .120 1 23 55 24 1.280 2 .522 2 3.2'38 .180 2 24 55 25 1.1'38 8 .£'7'3 8 2.08'3 . 1'32 8 25 55 2£, 1.17£' 7 .44'3 7 3.540 .148 7 2£, 55 27 1 .121 8 .403 8 3.7£'3 .353 8 27 55 28 1.0'33 8 .£'88 8 1.704 .0'3'3 8 28 55 2'3 1.027 8 .3£'4 8 3.821 .127 8 2'3 55 30 .'371 8 .328 8 3.'38'3 .08£' 8 30 55 31 1.031 7 .311 7 4.414 .082 7 31 5MONTHLY MEAN 1.143 148 .4% 14B 3.37£' .1 £,'3 148 BETA .044MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8£,8 N DAY MONTH£, 1 1.212 5 .553 5 2.885 .290 5 1 £,£, 2 1.107 7 .435 7 3.43'3 .183 7 2 £,£, 3 1.227 4 .5£>3 4 2.8£'4 .318 4 3 £,£, 4 1.2'31 4 .524 4 3.315 .233 4 4 £,£, 5 1 .07'3 7 .385 7 3.785 .135 7 5 £,£, £, 1.0£'5 2 .384 2 3.750 .124 2 £, £,£, 7 1.252 8 .401 8 4.18'3 .11'3 8 7 £,£, 8 1.118 8 .33£' 8 4.425 .084 8 8 £,£, '3 1.287 7 .513 7 3.382 .135 7 '3 £,£, 10 1.35'3 7 .540 7 3.3'37 .1£'7 7 10 £,£, 11 1.278 7 .517 7 3.327 .13'3 7 11 £,£, 12 1.247 £, .488 £, 3.454 .121 £, 12 £,£, 13 1.0£'2 £, .404 £, 3.555 .118 £, 13 £,£, 14 1.0'32 5 .435 5 3.3'30 .148 5 14 £,£, 15 1.201 4 .515 4 3.118 .254 4 15 £,£, I£, 1.15£> 4 .488 4 3.173 .245 4 I£, £,£, 17 1.204 7 .451 7 3.£'15 .147 7 17 £,£, 18 1.0'33 4 .428 4 3.444 .125 4 18 £,£, 1'3 1.331 4 .508 4 3.547 .12'3 4 1'3 £,£, 20 1. 1£'0 8 .423 8 3.715 .0'34 8 20 £,£, 21 1.03'3 5 .375 5 3.752 .08'3 5 21 £,£, 22 1.13£:. 5 .3'35 5 3.880 .083 5 22 £,£, 23 1.030 8 .357 8 3.'300 .0£'8 8 23 £,£, 24 .'375 8 .31'3 8 4.111 .055 8 24 £,£, 25 .'37£' 8 .321 8 4.0'37 .05£> 8 25 £,£, 2£, 1.048 3 .3£'1 3 3.'317 .0£'0 3 2£, £,£, 27 1.054 £, .338 £, 4.183 .0bO £, 27 £,b 28 1.2b7 7 .535 7 3.171 .122 7 28 £,b 2'3 1.127 8 .410 8 3.720 .0'33 8 2'3 bb 30 1.11 £, 7 .445 7 3.38b .138 7 30 bMONTHLY MEAN 1.151 17'3 .432 17'3 3.£'02 .130 17'3 BETA .03bMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8£,8 N DAY MONTH7 1 1.252 £, .510 £, 3.30£' .20'3 £, 1 77 2 1.2'37 5 .537 5 3.24£' .223 5 2 77 3 1.135 7 .4£'8 7 3.255 .170 7 3 77 4 1.010 b .350 '£, 3.'303 .0'33 b 4 77 5 1.120 8 .43'3 8 3.448 .107 8 5 77 b 1.111 '3 .478 '3 3.103 .141 '3 b 77 7 1 . 1'33 8 .51'3 8 3.05'3 .171 8 7 77 8 1.058 1 .545 1 2.444 .341 1 8 77 '3 1.118 3 .41 b. 3 3.b41 .111 3 '3 77 10 1.18b 7 .475 7 3.3£:.b .128 7 10 77 11 1.1'33 5 .4% 5 3.538 .117 5 11 77 12 1.172 8 .507 8 3.085 .20'3 8 12 77 13 1.342 4 .b08 4 2.'312 .304 4 13 77 14 1.110 8 .443 8 3.382 . 1'33 8 14 77 15 1.037 4 .3bO 4 3.8'33 .0% 4 15 77 1£, 1.150 3 .4b'3 3 3.300 .182 3 lb 77 17 1.024 3 .3% 3 3.88b .0cH 3 17 77 18 1.080 3 .345 3 4.201 .074 3 18 7I - 35


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'l433 5101 BARRANI. EGYPT All lTUDE 24 M YEAR '1'l'l3HMO &2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH7 1'l .'l% 3 .310 3 4.2'l7 .0&4 3 1'l 77 20 .'l58 & .305 & 4.21& .048 & 20 77 21 1.020 8 .32& 8 4.203 .053 8 21 77 22 1.020 8 .32'l 8 4.1&1 .055 8 22 77 23 1.0'l8 4 .352 4 4.181 .070 4 23 77 24 1.072 3 .34& 3 4.1&5 .0&8 3 24 77 25 1.024 7 .33& 7 4.102 .0&3 7 25 77 2& 1.180 8 .44'l 8 3.557 .108 8 2& 77 27 1.273 8 .51'l 8 3.2'3'l .137 8 27 77 28 1.1&7 4 .457 4 3.452 .10& 4 28 77 2'3 1 .271 5 .473 5 3.&34 .104 5 2'l 77 30 1.125 8 .3'l'l 8 3.818 .080 8 30 77 31 1 . 10'l 7 .40'l 7 3.&75 .078 7 31 7MONTHLY MEAN 1.130 177 .431 177 3.548 .124 177 8ETA .037MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH8 1 1 .05'l 7 .382 7 3.751 .0'32 7 1 88 2 1 .123 4 .3'3'3 4 3.80'3 .0'35 4 2 88 3 1.010 7 .3&2 7 3.778 .081 7 3 88 4 1.072 4 .413 4 3.505 .142 4 4 88 5 1.13& 7 .453 7 3.381 .14& 7 5 88 & 1.082 7 .443 7 3.288 .137 7 & 88 7 1.203 7 .4&& 7 3.485 .118 7 7 88 8 1.10'l 7 .4&& 7 3.185 .107 7 8 88 'l 1.0&3 7 .375 7 3.835 .078 7 'l 88 10 1.022 5 .3&3 5 3.807 .07'3 5 10 88 11 .'384 3 .3&4 3 3.&&4 .080 3 11 88 12 1.234 & .474 & 3.523 · 111 & 12 88 13 1.221 7 .458 7 3.&10 .10& 7 13 B8 14 1.180 & .448 & 3.5&0 .0'35 & 14 88 15 1.1'33 4 .44'3 4 3.5'34 .105 4 15 88 le, 1.017 & .355 & 3.8&'3 .0&'3 & 1& 88 17 1.130 5 .3% 5 3.855 .078 5 17 88 18 1.10'3 & .3'37 & 3.782 .084 & 18 88 1'3 1 . 14 er 8 .4&'3 8 3.2'38 .0'37 8 1'3 88 20 1.112 5 .475 5 3.133 .103 5 20 88 21 1.140 8 .4&2 8 3.323 .0'34 8 21 88 22 1.13& 8 .4&2 8 3.307 .0'37 8 22 88 23 1.11 & 8 .455 8 3.303 .0'32 8 23 88 24 1.144 8 .4&0 8 3.34'3 .100 8 24 88 25 1.305 4 .544 4 3.220 .118 4 25 88 27 1.238 5 .51& 5 3.222 .122 5 27 88 28 1.201 8 .53'3 8 2.'350 · 18'3 8 28 88 2'l 1.1'37 8 .5&5 8 2.7&1 .203 8 2'3 88 30 1.18& 7 .4'31 7 3.244 .122 7 30 88 31 1.245 7 .5&0 7 2.'340 .225 7 31 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.13'3 18'3 .453 18'3 3.3'74 .114 18'3 BETA .043MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 8&8 N DAY MONTH'3 1 1.038 8 .410 8 3.420 .118 8 1 '3'3 2 1.074 7 .428 7 3.388 · 111 7 2 '3'3 3 1.240 7 .552 7 2.'374 .200 7 3 '3'3 4 1.084 4 .482 4 2.'37'3 .180 4 4 '3'3 5 1.057 7 .387 7 3.&% .103 7 5 '3'3 & .'331 4 .372 4 3.371 .101 4 & '3'3 7 1.1% 5 .48'3 5 3.2'32 .1&4 5 7 '3'3 8 .8'31 4 .322 4 3.745 .1&& 4 8 '3'3 '3 .804 3 .301 3 3. &11 .083 3 '3 '3'3 10 .8&2 4 .312 4 3.741 .085 4 10 '3'3 11 .871 2 .345 2 3.40& .078 2 11 '3'3 12 .&'33 2 .278 2 3.3&7 .088 2 12 '3'l 13 .&83 2 .2&'3 2 3.428 .088 2 13 '3'3 14 .%7 & .3&8 & 3.557 .103 & 14 '3'3 15 .'305 4 .370 4 3.2'33 .124 4 15 '3'3 1& .882 4 .343 4 3.470 .11'3 4 1& '3'3 17 1.055 4 .4% 4 3.087 .203 4 17 '3'3 18 1.044 4 .454 4 3.0&4 · 1'38 4 18 '3'3 1'3 .'387 8 .353 8 3.783 .074 8 1'3 '3'3 20 .'38& 8 .355 8 3.752 .07'3 8 20 '3'3 21 .'37& 8 .358 8 3.&88 .08& 8 21 '3'3 22 1.0&7 2 .482 2 2.'320 .1% 2 22 '3'3 23 .%& 8 .358 8 3.&50 .110 8 23 '3'3 24 .%3 & .380 & 3.420 .125 & 24 '3'3 25 .'31& 7 .355 7 3.480 .11& 7 25 '3'3 2& .%& & .3&'3 & 3.538 .10'3 & 2& '3I - 3&


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 1'3433 SIDI BARRANI. EGYPT ALT I TUDE 24 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO 1>2301 31 38N 25 54EMONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 81>8 N DAY MONTH'3 27 .81>4 7 .2'31 7 4.00'3 .01>2 7 27 '3'3 28 .'320 I> .341 I> 3.1>54 .111 I> 28 '3'3 2'3 .'333 7 .387 7 3.235 .173 7 2'3 '3'3 30 1.01>5 I> .487 I> 2.880 .257 I> 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .'382 11>0 .381> 11>0 3.43'3 .125 11>0 BETA .031>MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 81>8 N DAY MONTH10 1 .'333 5 .340 5 3.718 .088 5 1 1010 2 .'321 5 .31'3 5 3.8% .01>1 5 2 1010 3 1.220 I> . 1>33 1> . 2.415 .427 I> 3 1010 5 1.12'3 2 .1>23 2 2.188 .443 2 5 1010 I> .'33'3 4 .44'3 4 2.712 .257 4 I> 1010 7 .'348 5 .332 5 3.858 .058 5 7 1010 8 .'303 3 .374 3 3.237 .0% 3 8 1010 '3 .78'3 3 .2'38 3 3.581 .01>4 3 '3 1010 10 .8'38 2 .350 2 3.41>'3 .075 2 10 1010 11 .'384 3 .404 3 3.273 .110 3 11 1010 12 .841> 1 .352 1 3.223 .071 1 12 1010 13 .821> 1 .350 1 3.11>3 .01>'3 1 13 1010 14 .'324 8 .444 8 2.1>135 .212 8 14 1010 15 .825 2 .3'38 2 2.1>85 .212 2 15 1010 11> .'330 8 .441 8 2.742 .207 8 1I> 1010 17 .'321 3 .428 3 2.817 .280 3 17 1010 18 .'30'3 8 .433 8 2.721> .205 8 18 1010 1'3 .'305 8 .432 8 2.725 .203 8 1'3 1010 20 .881> 8 .427 8 2.1>88 .201 8 20 1010 21 1.015 3 .471 3 2.823 .217 3 21 1010 22 .'312 4 .3'32 4 3.105 .141> 4 22 1010 23 .1313 I> .3138 I> 3.01>0 .151 I> 23 1010 24 .1315 7 .40& 7 2.13134 .1513 7 24 1010 25 .884 7 .3133 7 2.1377 .3133 7 25 1010 21> .858 8 .31>3 8 3.11>7 .120 8 21> 1010 27 .81>7 7 .348 7 3.354 .118 7 27 1010 213 .801 8 .347 8 3.072 .4134 8 213 1010 31 .1385 2 .440 2 2.%5 .1513 2 31 10MONTHLY MEAN .'318 137 .408 137 2.1384 .201> 137 BETA .052MONTH DAY 381 N 500 N ALPHA 81>8 N DAY MONTH11 2 .828 I> .332 I> 3.31>1> .127 I> 2 1111 3 .785 7 .3113 7 3.311 .1213 7 3 1111 4 .781> 7 .3113 7 3.323 .125 7 4 1111 5 .1>% 7 .25'3 7 3.1>37 .054 7 5 1111 I> . %3 3 .214 3 3.547 .052 3 I> 1111 7 .580 1 .218 1 3.5138 .050 1 7 1111 8 .1>71> 4 .2% 4 3.031> .127 4 8 1111 '3 .744 3 .321 3 3.0135 .130 3 13 1111 10 .781 3 .3113 3 3.2130 .102 3 10 1111 11 .731> 1 .301> 1 3.227 .112 1 11 1111 12 .801> 1 .345 1 3.127 .117 1 12 1111 13 .71>7 1 .2131 1 3. %5 .070 1 13 1111 14 .7138 3 .315 3 3.424 .0134 3 14 1111 15 .1>00 2 .382 2 1.1>1>0 .472 2 15 1111 1I> .747 I> .3013 I> 3.250 .0138 I> 11> 1111 17 .753 4 .311> 4 3.1131 .0137 4 17 1111 113 .71>1 5 .320 5 3. 1'32 .101 5 19 1111 21 .[,72 7 .2135 7 3.0213 .104 7 21 1111 22 .&&7 5 .283 5 3,150 .0'J'1 ':) 22 1111 23 .713 4 .351 4 2.&Ob .104 4 23 1111 25 .705 I> .2137 & 3.180 .130 & 25 1111 21> .&77 5 .274 5 3.322 .104 5 21> 1111 27 .720 3 .287 3 3.384 .113 3 27 1111 30 .805 5 .410 5 2.477 .2013 5 30 11MONTHLY MEAN .730 1313 .3013 1313 3.1bB .118 1313 BETA .034I - 37


