ain Document - SPAD

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ain Document - SPAD

List of AbbreviationsAM Hour For the Greater KL/Klang Valley area defined as the average morning peak hour between 0700and 0900BETBRTBTPCBDDBKLEPPETPERPGDPGKL/KVGPSGTPHOVIIPJICAJPJKLKLIAKPIKTMKTMBLALPTLPTMPBus Express TransitBus Rapid TransitBus Transformation PlanCentral Business DistrictDewan Bandaraya Kuala LumpurEntry Points ProjectEconomic Transformation ProgrammeElectronic Road PricingGross Domestic ProductGreater Kuala Lumpur / Klang ValleyGeographic Positioning SystemGovernment Transformation ProgrammeHigh Occupancy VehicleInterchange and Integration PlanJapan International Co-operation AgencyJabatan Pengangkutan JalanKuala LumpurKuala Lumpur International AirportKey Performance IndexKeretapi Tanah MelayuKeretapi Tanah Melayu BerhadLocal AuthorityLand Public TransportLand Public Transport Master Plan


LRTLUPMOFMOWMPMRRMRTNKEANKRAPPHPDPSLPTPT Mode SharePTPP&RRUCSPADTDMTDMPTODTRSTTPURDPWPLLight Rail (or Rapid) TransitLand Use PlanMinistry of FinanceMinistry of WorksMaster PlanMiddle Ring RoadMass Rail (or Rapid) TransitNational Key Economic AreasNational Key Results AreaPeak Passengers per Hour per DirectionParking Space LevyPublic TransportPercentage of trips by Public TransportPersonalised Travel PlanningPark and RideRoad User ChargingSuruhanjaya Pengangkutan Awam DaratTravel Demand ManagementTravel Demand Management PlanTransit Oriented DevelopmentsTraffic Restraint SystemTaxi Transformation PlanUrban Rail Development PlanWorkplace Parking Levy


Background1


1. Background1.1) IntroductionSPAD (Suruhanjaya Pengangkutan Awam Darat) has developed the National Land Public Transport Framework(National LPT Framework) to set out the vision and direction for Land Public Transport (LPT) in Malaysia. Thepurpose is to develop a long term programme to address the current deterioration in LPT with plans to executehigh impact and effective delivery initiatives for a 20-year sustainable National LPT service. The goal of LPT is todrive forward the ambition of Vision 2020 and 1Malaysia. These national initiatives seek to transform Malaysiainto a fully developed and industrialised nation by sustaining growth of 7% per annum. 1Malaysia is thefoundation of the national vision where its goal is to preserve and enhance unity in diversity. As part of this,SPAD aspires to transform public transport to be the peoples mode of choice, thus enabling unity and a nationaldrive for sustainable economic growth.Within the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) (Source: Pemandu, 2010), the National Key Result Area(NKRA) for Urban Public Transport set a number of goals up to 2012:Raise modal shareImprove reliability and journey timesEnhance comfort and convenienceImprove accessibility and connectivitySPAD owns part of the Urban Public Transport NKRA and was set up to consolidate selected LPT related portfoliosfrom other agencies and develop the National LPT Framework. SPAD‟s Mission for LPT in Malaysia can besummarised as:„To achieve a safe, reliable, efficient, responsive, accessible, planned, integrated,affordable and sustainable land public transport system to enhance socio-economicdevelopment and quality of life.‟The National LPT Framework defines the National LPT Policy, which provides guidance towards developing theNational Land Public Transport Master Plan (LPTMP). Included in the National LPT Framework is also a PlanningToolkit which provides the guidance on the methodology for setting objectives, plan development, identificationof policy measures and assessments of solutions. The Planning Toolkit facilitates the development of RegionalLPTMPs and enables interfacing with State-specific plans and land use policies.The first Regional LPTMP developed by SPAD is for the Greater KL/ Klang Valley (GKL/KV) region. This documentprovides one of the Subsidiary Plans relating to travel demand management, which forms part of the GKL/KVLPTMP. The other Subsidiary Plans include:Urban Rail Development Plan (URDP)Taxi Transformation Plan (TTP)Bus Transformation Plan (BTP)Interchange and Integration Plan (IIP)Land Use Plan (LUP)Together these provide an integrated LPT plan for the GKL/KV region.Page 2


1.2) Greater Kuala Lumpur/Klang Valley RegionThe definition of the GKL/KV is taken from the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) (Source:Pemandu, 2010). The region comprises Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and all districts in Selangor withthe exception of Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor, Sabak Bernam and Ulu Selangor (see Figure 1.1). Theregion is defined as being of key economic importance for Malaysia as a whole. Over 37% of thenation‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is identified as being related to Kuala Lumpur and Selangor(Source: National Statistics 2009). Within the ETP, the National Key Economic Area (NKEA) for theGKL/KV Region has specified the following objectives:„To achieve a top-20 ranking in city economic growth while being among the globaltop-20 most liveable cities by 2020 via 9 Entry Point Projects (EPP)‟.One element of the EPP is the GKL/KV Connect which is about public transport within the urbancity. In defining the region for the GKL/KV LPTMP, analysis of travel demand data indicates thatareas such as Nilai and Seremban, whilst being outside the defined region, do contribute significantdemands to KL and should therefore be considered in developing the LPT strategy.Figure 1.1: Greater KL/Klang Valley RegionPage 3


1.3) ObjectivesThe objectives of the GKL/KV LPTMP are:To identify a single, consolidated and supported LPT strategy for the GKL/KV regionTo integrate all LPT modes (i.e. bus, rail and taxi), providing users with a high qualityseamless journey.Be guided by logical, pragmatic and sustainable principles in its planning of current needsthat support future expectations1.4) Guiding PrinciplesIn order to aid the development of the GKL/KV LPTMP, a series of Guiding Principles have beendeveloped as follows:Consider the planning, integration and co-ordination of all LPT modesDefine modal share targetsDefine complementary policies to allow the LPT modal share to achieve the targetsAllow LPT to be socially inclusive encouraging it to be the travel mode of choiceProvide for increased accessibility and connectivityTake account of the hierarchy of centres with emphasis on primary centres being served byrail, where possible to encourage modal transferProvide capacity to meet future demands efficiently and reliably to allow the region togrow economicallyProvide additional capacity to serve central KL given its economic importance to thecountryBe based on a process of engagement with StakeholdersTake account of previous studies and plans where appropriatePromote the use of new technology to provide environmental benefitCorridors should be served according to the appropriate mode to meet travel demands1.5) Master Plan DevelopmentUsing the Guiding Principles of the National LPTMP and the Planning Toolkit, the process ofdeveloping the Regional LPTMP follows a series of stages which seek to understand the existingsituation through the collation of existing data sources, the collection of new travel data andstakeholder engagement (see Figure 1.2). A suite of transport analysis tools is established whichincludes a transport model, GIS land use database and an accessibility model. These are used toforecast future transport conditions given known land use proposals and committed transportschemes. From this basis the concepts in the Planning Toolkit can be adopted including:Definition of the target mode share for the region;Definition of transport corridors based on a hierarchy including primary, secondary, localand feeder corridors; andAssessment of the travel demands in the corridors using the PPHPD and select theappropriate modes for future provision in those corridors.Page 4


Figure 1.2: Master Plan Development ProcessINPUT TO MP DEVELOPMENT MP DEVELOPMENT MP EXECUTION1. Guiding Principles2. National Toolkit3. Transport Analysis Tool• Transport model• GIS land use database• Accessibility model4. Stakeholder5. External references1. Existing Situation & StakeholderEngagement2. Transit Gaps (Rail)3. Land Use Demands4. Travel Patterns5. Identify Corridor Hierarchy6. Identify Mode7. Master Plan (Implementation)8. Integration9. Benefits Review1. Technical and FinancialFeasibility2. Technical and System Design3. Implementation4. Track / Monitor5. Success Measure / BenefitRealisationFeedback to MP developmentFrom this basis the policies and measures can be selected based on the criteria of:Fix - identify current operational issues and seek to address these (such as regulation, faresstructure, monitoring integration)Improve - upgrade operations and infrastructure to appropriate standardsAttract - provide investment in the corridors through new capacity (for example new raillines) and infrastructurePush - define complementary policy measures through land use and travel demandmanagement allow the LPT modal share to achieve the targetsThe Regional LPTMP is then an assembly of the policy instruments, proposals and transformationplans for public transport in a region. Key to the success of the LPTMP is the dire need forintegration of public transport modes and the assessment of benefits. Often LPT is only one part ofthe passenger journey. Integration with other modes (public transport, private transport, walkingand cycling) is important to maximise the potential usage of LPT. This can be referred to as the„first and last mile‟.The TDMP is to set the basis for the development of travel and demand management, which canfunction as „glue‟ to join all the LPT modes together to enable easier, quicker and more convenienttransfers between LPT services. This will result in wider ranging and more frequent travelopportunities for LPT users in GKL/KV.Page 5


1.6) Structure of the Travel Demand Management PlanThis chapter provides a summary of the TDMP for the GKL/KV region. The next chapter outlines thenature of Travel Demand Management and the types of measure that can be adopted. Chapter 3identifies the LPTMP proposals and assesses the contribution that travel demand managementmeasures can make in the context of GKL/KV. Chapter 4 defines a Performance Monitoring Regimethat should be adopted to monitor progress of the LPTMP. Chapter 5 provides an overall summaryof the TDMP. Appendix A provides a series of TDM examples including international examples of bestpractice.Key ConclusionsSPAD had developed the National LPT Framework to set out the vision and guiding principles for publictransport in Malaysia.The objective of the National LPT Framework is to drive the development of the National LPTMP,which comprises of Regional LPTMPs and Sector Plans.The National LPT Framework provides a Planning Toolkit to guide the development of RegionalLPTMPs.The first Regional LPTMP developed by SPAD is for the GKL/KV region, the GKL/KV LPTMP.The TDMP is one of six subsidiary plans of the GKL/KV LPTMP.Page 6