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA. TUNISIA ALTITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO &0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 .N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 5 1.143 1 5 17 1.&% 1 78 1.17& 2 810 1.227 31011 1 .217 21112 1.208 3 1213 1.22& 31314 T.238 3 1415 1.220 3 1517 1.307 3 1718 1 .28'3 3 181'3 1.310 3 1'320 1.433 3 2021 1 .35'3 3 2122 1.42'3 3 2223 1.352 3 2324 1.371 3 2425 1.33'3 3 252& .888 1 2&28 1 .241 3 282'3 1.320 3 2'330 1 . 4'31 3 30MONTHLY MEAN 1.303 58 1.300 BETA .52'3MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 10 1. 571 3 10 22 11 1.584 3 11 22 12 1.802 3 12 22 14 1 .731 3 14 22 15 1.201 1 15 22 2& 1.781 2 2& 22 27 2.4% 1 27 2MONTHLY MEAN 1.708 Ib 1.300 BETA .b'34MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 1.748 2 1 33 2 1 .7CJ2 1 2 33 3 1.838 2 3 33 4 1.7&7 3 4 33 5 1.241 1 5 33 7 2.201 2 7 33 8 1 .8'3'3 2 8 33 11 2.011 1 11 33 12 2.03'3 3 12 33 13 2.4bl 1 13 33 14 2.157 1 14 33 1& 1.55& 1 Ib 33 17 1.511 1 17 33 18 2.284 2 18 33 1'3 1 . '3'38 3 1'3 33 20 2.052 3 20 33 21 2.021 2 21 33 23 2.373 2 23 33 24 2.122 3 24 33 28 1.8b3 2 28 33 2'3 1 . '37'3 1 29 33 30 2.1'31 3 30 33 31 2.113 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 2.000 45 1.300 BETA .812I - 38


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20050 THALA, TUNISIA AL TITUDE 10'31 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO &0738 35 33N 8 41EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 2.2% 3 1 44 2 1. '337 2 2 44 3 2.128 3 3 44 4 2.1'3'3 3 4 44 & 2.172 3 & 44 7 2.235 3 7 44 8 2.220 3 8 44 '3 2.205 3 '3 44 10 2.271 2 10 44 11 2.305 3 11 44 12 2.3b& 2 12 44 13 2.31& 3 13 44 15 2.2'33 2 15 44 1& 2.717 1 1& 44 18 2.135 1 18 44 1'3 2.441 3 1'3 44 20 2.412 2 20 44 21 2.530 3 21 44 22 2.&'37 2 22 44 23 2.2&5 2 23 44 24 2.0&'3 1 24 44 25 2.&82 1 25 44 2& 2.800 1 2& 44 27 2.252 1 27 44 28 2.384 3 28 44 2'3 2.408 2 2'3 44 30 2.150 1 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 2.312 5'3 1.300 BETA .'33'3NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA AL TI TUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO &0&80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .810 1 1 11 2 .&70 2 2 14 .&'30 1 45 .570 3 5& .533 3 &7 .&50 3 78 .533 3 8'3 .525 3 '310 .508 3 1011 .535 3 1112 .554 3 1213 .583 3 1314 .5'31 3 1415 ,%1 3 151& .542 3 1&17 ,508 3 1718 .521 3 181'3 .5% 3 1'320 . %& 3 2022 .340 3 2223 ,774 3 2324 .5'32 3 2425 ,579 3 252& ,573 3 2&27 ,&09 3 2729 .£:.02 3 2930 8&8 2 3031 ,40& 2 31MONTHLY MEAN .573 77 1.300 BETA .233MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .&34 3 1 22 2 1.207 1 2 22 4 .951 2 4 22 5 .233 1 5 22 & .&04 2 & 22 7 .478 2 7 2I - 39


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO bOb80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 8 ,957 2 8 22 9 ,414 2 '3 22 10 ,595 3 10 22 I I .b58 3 11 22 13 ,422 2 13 22 14 ,713 3 14 22 15 ,£:>% 3 15 22 1£:> .£:>48 3 1£:> 22 17 .£:>15 3 17 22 18 ,£:>02 3 18 22 19 .b02 3 1'3 22 20 .£:>03 3 20 22 21 .5'38 3 21 22 22 ,£:>9'3 3 22 22 23 1,055 I 23 22 24 ,731 3 24 22 25 ,£:>83 3 25 22 2£:> ,£:>50 3 2£:> 22 27 .£:>45 3 27 22 28 ,£:>82 3 28 2MONTHLY MEAN . £:>sr, £:>£:> 1.300 BETA .2£:>£:>MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 .724 3 1 33 2 .80£:> 3 2 33 3 .727 3 3 33 4 .3'32 1 4 33 5 .5'31 2 5 33 £:> .£:>84 3 £:> 33 7 .£:>42 3 7 33 8 .E,44 3 8 33 '3 .751 3 '3 33 10 .£:>55 3 10 33 11 1 .10& 2 11 33 12 .773 3 12 33 13 .700 3 13 33 14 .&70 3 14 33 15 .&55 3 15 33 lE, .4'34 2 lE. 33 17 .732 3 17 33 18 .7'31 3 18 33 1'3 .745 3 1'3 33 20 .781 3 20 33 21 .77E, 3 21 33 22 .7'33 3 22 33 23 .7E,7 3 23 33 24 ,773 3 24 33 25 .774 3 25 33 2& .775 3 2E, 33 27 ,871 3 27 33 28 1,123 3 28 33 2'3 ,800 3 2'3 33 30 .750 3 30 33 31 .730 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .750 88 1.300 BETA .305MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 .7'37 3 I 44 2 .942 3 2 44 3 .94& 3 3 44 4 .717 2 4 44 5 .981 3 5 44 & .972 3 £:> 44 7 .883 3 7 44 8 1.023 3 8 44 9 1.014 3 '3 44 10 1.052 3 10 44 11 1.071 3 1 I 44 12 1.212 3 12 44 13 .830 3 13 44 14 .'333 3 14 44 15 1,283 I 15 44 1& 1.020 3 1£:> 44 17 1,170 3 17 44 1'3 .'351 3 1'3 4I - 40


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1993WMO 00080 22 47N 5 31EMONTH OAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 20 .911 3 20 44 21 .40" 1 21 44 22 ."35 3 22 44 23 .""5 3 23 44 24 ."J3 3 24 44 25 .873 3 25 44 20 1 .200 3 2b 44 27 ."41 3 27 44 2" 1.025 3 29 44 30 .8£'3 2 30 4MONTHLY MEAN ."71 78 1.300 BETA .394MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 ·1 .""8 3 1 55 2 .b71 2 2 55 3 1.lbO 4 3 55 4 1 .003 3 4 55 5 1.202 3 5 55 b .981 3 b 55 7 .77'3 3 7 55 8 .78'3 3 8 55 '3 .847 3 9 55 10 .'382 3 10 55 11 .834 3 11 55 12 .8% 3 12 55 13 .'347 3 13 55 14 1.054 3 14 55 15 .943 3 15 55 lb .'3'35 3 lb 55 17 .78'3 3 17 55 18 .830 3 18 55 1'3 .812 3 1'3 55 20 .82b 3 20 55 21 .'319 3 21 55 22 .8'38 3 22 55 23 .801 3 23 55 24 1.321 2 24 55 25 .'355 3 25 55 2& .8b5 3 2b 55 27 .474 1 27 55 28 1.129 2 28 55 29 1.243 3 2'3 55 30 .b17 1 30 55 31 .8s£' 2 31 5110NTHLY MEAN .935 8b 1.300 BETA .380MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 1 1.005 3 1 bEo 2 .'347 3 2 bEo 3 .817 2 3 bEo 4 .914 2 4 b·Eo 5 .773 2 5 bEo Eo .834 2 b bEo 7 .824 1 7 &b 9 .912 2 9 b& 10 1.175 2 10 b& 11 .&37 1 11 b& 12 .8&9 2 12 b& 14 .951 3 14 b0 15 .'148 3 15 0& 1& .%1 3 1b b& 17 .'3'39 3 17 b& 18 .'34'1 3 18 b& 1'3 .73'3 2 1'3 0& 20 .855 2 20 b& 21 .843 2 21 &b 22 .955 3 22 bb 23 .831 2 23 bb 24 .%3 3 24 bb 25 1.00'3 3 25 bb 2& .'331 3 2& bb 27 1.01'3 3 27 bb 28 .'379 3 28 bI - 41


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1"l"l3WMO &0&80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 2"l .8"l0 32"l && 30 .870 330 &MONTHLY MEAN ."l23 &"l 1 . 300 BETA .375MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .852 31 77 2 ."l52 32 77 3 .851 33 77 4 .53"l 14 77 5 . "l72 35 77 & ."l8& 3& 77 7 ."l47 37 77 8 1 .187 38 77 "l 1 . 054 3"l 77 10 1 . 024 310 77 11 .734 111 77 13 1 . 032 313 77 14 1 . 031 314 77 15 .888 315 77 1& ."l35 21& 77 17 ."l30 317 77 18 .755 218 77 1"l 1 . O"l 7 21"l 77 20 ."l18 320 77 21 .554 121 77 22 .8&3 322 77 23 .804 323 77 24 .83& 324 77 25 .852 325 77 2& .8"l2 32& 77 27 ."l28 327 77 28 .78& 328 77 2"l .82& 32"l 77 30 .851 3 30 77 31 .850 331 7MONTHLY MEAN ."l10 81 1 . 300 BETA .370MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 1 .0"l3 3 1 88 2 ."l25 3 2 88 3 .803 3 3 88 4 .&70 2 4 88 5 .81"l 2 5 88 & 1 . 151 3 & 88 7 .'331 3 7 88 8 .853 3 8 88 '3 .805 3 '3 88 10 .'345 3 10 88 11 .8&8 3 11 88 12 .752 2 12 88 13 .42& 1 13 88 14 .408 1 14 88 15 .'35'3 3 15 88 1& .877 3 1& 88 17 .'305 3 17 88 18 .755 2 18 88 1'3 .7'30 2 1'3 88 20 .48'3 1 20 88 21 1 . 024 3 21 88 22 1 . 004 2 22 88 23 1 . 857 1 23 88 24 .8&'3 2 24 88 25 1 .1'38 2 25 88 27 .'3'35 3 27 88 28 .'32'3 3 28 88 2'3 .754 2 2'3 88 31 1 . 054 2 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .'30'3 &'3 1 . 300 BETA .3&"lI - 42


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA AL TI TUDE 1377 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO &Ob80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 .'377 3 1 '3'3 2 1.24'3 2 2 '3'3 3 1.252 2 3 '3'3 4 1.03& 3 4 '3'3 5 1.283 3 5 '3Cj & 1.231:> 2 I:> '3Cj 7 1.752 1 7 '3Cj 8 .572 1 8 '3Cj '3 .'3'33 2 '3 '3Cj 10 .818 2 10 '3Cj 11 .772 2 11 '3Cj 12 .'304 2 12 '3Cj 13 1.028 3 13 '3'3 15 1.888 1 15 '3'3 1 I:> 1.013 3 1& '3'3 17 .703 2 17 '3Cj 18 .'374 3 18 '3'3 .1'3 1.07'3 3 1'3 '3'3 20 .'373 2 20 '3'3 21 1.2'32 3 21 '3Cj 22 .881 3 22 '3'3 23 .838 3 23 '3'3 24 .7'37 2 24 '3'3 25 .77'3 2 25 '3'3 21:> 1 .2'32 3 21:> '3Cj 27 1.04'3 3 27 '3'3 28 1.05'3 3 28 '3'3 2'3 .785 2 2'3 '3'3 30 .'310 3 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.027 1:>'3 1.300 8ETA .417MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 .'317 3 1 1010 2 .'332 3 2 1010 3 .71:>7 2 3 1010 4 .782 2 4 1010 5 .735 2 5 1010 I:> .733 2 & 1010 7 .'343 3 7 1010 8 .721 2 8 1010 '3 .'308 3 '3 1010 10 .'342 3 10 1010 11 .875 3 11 1010 12 .850 3 12 1010 13 .815 3 13 1010 14 .752 3 14 1010 15 .73'3 3 15 1010 1& .70b 3 1& 1010 17 .&82 3 17 1010 18 .701 3 18 1010 1'3 .1:>17 2 1'3 1010 20 .712 3 20 1010 21 .530 2 21 1010 22 .&'30 3 22 1010 23 .1:>45 3 23 1010 25 .711 2 25 1010 2& .317 1 2& 1010 28 .1:>74 3 28 1010 2'3 .&5'3 3 2'3 1010 30 .5'31 3 30 1010 31 .&87 3 31 10MONTHLY MEAN . 750 77 1.300 BETA .305MONTH OAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 1 .201:> 1 1 1111 2 .541:> 2 2 1111 3 .1:>'32 3 3 1111 4 .225 1 4 1111 5 .1:>15 3 5 1111 I:> 1.071 2I:> 1111 7 .b1:>7 3 7 1111 8 .821 3 8 1111 '3 .744 3 '3 11I - 43


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20080 TAMANRASSET. ALGERIA ALTITUDE 1377 M YEAR 1"l"l3WMO &0&80 22 47N 5 31EMONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1111 10 .5"l7 311 1111 11 .77& 313 1111 13 .535 214 1111 14 .8&3 315 1111 15 .&84 31& 1111 1& .54& 317 1111 17 .424 218 1111 18 .708 220 1111 20 .&2"l 321 1111 21 .7&3 322 1111 22 .&"l0 323 1111 23 . 18"l 124 1111 24 .238 128 1111 28 .7% 32"l 1111 2"l .532 330 1111 30 .580 3MONTHLY MEAN .&52 &2 1 . 300 BETA .2&5MONTH DAY 500 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1212 1 .5% 32 1212 2 .&"l4 33 1212 3 .&18 34 1212 4 .4"l0 35 1212 5 .%0 3I> 1212 & . 484 37 1212 7 .522 38 1212 8 .50"l 3'3 1212 "l .573 310 1212 10 .&77 311 1212 11 .&33 312 1212 12 .512 312 13 .&08 413 1214 1212 14 .%1 315 1212 15 .&"l1 31& 1212 1& .%& 317 1212 17 .&55 312 18 .522 318 121'3 1212 1"l .4"l3 320 1212 20 .5"l8 312 21 .537 321 1222 1212 22 .545 324 1212 24 .474 212 25 .517 325 1212 2& .4"l"l 32& 1212 27 .350 227 1212 2"l .&02 32'3 1212 30 .50& 330 1212 31 .454 231 12MONTHLY MEAN .5% 85 1 . 300 BETA .22&NCDC 20700 TRAPANI (BIRGI. ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1"l'33WMO 1&42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 5 .21& 2 .271 2 .821> 5 11 & .24'3 3 .31& 3 .81>4 & 18 .2'37 4 .401 4 1.088 8"l .321 3 .431 3 1 .077 "l10 .354 1 .481 1 1 . 114 1011 .444 1 .580 1 .'377 1112 .287 4 .3% 4 1 . 181 1213 .343 1 .413 1 .1>84 1315 .2"l2 1 .3"l4 1 1 . 0'33 151& .354 1 .4&1 1 .'357 1&17 .45"l 3 .1>07 3 1.01& 1720 .37"l 4 .487 4 .'320 2021 .301 4 .401 4 1 . 043 2122 .334 1 .448 1 1 . 0&'3 2227 .284 2 .355 2 .815 27I - 44


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI. ITALY A'L TI TUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO lb42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2'3 .2b4 5 .33b 5 .872 2'331 .381 .4b4 .721 31MONTHLY MEAN .31b 41 .414 41 .'382 BETA .lbOMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .322 3 .427 3 1.024 1 22 2 .2b5 4 .353 4 1.055 2 22 3 .310 4 .420 4 1.110 3 22 7 .b2'3 3 .7% 3 .%'3 7 22 '12 .482 3 .57'3 3 .bb3 12 22 15 .312 2 .413 2 1.023 15 22 1b .413 3 .52b 3 .87'3 lb 22 21 .238 .27b .535 21 2MONTHLY MEAN .378 23 .478 23 .854 BETA .20'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 7 .345 4 .440 4 .87'3 7 33 13 .47b 3 .b57 3 1.177 13 33 14 .345 5 .4'30 5 1.277 14 33 15 .45'3 4 .b'35 4 1.510 15 33 lb .31'3 3 .453 3 1.274 lb 33 1'3 .184 b .27b e, 1.473 1'3 33 20 .187 3 .287 3 1.557 20 33 21 .252 3 . %5 3 1.342 21 33 22 .373 1 .4'35 1 1.03e, 22 33 23 .4'35 2 .e,55 2 1.01 '3 23 33 24 .334 1 .431 1 .'332 24 33 2'3 .314 2 .448 2 1.287 2'3 33 30 .303 4 .433 4 1.2'33 30 33 31 .2% 4 .378 4 1.41 e, 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .318 45 .451 45 1.273 BETA .132MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 .223 5 .343 5 1.%1 1 44 5 .221 4 .2'38 4 1.100 5 44 b .20b 3 .2B3 3 1.14b b 44 7 .1% 2 .2'35 2 1.487 7 4'4 8 .208 2 .301 2 1.34e, 8 44 10 .571 .523 -.325 10 44 13 .1'33 3 .284 3 1 .3'33 13 44 15 .15& b .228 b 1.38b 15 44 1b .172 2 .274 2 1 . b'30 lb 44 17 .214 3 .337 3 1 . e,5'3 17 44 1'3 .420 5 .e,14 5 1.381 1'3 44 20 .28'3 b .438 e, 1. 517 20 44 21 .324 b .488 b 1.48'3 21 44 22 .31b 4 .441 4 1.21e, 22 44 23 .402 3 .%8' 3 1.257 23 44 24 . %'3 3 .530 3 1.322 24 44 2'3 .22b 3 .347 3 1.%1 2'3 44 30 .302 3 .42b 3 1.253 30 4MONTHLY MEAN .273 b4 .3'35 b4 1.348 BETA .107I - 45


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI IBIRGI. ITALY AL TI TUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 .4&& 1 .&28 1 1.083 1 55 3 .245 3 .3&2 3 1.422 3 55 4 .240 4 .3&4 4 1.524 4 55 5 .235 3 .3&0 3 1.554 5 5MONTHLY MEAN .2&1 11 .38& 11 1.437 BETA .0%MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 11 .425 3 .537 3 .853 11 && 12 .347 2 .488 2 1.242 12 && 13 . 13'3 5 .225 5 1.75& 13 && 14 .20& 5 .30& 5 1.43& 14 && 15 .304 5 .430 5 1.2&& 15 && 1& .301 3 .4% 3 1.823 1& && 17 .184 5 .310 5 1.8% 17 && 18 .208 2 .330 2 1. &7'3 18 && 20 .320 7 .4&5 7 1.35'3 20 && 21 .254 4 .387 4 1 .52'3 21 && 22 .3'32 3 .501 3 .8'31 22 && 23 .570 3 .&8'3 3 .&'34 23 && 24 .30& 5 .387 5 .857 24 && 25 .175 & .305 & 2.034 25 && 2& .32'3 5 .443 5 1.082 2& && 27 . 1'3 '3 & .32& & 1.80& 27 && 28 .304 4 .472 4 1.&00 28 && 30 .383 3 .534 3 1.214 30 &MONTHLY MEAN .281 7& .40& 7& 1.341 BETA .111MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .415 3 .507 3 .724 1 77 2 .41'3 3 .540 3 .'327 2 77 7 .2'32 4 .411 4 1.24& 7 77 8 .201 4 .335 4 1.85& 8 77 '3 .15'3 4 .28& 4 2.137 '3 77 10 .500 & .&14 & .74'3 10 77 12 .122 5 .1'37 5 1.75& 12 77 13 .154 3 .25'3 3 1 .8'38 13 77 14 .1&& 8 .282 8 1 . '341 14 77 15 .153 7 .270 7 2.082 15 77 1& .1&'3 3 .30& 3 2.1&1 1& 77 17 .1&& & .303 & 2.204 17 77 18 .185 5 .34& 5 2.284 18 77 1'3 .170 4 .318 4 2.288 1'3 77 20 .300 & .435 & 1.354 20 77 21 .375 4 .5&0 4 1.4&5 21 77 22 .251 & .3'30 & 1. &04 22 77 23 .177 4 .313 4 2.078 23 77 24 .158 3 .2'32 3 2.242 24 77 25 .204 7 .323 7 1. &8& 25 77 2& .284 3 .443 3 1. &2'3 2& 77 27 .2'3'3 & .484 & 1.747 27 77 28 .12'3 2 .24& 2 2.347 28 77 2'3 .135 2 .2&3 2 2.431 2'3 77 30 .1'38 & .351 & 2.077 30 77 31 .12'3 4 .22'3. 4 2.0% 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .22'3 118 .3&0 118 1. &53 BETA .073MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .3&2 5 .517 5 1 .2'38 1 88 2 .251 3 .424 3 1 . '31 3 2 88 3 .280 3 .4&0 3 1.803 3 88 4 .20& 7 .354 7 1.%'3 4 88 5 .314 4 .474 4 1.502 5 88 & .324 7 .4&8 7 1.343 & 88 7 .3'30 7 .573 7 1.40& 7 88 '3 .30& 2 .4'3'3 2 1.780 '3 88 10 .283 7 .430 7 1.530 10 8I - 4&


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI, ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1993WMO 1&429 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 11 .20& 7 .314 7 1.54& 11 88 12 .179 7 .300 7 1.885 12 88 14 .403 & .&43 & 1.707 14 88 15 .429 & .703 & 1.794 15 88 1& .335 & .527 & 1. &43 1& 88 17 .342 & .537 & 1. &41 17 88 18 .3&0 7 .&09 7 1 .914 18 88 19 .311 7 .553 7 2.098 19 88 20 .28& 5 .483 5 1 .911 20 88 21 .27& 3 .474 3 1.%& 21 88 22 .394 & .&45 & 1.793 22 88 23 .350 & .588 & 1.891 23 88 24 .292 7 .481 7 1.818 24 88 25 .291 2 .420 2 1.3% 25 88 28 .411 3 .554 3 1.090 28 88 29 .382 3 .577 3 1.500 29 88 30 .239 4 .409 4 1.%7 30 88 31 .195 5 .3&5 5 2.287 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .311 141 .497 141 1.714 BETA .095MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH9 1 .197 7 .332 7 1.911 1 99 2 .205 4 .3&2 4 2.071 2 99 3 .277 7 .449 7 1.7&2 3 99 4 .%8 4 .572 4 1. &0& 4 99 8 .4&9 5 .&07 5 .935 8 99 9 .34& & .454 & .994 9 99 12 .18& & .327 & 2.055 12 99 13 .149 & .27& & 2.253 13 9q 14 .2&9 2 .400 2 1.443 14 9q 15 .115 & .225 & 2.44& 15 9q 1& .141 & .254 & 2.147 1& 9q 17 .191 & .300 & 1. &43 17 9q 18 .254 & .345 & 1.113 18 9q 19 .309 3 .421 3 1.124 19 qq 20 .312 3 .458 3 1.392 20 9q 21 .2% 2 .455 2 1.5&7 21 99 23 .381 5 .55& 5 1.382 23 9q 24 .522 3 .710 3 1.122 24 9q 25 .211 4 .333 4 1. &&7 25 qq 2& . 1q8 3 .34q 3 2.077 2& qq 27 .241 1 .357 1 1.438 27 qq 30 .1&& 7 .315 7 2.331 30 qMONTHLY MEAN .250 102 .388 102 1.590 BETA .083MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 1 .31& 1 .452 1 1 .30q 1 1010 4 .208 5 .285 5 1.158 4 1010 5 .130 & .223 & 1.%& 5 1010 & .193 5 .28& 5 1.440 & 1010 7 .228 5 .323 5 1.271 7 1010 9 .207 3 .295 3 1.280 9 1010 10 .115 3 .208 3 2.143 10 1010 11 .3S!3 2 ,S07 ·2 1 .2S7 11 1010 12 .279 2 .414 2 1.439 12 1010 13 .398 2 .4&8 2 .589 13 1010 1& .482 3 .&02 3 .80& 1& 1010 18 .504 4 .&50 4 .930 18 1010 19 .321 5 .495 5 1.583 19 1010 20 .3&0 3 .52& 3 1.375 20 1010 23 .1&9 .353 2.&80 23 1010 2& .214 .313 1.38& 2& 1010 28 .33& .4&8 1.204 28 10I - 47