What is Travel Demand Management?2Page 7


2. What is Travel Demand Management?2.1) IntroductionChapter 2 provides an outline of TDM. TDM is a complementary policy to the measures outlined inthe Subsidiary Plans of the LPTMP to encourage modal transfer from private vehicles. In thischapter, the distinction between policy levers which seek to influence supply and demand forpublic transport is summarised. The chapter summarises the alternative measures that can beadopted with Appendix A providing more details of the TDM measures and international exampleswhere they have been introduced.2.2) Supply and Demand Policy LeversIn developing the LPTMP consideration is given to the types of policy levers that can influence thesupply and demand relationships for public transport. The aim for the GKL/KV region is to increaseLPT modal share which will require an increase in overall ridership.The Supply side policy levers seek to increase the supply of public transport to facilitate greaterridership which can be achieved through measures to increase capacity such as:Expanding existing services (e.g. providing longer train sets)Extending the coverage of the existing LPT networkImproving service qualityDeveloping new LPT systemsImprove interchange between modesThese approaches are taken as the building blocks for the LPTMP as outlined in the Subsidiary Plans(Bus Transformation Plan - BTP, Taxi Transformation Plan - TTP, and Urban Rail Development Plan- URDP). However in many circumstances there is a need for demand led shifts which seek toincrease the usage of LPT within the existing supply levels or in tandem with supply basedmeasures.For the Demand side policy levers, there are two basic approaches to achieving a demand shift topublic transport from private transport. The first are termed „pull‟ initiatives (sometimes alsoreferred to as „Carrots‟) which seek to provide a positive influence on demand through measuressuch as:Integrated ticketingEncouraging flexible working hours and telecommuting in order to spread the peak periodtravel demandsTravel Planning InformationAdvertising CampaignsDeveloping priority measures for bus, taxi and non-motorised modesWorkplace and School Travel PlansPage 8


The second set of approaches are termed „push‟ initiatives (sometimes referred to as „Sticks‟)which seek to provide a negative influence on private vehicle demand through measures such asVehicle use restrictionsParking controlsFuel and taxationRoad user charges (RUC)Each of these measures can be considered as TDM tools.„TDM is a series of measures aimed at encouraging travel by sustainable modes in order toreduce the reliance on private vehicle transport‟.The approach considered for the GKL/KV LPTMP is to assess the contribution of push / pull demandside interventions along with supply side initiatives to maximise LPT patronage and encouragemodal shift.2.3) Objectives of Travel Demand ManagementAcross the world there are a number of objectives of TDM measures as shown in Figure 2.1. TDMmeasures achieve these goals through a range of measures aimed at:Improving users knowledge and confidence in LPT to encourage greater take-upImproving efficiency to reduce car use and support LPT through measures such as carpooling,flexible working or tele-workingPricing policies to deter car use and create mode-shiftRestrictions on car use to deter their use and create mode-shiftPromotion and marketing to change attitudes to LPT and encourage re-consideration ofLPT (particularly in tandem with LPT improvements)The selection of the TDM measure often reflects the priority of the objectives being considered.Among the common objectives for TDM include:The reduction of congestion by measures aimed at reducing peak period demandsAchieving a behavioural change to encourage a modal transfer from private vehicles topublic transportIncreasing the efficiency of the network such that the focus is on the movement of peoplerather than private vehiclesReducing emissions so as to have a positive impact on the environmentGenerating revenue which can be used to support public transport policies and services.Page 9


Figure 2.1: Objectives of Travel Demand Management MeasuresObjectives for TDMTravel Demand ManagementLimitGreenhouseEmissionsReduceCongestionEffectBehaviouralChangeIncreaseNetworkEfficiencyGenerateRevenueImprove theEnvironmentModal TransferInvestmentKey ConclusionsPolicy levers to influence public transport usage are aimed at influencing supply through theimprovement of service, increase of capacity and provision of new services.Policy levers can also seek to influence demand, either positively by encouraging LPT or by negativeinfluence on private vehicle demand such as the use of pricingTDM Measures are a series of measures aimed at encouraging travel by sustainable modes in order toreduce the reliance on private vehicle transport’Page 10


2.4) Types of Travel Demand ManagementThe initial consideration for TDM is to build upon supply based methods to encourage LPT modalshare by the enhancement of the LPT modes themselves. In essence this is one of the key planks ofthe LPTMP and is reflected in each of the Subsidiary Plans developed for the GKL/KV LPTMP. Theseapproaches include the supply initiatives to increase capacity such as:Improve and expand and existing services (e.g. providing longer train sets reflected in theUDRP- or the provision of feeder bus services in the BTP)Increase the coverage of the existing LPT network (reflected in the URDP through theextensions to existing lines)Improve service quality (reflected in each of the URDP, BTP and TTP) to encourage greateruseProvision of new LPT systems (such as the MRT lines in the URDP or the BRT corridors andfeeder bus services in the BTP) Improved interchange between modes (reflected in the Interchange and Integration Plan –IIP)Integrated ticketing (reflected in the IIP)The different types of TDM measure that have been used across the world are explained in moredetail in Appendix A. These include the „pull‟ and „push‟ initiatives.The „Pull‟ measures (or „Carrots‟) include:Travel Information Systems – including travel planners (paper based, mobile phone or otherelectronic systems- and real time information systemsAdvertising Campaigns publicising the availability of LPTWalking and Cycling- measures to encourage walking and cycling through infrastructureimprovements (better walkways, cycle lanes, cycle parking) as well as measures in theworkplace such as cycle parking, shower facilities etc. The rationale is to encouragegreater use of non-motorised modes at the expense of private vehicle usageCar Sharing and Car Pooling- these are the measures aimed at encouraging increasedvehicle occupancy to reduce private vehicle usage. Car Pooling is the use of shared car fora specific journey, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs.These car pooling schemes are often used as part of Workplace Travel Planning Schemes.Car Sharing is used as car rental where people rent cars for short period of timeThe „Push‟ measures (or „Sticks‟) include:Vehicle Use restrictions - measures to limit vehicle usage place greater reliance onroadspace for LPT and non motorised users at the expense of the private vehicle. Suchmeasures might include the provision of bus lanes by reducing the number of lanes forprivate vehicles through to complete restrictions on vehicle movement in local areasFuel and Taxation policy - In many countries fuel and taxation policy is used to reduceprivate vehicle usage by increasing the price of fuel above the rate of inflation or taxingthe purchase of new vehicles or the annual duty levied on a vehicle. The key considerationin relation to this policy is that it affects all motorists and in particular, penalises motoristsin areas with little LPT choicePage 11


Parking Controls - A more targeted approach to increasing private vehicle costs is to applycontrols on parking, either through limiting the supply (such as reducing the number ofspaces or re-allocating between long stay and short stay users) or by pricing, eitherdirectly by increasing charges or by the use of Workplace Parking leviesRoad User Charges (RUC) - RUC schemes (also called urban congestion charging or roadpricing) involve directly charging drivers for the use of the roads on which they drive. Thecharges are designed to reduce traffic congestion and its associated problems. Chargingsystems can reduce traffic levels by typically 15 to 20 percent. However they can also offereven more substantial reductions in traffic congestion help improve journey timereliability, lead to reduced vehicle emissions, reductions in accidents, improvements in thequality of the public realm and enable road-space to be released for use by LPT. They alsoraise revenue which may or may not be ploughed back into the transport system, enablingimprovements to be made to the road network and/or public transport2.5) Selecting Appropriate Travel Demand MeasuresAppendix A outlines the range of TDM measures that have been adopted across the world.In this section those measures which have the greatest potential for inclusion in theGKL/KV LPTMP are identified. Table 2.1 provides a summary of the measures and theirpotential role in GKL/KV. In this section they are divided into a series of groups:Non-motorised modesInformation and Travel PlanningPriority MeasuresCar based reduction measuresPricing Mechanisms2.5.1) Non- Motorised ModesWalking infrastructure is an important consideration for the „first and last mile‟ of a publictransport journey. Access between public transport and the users‟ origin or destination iscrucially important to reduce the barrier of using public transport. Pedestrian access tobus stops and railway stations should be encouraged as part of the local authoritydevelopment plans. Walking catchments should be defined around transit stops withinwhich audits should be undertaken to assess:Footway characteristicsThe use of covered walkways for major pedestrian access routes as appropriateCrossing facilities (whether at-grade or grade separated);Information provision to identify key walking routesSafe walking routes to key origins and destinationsConsideration to this issue is given consideration in the IIP. It is noted that the DBKL CityPlan is seeking to enhance the pedestrian environment in the city centre. StrategicDirection 5.13 seeks to provide a safe and comfortable walking environment for all groupsof pedestrian network users. Strategic Direction 5.14 of the City Plan „IncreasingConnectivity, Accessibility & Mobility of Pedestrian throughout Kuala Lumpur City Centre‟seeks to provide an interconnected pedestrian network throughout major nodes andactivity centres in Kuala Lumpur City Centre. The aim is to encourage walking as thepreferred mode of travel in the central core through three phases:Page 12


Phase 1: Major Spine - a 3 km spine from Dataran Merdeka to Chow Kit MonorailStation through Jalan Tuanku Abdul RahmanPhase 2: 14 km of primary pedestrian Walkways connecting major activity centresand transit nodesPhase 3: Construction of secondary pedestrian walkways involving 2 waves wherethe 1st wave of secondary walkway connects the key pedestrian walkways ranging9 km and extended by the 2nd wave which extend the pedestrian coveragethroughout the city centreOutside the city centre improvements, SPAD should work with the local authorities toenhance the pedestrian environment facilitating access to LPT.The inclusion of cycle infrastructure is also a consideration for the first and last mile,particularly for rail passengers. Local access to railway stations with appropriate cycleparking facilities is important. This is considered within the IIP of the GKL/KV LPTMP. Anumber of cities across the world have introduced central area Cycle Hire schemes. Forexample, Paris introduced the Velib scheme which has over 20,000 bicycles for hire and1200 bike stations. Where these cities have introduced the cycle schemes they aresupported by cycle infrastructure such as cycleways. In the context of the GKL/KV thecentral area road network does not lend itself to cycling. Therefore in the context of theLPTMP focus should be on access to stations.2.5.2) Information and Travel PlanningWithin the BTP, LPT Information provision is identified as being crucial to enhance theperception of public transport. This includes the provision of:Timetable and route information at bus stops and stationsPaper based timetables and route informationWeb-based information systemsElectronic journey planners on the web and portable phone (this can include stopinformation, location of buses, route planners).Use of improved information is important for enhancing the image of LPT in the region.The upgrading of the route permit information in the SPAD licensing regime will assist inthe identification of bus service schedules. Route permits should identify the routesserved, the stops, proposed headways and first and last buses. These data will allowtimetables to be developed, initially as paper based systems or for stops, but in the longerterm can be used to derive web-based and mobile phone based information systems. Withthe introduction of a bus stop index system, and the tracking of buses by GPS, the buildingblocks of a real time information system can be derived for implementation in the longerterm. SPAD will actively manage and encourage the development of information systemsstarting with paper based systems leading eventually to a real time information system andjourney planner. Electronic journey planners will allow users to identify the choice of LPTmode for their journey based on real time information related to the current network andschedule situation to help plan their journeys.With the development of good information systems, initiatives such as Personalised TravelPlanning (PTP) can be developed to make transport systems more efficient. PTP involvesteams of travel advisors, trained in the local transport, walking and cycling infrastructure,talking one-to-one with residents to gauge what their current primary modes of transportPage 13