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 20700 TRAPANI/BIRGI, ITALY ALTITUDE 7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO lb42'3 37 55N 12 30EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHADAY MONTH10 2'3 .37b 2 .543 2 1.3382'3 10MONTHLY MEAN .27b 54 .3'33 54 1.2'31MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA11 1 .28'3 2 .42'3 2 1.437BETA .113DAY MONTH1 1111 3 .28'3 .4b4 1.731 3 1111 8 .134 2 .212 2 1. b7211 '3 .115 5 .1'37 5 1 . '35511 10 · 11'3 5 .217 5 2.17711 11 .187 2 .300 2 1.71111 14 .120 5 .208 5 2.00b8 11'3 1110 111 1 1114 1111 lb .147 2 .22b 2 1.575 lb 1111 17 .183 2 .327 2 2.11517 1111 20 .153 .282 2.234 20 1111 21 · 17 '3 .2'35 1.82721 1111 2b · 15'3 .258 1.750 2b 1111 28 .240 3 .333 3 1.1'3028 1111 2'3 .2% 2 .38b 2 1 . 4'3'3 2'3 11MONTHLY MEAN .1 b7 34 .270 34 1.754MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 5 .171 3 .305 3 2.111 5 1212 b .18b 2 .305 2 1.805 b 1212 '3 .284 3 .3b5 3 .'31b '3 1212 10 .112 4 .184 4 1 . 7'3'3 10 1212 11 .170 4 .2'37 4 2.03b 11 1212 12 .148 2 .215 2 1.358 12 1212 13 .130 1 .202 1 1.585 13 1212 17 .148 3 .227 3 1.55'3 17 1212 18 .1 b5 1 .234 1 1 .2b'3 18 1212 20 .1% 2 .282 2 2.148 20 1212 22 .14'3 4 .224 4 1.483 22 1212 27 .1'32 2 .2b2 2 1.124 27 1212 2'3 .14'3 2 .22b 2 1.512 2'3 12MONTHLY MEAN .1 bb 33 .258 33 1. b02 BETA .055NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALT I TUDE b7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO lbO'30 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 .333 5 .402 5 .b'33 1 1BETA4 .370 b .5'33 . b 1.720 4b .187 b .22b b .b8b b8 .281 3 .381 3 1.102 8'3 .2'37 5 .38b 5 .'355 '315 .332 2 .78b 2 3.138 151'3 .%2 4 .77b 4 1.178 1'327 .2b4 7 .3B2 7 1.348 2728 .508 3 .741 3 1.37b 282'3 .b72 3 .'381 3 1.377 2'331 .537 b .70b b 1.003 31.04'3I - 48


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE &7 M YEAR 1993WMO 1&090 45 23N 10 52EMONTHLY MEAN .377 50 .535 50 1.275 BETA .1%MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 .210 & .315 & 1.471 1 22 3 .180 8 .224 8 .797 3 22 4 .238 5 .313 5 .998 4 22 5 .4% 7 .&44 7 1.258 5 22 & .3&2 3 .538 3 1.439 & 22 8 .518 3 .&&8 3 .92& 8 22 11 .547 2 .&&2 2- .&89 11 22 12 .432 5 .&11 5 1.2&9 12 22 13 .410 & .%2 & 1.145 13 22 14 .&% 5 .82'3 5 .850 14 22 15 .488 & .703 & 1.328 15 22 18 .452 5 .72'3 5 1.740 18 22 1'3 .&77 1 .851 1 .834 19 22 20 .178 7 .231 7 .'350 20 22 21 .2'3'3 4 .440 4 1.408 21 22 22 .227 8 .2'33 8 .'323 22 22 23 .24& 5 .318 5 .'333 23 22 24 .3&1 7 .502 7 1 . 1'38 24 22 25 .3&2 & .523 & 1.343 25 22 2& .&81 & 1.007 & 1.425 2& 2MONTHLY MEAN .370 105 .514 105 1.1'37 BETA .1&1MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 5 .534 '3 .70& '3 1.021 5 33 & .51& 8 .72& 8 1.243 & 33 7 .725 & .'315 & .848 7 33 8 .347 & .51'3 & 1.4&2 8 33 '3 .475 8 .&7& 8 1.288 '3 33 10 .4'31 8 .77& 8 1. &&& 10 33 11 .84& 5 1.1&5 5 1.1&& 11 33 17 .7'37 3 1.13& 3 1.288 17 33 18 .8'35 8 1.101 8 .754 18 33 20 .5% 8 .7&2 8 .8% 20 33 2& .33'3 & .455 & 1.070 2& 33 27 .258 8 .352 8 1.13& 27 33 28 .237 '3 .375 '3 1. &&7 28 33 2'3 .325 7 .485 7 1.4% 2'3 33 30 .355 '3 .552 '3 1. &0& 30 33 31 .434 5 .78'3 5 2.175 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .4'31 113 .&88 113 1.227 BETA .210MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 .b% 7 1.005 7 1.553 1 44 5 .b'37 5 .'344 5 1.104 5 44 & .417 8 .5'34 8 1.283 & 44 7 . 70& 5 .'371 5 1.1&4 7 44 8 .873 5 1.158 5 1.028 8 44 1& .510 7 .743 7 1.371 1& 44 17 .&72 7 1.020 7 1.522 17 44 1e .5'37 8 .835 8 1.223 18 44 20 1.128 4 1.427 4 .85B 20 44 21 .'33& 3 1.315 3 1.237 21 44 22 .558 8 .7'38 8 1.300 22 44 23 .&bO 7 .'383 7 1.452 23 44 24 .853 1 1.0% 1 .77& 24 44 2b .&23 3 . '32& 3 1.442 2b 44 27 .&24 '3 .825 '3 1 .01 b 27 44 2'3 .748 1.125 1.487 2'3 4I - 4'3


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALTITUDE &7 M YEAR 1"lq3WMO l&OqO 45 23N 10 52EMONTHLY MEAN .&58 88 ."l2& 88 1 . 247 8ETA .277MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 .&55 2 ."l"l5 2 1 . 524 1 55 2 .382 1 .412 1 .275 2 55 3 .585 4 ."l50 4 1 . 7&5 3 55 4 .520 7 .7Ql 7 1 .52"l 4 55 5 .&% 4 .Q41 4 1.315 5 5MONTHLY MEAN .572 18 .8&1 18 1.4"l1 BETA .203MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 10 .&00 3 .81& 3 1.11 & 10 && 11 .271 5 .412 5 1.522 11 && 12 .18& 14 .284 14 1.53"l 12 && 14 .287 5 .508 5 2.074 14 && 15 .501 3 .B02 3 1.715 15 && 1& .347 2 .37"l 2 .330 1& && 17 .571 1 .830 1 1 . 3E.5 17 E.& 18 .18E. 15 .323 15 2.00"l 18 E.& 1"l .30"l 10 . 4% 10 1 . 420 1"l E.& 20 .414 8 .&E.5 8 1.731 20 E.E. 21 .537 E. .844 E. 1. E.45 21 E.E. 23 .%8 E. .782 E. 1.1E.4 23 &E. 24 .374 8 .E.17 8 1.828 24 E.MONTHLY MEAN .335 8E. .517 8E. 1.583 BETA .112MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 3 .2B"l E. .E.18 E. 2.770 3 77 4 .E.07 5 .85"l 5 1 . 2E.7 4 77 7 .2"l2 E. .482 b 1.822 7 77 8 .325 "l .557 "l 1 . "lE. 1 8 77 11 . 12E. 5 .217 5 1 . "l73 11 77 12 . 150 8 .248 8 1 . 83"l 12 77 13 .lQ7 14 .328 14 1.855 13 77 14 .323 3 .554 3 1. "l74 14 77 15 .3% 5 .58"l 5 1 . 838 15 77 21 .334 2 .530 2 1 . E.88 21 77 22 .218 7 .377 7 1 . Q"l 1 22 77 23 .204 12 .3E.0 12 2.081 23 77 24 .331 12 . %3 12 1 . "l32 24 77 25 .337 5 .%0 5 1 . 848 25 77 2E. .4Q4 3 .7% 3 1.740 2E. 77 27 .271 4 .437 4 1.750 27 77 28 .44Q "l .701 "l 1 . E.l "l 28 77 2"l .472 3 .753 3 1 . 70& 2'3 77 30 .430 4 .&83 4 1 . &83 30 77 31 .45'3 10 .718 10 1 . &27 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .314 132 .518 132 1 . 82E. BETA .08'3MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .3E.7 8 .E.15 8 1.882 1 88 2 .274 12 .448 12 1.787 2 88 3 .42"l 11 .&'30 11 1 . 737 3 88 4 .532 '3 .830 '3 1 . E.24 4 88 5 .4'35 11 .772 11 1. E.18 5 88 E. .584 '3 .874 '3 1.470 E. 88 7 .'314 7 1.23E. 7 1.100 7 88 8 .340 '3 .514 '3 1.503 8 88 Q .224 11 .371 11 1.847 '3 88 10 .3E.2 5 .5% 5 1.557 10 88 11 .317 12 .50b 12 1.702 11 88 12 .350 7 .558 7 1. b'3'3 12 88 13 .458 '3 .734 '3 1.723 13 88 14 .350 10 .581 10 1.842 14 88 15 .330 '3 .%4 '3 1. '353 15 88 1b .432 12 .b7E. 12 1. £>30 lb 8I - 50


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22175 VERONA. ITALY ALTITUDE &7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&0'30 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 17 .2'31 11 .504 11 2.007 17 88 18 .453 '3 .74'3 '3 1.837 18 88 1'3 .517 5 .751 5 1.3&2 1'3 88 20 .572 11 .835 11 1.37'3 20 88 21 .552 10 .830 10 1.483 21 88 22 .402 & .&45 & 1.721 22 88 23 .478 '3 .715 '3 1.471 23 88 24 .547 4 .77'3 4 1.2'30 24 88 25 .388 2 .587 i 1.514 25 88 2& .427 1 .704 1 1.824 2& 88 28 .145 8 .2&1 8 2.153 28 88 2'3 .340 7 .553 7 1.773 2'3 88 31 .&0& 3 .8'31 3 1.40& 31 8MONTHLY MEAN .41'3 237 .&54 237 1.&1'3 BETA .13&MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 1 .245 5 .425 5 2.012 1 '3'3 2 .40'3 8 .&3& 8 1 . &11 2 '3'3 3 .710 1 .'323 1 .'354 3 '3'3 4 .23'3 1 .3fJ& 1 1.554 4 '3'3 5 .11& 11 .210 11 2.152 5 '3'3 & .3fJ'3 1 .&0& 1 1.802 & '3'3 7 .421 1 .&&0 1 1 . &41 7 '3'3 10 .274 8 .437 8 1 . &'37 10 '3'3 12 .433 '3 .&38 '3 1.412 12 '3'3 13 .447 1 .730 1 1.78& 13 '3'3 14 .2'33 3 .37'3 3 . '33fJ 14 '3'3 15 .172 & .285 & 1.837 15 '3'3 1& .332 7 .54& 7 1.80'3 1& '3'3 22 .5'3'3 4 .851 4 1.281 22 '3'3 23 .54'3 3 .823 3 1.47& 23 '3'3 27 .27& & .415 & 1.4'32 27 '3'3 28 .437 3 .&72 3 1.%'3 28 '3'3 2'3 .217 5 .354 5 1.7'33 2'3 '3'3 30 .322 3 .510 3 1. &78 30 '3MONTHLY MEAN .318 8& .4'33 8& 1.5'38 BETA .105MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 3 .1&7 4 .283 4 1. '334 3 1010 4 .104 2 .208 2 2.540 4 1010 5 .404 1 .545 1 1.0'34 5 1010 b .33'3 1 .513 1 1.512 & 1010 '3 .211 7 .351 7 1.852 '3 1010 13 .344 4 .548 4 1 . &'38 13 1010 14 .11& b .233 & 2.542 14 1010 1& .315 4 .4&4 4 1.412 1& 1010 22 .174 2 .332 2 2.354 22 1010 25 .205 7 .3&2 7 2.073 25 1010 2& .233 2 .415 2 2.102 2& 1010 27 .440 5 .&02 5 1.142 27 1010 28 .401 8 .%4 ·8 1,240 28 1010 2'3 .312 7 .4'30 7 1 . &42 2'3 1010 30 .20& 7 .3&1 7 2.037 30 10MONTHLY MEAN .2&4 &7 .418 &7 1 . &70 BETA .083MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 3 .5% 1 .821 1 1.1&8 3 1111 4 .400 1 .501 1 .817 4 1111 8 .1&& 7 .247 7 1.452 8 1111 '3 .572 3 .&&8 3 .%7 '3 11I - 51


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCOC 22175 VERONA, ITALY ALT ITUDE (,,7 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1("OqO 45 23N 10 52EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 10 .52q 2 .7£:'2 2 1.328 10 1111 13 .270 3 .375 3 1.193 13 1111 14 .%0 1 .&95 1 .78& 14 1111 15 .3q3 3 .490 3 .80& 15 1111 1& .138 & .218 £:, 1. &&2 I£:, 11I I 17 .289 3 .444 3 1 . %3 17 1111 18 .32& 5 .473 5 1.350 18 1111 Iq .322 3 .450 3 1.223 1'3 1111 20 .547 2 .759 2 1.193 20 1111 21 .480 2 .(,,£:,3 2 1 .17& 21 1111 22 .%7 & .7£:'9 £:, 1 .107 22 1111 24 .532 1 .71(" 1 1.082 24 1111 25 .438 4 .554 4 .8(,,1 25 111I 27 .3% 1 .50& 1 1. 281 27 11I 1 28 .(,,33 I .8£:'4 1 1 . 13& 28 1111 2q .443 4 . £:,17 4 1.202 2'3 1111 30 .2Q7 5 .430 5 1.344 30 11HONTHLY HEAN .371 &4 .50Q (,,4 1 .152 BETA .1&7HONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 2 .233 3 .314 3 1 .08& 2 1212 3 .1 Q5 4 .2Q3 4 1.478 3 1212 4 .281 7 .424 7 1.504 4 1212 5 .223 2 .354 2 1 . (,,'33 5 1212 (" .100 4 .151 4 1 . 488(" 1212 11 .437 2 . 5&3 2 .Q21 11 1212 12 .0&0 7 .0'37 7 1.785 12 1212 17 .IQ5 4 .307 4 1.&52 17 1212 18 .280 7 .44'3 7 I .722 18 1212 19 .213 2 .323 2 1 .513 1'3 1212 22 .0&& & .098 £:, 1.4&1 22 1212 23 .155 5 .255 5 1.814 23 1212 25 .0&0 3 .078 3 .%2 25 1212 27 .125 8 .18& 8 1.442 27 1212 28 .140 9 .207 '3 1.424 28 1212 29 .185 7 .2'3'3 7 1 .751 2'3 1212 30 .299 2 .519 2 2.011 30 12HOfHHLY /'lEAN .174 82 .2&& 82 1.548 BETA .05'3~WC 22310 VITERBO, ITALY ALTITUDE 300 M YEAR 1'3'33U/'IO 1&21& 42 2E.N 12 4E/'IO~fH OAr 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 I} .199 2 .221 2 .383 5 I1 (, .1&0 1 .131 1 - .71 I & I1 "7 .112 1 .095 1 -.&03 7 120 .518 .&28 .701 2021 .211 .285 . 10C) 2121 .200 2 .217 2 .30E. 27MON1HLY MtAN .233 e .252 8 .28& BETA . 1'31MON1H DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 3 .155 1 .12& 1 -.73b 3 22 4 .2bb 2 .272 2 .088 4 22 1 .2«38 3 .292 3 -.080 7 22 8 .424 2 .539 2 .877 8 22 12 .458 2 .550 2 .&70 12 22 13 .478 2 .&0& 2 .8&& 13 22 14 .257 & .298 & .54& 14 22 15 .231 2 .225 2 -.0'34 15 22 17 .302 2 .330 2 .317 17 2I - 52


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMSINCDC 22370 VITERBO. ITALY ALT ITUDE 300 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1&21& 42 2&N 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 18 .205 2 .213 2 .13'3 18 22 1'3 .252 2 .282 2 .41'3 1'3 22 22 .1'3'3 1 .17'3 1 -.374 22 22 23 .228 2 .214 2 -.227 23 22 24 .32'3 3 .350 3 .224 .,242 25 . %2 2 .487 2 1 . 078 25 "" 2MONTHLY MEAN .300 34 .337 34 .42'3 BETA .223MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 5 .580 3 .&'35 3 .&5'3 5 33 & .253 3 .344 3 1.11'3 & 33 7 .217 1 .2'37 1 1.152 7 33 .10 .3'30 3 .%'3 3 1.380 10 33 11 .285 2 .400 2 1.240 11 33 12 .375 2 .50& 2 1.0'35 12 33 15 .2&& 7 .38& 7 1.357 15 33 1& .3'31 1 .5.0& 1 .'345 1& 33 1'3 .28& 2 .3'32 2 1.155 1'3 33 23 .305 .422 1.185 23 33 28 .217 1 .33'3 1 1. &20 28 33 2'3 .304 7 .470 7 1.581 2'3 33 30 .248 4 .354 4 1.2'3'3 30 33 31 .232 2 .353 2 1.527 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .311 3'3 .438 3'3 1.24'3 BETA .131MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 4 .212 2 .303 2 1.305 4 44 5 .21& 1 .2&8 1 .7'30 5 44 & .153 1 .215 1 1.24& & 44 8 .355 2 .512 2 1.337 8 44 18 .3&'3 1 .550 1 1.45'3 18 44 1'3 .285 2 .431 2 1.512 1'3 44 20 .445 5 .&05 5 1.118 20 44 23 .381 4 .51& 4 1.100 23 44 24 .248 3 .341 3 1.1&7 24 4MONTHLY MEAN .330 21 .45'3 21 1.200 8ETA .144MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 13 .&28 2 .71& 2 .478 13 55 18 . %7 .737 .'353 18 5MONTHLY MEAN .&08 3 .723 3 .&33 BETA .3'32MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH& 1 .280 5 ,443 ·5 1.&70 1 Eol=, 2 .221 & .32'3 El 1.457 2 EoEl 3 .241 2 .344 2 1.300 3 Eo& & .34'3 1 .531 1 1.530 Eo Eo& 7 .42'3 & .&04 & 1.24Eo 7 Eo& 8 .3&& 5 .507· 5 1.187 8 Eo& 10 .414 1 .533 1 .'322 10 &I:> 11 .283 2 .3'34 2 1.211 11 &I:> 12 .17'3 3 .25'3 3 1.31:>1 12 I:>I:> 13 .1'33 1 .253 1 .'3'33 13 &I:> 11:> .251 3 .381:> 3 1.573 If> EoI:> 17 .238 2 .373 2 1. Eo35 17 EoI - 53


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22370 VITERBO. ITALY ALT ITUDE 300 M YEAR 1993WMO lb21b 42 2bN 12 4EMONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA OAY MONTHb 18 .302 4 .474 4 1. b48 18 bb 19 .534 1 .b85 1 .911 19 bb 21 .349 3 .530 3 1.525 21 bb 24 .3b2 .591 1.78b 24 bb 2b .255 .393 1.583 2b bb 27 .357 .58b 1.805 27 bMONTHLY MEAN .305 48 .449 48 1.407 BETA .115MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 1 .408 1 .b08 1 1.451 1 77 7 .258 4 .375 4 1.357 7 77 8 .199 7 .304 7 1.547 8 77 9 .177 2 .274 2 1.588 9 77 12 .210 1 .28b 1 1 .125 12 77 13 .200 3 .314 3 1 . b39 13 77 lb .247 3 .40b 3 1.809 lb 77 17 .224 5 .385 5 1.974 17 77 20 .290 .4b8 1.748 20 77 21 .184 .2B7 1. b27 21 77 24 .1 bB 1 .2b1 1 1.593 24 77 25 .171 3 .2b9 3 1.659 25 77 27 .339 1 .481 1 1.280 27 77 28 .232 1 . %5 1 1. b51 28 77 29 .172 9 .279 9 1.7£:'1 29 77 30 .175 2 .27'3 2 1. £:''33 30 77 3.1 .233 1 .38'3 1 1.8b5 31 7MONTHLY MEAN .211 4£:, .332 4£:, 1. £:,50 BETA .Ob7MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 1 .209 2 .377 2 2.149 1 88 2 .255 2 .409 2 1.713 2 88 4 .337 2 .513 2 1.525 4 88 5 .398 4 . %2 4 1.257 5 88 £:, .338 5 .4£:'£:' 5 1.172 £:, 88 7 .374 1 .507 1 1.107 7 88 8 . %8 1 .538 1 1.38£:' 8 88 12 .371 1 .584 1 1. £:,50 12 88 13 .39E> 2 .£:'22 2 1 . £:,44 13 88 14 .420 2 .&90 2 1.805 14 88 17 .4£:'E> 4 .745 4 1.715 17 88 20 .522 2 .802 2 1.%7 20 88 21 .455 5 .£:'91 5 1.522 21 ee 22 .342 3 .551 3 1.738 22 8e 23 .524 3 .729 3 1.202 23 ee 24 .558 2 .737 2 1.01 £:, 24 88 30 .1 b 7 3 .2&8 3 1.730 30 8MONTHLY MEAN .387 44 .582 44 1.484 BETA .138MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH9 & .189 2 .304 :2 1.732 & 99 20 .2&5 1 .351 1 1.019 20 99 21 .305 2 .427 2 1.229 21 '3'3 2& .227 .344 1.517 2& '3I - 54


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22370 VITERBO, ITALY ALTITUDE 300 M YEAR 1993WMO 1&21& 42 2&N 12 4EMONTHLY MEAN .24& & .359 & 1.373 BETA .095MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 27 . 195 & .27& (; 1.251 27 1010 28 .312 2 .478 2 1. %2 28 10MONTHLY MEAN .225 8 .32& 8 1.3&2 BETA .087MONTH DAY 500 N 380 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 3 .104 2 .147 2 1.272 3 1212 4 .097 7 .153 7 1. &79 4 1212 5 .084 2 .127 2 1.531 5 1212 12 .07& .102 1.0&9 12 1212 17 .122 2 .1&2 2 1.035 17 1212 22 .079 4 .110 4 1.224 22 12MONTHLY MEAN .094 18 .138 18 1.418 BETA .035NCOC 22700 HAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1993WMO E>2751 14 24N 33 29EMONTH DAY 3E>8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH1 1 .383 3 .983 3 -3.079 1.495 3 .340 3 1 11 2 .329 2 .875 2 -3.189 1.374 2 .274 2 2 11 3 .4E>1 4 1.029 4 -2.E>17 1. &94 4 .297 4 3 11 4 .52(; 3 1.033 3 -2.200 1.522 3 .31& 3 4 11 5 .497 2 1.215 2 -2.919 1.734 2 .424 2 5 11 E> .47& 3 1.138 3 -2.843 1. E>52 3 .408 3 & 11 7 .478 3 1.185 3 -2.%5 1. &73 3 .349 3 7 11 8 .589 3 1.288 3 -2.551 1.7&1> 3 .529 3 8 11 9 .4E>1 3 1.222 3 -3.183 1.702 3 .555 3 9 11 10 .552 3 1.187 3 -2.4% 2.01>1 3 .445 3 10 11 11 .590 3 1.292 3 -2.555 1.%9 3 .519 3 11 11 12 .542 3 1.149 3 -2.451 1.1>50 3 .E>4E> 3 12 11 13 .&24 3 1. &1 9 3 -3.110 1.839 3 .4% 3 13 11 14 .591 3 1.172 3 -2.234 1.%1 3 .424 3 14 11 15 .419 3 1.029 3 -2.933 1.789 3 .3&1 3 15 11 1& .505 3 1.100 3 -2.542 1.725 3 .427 3 1& 11 17 .481 3 1.154 3 -2.8% 1.559 3 .441 3 17 11 18 .&09 3 1.0&0 3 -1.807 1. &34 3 .4&'3 3 18 11 19 .427 3 1.182 3 -3.322 1. &98 3 .580 3 1'3 11 20 .508 3 1.0&& 3 -2.415 1.748 3 .513 3 20 11 21 .344 3 .%3 3 -3.3% 1.5% 3 .300 3 21 11 22 .3% 3 1.033 3 -3.124 1. &44 3 .44& 3 22 11 23 .475 3 1.121 3 -2.7'3'3 1. &'39 3 .1>52 3 23 11 24 .5&1 3 1.158 3 -2.3&5 1.728 3 .513 3 24 11 25 .598 3 1.158 3 -2.155 1.72& 3 .475 3 25 11 2& .801 3 1 .237 3 -1.41 '3 1.77'3 3 .551 3 2& 11 27 .542 3 1.083 3 -2.258 1. &&4 3 .444 3 27 11 28 .808 3 1.28& 3 -1.51 & 1.782 3 .557 3 28 11 2' .&52 2 1.178 2 -1 .931 1.541 2 .415 2 29 11 30 .7'1 3 1.1&' 3 -1.275 1 .70& 3 .57& 3 30 11 31 .583 3 1.303 3 -2.&22 1.847 3 .&71 3 31 1MONTHLY MEAN .53& 91 1.151 91 -2.493 1.700 91 .4&5 91 BETA &.483MONTH DAY 3&8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH2 1 .653 3 1.407 '3 -1 .£>31 1.728 3 .450 3 1 2:2 2 1.021 3 1.53& 3 -1.333 1 .7&5 3 .434 3 2 22 3 .4&8 1 1.0% 1 -2.175 1. E>20 1 .%5 1 3 22 4 .233 1 .948 1 -4.580 1.515 1 .5% 1 4 22 5 .71& 3 1.434 3 -2.2&3 1.848 3 .458 3 5 22 & .&04 3 1.280 3 -2.451 1.77E> 3 .&50 3 & 22 7 .389 3 1.108 3 -3.41& 1. &55 3 .370 3 7 22 8 .392 3 1 . 17'3 3 -3.590 1.707 3 .41>1 3 8 22 9 .47& 3 1.194 3 -3.001 1. &55 3 .455 3 '3 22 10 .434 3 1.121 3 -3.0'31 1.734 3 .490 3 10 22 11 .53& 3 1.235 3 -2.722 1.173 3 .488 3 11 22 12 .&05 3 1.22E> 3 -2.305 1.7&4 3 .509 3 12 22 13 .497 3 1.218 3 -2.922 1.757 3 .478 3 13 22 14 .&05 3 1.14& 3 -2.08& 1.753 3 .542 3 14 22 1'5 .578 3 1.332 3 -2.721 1. B&7 3 .5% 3 15 2I - 55