are, and then to educate and inform them of alternatives they may not have consideredand supplying them with information and incentives to help them substitute regular carjourneys with more sustainable and less congested transport methods. Such methods havebeen adopted in the UK and Australia. For example, in Adelaide, one project engaged over20,000 households in structured conversations about reducing car use.Travel Planning should also be encouraged in Workplaces and Schools. Major generators oftravel demand should be encouraged to develop Travel Plans with the aim of reducing thereliance on the private vehicle in the peak periods. These plans can be defined as apackage of measures produced by employers to encourage staff to use alternatives tosingle-occupancy car use. Travel plans are now common in the United Kingdom, and arebecoming common in Australia and New Zealand. A workplace could choose to develop atravel plan at any time, or it could be required to develop a travel plan as a condition ofplanning consent for an expansion or new development. The types of initiative included inthe workplace travel plan include improving facilities for pedestrians and cyclists (showers,lockers and cycle parking), promotion and subsidy of public transport, encouragingcarpooling, working from home and teleconferencing. Similar Travel Plans can beestablished for schools to encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transport.2.5.3) Priority MeasuresThe provision of bus and taxi lanes as priority should be encouraged in the GKL/KV region.These should be backed up by appropriate enforcement measures to ensure they areutilised correctly. The emphasis should be on these rather than High Occupancy Vehicle(HOV) lanes to provide greater reliability for bus services, particularly those in BRTcorridors. In comparison with other major cities, the provision of bus lanes is low. Thereare only 11km of bus lane in KL compared with 155 km in Singapore. The BTP outlines theuse of bus lanes in the region to support BET, BRT and other bus services and the need toimprove bus reliability. As traffic growth continues in the region there will be a greaterneed to protect buses from increased congestion and the need to develop a bus prioritynetwork. This will encourage modal transfer from private vehicles.2.5.4) Car Based Reduction MeasuresCar Pooling (the shared use of a private car for a journey often by people in a commonworkplace with similar journeys)) and Car sharing schemes (used as a car rental wherepeople rent cars for short periods) could be promoted in the region but are likely to haveonly a small impact on overall private vehicle demands and thus little impact on LPT modalshare. They would require the support of local businesses and may be appropriate forsome major employers. They are not included as a potential policy measure for the LPTMP.Car free zones and car free developments should be encouraged by the local authorities ona local basis where they are appropriate. Car free developments are typically residential ormixed use developments built as new and offer a limited internal road network and parkingand are therefore designed for residents without access to a car. The key element will bethe use of stricter development control procedures as outlined in the Land Use SubsidiaryPlan which will seek to reduce the reliance on private vehicles and encourage LPT usage.Alongside development control procedures for parking controls these measures will help toreduce demands from new developments in the future.Page 14


An alternative approach to restricting car use is to limit the days on which particularvehicles can enter a city. Registration plate (licensed) traffic restraint policies based ontravel by alternative number plates have been tried in cities such as Athens and MexicoCity. These have been found to have operational issues and are not considered appropriatefor GKL/KV region. Instead a focus more on parking control and in the longer term roaduser charging would be preferred.Page 15


Table 2.1: TDM Measures for InclusionTDM MeasurePartnerInvolvementImpacton LPTDemandImpact onPrivatevehicledemandInclude inGKL/KVLPTMPCostSpeed ofImplementationPre-conditionsReason for not includingWalkingInfrastructureLocalAuthorityLow Low Yes Low Short-term Ensure appropriatestandards are definedCyclingInfrastructureLocalAuthorityLow Low Only interms of thefirst and lastmileLow Short-term Ensure appropriatestandards are definedLow % use of cycling inKL.InformationSystems oftimetable androutesLocalAuthorityMedium Low Yes Low Short-term for paperbased systems,Medium for realtime informationLPT route information.GPS units on all LPTvehiclesCar Pooling(shared use ofprivate cars)Business/private sectorLow Low Yes Low Short term Major employersupportSchemes could bepromoted but with onlyhave minimal impactCar Sharing (Carrental)Business/private sectorLow Low No Low Short-medium term Local business support Schemes could bepromoted but with onlyhave minimal impactHOV LanesLocalAuthority/MOWLow Low No Low Short term Enforcementdifficulties and highvehicle occupancy inKL/KVFocus should be on busand taxi lanes ratherthan encouraging car useBus LanesLocalAuthority/MOWMedium Low Yes Low Short term EnforcementCar Free ZonesLocalAuthorityLowLowmediumYesLowmediumShort-mediumPage 16


TDM MeasurePartnerInvolvementImpacton LPTDemandImpact onPrivatevehicledemandInclude inGKL/KVLPTMPCostSpeed ofImplementationPre-conditionsReason for not includingNewdevelopments- carfreeLocalAuthorityLowYesLowmediumLowmediumShort - MediumEngagement with localauthorities anddevelopers. Need goodtransit linksLicensed basedTraffic RestraintSystemLocalAuthorityMediumLowmediumNo Medium Medium term Enforcement Operational issuesTaxes on fuel MOF Medium High No Low Short – Medium All areas well servedwith LPTNeeds national policydecision, likely to beunfair on rural areas orthose with no LPTNew Car PurchaseTaxationMOF Low Medium No Low Short – Medium Political decision Is done to an extent onforeign cars but wouldaffect local productVehicle ExciseDuty (Road Tax)MOF Low Medium No Low Short – Medium All areas well servedwith LPTNeeds national policydecision, likely to beunfair on rural areas orthose with no LPTParking ChargesParking SupplyPrivatesectorLocalauthoritiesMedium Medium Yes Low Short term Private sector carparks supportMedium Medium Yes Low Short – Medium Development controlconditionsParking Sales Tax Medium Medium No Medium- Long Term Free spaces insuburban areas forparkingConcern over increasein free spaces,particularly in suburbanareasPage 17


TDM MeasurePartnerInvolvementImpacton LPTDemandImpact onPrivatevehicledemandInclude inGKL/KVLPTMPCostSpeed ofImplementationPre-conditionsReason for not includingParking Levy DBKL/ LA's Low Medium Yes LowmediumMedium- Long TermNeeds enforcementsystem. The chargelikely to be borne byemployersDevelopmentControlDBKL/ LA's Medium Medium Yes Low Medium- Long Term Support from localauthoritiesCordon Road UserChargeDBKL/LA's/MOWHigh High Yes High Medium- Long Term Ensuring LPTalternatives are inplaceCorridor/ PointRoad User ChargeDBKL/LA's/MOWMedium Medium No High Medium- Long Term Limited impact ondemand compared tocordonPotentially greaterimpact as a cordonNetwork RoadUser ChargeDBKL/ LA's High High No High Medium- Long Term Ensuring LPTalternatives are inplaceMore politicallyacceptable as a centralarea cordonArea LicenceDBKL/LA's/MOWHigh High No High Medium- Long Term Ensuring LPTalternatives are inplaceCould be a cordon orlicencePage 18


2.5.5) Pricing MechanismsIn many countries fuel and taxation policies are used to reduce private vehicle usage.Policies include additional taxes on fuel, new car purchases or the annual vehicle exciseduty. These have been found to have an impact on the purchase and use of privatevehicles. However such a policy would need to be set at a national level and in thecontext of Malaysia could have a significant impact on the local car manufacturingindustry. Policies of fuel price increase can have a greater impact in rural areas wherejourney lengths are longer and there is little alternative LPT choice. Therefore in thecontext of GKL/KV a more targeted traffic restraint policy would be required to encourageLPT use through restrictions on car use through pricing in the local area. Should policies onfuel and vehicles be considered by Central Government, then SPAD will seek to ensure thatthe revenues are fed back to SPAD for use in the Local LPT fund to support LPT servicesacross the nation.A more targeted restraint policy can be applied through parking policies by controls on theduration, location and price of parking. Many cities have introduced innovative parkingpolicies as part of an overall transport strategy to encourage LPT modal share. The use ofparking controls as a policy instrument is discussed in the Land Use Plan. Approachesinclude:Increasing parking tariffs- which typically works if the spaces are under the controlof a local authorityRestricting the number of spaces (through development control processes and forlocal authority public spaces)Restricting the length of time users can park- such that long stay users such ascommuters are encouraged to use LPTIntroducing a parking tax on the price paid for parking (in some US cities this hassimply encouraged free car parks outside city centres)Introducing a Parking Space Levy where a charge is levied per space rather thanper transaction (such as in many Australian cities including Sydney where fundsfrom the PSL are used to support LPT services)Introducing a Workplace Parking Levy- where the charge is applied only toworkplace parking spaces and businesses must register all spacesEach of these methods can have an impact on traffic levels. Propose to encouragerestraint on parking provision by the control of the number of spaces and their type.Strategic Direction 5.11 of the KL City Plan relates to managing car parking and seeks tomanage the supply and distribution of parking in city centre to enhance LPT usage. Theissue of parking charge increases is more problematic due to the extent of privateownership of car parks which might lead to consideration of a Sales levy (per transaction)or a levy per space. The former has been found in North America to encourage dispersalfrom city centres to suburban areas. Additionally, a proportion of users will not be subjectto a parking charge as they have a space provided for them at their destination.Therefore, other road user charging mechanisms are more likely to have an impact onoverall traffic levels. SPAD will undertake a feasibility study to assess the traffic restraintoptions more fully.Alongside parking controls, the most effective policy to influence car mode share would beto develop a Road User Charging scheme (RUC). RUC can take the following three basicforms, although for each of them there are a range of variations, from simple to complex:Page 19


Area or zonal schemes - Vehicles using all roads within a designated area pay alicence fee, usually within designated times and sometimes related to vehicletype. The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme was an early example. The congestioncharging scheme operating in Central London applies the same principle but doesnot vary charges by vehicle typeCordon pricing (or „toll rings‟) - Charging points are located at all entries to a givenarea (often a city centre), usually with higher charges for large or pollutingvehicles and at more congested times of day. Charges are incurred when vehiclespass a charging point. Oslo has been operating a toll ring since 1990 and theStockholm scheme uses cordonsCorridor or point charges- such as for a crossing location (bridge or tunnel) or tollroad corridorContinuous charging systems - These charge vehicles for all travel within a definedarea (such as a city). The charge can be based on the distance travelled or timespent travelling, or can involve a charging point on every road link. The complexityof these systems means that a fully automatic electronic charging system(„electronic road pricing‟ or ERP) must be used. Singapore is using an ERP system.This is not yet a truly continuous system, but may become one in the future.Alternative methods have been tested across the globeThere are a now a number of RUC schemes introduced across the world (see Appendix A).The most successful have been in London and Singapore. In the former, a charge is leviedon all journeys in Central London during the operating hours while in Singapore the userpays using an electronic road pricing for every cordon or screenline they pass.In the context of KL the most likely approach would be to adopt an area charging scheme.However, the development of such a scheme needs to be thoroughly studied in terms of itsfeasibility, acceptability and effectiveness. At this stage it is too soon for the LPTMP toindicate when road user charging might be needed for the GKL/KV region. This shouldinvestigate the spatial needs for a scheme by defining the most appropriate areas for sucha policy. Many cities target areas of significant congestion or in need of environmentalprotection.The timing of RUC schemes is crucial in that LPT alternatives should be in place to allowusers to change mode. Within the KL City Plan, Strategic Direction 5.10 relates torestraining traffic within the City Centre. This policy envisages restraining traffic withinthe City Centre through Congestion Pricing to achieve an efficient use of road space. Thedocument suggests 14 road pricing stations to establish a cordon within the MRR1.However, the policy does suggest that congestion pricing should only be introduced onceall public transport is in place.Page 20


2.6) SPAD’s Role in Travel Demand ManagementThe SPAD Act 2010 outlines the function of SPAD. A key role is to advise on the development ofplans and policies in respect of land public transport including those related to:The provision, development, improvement and expansion of land public transport in linewith anticipated user demandThe enhancement of safety, reliability and efficiency of land public transport servicesthrough the formulation, implementation and monitoring of minimum performancestandardsThe promotion and improvement of co-ordination, integration and accessibility within theland public transport systemThe competition framework in respect of the supply of land public transport servicesTDM mechanismsTherefore the GKL/KV LPTMP needs to integrate the role of TDM with the wider policy initiatives toimprove bus, rail and taxi operations in the region.In this chapter, a range of TDM initiatives have been reviewed and the potential measures forconsideration identified. The next chapter outlines the process of defining mode share targetswithin the LPTMP as these set the benchmark against which the performance of the plan can beassessed.Key ConclusionA range of TDM measures have been identified. They range from measures which influence the supplyof public transport through to measures to influence demand.Measures to influence demand can be through positive influence (improvements to LPT or promotingwalking and cycling) or through negatively influencing private vehicle usage through price or limitingvehicle usage.TDM measures need to be integrated into the LPTMP in order to support the increased LPT ridership inthe regionPage 21


Linking Travel Demand Management tothe Land Public Transport Master Plan3Page 22


3. Linking Travel Demand Management to the LandPublic Transport Master Plan3.1) IntroductionThe previous chapter provided background to TDM measures and provided an initial indication ofthe types of measures that might be suitable in KL. This chapter identifies how the TDM measuresstrengthen the LPTMP for the GKL/KV. The starting point is to define mode share targets for theregion over time. The LPTMP measures seek to achieve these targets with the support of TDM. Thechapter then examines how the performance of the plan would be enhanced by TDM measures.3.2) Defining Mode Share TargetsThe performance of the LPTMP will need to be assessed using a variety of indicators based ontravel time, accessibility and quality. The key indicator will be the mode share within the GKL/KVregion.„Mode Share = percentage of journeys made by land public transport (including bus and rail)‟In defining the mode share targets these can be set for the region as a whole or for differentspatial areas within the region. Incremental targets can be set for different areas so for example acity centre could have a higher target than outer suburban or rural areas. This reflects the supplyof public transport. Targets can be set for different times of the day such as weekday peakperiods, inter peak, or weekends.As part of the NKRA, there has been monitoring of modal split within the GKL/KV. This has shownthat public transport modal share for the morning peak (0700-0900) has steadily fallen over theyears from 34% in 1995 to 20% in 1999 (Based on the 1999 Study on Integrated Urban TransportStrategies for Environmental Improvement conducted by the Japan International Co-operationAgency (JICA), or more commonly known as the „JICA Study”) and 12% in 2008. As part of the NKRAthe Prime Minister has set a national priority of delivering a 25% modal share for public transport inthe Klang Valley by 2012 during AM peak periods. The GKL/KV LPTMP needs to provide a modeshare target for the longer term.For the LPTMP a more disaggregated approach is proposed as shown in Figure 3.1. This recognisesthat a region is not homogenous reflecting differences in the level of public transport supply suchas the presence of high capacity modes (rail corridors) as well as demands created due to land usewhich influence travel patterns. The measurement of modal share is assumed to follow a series ofguiding principles:The overall measurement is that defined within the region as a wholeThe principle Centre of Gravity should be defined as the Central Business Districts (CBD) ofthe major centreThe area reflecting the urban area should be defined as a key sectorOther Centres of Gravity should be defined reflecting other key centres within the regionOther key points reflecting important suburban centres should be definedPage 23


In the context of the GKL/KV the monitoring is proposed:Within the region as a wholeCBD of KL (area bounded by MRR1)KL sector (area bounded by MRR2)Key centres of Shah Alam, Klang, Petaling Jaya and PutrajayaOther key points such as Selayang, Serdang, Rawang, Puchong, Subang, Sunway and KajangFigure 3.1: Conceptual Model for MonitoringArea outside measurement for modal shareArea of measurement (used as region in PTMP)Centre ofGravity IIOther keypointsCentre ofGravity IICentre ofGravity ISurrounding I• Overall area of measurementthat is within the defined region• Centre of gravity which typicallyis the central business district ofcity or town• Surrounding the centre is ofsecondary active area, typicallyfound in large capital• Measurement of modal share forcentre, surrounding and othersare mutually exclusive• Vehicles on road (for modalshare) are measured uponcrossing over and within it• Geographical boundaries areused to demarcate each centresand its surroundingThe initial mode share targets within the LPTMP are defined for these different areas. The modeshare targets have been defined as:A base target which the strategy is expected to achieveAn aggressive target which sets an overall aimTable 3.1 shows the 20 year target for mode share within the different areas of the region. Thebase target for the KL city centre is 50% by LPT with an aggressive target of 60%. The base targetfor the area of KL surrounding the CBD is 30% which reflects the lower density of LPT network(aggressive target 50%). For the other important centres a base target of 35% is set (aggressivetarget 50%). For other key points a 20% base target is set (aggressive target 35%).Page 24


Table 3.1: Mode Share Targets for Greater KL/ Klang Valley - 20 year to 2030Mode Share Targets Base (%) Aggressive(%)Centre of Gravity 1 = KL (within Middle Ring Road 1) 50 60Surrounding 1 = KL (within Middle Ring Road 2) 30 50Centre of Gravity 2 = Shah Alam, Klang, Petaling Jaya, Putrajaya 35 50Other Key points = Selayang, Serdang, Rawang, Puchong,Subang. Sunway and Kajang20 25Figure 3.2 shows how the target mode share is expected to evolve over time from the expected25% level in 2012 through to the future targets.Figure 3.2: Mode Share target for central KL over TimeFigure 3.2: Mode Share TrendsPage 25


3.3) The Greater KL/ Klang Valley Land Public Transport Master PlanThe GKL/KV LPTMP provides a public transport Master Plan for 20 years for the region. Figure 3.3shows the range of modal measures proposed as part of the LPTMP. These include a range ofimprovements to rail, bus and taxi services in the region.Figure 3.3: Land Public Transport Master Plan ElementsThe purpose of the URDP is to define broad corridors where new and improved lines are needed inaddition to existing commitments. In line with the guiding principles the rationale behind these areto:Maximise the potential use of the current assets and the quality of serviceProvide an expansion of capacity of to cope with demands through extensionsConstruct new lines to meet demand and future developmentsFollowing publication, a more detailed technical assessment will be required of the engineeringand operational feasibility. That stage will examine the exact alignment that should be adoptedfor new lines and the location of stations.In order to identify these proposals an initial technical analysis was undertaken using the transportanalysis tool to assess ridership and accessibility which sought to compare alternative options forindividual corridors, or between providing new lines in alternative corridors.Page 26


As part of the LPTMP the proposed rail enhancements to the primary corridors include:Upgrade of the KTM service between Klang and KL Sentral to provide a „metro‟ styleserviceUpgrade of the KTM service between Seremban and Rawang/ Batu Caves to provide a„metro‟ style serviceProvision of a new MRT Circle line around KLProvision of a new north west-south east MRT line to serve the city centreDevelopment of an LRT line to operate between Kelana Jaya LRT, Shah Alam and KlangThe proposed rail enhancements to the secondary corridors include:Extension of the KL MonorailCompletion of the Putrajaya MonorailDevelopment of an outer orbital route linking suburban centresThe BTP provides a series of initiatives to transform bus services in the GKL/KV region and include:Reform of the regulatory framework such that competitive tendering is adopted for routeswithin the regionIntroduction of bus priority measures to improve reliabilityEnforcement of bus priority measuresEnhancement of bet corridorsIntroduction of BRT on secondary corridorsDevelop local and feeder bus services to support the changes in the rail networkIntroduction of new vehicle fleetImproved bus stop infrastructureImproved information systemsWithin the TTP, the proposed taxi enhancements includeEnhanced quality standards to drivers, and vehiclesUse of priority measures as appropriatePage 27