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDA ILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22700 HAD MEDAN I. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO &2.751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 3&8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH2 1& .453 3 1.184 3 -3.135 1.771 3 . %7 3 1& 22 17 .771 1 1.817 1 -2.7% 2.24& 1 1.083 1 17 22 18 . &11 3 1.331 3 -2.543 1 .83'3 3 .458 3 18 22 1'3 .&10 3 1.273 3 -2.401 1.812 3 .534 3 1'3 22 20 . 70'3 2 1.132 2 -1.524 1. %7 2 .381 2 20 22 21 .%7 1 1.508 1 -1.450 1 .812 1 .&3& 1 21 22 22 1.1&'3 2 1.828 2 -1.45'3 2.32& 2 .744 2 22 22 23 .'325 3 1. &&5 3 -1. '320 2.081 3 .&41 3 23 22 24 .&70 3 1.2'32 3 -2.143 1.741 3 .&&'3 3 24 22 25 .408 3 1.01 & 3 -2.'375 1.722 3 .4&7 3 25 22 2& .4&0 3 1.208 3 -3.14'3 1.802 3 .3&0 3 2& 22 27 .325 3 1 .0'31 3 -3.'34'3 1. &78 3 .3&'3 3 27 22 28 .255 3 1.122 3 -4.838 1.710 3 .3'35 3 28 2MONTHLY MEAN .587 14 1 .271 74 -2.51'3 1.781 74 .500 74 BETA 7.288MONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH3 1 .&02 3 1.22& 3 -2.323 1.7'38 3 .%'3 3 1 33 2 .&'31 3 1.281 3 -2.011 1.914 3 .550 3 2 33 3 .80& 3 1.3&2 3 -1.712 1.788 3 .483 3 3 33 4 .330 3 1.183 3 -4.1&1 1.778 3 .449 3 4 33 5 .341 3 1.179 3 -4.052 1.7&5 3 .371 3 5 33 & .522 3 1.354 3 -3.111 1.855 3 .353 3 & 33 7 .484 3 1.412 3 -3.4'30 1.870 3 .301 3 7 33 8 .&37 3 1.421 3 -2.&18 1.882 3 .403 3 8 33 '3 .&&8 3 1.251 3 -2.045 1.703 2 .414 3 '3 33 10 .572 3 1.21 '3 3 -2.4&'3 1. '328 3 .4% 3 10 33 1 1 .&45 3 1.1'35 3 -2.00'3 1.815 3 .42& 3 11 33 12 .&51 5 1.40& 5 -2.511 1. '38& 5 .. 544 5 12 33 13 .578 1 1.070 1 -2.00'3 1. &04 1 .30& 1 13 33 14 .485 3 1.202 3 -2.'359 1.8&3 3 .%& 3 14 33 15 .528 3 1.315 3 -2.'37& 1. '348 3 .413 3 15 33 1& .530 3 1 .427 3 -3.232 2.0.73 3 .410 3 1& 33 17 .779 3 1.452 3 -2.034 2.045 3 .778 3 17 33 18 .&&2 3 1.474 3 -2.&11 2.0% 3 .8l1 3 18 33 21 .554 3 1.3&5 3 -2.'33'3 2.034 3 .&02 3 21 33 22 .817 3 1.501 3 -1. '387 2.02& 3 .&84 3 22 33 23 .&50 3 1.474 3 -2.&71 2.115 3 .733 3 23 33 24 .&02 3 1. %9 3 -2.&78 2.0'30 3 .&24 3 24 33 25 .72'3 2 1.435 2 -2.212 2.17'3 2 .8&3 2 25 33 2& .50& 3 1.412 3 -3.351 1.701 2 .522 3 2b 33 27 .&01 3 1.432 3 -2.832 1.7'34 2 .50'3 3 27 33 28 .3% 3 1.27& 3 -4.351 1.782 3 .34& 3 28 33 29 .783 3 1.434 3 -1. '373 1. '387 3 .&18 3 2'3 33 30 .511 3 1.231 3 -2.871 1.813 3 .344 3 30 33 31 .4&8 3 1.2&3 3 -3.238 1.833 3 .340 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN .58'3 8& 1.338 8& -2.&80 1 . '31 1 83 .511 8& BETA 8.575MONTH DAY %8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH4 1 .%8 3 1.147 3 -2.295 1.784 3 .30'3 3 1 44 2 .5% 3 1.157 3 -2.391 1.77& 3 .311 3 2 44 3 .&1& 3 1.2'35 3 -2.422 1 . '381 3 .353 3 3 44 4 .535 3 1.3&5 3 -3.054 2.007 3 .470 3 4 44 5 .522 3 1.508 3 -3.4&2 2.020 3 .778 3 5 44 & .444 3 1.387 3 -3.717 2.2% 3 .708 3 & 44 7 .705 1 1.382 1 -2.197 1.8'30 1 .784 1 7 44 8 .704 2 1. &24 2 -2.72'3 2.317 2 .7'32 2 8 44 '3 .850 3 1.334 3 -1.472 2.3'35 3 ,.753 3 '3 44 10 .442 1 1.14'3 1 -3.117 2.08& 1 .&33 1 10 44 11 .5&'3 3 1. %& 3 -2.85'3 2.118 3 .&58 3 11 44 12 .&14 3 1.453 3 -2.808 1. '338 3 .728 3 12 44 13 .&'33 3 1.323 3 -2.111 1.970 3 .523 3 13 44 14 .730 3 1.38& 3 -2.093 1.88& 3 .&&9 3 14 44 15 .&30 3 1.412 3 -2.&33 2.035 3 .7&8 3 15 44 1& .&31 3 1.431 3 -2.&72 1. '332 3 .712 3 1& 44 17 .884 1 2.0'31 1 -2.811 2.&70 1 .8'32 1 17 44 18 .5'33 3 1.451 3 -2.'322 2.12'3 3 .73& 3 18 44 1'3 .5'37 3 1.452 3 -2.'303 2.327 3 .&10 3 19 44 20 .520 3 1. &40 3 -3.74& 1. '355 2 .77'3 3 20 44 21 .833 3 1.330 3 -1.527 2.0&2 3 .577 3 21 44 22 .472 3 1.103 3 -2.771 1.953 3 .&21 3 22 44 23 .742 2 1.348 2 -1. '348 2.0'38 2 .&&7 2 23 44 24 .3% 3 1.380 3 -4.072 2.152 3 .572 3 24 44 25 .738 1 1.484 1 -2.277 2.08'3 1 .7&1 1 25 44 2& .588 1 1.235 1 -2.421 1.847 1 .%0 1 2& 44 27 .441 3 1.3'35 3 -3.75'3 2.183 3 .&83 3 27 4I - %


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22700 HAD MEDAN I. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR lqq3HMO 1:>2751 14 24N 33 2qEMONTH DAY 31:>8 N 500 N ALPHA 1:>75 N 778 N DAY MONTH4 28 .475 3 1.428 3 -3.58q 2.108 3 .505 3 28 44 2q .431 3 1.387 3 -3.810 1. qq4 3 .474 3 2q 44 30 .475 3 1.457 3 -3.1:>54 2.045 3 .52q 3 30 4MONTHLY MEAN .587 78 1.385 78 -2.7qq 2.058 77 .1:>11:> 78 BETA q.1:>41MONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA 1:>75 N 778 N DAY MONTH5 1 .3q4 3 1.2% 3 -3.887 1. q24 3 .57& 3 1 55 2 .%7 3 1.%0 3 -3.300 2.030 3 .5q5 3 2 55 3 .1:>24 3 1.2q8 3 -2.388 1. ql 8 3 .71q 3 3 55 4 .47q 3 1.457 3 -3.1:>31 1. q20 3 .1:>28 3 4 55 5 .735 3 1.3q2 3 -2.083 1. qql 3 .7&5 3 5 55 & .1:>17 3 1.402 3 -2.1:>7q 1. q71:> 3 .&08 3 & 55 7 .473 3 1.31 & 3 -3.334 1.8q8 3 .502 3 7 55 8 .538 3 1.355 3 -3.012 1.8&& 3 .517 3 8 55 q .4&7 3 1 .3q3 3 -3. %8 1.880 3 .50& 3 q 55 10 .%8 3 1.352 3 -2.82q 1. qOO 3 .533 3 10 55 12 1.031 2 2.080 2 -2.2ql 2.308 1 1.01:>2 2 12 55 13 .477 3 1.2&2 3 -3.174 1.815 3 .35q 3 13 55 14 .424 3 1. &18 3 - 4. 3bq 1. q'34 3 .3q4 3 14 55 15 .1:>41 3 1.324 3 -2.3&q 1.875 3 .407 3 15 55 1& .57q 4 1.3% 4 -2.872 2.044 4 .413 4 11:> 55 17 .385 3 1 .314 3 -4.007 1.8&5 3 .454 3 17 55 18 .587 2 1.408 2 -2.855 1. q15 2 .487 2 18 55 1q .711:> 2 1.4q4 2 -2.3Q8 2.124 2 . &11 2 lQ 55 22 .500 2 1.347 2 -3.233 2.13Q 2 .581 2 22 55 23 .552 2 1.517 2 -3.2'38 2.035 2 .501 2 23 55 24 .5% 2 1.41 Q 2 -3.055 1. Q53 2 .43& 2 24 55 25 .81:>0 1 1.731:> 1 -2.2Q3 2.424 1 .573 1 25 55 2& .&78 1 1.8&7 1 -3.301:> .000 0 .&OQ 1 2& 55 30 .708 2 1.I:>Q4 2 -2.84& 2.578 2 .700 2 30 55 31 1.01:>1 1 1.880 1 -1.81:>1:> 2.352 1 .3Q7 1 31 5MONTHLY MEAN .577 1:>3 1.445 &3 -2.QQl 1. Q8Q &1 .550 &3 BETA 11.4B5MONTH DAY 3b8 N 500 N ALPHA &75 N 778 N DAY MONTH& 1 .311 1 .QQ4 1 -3.78Q 1.8Q7 1 .335 1 1 && 2 .&8Q 3 1.358 3 -2.212 1.8% 3 .41:>2 3 2 &I:> 3 .43& 1 1.23Q 1 -3.405 1. &22 1 .4&4 1 3 &I:> 4 .841 3 1.70& 3 -2.310 1.858 2 .848 3 4 I:>I:> 5 1.428 2 1.327 2 .240 1.7&0 2 1.25Q 2 5 I:>& I:> .55Q 3 1. &1 8 3 -3.470 2.124 3 .42Q 3 & && 7 .554 2 1.342 2 -2.885 1.%7 2 .382 2 7 &I:> 8 .507 3 1.334 3 -3.15Q 1.%8 3 .483 3 8 &I:> Q .47Q 2 1.21 Q 2 -3.050 1.81 Q 2 .3Q4 2 Q &I:> 10 .735 3 1.21:>1:> 3 -1.775 1.877 3 .500 3 10 &I:> 11 .73& 3 1.433 3 -2.175 2.042 3 .4% 3 11 &I:> 12 .4&4 3 1.170 3 -3.01& 1.541 2 .437 3 12 && 13 .73Q 3 1.31:>7 3 -2.00Q 1.542 2 .4&B 3 13 &I:> 14 .552 3 1.304 3 -2.803 1.748 3 .47& 3 14 &I:> 15 . %7 4 1.32Q 4 -2.77Q 1.81& 4 .512 4 15 &.& 1& 1.030 3 1.7Q5 3 -1.811 2.178 3 .82& 3 1& &I:> 17 .Q44 3 1.757 3 -2.027 2.205 3 .843 3 17 &I:> 18 . I:> 11 3 1.48& 3 -2.8Q8 1.81 Q 3 .353 3 18 &I:> 21 .1:>84 3 1.377 3 -2.283 2.032 3 .&84 3 21 &I:> 22 .78& 3 1.371 3 -1.81 I:> 2.0% 3 .52'3 3 22 &I:> 23 .500 3 1.3QQ 3 -3.357 1.825 3 .523 3 23 && 24 .%5 3 1.3Q8 3 -2.Q% 1.937 3 .437 3 24 && 25 .4&2 4 1.400 4 -3.&14 1.827 4 .502 4 25 &I:> 27 .551 3 1.375 3 -2.Q83 1.853 3 .431 3 27 && 28 1.444 2 1.81:>7 2 -.838 2.1&5 2 .&02 2 28 I:>& 2Q 1.143 2 1.877 2 -1.1:>19 2.237 2 .457 2 29 &MONTHLY MEAN .1:>% 71 1.431:> 71 -2.3&1 1. Q18 &8 .545 71 BETA 7.380NCDC 22701 HAD MEDAN I. SUDAN ALT I TUDE 405 M YEAR lQQ3HMO 1:>2751 14 24N 33 2QEMONTH DAY 81:>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 1 1.32Q 2 1 11 2 1.31:>5 3 2 1I - 57


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 HAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'33HMO E>2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 8E>2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 3 1.333 3 3 11 4 1.443 3 4 11 5 1.474 3 5 11 E> 1.427 3 b 11 7 1.435 3 7 11 8 1.571 3 8 11 '3 1.521 3 '3 11 10 1.52b 3 10 11 11 1.438 3 11 11 12 1.480 3 12 11 13 1.73'3 3 13 11 14 1.870 3 14 11 15 1 . b 11 3 15 11 lE> 1.433 3 lb 11 17 1.4'38 3 17 11 18 1.4% 3 18 11 1'3 1.475 3 1'3 11 20 1 .47'3 3 20 11 21 1.404 3 21 11 22 1.51 b 3 22 11 23 1.575 3 23 11 24 1 .539 3 24 11 25 1.508 3 25 11 2b 1 .509 3 2b 11 27 1.482 3 27 11 28 1. b13 3 28 11 29 1.470 2 29 11 30 1. bIb 3 30 11 31 1. b80 3 31 1MONTHLY MEAN 1 .514 '31 1.300 BETA 1 .248MONTH DAY 8b2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 1 1.55'3 3 1 22 2 1.b5£> 3 2 22 3 1.383 1 3 22 4 1.280 1 4 22 5 1.711 3 5 22 b 1.585 3 b 22 7 1.5£>5 3 7 22 8 1.524 3 8 22 '3 1.571 3 '3 22 10 1.588 3 10 22 11 1.581 3 11 22 12 1.57b 3 12 22 13 1.579 3 13 22 14 1 .5'35 3 14 22 15 1. E>84 3 15 22 1& 1. &05 3 lE> 22 17 2.274 1 17 22 18 1.713 2 18 22 1'3 1.&24 3 1'J 22 20 1.488 2 20 22 21 1. &2& 1 21 22 22 2.26& 2 22 22 23 1 .841 3 23 22 24 1.8&3 3 24 22 25 1.528 3 25 22 2& 1. b03 3 2b 22 27 1.55'3 3 27 22 28 1.532 3 28 2MONTHLY MEAN 1. &35 73 1.300 BETA 1.348MONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 1 1.7&5 3 1 33 2 1.70'3 3 2 33 3 1.588 3 3 33 4 1 .50'3 3 4 33 5 1.532 3 5 33 & 1. &84 3 E> 33 7 1. &2'3 3 7 33 8 1. & 10 3 8 33 '3 1. &70 3 'J 33 10 1.&% 3 10 33 11 1.701 3 11 33 12 1.803 3 12 33 13 1.722 3 13 3I - 58