3.4) Performance of the Land Public Transport Master PlanA series of Transport Analysis Tools have been developed to assess the impact of land use andtransport schemes on future travel demands, travel times and accessibility. The tools include:Land Use database which utilises the data provided by DBKL, Selangor UPEN andPerbadanan PutrajayaTrip generation model which uses the land use information to derive the forecast traveldemands in the regionMulti-modal transport model which derives the future travel patterns on the network interms of flows, and travel timesAccessibility model which shows the impact of travel times on access to locations withinthe study area for catchment area analysisThe key factors in the assessment of the future situation are travel demands, including travelpatterns, travel times and accessibility and other considerations such as the network supply, landuse and other known technical constraints. Land use data have been assembled from the localauthorities to reflect future population and employment changes identified in Structure and LocalPlans. The development of the LPTMP recognises the need for consistency between the needs ofthese plans and the requirements for public transport. Therefore the LPTMP has taken account ofthe location of major development areas which need to be served by public transport.Data have been collated from the local authorities in relation to the KL City Plan, the SelangorState Structure Plan, Putrajaya Master Plan and district local plans. The latest versions of the planshave been reviewed to identify their data, land use policies and development proposals. From thisbasis, the transport recommendations of the LPTMP are developed using an independentsystematic and methodological approach as outlined in this chapter. This allows consistency andintegration of the LPT elements of the LPTMP with the development aspirations of the land useplans.The population forecasts assume a capacity of 10 million people in the region with the largestgrowth forecast in Klang, Sepang and Putrajaya. This is a 59% increase in population compared to2010. There are a number of major residential developments proposed within the land use planswhich was incorporated into the LPTMP. The household size projections within the plans areforecast to drop further to 3.93 persons per household in 2020. This growth will maintain thepressure on the transport networks with increased demand for movement across the region.Forecasts have been produced for the morning peak 2020 situation with those committed schemesand the MRT1. The forecast morning peak hour travel demands by all modes (private and publictransport) in the region show large radial movements towards the central area of Kuala Lumpur.Demand for all modes crossing the MMR1 as forecast for 2020 shows strong flows in all the corridorswith the highest demands being from the Petaling Jaya/ Shah Alam/ Klang corridor. Within theregion there are also strong orbital demands in the suburban areas, particularly to areas such asPetaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The largest flows are in the Petaling Jaya area along corridors suchas the North-South Expressway and the Damansara-Puchong Expressway (LDP) corridor. In additionto these flows between centres, there is a wide diversity of local movements within the suburbanareas such as local movements within Shah Alam or Klang. Although lower than the radial demandsinto the centre of Kuala Lumpur, these demands require high quality LPT access.Page 28


The transport analysis tools have been used to assess the performance of the GKL/KV LPTMP. Themodel runs have been undertaken to assess the impact of the LPT improvements on their ownbefore assessing what additional elements are required. The model includes stages to represent:Trip generation- based on the land use data- the number of morning peak trips areestimated for each origin and destination zoneTrip distribution- provides a forecast of the travel patterns between origin and destination(the starting point for this process is a based year matrix to which incremental changes areappliedMode split- to assess the choice of mode (car or motorcycle against LPT)Assignment- allocated trips to a highway and LPT network in order to derive line loadingsor highway flowsInitial indicative morning peak model runs have been undertaken to show the results of the LPTMPwith limited TDM measures. Then a series of sensitivity tests have been undertaken to show thecomparison:Base year (2011) modelForecast model assuming all the LPTMP measures in place as outlined in the URDP, BTP andTTPLPTMP with increased fuel prices applied to all trips- assuming a 20% increase in fuel priceIncreased parking chargesRUC scheme in the centre of KL of RM10 per trip across the cordon (assumed to be withinMRR1)Table 3.2 shows the modelled morning peak mode share achieved with each of the tests for theGKL/KV region as a whole and for trips to/from centre KL (defined as being within MRR1). Thetable shows that in the base the overall mode share for the region is 16% by LPT. This compareswith a modelled mode share on 38% by LPT to the city centre of KL in the morning peak. With theLPTMP measures outlined in the Subsidiary Plans the regional mode share is forecast to grow to 44%by 2030, and to 59% to/from the KL city centre. With the inclusion of a road user charging schemeto the area within MRR1 the regional mode share increases to 47% but the mode share to the citycentre shows a greater increase to 71% by LPT. These tests provide an early indication that toachieve more aggressive targets may require the use of „stick‟ measures to encourage a modaltransfer from car to LPT. The potential feasibility of a RUC scheme should be considered at somestage during the plan.Page 29


Table 3.2: Morning Peak Mode Share for Greater KL/ Klang Valley- (Source: Greater KL Model)TestModelled LPTMode ShareTrips to/fromKl CityCentre(%)Modelled LPTMode ShareGKL/KVregion(%)Base 38% 16%PTMP 59% 44%PTMP with 20% fuel price increase 60% 45%PTMP with parking charge increase 63% 45%PTMP with central area RUC 71% 47%The journey time maps to the centre KL in Figure 3.4 show a much greater area of lower LPT traveltimes with the LPTMP compared to existing commitments. Accessibility has also been mapped withthe LPTMP improvements and shown in Figure 3.5. This shows a greater area of improvedaccessibility including areas along the additional MRT lines and in the Klang Valley. This will assistthe economic performance of the region.Page 30


Figure 3.4: 2020 Modelled Perceived Travel Time to Centre KL (without/ with) the LPTMPFigure 3.5: 2020 Accessibility Map - with LPTMPPage 31


3.5) The Action PlanFigure 3.6 outlines an Action Plan for the TDMP over the life of the plan. A key initiative will bethe development of a Performance Monitoring Regime- the potential for which is outlined in thenext chapter. Within the first 5 years of the LPTMP the focus is to introduce elements which aidthe „first and last mile‟ such as improvements to pedestrian and cycling networks. Bus priorityschemes should also be encouraged as identified within the BTP. Travel information systemsshould be developed in a phased approach. This includes the provision of:Timetable and route information at bus stops and stationsPaper based timetables and route informationWeb-based information systemsElectronic journey planners on the web and smart phone (this can include stopinformation, location of buses, route planners, etc)Real time information systemsThe timing, and nature of mechanisms needed to influence the price of private vehicle motoringneed to be assessed with a range of stakeholders including local authorities, MoT and MoF. A jointfeasibility study could be undertaken in the early years of the plan to assess the feasibility,acceptability and impact of alternative charging options (including parking, taxation and road usercharging). The feasibility study should identify the appropriate time to implement such a policymeasure and the monitoring needed to identify implementation.Figure 3.6: Implementation PlanPage 32


Key ConclusionThe TDMP identifies the methodology for deriving Mode Share targets for the GKL/KV regionMode Share targets are defined for separate areas in the region reflecting their differingcharacteristicsBase targets have been derived for each area alongside more aggressive targets that requiresstronger TDM measuresA LPTMP strategy has been developed which seeks to maximise the potential use of the current assetsand quality of service, provide expansion of existing capacity to cope with new demands andconstruct new lines to meet demands and future developmentsPage 33


Performance Monitoring4Page 34


4. Performance Monitoring4.1) IntroductionChapter 3 outlined the proposals in the LPTMP and the role of TDM in delivering the strategy. Akey issue for the plan will be to monitor its effect. This section outlines the role of monitoring.4.2) Key Performance IndicatorsThe performance of the LPTMP will need to be assessed using a variety of Key PerformanceIndicators (KPIs). These will relate to key indicators that reflect the objectives and sub objectivesof the LPTMP.The objectives as defined within the National LPT Framework include:Increase economic competitiveness and growth.To improve health, safety and security.To improve LPT access, connectivity and integration.To enable efficiency and affordability.To provide equality of opportunity.To improve the environment.Sub-objectives are defined for each of these with a series of performance indicators as shown inTable 4.1. Each element will require a rolling programme of surveys to monitor performance. Theaim is that there should be an Annual Transport Monitoring Report for the GKL/KV region.4.2.1) Economic CompetitivenessThe aim of these indicators is to assess the effectiveness of public transport in terms oftravel times and access to employment and key international links. For access toemployment the key indicator is the number of jobs within 75 minutes of residents. Thiswill require outputs from the transport model which will need to be updated annually toreflect the latest service patterns. From the model zone to zone travel times can beproduced which are assessed using census data by zone to reflect the number of residents.Given that the census data is available every 10 years it is proposed that „base year‟ dataare updated using information from local authorities on the number of completions ofhousehold units during the intervening years.The access to international links will be measured by the mode share and travel times bypublic transport to KLIA. Mode share can be assessed using a survey of employees anddeparting passengers at KLIA. The passenger survey should cover aspects such as:Number in the partyOrigin of journey to access KLIAMode of access to KLIA (bus, rail, taxi, hire car, car parked at airport, kiss and fly)Time of dayDestination of flightUser information (age, sex, household income)Page 35


Table 4.1: Indicators for MonitoringObjective Sub Objective Indicator SurveyEconomicCompetitivenessAccess to JobsNumber of peoplewithin 75 minsuse of transport model- validation ofmodel journey times using surveysAccess to InternationalLinksMode share to KLIAsurvey of passengers and employees atKLIAAccess to InternationalLinksTravel times by busand rail to KLIAJourney time surveys for key routesJourney times Travel times by car Journey time surveys for key routesJourney times travel times by bus Journey time surveys for key routesJourney times Travel times by rail Journey time surveys for key routesCapacity PT capacity Assessment of capacity of systemCapacity Rail ridership Boarding and alighting counts at stationsCapacity Bus ridership Information from bus operators andboarding and alighting counts on keyroutes/ locationsHealth Safetyand SecurityPersonal Security Incidents on LPT Reported incidents/ crimes by modeRoad accidentsNumber of roadaccidentsReported accidentsEncourage healthylifestylesMode shareRolling household surveysLPT Access,Connectivityand IntegrationAccess to LPTNumber of peopleliving within 400mof serviceNetwork reviewQuality of Journey Rail Quality Customer Satisfaction SurveysQuality of Journey Bus Quality Customer Satisfaction SurveysQuality of Journey Taxi Quality Customer Satisfaction SurveysIntegration with land useDevelopercontributionsVolume of developer contributionsEfficiency Reliability Bus reliability % of vehicle kilometres operatedReliability Rail reliability % of vehicle kilometres operatedReliability Bus reliability % of buses within 10 mins of scheduledtimeReliability Rail reliability % of rail services within 10 mins ofscheduled timeLPT Mode Share Mode Share KL CBD Traffic surveys and pedestrian surveysacross MRR1LPT Mode ShareMode Share outsideKL CBDRolling Household survey, traffic counts,bus and rail occupancy surveysPage 36


Objective Sub Objective Indicator SurveyLPT Mode ShareMode Share KeycentresRolling Household survey, traffic counts,bus and rail occupancy surveysLPT Mode ShareMode Share otherkey pointsRolling Household survey, traffic counts,bus and rail occupancy surveysValue for money Spend on LPTMP Monitor spending progress againstbudgetDeliverabilityLPTMP elementsintroducedMonitor progress of LPTMP elementsEquality ofOpportunityAccess for All Access indicator Composite indicator reflecting issuessuch as step free stations, accessiblebus stops. Assessed through an Audit.Affordable Pricing Fare level Monitor fare as % of household incomehouseholdsurveyEnvironment Air Quality CO emissions Veh-kmsThe airport employee survey should cover aspects such as:Origin of journey to access KLIAMode of access to KLIA (bus, rail, taxi, motorcycle, car parked at airport, kiss andfly)Time of dayUser information (age, sex, job at airport, household income)In order to assess travel times to the airport a series of journey time surveys should beundertaken by rail, bus and car (the latter require surveys from selected locations to theairport). For the bus survey use could be made of GPS units on the vehicle to monitortravel times. For private vehicle a number of journey time observations would be requiredon selected routes.Similarly journey times in the GKL/KV region could be monitored for a series of definedroutes. These might include a series of surveys on key corridors to the centre of KL as wellas movements to key outer centres such as between Klang and Shah Alam or to Putrajaya.The number of routes should be defined in a monitoring programme definition. Use shouldbe made of rail timetables to assess rail time. For the bus survey use could be made of GPSunits on the vehicle to monitor travel times. For private vehicle a number of journey timeobservations would be required on selected routes.PT capacity should reflect the level of service on the network. The capacity can be definedby the frequency of trains and their seating and standing capacity. The collection of railand bus ridership data from operators can be used to assess the level of over-crowding onthe LPT network to aid the evaluation of passenger comfort.Page 37


4.2.2) Health, Safety and SecurityPersonal safety should be monitored through the number of reported incidents on the LPTnetwork as well as being assessed through customer satisfaction surveys to assess theperception of safety on the system. A rolling programme of surveys should be undertakenannually to assess any concerns. Use can also be made of any feedback to the SPAD forum.Accidents can be measured through the number of reported accidents- either by road(including bus and taxi) or by rail. Accidents should be classified according to thoseinvolving fatalities, serious injury or others4.2.3) LPT Access, Connectivity and IntegrationAccess to the LPT system can be monitored through the number of people living within 400metres of a bus or rail network. Given that the census data is available every 10 years it isproposed that „base year‟ data are updated using information from local authorities on thenumber of completions of household units during the intervening years. The populationdata can be compared against the LPT supply data to assess the catchments served.Quality of service should be monitored through a rolling programme of customersatisfaction surveys. Separate surveys should be undertaken for each mode identifying theusers satisfaction with different elements of the LPT service. For example, a taxi surveymight assess the customers reaction to issues such as:Charge according to the meterWillingness to go to destinationService availabilityCall serviceUser's safetyTaxi conditionDrivers' attitudeThe integration with land use might assess the level of developer contributions obtainedfrom developers and the percentage spent on public transport.4.2.4) EfficiencyA key feature of the LPTMP will be to introduce some form of performance monitoring ofpublic services in the region. For bus and rail this will need to assess the proposedvehicle kilometres to be operated during the year in comparison with the actual vehiclekilometres served. This could be monitored on a monthly basis to assess trends by routeand operator. The difference between the two values will give an indication of theservice reliability and those operators who perform poorly should be penalised.For rail in particular, a performance indicator should be the number of trains arrivingwithin 10 minutes of the scheduled time. This should take into account any cancellationsas well as those trains which are delayed.Page 38


Efficiency is also measured by the LPT mode share. As outlined earlier this should reflectthe mode shares in different parts of the region including:Within the region as a wholeThe CBD of Kuala Lumpur (defined as the area bounded by MRR1)A KL sector reflecting the area within MRR2For the key centres of Shah Alam, Klang, Petaling Jaya and PutrajayaOther key points such as Selayang, Serdang, Rawang, Puchong, Subang/Saunway/KajangThe approach to assessing mode share is through a range of survey methods. These shouldinclude:Traffic counts across defined cordons and screenlines such as MRR1, MRR2Rail ridership estimation across the same cordons and screenlines from operatordataBus ridership estimation across the same cordons and screenlines from operatordata and observation surveysA rolling programme of household surveysThe rolling programme of household surveys should assess for a sample of householdsacross the region information. for a variety of aspects including:Household information- including numbers in the household, their age, car andmotor cycle ownershipPerson information- including the number of employed residents or school pupilsTravel information- the completion of a travel diary to identify the number andlocation of journeys undertaken during the dayThe travel diaries will be used to provide mode share estimates for all modes includingpublic transport, private vehicle, and motor cycle. Where possible the survey shouldidentify the journey purpose and the time of day for the journey. This travel informationwill supplement information obtained from the census journey to work survey. It isproposed that the rolling programme is undertaken each year with an appropriate sampleto give statistically significant results.4.2.5) Equality of OpportunityAn Access indicator can be derived which reflects the ease of access to the transportsystem. Transport for London (TfL) for example uses a composite indicator reflectingaccessible bus stops, accessible crossings, and step free stations. This will require aninventory to be undertaken to assess facilities.The household survey should be able to provide an indication of household income and theamount spent on transport.Page 39


4.2.6) EnvironmentThe traffic counts, household surveys and model outputs will allow an assessment of theamount of vehicle kilometres travelled in the region. From this an estimate of emissionswill be possible using international best practice.Key ConclusionThe LPTMP should be developed under a Performance Monitoring Regime to track the performance ofthe elements.Key Performance Indicators should be mapped against the National LPT Framework objectives toallow a survey programme to be definedA series of indicators have been proposed alongside potential survey methodsPage 40


Summary5


5. SummarySPAD has developed the National LPT Framework to set out the vision and direction for LPT in Malaysia. Thepurpose is to develop a long term programme to address the current deterioration in LPT with plans toexecute high impact and effective delivery initiatives for a 20-year sustainable national LPT service.The National LPT Framework outlines the National LPT Policy which provides guidance and directiontowards developing the National LPTMP. Included in the National LPT Framework is also a Planning Toolkitwhich provides the guidance on the methodology for setting objectives, plan development, identification ofpolicy measures and assessments of solutions. The Planning Toolkit facilitates the development of RegionalLPTMPs and enables interfacing with State-specific plans and land use policies.The first Regional LPTMP developed by SPAD is for the Greater KL/ Klang Valley region. The TDMP is one ofsix Subsidiary Plans of the GKL/KV LPTMP, and relates to travel demand management in the region.Together these six plans provide an integrated LPT plan for the GKL/KV region.In order to aid the development of the GKL/KV LPTMP, a series of Guiding Principles have been developedexamining issues related to accessibility, capacity, social inclusion and the environment.The building blocks for the LPTMP are outlined in the Subsidiary Plans (BTP, TTP, and URDP). However inmany circumstances there is a need for demand led shifts which seek to increase the usage of LPT withinthe existing supply levels or in tandem with supply based measures. A range of TDM measures have beenreviewed in the production of this plan to assess those with potential in GKL/KV.For the Demand side policy levers, there are two basic approaches to achieving a demand shift to publictransport from private transport. The first are termed „pull‟ initiatives (sometimes also referred to as„Carrots‟) which seek to provide a positive influence on demand through measures such asIntegrated ticketingEncouraging flexible working hours and telecommuting in order to spread the peak period traveldemandsTravel Planning InformationAdvertising CampaignsDeveloping priority measures for bus, taxi and non-motorised modesWorkplace and School Travel PlansThe second set of approaches are termed „push‟ initiatives (sometimes referred to as „Sticks‟) which seek toprovide a negative influence on private vehicle demand through measures such asVehicle use restrictionsFuel and taxationParking controlsRUCThe selection of the TDM measure often reflects the priority of the objectives being considered. Among thecommon objectives for TDM include:The reduction of congestion by measures aimed at reducing peak period demands.Page 42


Achieving a behavioural change to encourage a modal transfer from private vehicles to publictransport.Increasing the efficiency of the network such that the focus is on the movement of people ratherthan private vehicles.Reducing carbon emissions so as to have a positive impact on the environment.Generating revenue which can be used to support public transport policies and services.A range of TDM measures have been incorporated into the LPTMP.In order to support the LPTMP the following measures are needed:Travel Planning Information, including the development of Workplace and School Travel PlansAdvertising CampaignsDeveloping priority measures for bus, taxi and non-motorised modesIntegrated ticketingEncouraging flexible working hours and telecommuting in order to spread the peak period traveldemandsParking controlsFuel price policyVehicle use restrictionsRUCThe timing of RUC schemes is crucial in that LPT alternatives should be in place to allow users to changemode. Within the KL City Plan, Strategic Direction 5.10 relates to restraining traffic within the City Centre.This policy envisages restraining traffic within City Centre through Congestion Pricing to achieve an efficientuse of road space. The document suggests 14 road pricing stations to establish a cordon within the MRR1.However, the policy does suggest that congestion pricing should only be introduced once all public transportis in place.At this stage it is too soon for the LPTMP to indicate when road user charging might be needed for theGKL/KV region. The LPTMP recommends that RUC should be investigated further through a feasibility studywith a view to determining the type of scheme (in terms of type, area, and charge).The TDMP has defined a series of mode share targets. These recognise that the region is not homogenous asthere will be differences in the level of public transport supply reflecting the presence of high capacitymodes such as rail corridors as well demands created due to land use which influence travel patterns. Themeasurement of modal share is assumed to follow a series of guiding principles:The overall measurement is that defined within the region as a wholeThe principle Centre of Gravity should be defined as the Central Business Districts of the majorcentreThe area reflecting the urban area should be defined as a key sectorOther Centres of Gravity should be defined reflecting other key centres within the regionOther key points reflecting important suburban centres should be definedIn the context of the GKL/KV the monitoring is proposed:Page 43


Within the region as a wholeCBD of KL (area bounded by MRR1)KL sector (area bounded by MRR2)Key centres of Shah Alam, Klang, Petaling Jaya and PutrajayaOther key points such as Selayang, Serdang, Rawang, Puchong, Subang and KajangPage 44


Appendix A


Appendix A TDM MeasuresA.1)IntroductionThis chapter outlines the different types of TDM measure that have used. These include the „pull‟and „push‟ initiatives. The („Pull‟) measures includeImprovements to Public Transport.Walking and Cycling.Car Sharing and Car Pooling.The „Push‟ measures (or sticks) includeLimits on vehicle usage.Fuel and Taxation policy.Parking Controls.Workplace parking levies.Area user charges.Cordon charges.Distance based charging.Within this chapter we outline the rationale behind each of the approaches and provideinternational examples to demonstrate how and where they have been used. The chapter thenprovides a link to Chapter 4 which assess the suitable measures for GKL/KV have taken account ofthe transit gaps and the future land use patterns identified by the local authorities.A.2)TDM Measures - ‘Pull’ Initiatives –Improving LPTThe initial consideration in TDM is typically to seek measures to encourage LPT modal share by theenhancement of LPT themselves. In essence this is one of the key planks of the LPTMP and isreflected in each of the Subsidiary Plans developed for the GKL/KV LPTMP.These approaches include the supply initiatives to increase capacity such as:Expanding existing services (e.g. providing longer train sets reflected in the UDRP- or theprovision of feeder bus services in the BTP).Extending the coverage of the existing LPT network (reflected in the URDP through theextensions to existing lines).Improving service quality (reflected in each of the URDP, BTP and TTP) to encouragegreater use.Developing new LPT systems (such as the MRT lines in the URDP or the BRT corridors in theTTP).The TDM measures related to encouraging demand through aspects such as:Improved interchange between modes (reflected in the Terminals Plan).Ticket Integration.Page 46