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1993WMO &2751 14 24N 33 29EMONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH3 14 1.738 3 14 33 15 1. &97 3 15 33 1& 1.832 3 1& 33 17 1.804 3 17 33 18 1.878 3 18 33 21 2.130 3 21 33 22 1.821 3 22 33 23 1.8&8 3 23 33 24 1.902 3 24 33 25 1.917 2 25 33 2& 1.977 3 2& 33 27 1.749 3 27 33 28 1. &49 3 28 33 29 1.7&1 3 29 33 30 1.758 3 30 33 31 1. &97 3 31 3MONTHLY MEAN 1.748 8& 1.300 BETA 1.441MONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 1 1. &73 3 1 44 2 1.75& 3 2 44 3 1.800 3 3 44 4 1.754 3 4 44 5 1.875 3 5 44 & 1.7% 3 & 44 7 1.828 1 7 44 8 2.111 2 8 44 9 1.970 3 9 44 10 1.47& 1 10 44 11 1.940 3 11 44 12 1.851 3 12 44 13 1. &&9 3 13 44 14 1.847 3 14 44 15 1.788 3 15 44 1& 1.741 3 1& 44 17 2.&05 1 17 44 18 1.937 3 18 44 19 1.824 3 19 44 20 1.597 2 20 44 21 1.81& 3 21 44 22 2.002 3 22 44 23 1.924 2 23 44 24 1.883 3 24 44 25 1.983 1 25 44 2E> 1.508 1 2& 44 27 1.9n 3 27 44 28 1.779 3 28 44 29 1.95& 3 29 44 30 1.794 3 30 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.843 77 1.300 BETA 1.520MONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH5 1 1.820 3 1 55 2 1.774 3 2 55 3 1.7&1 3 3 55 4 1.875 3 4 55 '5 1.898 3 5 55 & 1.8E>4 3 & 55 7 1 .7& 7 3 7 55 8 1.7&1 3 8 55 9 1.7% 3 9 '55 10 1.777 3 10 '55 11 2.179 1 11 55 12 2.427 1 12 55 13 1.824 2 13 55 14 1.87E> 3 14 55 15 1.778 3 15 55 1& 1.827 3 1& 55 17 1. &44 2 17 55 18 1.775 2 18 55 19 1.892 2 19 55 22 1.724 2 22 55 23 1.927 2 23 55 24 1.879 2 24 51 - 59


1AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 22701 WAD MEDANI. SUDAN ALTITUDE 405 M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 1:.2751 14 24N 33 2'3EMONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH25 55 25 2.24'3 12& 55 2& 2.21& 22'3 55 29 1.787 330 55 30 2.111 231 55 31 2.041 1MONTHLY MEAN 1.857 &4 1.300 BETA 1.531MONTH DAY 8&2 N ALPHA DAY MONTH1 E.E>- l 1.470 12 && 2 1.74& 33 && 3 1.3'39 14 && 4 2.18& 35 && 5 1.579 2& bb & 1.754 37 && 7 1.824 28 bb 8 1.&0& 2q b& 9 1.759 310 E.& 10 1.751 311 && 11 1.728 312 b& 12 1.8&8 213 b& 13 1.&18 314 b& 14 1.732 315 E.& 15 1.718 41& && 1& 2.050 317 && 17 1.985 318 && 18 1.701 321 && 21 1.779 322 bE. 22 1 .711 3& 23 1.745 323 && 24 1.821 324 && 25 1.848 325 && 2& 1.511 12E. && 27 1.724 327 && 28 2.195 228 && 2'3 1.88& 229 etMONTHLY MEAN 1.787 70 1.300 BETA 1.473NCDC 25250 YUEN NG FAN. HONG ~ONG All ITUDE 8& M YEAR 1'3'32WMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTH DAY 3&8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH1 21 1. &44 1 1.070 1 3.7'37 1.134 1 .5'34 1 21 128 .83'3 2 .&&1 2 2.10'3 .830 2 2.201 2 28MONTHLY MEAN 1.107 3 .7'38 3 2.'304 .'331 3 1. &&5 3 BETA .0&1MONTH DAY 3&8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH2 25 .'351 2 .707 2 2.&2'3 .873 2 2.371 2 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .'351 2 .707 2 2.&2'3 .873 2 2.371 2 8ETA .0&'3MONTH DAY 3&8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH4 28 1.17& 2 .'327 2 2.107 .740 2 2.8&7 2 28 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.17& 2 .'327 2 2.107 .740 2 2.8&7 2 BETA .143MONTH DAY 3&8 N 412 N ALPHA 450 N 500 N DAY MONTH& 23 1.135 1 1.542 1 -2.717 1.2&0 1 2.809 1 23 &MONTHLY MEAN 1.135 1.542 -2.717 1.2&0 2.80'3 BETA 17.1%I - &0


NCDC 25250WMOMONTH DAY 31088 4 1.370YUEN NG FAN, HONG KONG22 22N 114 20EN24121.345AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSN2ALPHA.11004501.258N2(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 810 M YEAR 1')'325002.715N DAY MONTH248MONTHLY MEAN 1.37021.3452.11001.25822.7152 BETA 1.1107MONTH DAY 3108'3 22 1.103N24121.124N2ALPHA-.1744501.028N25002.487N DAY MONTH2 22 ')MONTHLY MEAN 1.10321.1242-.1741.02822.4872 BETA 1.312MONTH11DAY173108.'35411 24 1.231N22412.'34'31.172N22ALPHA.0410.431450.8211.03'3N225002.212N DAY MONTH2 17 112.108 2 24 11MONTHLY MEAN 1.0'32 4 1.0100 4 .2101 .')30 4 2.1&0 4 BETA .841MONTH DAY12 13108.8'32N24121.0'37N2ALPHA-1.830450.'37'3N25002.008N DAY MONTH2 1 12MONTHLYMEAN.8'3221.0'372-1.830.'37'322.0082 BETA 5.%1NCDC 25250WMOYUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG22 22N 114 20EALTITUDE 8E> M YEAR 1'3')3MONTH DAY1 2103108. '327N2412.5')8N2ALPHA3.884450.'382N25002.128N DAY MONTH2 2E> 1MONTHLY MEAN .'327 2 .5'38 2 3.884 .'382 2 2.128 2 BETA .01')MONTH DAY2 23108.'3'35N1412.£''37N1ALPHA3.1574501.022N15002.253N DAY MONTH122MONTHLY MEAN .'3'35 .£''37 3.157 1.022 2.253 BETA .042MONTH DAY 3b87 27 1.51 I)N24121.12')N2ALPHA2. £,114502.143N25002.&4&N DAY MONTH1 27 7MONTHLY MEAN 1.51b 2 1 . 12') 2 2.bll 2.143 2 2.&4& BETA .112MONTH DAY 3b88 24 1.030N1412.£'7£'N1ALPHA3.72'34501.123N15002'.585N DAY MONTH1 24 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.030 .£'7£' 3.72'3 1.123 2.585 BETA .025MONTH DAY 3b8'3 7 1.8'3121 1 .8')')N 4122 1 .50')1.484N2ALPHA1. qq72.1824501.3£'21.377N.~500~.8472.%4Nii1DAY7MONTH'321MONTHLY MEAN 1.8')4 3 1.501 3 2.05') 1 .3& 7 3 2.88& 3 BETA .242MONTH DAY 3£,810 12 1.41)0N24121.113N2ALPHA2.407450.'3'31N25002.285N DAY MONTH2 12 10MONTHLY MEAN 1.4100 2 1.113 2 2.407 2 2.285 2 BETA .132I-£' 1


NCDC 25250WMOMONTH DAY 3&811 8 1.218YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG2222N 11420EN24121.733AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAiLY AND MONTHLY MEANSN2ALPHA-3.1224502.2£'£'N2(NATURALLOGARITHMS)ALTITUDE 8£, M YEAR 1'3'33. 5002.03&N DAY MONTH1 8 11MONTHLY MEAN 1.21821.7332-3.1222.2£'£'22.03&BETA27.5'3£'MONTH DAY 3&812 71.23&12 28 1.230N22412.880.933N22ALPHA3.00&2.4454501.3£>41.37£'N225001.885N DAY MONTH2 7 121.7'31 2 28 12MONTHLY MEAN t.233 4 .90£' 4 2.722 1.370 4 1.838 4 BETA .081NCDC 25251WMOMONTH1DAY21&10.O£'£'28 .953YUEN NG FAN, HONG KONG22 22N 114 20EN12£,75.72'32.0£'£'N ALPHA1 -23.£'%2 -7.£'428£,2.475.384N12ALTITUDE 8£, M YEAR 1'392q4£,1. £,1£,.%4N1DAY21MONTH12 28MONTHLY MEAN .£'5731. £,203 -8.'308.41431.1823 BETA- 53.718MONTH DAY £,102 25 . '3'30N22£,752.285N ALPHA2 -8.2548£,2.425N2'34£'1.1£'''1N DAY MONTH2 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .'3'302.2852 -8.254.42521.1 £''32 BETA 58.587MONTH DAY £,104 28 1.188N2&752.&48N ALPHA2 -7.'3158£,2.511N2'34£'1.343N DAY MONTH2 28 4MONTHLY MEAN 1.18822.£'482 -7.'315.51121.3432 BETA 5'3.407MONTH DAY &10& 23 1.300N1£,752.810N ALPHA1 -7.&138£,2.'381N1q4£,1. '312N DAY MONTH1 23 £,MONTHLY MEAN 1.3002.810-7.£'13.'3811. '312BETA %.021MONTH DAY &108 4 1.07'3N2£,752. %5N2ALPHA-8.54'38£,21.42£'N2q4£,2.52&N DAY MONTH2 4 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.07922.%52-8.54'31.42£>22.52&2 BETA 73.842MONTH DAY £,10'3 22 1.820N22£,752.381N2ALPHA-2.£'518£>2.'3'32N294&1.857N DAY HONTH2 22 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.8202.3812-2.£>51.'3'3221.8572 BETA &.74'3MONTH11DAY1711 24£,10.'378.'352N22£,752.0471. '342N22ALPHA-7.2'34-7.0438£>2.'3051.101N22'34&1.778N DAY MONTH2 17 111.517 2 24 11MONTHLY MEANMONTH DAY12 1.%5£,10.'3044N21. 9'35£>751.8734 -7.171N ALPHA2 -7.1'351.0038£>21.1134 1. &47N '14&2 1.4434 BETA 33.418N DAY MONTH2 1 12I - &2


NCDC 25251WMOYUEN NG FAN, HONG KONG2222N 11420EAEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANSMONTHLY MEAN .'304 2 1.873 2 -7.1'35 1.113 2ALTITUDE1.443(NATURAL LOGARITHMS)810 M YEAR 1'3'322 8ETA 31. &&4NCDC 25251WMOYUEN NG FAN, HONG KONG22 22N 114 20EALTITUDE 8& M YEAR 1'3'33MONTH DAY1 2&&10.'33&N2&752.000N2ALPHA-7.4'388&2.&58'34&.807N DAY MONTH2 2& 1N22MONTHLYMEAN.'33&22.0002-7.4'38.1058.8072 BETA 38.114MONTH DAY2 2&10.'384N1&752.115N1ALPHA-7.%381021.25'3N1'34101.3&0N DAY MONTH122MONTHL Y ME.AN.'3842.115-7.%31.25'31.3&0BETA41.33'3MONTH DAY &107 27 2.5&3N1&752.3'34N1ALPHA.&7&8&2.'372N1'34&1.83&N DAY MONTH1 27 7MONTHLY MEAN 2.5&32.3'34.&7&.'3721.8310BETA 1.835MONTH DAY &108 24 1.140N1&752.50'3N1ALPHA-7.7878&21.12'3N1'34101. &7'3N DAY MONTH1 24 8MONTHLY MEAN 1.1402.50'3-7.7871.12'31. &7'3BETA 53.5%MONTH DAY &10'3 7 1.2&8N2&752. &11N2ALPHA-7.1378&21.810N2'34&2.3&&N DAY MONTH27'321 2.&152.'33'3-1.1551. &072.2&'321MONTHLY MEAN 1.71732.7213-4.5471.74332.3343 BETA 1&.24'3MONTH DAY &1010 12 2.340N2&752.172N2ALPHA.7348&21.502N2'34&1 . '34&N DAY MONTH2 12 10MONTHLY MEAN 2.34022.1722.7341.50221. '34&2 BETA 1.&28MONTH DAY &1011 8 2.0&5N2&751. '307N2ALPHA" 8&2.784 1 .330N2'34&1.878N DAY MONTH2 8 11MONTHLY MEAN 2.0&5 2 1. '307 2 .784 1.330 2 1.878 2 BETA 1.402MONTH DAY &1012 7 1. '350N210751.7'38N2ALPHA.8018&21.2108N2'34&1.32'3N DAY MONTH2 7 1212 28 1.83321.10'342.7751.22521. 201 2 28 12MONTHLY MEAN 1.8'31 4 1.74& 4 .78"1 1.247 4 1.2&5 4 BETA 1. 2BlNCDC 25252WMOMONTH DAY 10241" 21 1.10'328.28&YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG2222N 11420EN12At TlTUDE 8& M YEAR 1'3'32ALPHA DAY MONTH21 128MONTHLYMEAN.%03 1.300BETA .578I - &3