LPT Information SystemsLPT MarketingA.3)Improving Walking and CyclingThese are measures to encourage walking and cycling through infrastructure improvements (betterwalkways, cycle lanes, cycle parking) as well as measures in the workplace such as cycle parking,shower facilities etc. The rationale is to encourage greater use of non-motorised modes at theexpense of private vehicle usage. The types of approach are outlined in Table A.1.Table A.1: Improving Walking and Cycling MeasuresAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICEImprovePedestrianInfrastructureImprove CyclingInfrastructureInformationProvide continuouswalkways,Provide coveredwalkwaysProvide crossingfacilities (at-grade orgrade separated)Provide signageProvide lightingProvide designatedcycle waysAdvanced Cycle StopLinesCycle ParkingCycle Hire SchemesWorkplace facilitiesMaps of pedestrian andcycle routesPromotion in schoolsand workplacesImprovements targetted atshorter journeys (such as toschool, shops)Important for „first and last mile‟of a LPT journeyProvide safe routesImprovements targetted at shortmediumjourneysImportant for „first and last mile‟of a LPT journeyProvide safe routesPromotion of non motorisedmodesMany cities acrossthe globeMany WesternEuropean Cities(particular examples,Amsterdam,Copenhagen)London and ParisCycle Hire SchemesLondon (legibleLondon scheme)The improvements in pedestrian infrastructure seek to provide continuous walkways forpedestrians segregated from traffic and parked vehicles. These facilities may be covered toprotect pedestrians from extreme weather conditions (such as heavy rains in tropical countries orthe case of some North American Cities these can be under-cover to avoid the harshness of thewinter). The facilities that are provided should have good signage to indicate pedestrian routes andbe illuminated to provide a safe route at night. These improvements are typically targeted atshorter distance journeys such as journeys to school or shops in order to reduce the reliance on theprivate vehicle for these journeys. They can be accompanied by travel marketing and planningcampaigns within the schools themselves (Such as Safe Routes to Schools Initiatives). Thepedestrian infrastructure may include improvements for crossing facilities, either at-grade throughthe use of signal controlled facilities or grade separated using bridges or subways.Many western cities have sought to provide improved cycling infrastructure through the provisionof dedicated cycle ways and cycle lanes to encourage cycle use. These are often supported by theprovision of cycle parking facilities in city centres as well as encouraging workplaces to providePage 47


parking and facilities such as showers and changing rooms in the workplace. A number of citieshave introduced cycle-hire schemes (such as London, Paris and Montreal) to allow people to rentbicycles for a short period. The Paris scheme (Vélib) is a large-scale public bicycle sharing systemlaunched in 2007. The system has expanded to over 20,000 bicycles and 1,202 bike stations all overthe French capital and some surrounding municipalities.The London scheme was introduced in 2010 with 5,000 bicycles and 315 docking stations availablein central London at the launch. Initially, usage of the scheme's bicycles required registration andmembership fee to be paid up front for an electronic key, but the scheme was later opened tocasual users while bicycles may also be hired using a credit or debit card. Bixi is a public bicyclesharing system launched in Montreal where the system has expanded to 5,000 bicycles and 400stations. Other cities with cycle schemes include Ottawa, Melbourne, Minneapolis (MN), andWashington, D.C.).Such initiatives are often backed up by information and marketing to identify routes forpedestrians and cyclists, locations of key facilities and promotion of the benefits of walking andcycling. Legible London for example is a series of wayfinder posts in Central London with the aimof making London a friendly, easy place to walk around. The posts provide maps of the local areaand directions to key locations.The key factors for these schemes are that they are:schemes used to promote environmental and health benefits;designed to ensure the safety of the user;important considerations for the ‟first and last mile‟ of a public transport journey- this isreflected in more detail in the Interchange and Integration Plan; important considerations for new developments to ensure sustainability and LPT access –also considered in the Land Use Plan; andneeding support of local authorities and businesses.A.4)Car Pooling and Car SharingThese are measures aimed at encouraging increased vehicle occupancy to reduce private vehicleusage. The types of approach are outlined in Table A.2. Car Pooling is the use of shared car for aspecific journey, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs. These carpooling schemes are often used as part of Workplace Travel Planning Schemes. Car Sharing is usedas car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time.Car Pooling schemes have been promoted in many cities across the globe. The approach is seen asa more environmentally friendly and sustainable way to travel as sharing journeys reduces carbonemissions, traffic on the roads, and the need for parking spaces at the workplace. Users seek toreduce the costs of car travel by sharing journey expenses such as fuel, and tolls, between thepeople travelling. Often Car Pooling Schemes are used in the workplace where employees canmatch journey details, often on a company website to agree costs and times of journeys. They aresupported by use of internet or mobile phone applications for arranging for car poolingCar sharing (also known in the UK as car clubs) is a system of car rental where people rent cars forshort periods of time, often by the hour and as such are attractive to customers who make onlyoccasional use of a vehicle. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business or theusers may be organized as a democratically controlled company (for example Zipcar has the largestoperation in cities with 4,400 locations and 400,000 members), public agency, cooperative, ad hocgrouping. Today there are more than one thousand cities with car sharing schemes. Car SharingPage 48


scheme requires a fleet of cars for use and a range of technology options from simple manualsystems to increasingly complex computer-based systems with supporting software packages thathandle a growing array of back office functions.Car Sharing and Car Pooling can be important considerations for new developments to ensuresustainability and LPT access – (this is also considered in the Land Use Plan).In many North American cities a further encourage to increased vehicle occupancy is the provisionof High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes (HOV) on major freeways. In Australia and New Zealand these arecalled Transit Lanes. HOV lanes may be segregated from other lanes by barriers or be segregatedby paint. In some locations the lanes may operate tidally s they reversed in different time periods.The latter need to be supported by information systems to advise on the direction of travel. A keyrequirement for the use of HOV lanes is the supporting enforcement system.Table A.2: Car Sharing and Car PoolingAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICECar PoolingThe shared use of a car for aspecific journey, often bypeople who each have a carbut travel together to savecosts.Trying to reduce number ofvehicles on the road bypoolingTarget Increased vehicleoccupancyMany cities across theglobeCar SharingVehicleOccupancyLanesOften used for commuting aspart of Workplace TravelPlanning SchemesUsed as car rental wherepeople rent cars for shortperiods of timeProvision of HOV lanesOften used for commutingjourneysProvide users with access to avehicle but without the needto purchaseRe-allocating road spacebased on occupancyNeeds enforcementOver 1000 across theglobe (source WorldCarshare consortium).For example Zipcarhas the largestoperation in citieswith 4,400 locationsand 400,000 membersMany North AmericanCitiesPage 49


A.5)TDM Measures- Push Initiatives- Limits on Vehicle UsageMeasures to limit vehicle use might include the reallocation of traffic lanes for LPT servicesthrough to complete restrictions on vehicle movement (See Table A.3).Measures to limit vehicle usage place greater reliance on road space for LPT users at the expenseof the private vehicle. Such measures might include the provision of bus lanes by reducing thenumber of lanes for private vehicles. Bus lanes give priority to buses and cut down on journeytimes where roads are congested with other traffic. A bus lane may not necessarily very long, as itmay only be used to bypass a single congestion point such as a junction. Alternatively some citieshave built large stretches of bus lanes, in some occasions segregated from traffic. These are oftenreferred to as busways. The bus lanes may be with-flow (i.e. in the direction of travel) or contraflow(against the traffic flow).Table A.3: Measures to Limit Car UseAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICEBus LanesRe-allocating roadspaceto public transport andtaxisTrying to encourage modaltransfer and improve reliabilityfor public transportMany cities acrossthe globeCar Free zonesLicence BasedTraffic SchemeOften used in citycentres to restrict caraccessAllows alternate accessto an area based on thelicence plate- forexample even numberedplates one day, oddnumbered plates anotherOften used for peak periodsProvide environmental benefits incity centresRe-allocating road space based onoccupancyNeeds enforcementMany cities acrossthe globeAthens, Mexico CityMany cities across the world have introduced bus lanes. Some examples are shown in Table A.4.The Bus Transformation Plan examines the potential for bus lanes in the GKL/KV region.Table A.4: International Examples of Bus Lane ProvisionCityPopulation(mill)Bus FleetPopulation perBusBus Lane (km)Buses per 1kmof Bus laneSydney 4.3 1,900 2,260 90 21Santiago 6.5 4,600 1,400 200 23London 7.5 6,800 1,100 240 28Singapore 4.5 3,775 1,200 155 29Seoul 10.0 7,000 1,428 282 32Madrid 5.5 2,022 2,720 50 40Bogota 6.7 1,080 6,200 84 45Hong Kong 6.8 5,885 1,155 22 267Page 50


Car free areas range in scale from new development areas specifically designed to be traffic freethrough to pedestrian zones in city centres. Car free developments are typically residential ormixed use developments which are built as new and:Normally provide a traffic free immediate environmentOffer no parking or limited parking separated from the residenceDesigned to enable residents to live without owning a carBy contrast most pedestrianised city, town and district centres have been retro-fitted around theexisting built environment. The objective of these zones is to provide traffic free commercialspace to boost local economic activity or provide protection for environmentally sensitive areas.The largest example in Europe for example is Groningen with a city centre population of 16,500An alternative approach to restricting car use is to limit the days in which vehicles can entre acity. For example, to improve Athens's traffic and pollution problem, cars with registration platesending in an odd number are allowed in the city centre only on odd-numbered days of the month,while those ending in even numbers are allowed in only on even-numbered days. The schemeapplies on Monday to Friday only although the effectiveness is undermined by double vehicleownership and exemptions.Traffic restraint schemes based on number plates are also operational in Manila, Mexico city,Bogota, Athens and various cities in Italy. Mexico City uses a system where different plates areallowed in on different days of the week. One day a week a vehicle with a plate ending with achoice of 2 numbers is not allowed into the city. This scheme was promoted to reduce airpollution.A.6)Fuel and TaxationIn many countries fuel and taxation policy is used to reduce private vehicle usage (see Table A.5).With a fuel price escalator governments seek to increase the price of fuel above the rate ofinflation. This is a measure to increase price so as to reduce the distance travelled. In the UK thiswas used from 1993 and set at 3% above the rate of inflation. This was later increased to 5% andthen 6% until 1999. Recently UK budgets have also sought to increase fuel prices above inflation.The key consideration in relation to this policy is that it affects all motorists and in particular,penalises motorists in areas with little LPT choice.Alternative government policies often seek to increase the taxation on new cars or the annualexcise duty that is levied on cars. The key considerations for these schemes are the politicalacceptability of increasing the costs of motoring as well as the issue of penalising those motoristswith little LPT choice, particularly in rural areas.Page 51