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 25252 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG ALTI TUDE 8b M YEAR 1992HMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 25 .323 2 25 2MONTHLY MEAN .323 2 1.300 BETA .333MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH4 28 .%3 2 28 4MONTHLY MEAN . %3 2 1.300 BETA .581MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTHb 23 .541 1 23 bMONTHLY MEAN .541 1.300 BETA .558MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 4 .9b7 2 4 8MONTHLY MEAN .%7 2 1.300 BETA .997MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH9 22 .500 2 22 9MONTHLY MEAN .500 2 1.300 BETA .515MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 17 .b85 2 17 1111 24 .b57 2 24 11MONTHLY MEAN .b71 4 1.300 BETA .b'32MONTH DAY 1024 ~ ALPHA DAY MONTH12 1 .b78 2 t 12MONTHLY MEAN .b78 2 1.300 BETA .b'3,}NCDC 25252 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG ALTITUDE Bb M YEAR 19'}3WMO 22 22N 11420EMONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY "'ONTH1 2b .4b2 2 2t. 1MONTHLY "'EAN . 4'b2 2 1.300 BE TA .47bMONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH2 2 .748 1 2 2MONTHLY MEAN .748 1.300 BETA .772MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH7 27 .553 2 27 7MONTHLY MEAN .553 2 1.300 BETA .570I - b4


AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTHDAILY AND MONTHLY MEANS (NATURAL LOGARITHMS)NCDC 25252 YUEN NG FAN. HONG KONG All !TUDE 8& M YEAR 1'3'33WMO 22 22N 114 20EMONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH8 24 .700 1 24 8MONTHLY MEAN .700 1.300 BETA .722MONTH OAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH'3 7 .707 2 7 '3'3 21 2.0&2 21 '3MONTHLY MEAN 1.15'3 3 1.300 BETA 1.1'35MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH10 ,.2 .58& 2 12 10MONTHLY MEAN .58& 2 1.300 BETA .&04MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH11 8 .513 2 8 11MONTHLY MEAN .513 2 1.300 BETA .52'3MONTH DAY 1024 N ALPHA DAY MONTH12 7 .51'3 2 7 1212 28 .551 2 28 12MONTHLY MEAN .535 4 1.300 BETA .551I - &'5


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION MONITORING ANDRESEARCH PROGRAMME REPORT SERIES1. Final Report of the Expert Meeting on the Operation of Integrated Monitoring Programmes,Geneva, 2-5 September 19802. Report of the Third Session of the GESAMP Working Group on the Interchange of PollutantsBetween the Atmosphere and the Oceans (INTERPOLL-III), Miami, USA,27-31 October 19803. Report of the Expert Meeting on the Assessment of the Meteorological Aspects of the FirstPhase of EMEP, Shinfield Park, U.K., 30 March - 2 April 19814. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at April 19815. Report of the WMO/UNEP/ICSU Meeting on Instruments, Standardization andMeasurements Techniques for Atmospheric CO 2 , Geneva, 8-11; September 19816. Report of the Meeting of Experts on BAPMoN Station Operation, Geneva,23-26 November, 19817. Fourth Analysis on Reference Precipitation Samples by the Participating WorldMeteorological Organization Laboratories by Robert L. Lampe and John C. Puzak,December 1981 *8. Review of the Chemical Composition of Precipitation as Measured by the WMO BAPMoNby Prof. Dr. Hans-Walter Georgii, February 19829. An Assessment of BAPMoN Data Currently Available on the Concentration of CO 2 in theAtmosphere by M.R. Manning, February 198210. Report of the Meeting of Experts on Meteorological Aspects of Long-range Transport ofPollutants, Toronto, Canada, 30 November - 4 December 198111. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at May 1982*12. Report on the Mount Kenya Baseline Station Feasibility Study edited by Dr. RussellC. Schnell13. Report of the Executive Committee Panel of Experts on Environmental Pollution, FourthSession, Geneva, 27 September - 1 October 198214. Effects of Sulphur Compounds and Other Pollutants on Visibility by Dr. R.F. Pueschel,April 198315. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as Measured at BAPMoNSites for the Year 1981, May 1983*16. Report of the Expert Meeting on Quality Assurance in BAPMoN, Research Triangle Park,North Carolina, USA, 17-21 January 1983* Out of Printc: /wpS1/pm/pc2


17. General Consideration and Examples of Data Evaluation and Quality Assurance ProceduresApplicable to BAPMoN Precipitation Chemistry Observations by Dr. Charles Hakkarinen,July 198318. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at May 198319. Forecasting of Air Pollution with Emphasis on Research in the USSR by M.E. Berlyand,August 198320. Extended Abstracts of Papers to be Presented at the WMO Technical Conference onObservation and Measurement of Atmospheric Contaminants (TECOMAC), Vienna,17-21 October 198321. Fifth Analysis on Reference Precipitation Samples by the Participating World MeteorologicalOrganization Laboratories by Robert L. Lampe and William J. Mitchell, November 198322. Report of the Fifth Session of the WMO Executive Council Panel of Experts onEnvironmental Pollution, (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Federal Republic of Germany,30 April - 4 May 1984)23. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as Measured at BAPMoNSites for the Year 1982. November 198424. Final Report of the Expert Meeting on the Assessment of the Meteorological Aspects of theSecond Phase of EMEP, Friedrichshafen, Federal Republic of Germany,7-10 December 1983. October 198425. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at May 1984. November 198426. Sulphur and Nitrogen in Precipitation: An Attempt to Use BAPMoN and Other Data toShow Regional and Global Distribution by Dr. e.c. Wallen. April 198627. Report on a Study of the Transport of Sahelian Particulate Matter Using SunphotometerObservations by Dr. Guillaume A. d'Almeida. July 198528. Report of the Meeting of Experts on the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean TransportExperiment ("EAMTEX") (Madrid and Salamanca, Spain, 6-8 November 1984)29. Recommendations on Sunphotometer Measurements in BAPMoN Based on the Experienceof a Dust Transport Study in Africa by Dr. Guillaume A. d' Almeida. September 198530. Report of the Ad-hoc Consultation on Quality Assurance Procedures for Inclusion in theBAPMoN Manual (Geneva, 29-31 May 1985)31. Implications of Visibility Reduction by Man-Made Aerosols (Annex to No. 14) by R.M. Hoffand L.A. Barrie. October 198532. Manual for BAPMoN Station Operators by E. Meszaros and D.M. Whelpdale. October 198533. Man and the Composition of the Atmosphere: BAPMoN - An international programme ofnational needs, responsibility and benefits by R.F. Pueschel. 198634. Practical Guide for Estimating Atmospheric Pollution Potential by Dr. L.E. Niemeyer.August 1986c:/wpSl/pm/pc2


35. Provisional Daily Atmospheric CO 2 Concentrations as Measured at BAPMoN Sites for theYear 1983. December 198536. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1984. Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth. October 198537. Air-Sea Interchange of Pollutants by R.A. Duce. September 198638. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at 31 December 1985. September 198639. Report of the Third WMO Expert Meeting on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide MeasurementTechniques (Lake Arrowhead, California, USA, 4-8 November 1985). October 198640. Report of the Fourth Session of the CAS Working Group on Atmospheric Chemistry and AirPollution (Helsinki, Finland, 18-22 November 1985). January 198741. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1982, Volume 11: Precipitation chemistry, continuous atmosphericcarbon dioxide and suspended particulate matter. June 198642. Scripps reference gas calibration system for carbon dioxide-in-air standards: revision of1985 by C.D. Keeling, P.R. Guenther and D.J. Moss. September 198643. Recent progress in sunphotometry (determination of the aerosol optical depth).November 198644. Report of the Sixth Session of the WMO Executive Council Panel of Experts onEnvironmental Pollution (Geneva, 5-9 May 1986). March 198745. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Integrated Global Monitoring of the Stateof the Biosphere (Volumes I-IV) (Tashkent, USSR, 14-19 October 1985). December 198646. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as Measured at BAPMoNSites for the Year 1984. December 198647. Procedures and Methods for Integrated Global Background Monitoring of EnvironmentalPollution by F.Ya. Rovinsky, USSR and G.B. Wiersma, USA. August 198748. Meeting on the Assessment of the Meteorological Aspects of the Third Phase of EMEP(IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 30 March - 2 April 1987). February 198849. Proceedings of the WMO Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application(Volumes I-Ill) (Leningrad, USSR, 19-24 May 1986). November 198750. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as Measured at BAPMoNSites for the Year 1985. December 198751. Report of the NBS/WMO Expert Meeting on Atmospheric CO 2Measurement Techniques(Gaithersburg, USA, 15-17 June 1987). December 198752. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1985. Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth. September 1987c:/wp51/pm/pc2


53. WMO Meeting of Experts on Strategy for the Monitoring of Suspended Particulate Matterin BAPMoN - Reports and papers presented at the meeting (Xiamen, China,13-17 October 1986). October 198854. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1983, Volume 11: Precipitation chemistry, continuous atmosphericcarbon dioxide and suspended particulate matter.55. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Networkas at 31 December 198756. Report of the First Session of the Executive Council Panel of Experts/CAS Working Groupon Environmental Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry (Hilo, Hawaii, 27-31 March 1988).June 198857. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1986, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth. July 198858. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as measured at BAPMoN sitesfor the years 1986 and 198759. Extended Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Third International Conference on Analysisand Evaluation of Atmospheric CO 2 Data - Present and Past (Hinterzarten, Federal Republicof Germany, 16-20 October 198960. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1984 and 1985, Volume 11: Precipitation chemistry, continuousatmospheric carbon dioxide and suspended particulate matter.61. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data for 1987 and 1988, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth.62. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as measured at BAPMoN sitesfor the year 198863. Report of the Informal Session of the Executive Council Panel of Experts/CAS WorkingGroup on Environmental Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry (Sofia, Bulgaria,26 and 28 October 1989)64. Report of the consultation to consider desirable locations and observational practices forBAPMoN stations of global importance (Bermuda Research Station, 27-30 November 1989)65. Report of the Meeting on the Assessment of the Meteorological Aspects of the FourthPhase of EMEP (Sofia, Bulgaria, 27 and 31 October 1989)66. Summary Report on the Status of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Stations as at31 December 199067. Report of the Meeting of Experts on Modelling of Continental, Hemispheric and GlobalRange Transport, Transformation and Exchange Processes (Geneva, 5-7 November 1990)68. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters.BAPMoN Data For 1989, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depthc:/wp51/pm/pc2


69. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as measured at GlobalAtmosphere Watch (GAW)-BAPMoN sites for the year 198970. Report of the Executive Council Panel of Experts/CAS Working Group on EnvironmentalPollution and Atmospheric Chemistry (Santiago, Chile, 9-15 January 1991)71 . Report of the Consultation of Experts to Consider Desirable Observational Practices andDistribution of GAW Regional Stations (Halkidiki, Greece, 9-13 April 1991)72. Integrated Background Monitoring' of Environmental Pollution in Mid-Latitude Eurasia byYu.A. Izrael and F.Ya. RovinskY, USSR73. Report of the Experts Meeting on Global Aerosol Data System (GADS) (Hampton, Virginia,11-12 September 1990)74. Report of the Experts Meeting on Aerosol Physics and Chemistry (Hampton, Virginia,30-31 May 1991)75. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as measured at GlobalAtmosphere Watch (GAW)-BAPMoN sites for the year 199076. The International Global Aerosol Programme (IGAP) Plan: Overview77. Report of the WMO Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and IsotopicMeasurement Techniques (Lake Arrowhead, California, 14-19 October 1990)78. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental ParametersBAPMoN Data for 1990, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth79. Report of the Meeting of Experts to Assess Available Data and Define the AerosolComponent for GAW-BAPMoN Stations (Boulder, 16-19 December 1991)80. Report of the WMO Meeting of Experts on the Quality Assurance Plan for the GAW(Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 26-30 March 1992)81. Report of the Second Meeting of Experts to Assess the Response to and AtmosphericEffects of the Kuwait Oil Fires (Geneva, Switzerland, 25-29 May 1992)82. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental ParametersBAPMoN Data for 1991, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth83. Report on the Global Precipitation Chemistry Programme of BAPMoN84. Provisional Daily Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations as measured atGAW-BAPMoN sites for the year 199185. Chemical Analysis of Precipitation for GAW: Laboratory Analytical Methods and SampleCollection Standards by Dr. Jaroslav Santroch86. The Global Atmosphere Watch Guide, 199387. Report of the Third Session of EC Panel/CAS Working Group on Environmental Pollution andAtmospheric Chemistry (Geneva, 8-11 March 1993)c:/wp51/pm/pc2


88. Guide to the observations by E. Meszaros89. 4th International Conference on CO 2 (Carqueiranne, France, 13-17 September 1993)90. Global Atmospheric Background Monitoring for Selected Environmental Parameters GAWData for 1992, Volume I: Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth91. Extended Abstracts of Papers Presented at the WMO Region VI Conference on theMeasurement and Modelling of Atmospheric Composition Changes Including PollutionTransport (Sofia, 4-8 October 1993)92. Report of the Second WMO Meeting of Experts on the Quality Assurance/Science ActivityCentres of the Global Atmosphere Watch, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 7-11 December 199293. Report of the Third WMO Meeting of Experts on the Quality Assurance/Science ActivityCentres of the Global Atmosphere Watch, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 5-9 July 199394. Report on the Measurements of Atmospheric Turbidity in BAPMoN95. Report of the WMO Meeting of Experts on UV-B Measurements, Data Quality andStandardization of UV Indices, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, 25-28 July 1994c:!wp51!pm!pc2

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