Table A.5: Measures to influence Car Use by Fuel and Taxation PolicyAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICEFuel PriceEscalatorNew CarTaxationGovernments seek to increasethe price of fuel above therate of inflationGovernments seek to increasethe price of new cars tomoderate purchase of newvehiclesAffects all motorists basedon their usage of vehiclesPenalises those motoristswith little LPT choice mostOften used to protect a localcar industryUsed in UK from 1993and set at an annualincrease of 3% aheadof inflation, laterrising to 5% and then6% until 1999. RecentUK budgets have alsosought to increase therate of increase aboveinflationUsed worldwideAnnual CarTax(VehicleExcise Duty)Governments seek to increasethe annual taxation onvehicles to moderate vehicleownershipPenalises those motoristswith little LPT choice mostUsed worldwideUK system related tovehicle type based onCO2 emissionsA.7)Parking ControlsA more targeted approach to increasing private vehicle costs is to apply controls on parking, eitherthrough limiting the supply (such as reducing the number of spaces or re-allocating between longstay and short stay users) or by pricing (see Table A.6). Many cities have introduced innovativeparking policies to encourage reductions in car use, and provide environmental gains (see Institutefor Transportation and Development Policy, Europe's Parking U-Turn: From Accommodation toRegulation).Page 52


Table A.6: Measures to influence Car Use by Parking ControlsAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICEParkingChargesParkingSupplycontrolsDevelopmentControlWorkplaceParkingLeviesAs part of an integratedtransport policy, localauthorities and parkingoperators increase charges toincrease motoring costs andpromote modal transferReduction in the number ofspaces or designation of shortterm and long term parkingRestrict number of parkingspaces provided by newdevelopmentsGovernments seek to increasethe annual taxation onvehicles to moderate vehicleownershipAffects all motorists parkingbasedPenalises those motoristswith low incomes mostDoes not affect motoristswith designated parkingspaces availableControls can be defined fordifferent areasIssue of different levelsbetween neighbouringauthoritiesCan be related toaccessibilityProvide users with access toa vehicle but without theneed to purchaseMany cities worldwideUsed worldwideUsed worldwidePerth, MelbourneSydneyParking reforms have proved to be more popular with city authorities than congestion charging. InParis, the on-street parking supply has been reduced by more than 9% since 2003, and of theremaining stock, 95% is paid parking. The result, along with other transport infrastructureimprovements, has been a 13% decrease in driving. Other examples of limiting the number ofparking spaces include the central areas of Zurich and Hamburg's. However, in many cases theability to limit parking and encourage modal transfer is made easier by the provision of asignificant public transport network.Where the parking stock is operated by local councils, the revenues generated from parking can bere-invested in public transport. For example, revenue from parking in Barcelona subsidises thecity‟s public bike system.Parking controls in developments are increasingly linked to public transport. Examples includecities such as Amsterdam, Paris, Zurich and Strasbourg limit how much parking is allowed in newdevelopments based on how far it is to walk to a bus, tram or metro stop. The potential for thesein the GKL/KV region is examined in the Land Use Plan.Alternative approaches where there is a greater supply of private operators are to impose a salestax on commercial parking transactions. This requires a commercial parking operator to maintainreliable records of revenues or transactions. The issue here is that some commercial parkingoperators may underreport their revenues to reduce their tax payments but examples include thecity of San Francisco where operators use specific revenue control systems that provide a receiptto users and securely record transactions for auditing.The parking tax tends to reduce the supply of priced (user paid) parking in areas where asignificant portion of parking is provided by commercial operators. Such a tax applies primarily indowntowns and other major urban centres, where more parking is priced, and not in suburbs wheremost parking is provided free. As a result, it makes urban centres relatively less competitivecompared with suburban locations where parking is unpriced. In this way, commercial parkingtaxes can increase total parking subsidies and sprawl, contradicting other planning objectives.Page 53


A Parking Space Levy (PSL) is an approach where the charge is levied per space rather than byparking transaction. Many Australian Cities adopt this approach as part of their transportstrategies to discourage car use in major commercial centres, encourage the use of publictransport and to improve air quality.In Sydney the PSL commenced in 1992 with the objective of the Parking Space Levy Act (2009) "isto discourage car use in leviable districts by imposing a levy on parking spaces (including parkingspaces in parking stations), and by using the revenue to encourage the use of public transport (inparticular, public transport to and from or within, those districts)." Parking Space Levy rates areindexed annually to movements in the Consumer Price Index (All Group Index) for Sydney. From 1July 2010 the Parking Space Levy rates are:$2,040 per space in Category 1 areas$720 per space in Category 2 areasSome parking spaces are exempt from PSL, for example where a space is set aside exclusively forThe parking of motor vehicles by persons who hold mobility parking scheme authoritiesThe parking of motor vehicles by persons who reside on the premises or on adjoiningpremisesThe parking of motor vehicles for the purpose of loading/unloading of goods or passengersThe parking (without charge) of any motor vehicles owned or occupied by a religious body,a public charity or benevolent institutionExamples of projects upon which PSL funds have been spent to date are:Interchanges for bus, rail and ferry servicesCommuter car parking facilitiesImproving public transport infrastructure, such as the development of bus rapid transit,bus stations and light rail (tram service), which provide services within or to/from PSLleviable districtsImprovement of electronic passenger information systems associated with the abovementionedinfrastructureSimilar schemes have been introduced in Melbourne and Perth. In Perth, parking suppliers withinthe CBD and surrounding area must pay a Parking Licence Fee, which has different rates for shorttermand long-term use facilities. Owners only pay for the number of parking spaces that areactually in use, and may shift a space from one category to another (from “in use” to “out ofuse”). Businesses with five parking spaces or less are exempted from the charge. The levy raisesabout AU$9 million annually. In Melbourne, a Long Stay Car Park Levy is charged to designatedlong-stay and permanently leased parking spaces in CBD commercial car parks. The levy is intendedto encourage car park owners to convert long-stay spaces into short-stay spaces, creating moreparking options for shoppers and visitors. The levy applies to about 52,000 off-street parkingspaces. A 2010 review of the program concluded that it has been moderately successful at shiftinglong-term to short-term parking and reducing traffic congestion (Parking Taxes: Evaluating Optionsand Impacts- Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2011).Page 54


In the United Kingdom, Nottingham plans to implement a Workplace Parking Levy (WPL) onemployers‟ parking spaces and this scheme is termed a Workplace Parking Levy (WPL). This willapply to employers that provide 11 or more liable parking places starting April 2012. It is a chargeon businesses although employers can decide whether or not to pass the charge on to theiremployees. It is proposed that all WPL revenue will be invested into improving public transport.This is being implemented as an alternative to a road user charge. The WPL is projected to reducetraffic congestion. The pricing itself is expected to have only a small impact, since only a smallportion of the fee is expected to be passed onto commuters, but the additional LPT service fundingis predicted to increase City Centre public transport travel by over 20% and reduce area trafficgrowth from 15% to only 8%, which should provide significant congestion reduction benefits.A.8)Road User ChargingRUC schemes (also called urban congestion charging or road pricing) involve directly chargingdrivers for the use of the roads on which they drive. The charges are designed to reduce trafficcongestion and its associated problems. Charging systems can reduce traffic levels by typically 15to 20 percent. However they can also offer even more substantial reductions in traffic congestioncan help improve journey time reliability, lead to reduced vehicle emissions, and reductions inaccidents and improvements in the quality of the public realm. They also raise revenue which mayor may not be ploughed back into the transport system, enabling improvements to be made to theroad network and/or public transport.The idea behind such schemes is underpinned by neo-classical economic theory. This views trafficcongestion as an external cost which drivers impose on other road users (resulting in time delays)and non-road users (such as air pollution) and which they do not take into account in decidingwhether or not to drive. Many countries have tried to internalise these congestion costs, throughfor example high rates of fuel taxation, or imposing regulatory standards on vehicle emissions.Whilst this approach pushes up the general costs of motoring (or improves vehicle emissions), it isrelatively ineffective in addressing the costs of traffic congestion. This is because these taxes ormeasures apply irrespective of the volumes of traffic on the road or where congestion happens tooccur.For almost 50 years, since the publication of the Smeed Report for the UK government, the notionhas existed of imposing direct charges on drivers to ensure that they take better account of theircongestion costs. In an „ideal‟ scheme, the charges would vary according to:• Location (charges would be more expensive in the city centre)• Distance travelled (those driving more create more congestion)• Time of day (more expensive at peak times)• Type of vehicle (more expensive for large and polluting vehicles)RUC can take the following three basic forms, although for each of them there are a range ofvariations, from simple to complex:• Area or zonal schemes - Vehicles using all roads within a designated area pay a licence fee,usually within designated times and sometimes related to vehicle type. The Singapore AreaLicensing Scheme was an early example. The congestion charging scheme operating inCentral London applies the same principle but does not vary charges by vehicle type• Cordon pricing (or „toll rings‟) - Charging points are located at all entries to a given area(often a city centre), usually with higher charges for large or polluting vehicles and atPage 55


more congested times of day. Charges are incurred when vehicles pass a charging point.Oslo has been operating a toll ring since 1990 and the Stockholm scheme uses cordons• Corridor or point charges- such as for a crossing location (bridge or tunnel) or toll roadcorridor• Continuous charging systems - These charge vehicles for all travel within a defined area(such as a city). The charge can be based on the distance travelled or time spenttravelling, or can involve a charging point on every road link. The complexity of thesesystems means that a fully automatic electronic charging system („electronic road pricing‟or ERP) must be used. Singapore is using an ERP system. This is not yet a truly continuoussystem, but may become one in the futureTable A.7: Road User Charging MethodsAPPROACH DESCRIPTION KEY CONSIDERATION BEST PRACTICECordon ring(s)vehicles pay fee each timethey cross into a boundedareaRadio transceiverNumber plate recognitionToll plazasBergen, Durham,Florence, Oslo, Rome,Singapore, Stavanger,Stockholm, TrondheimCorridorNetworkvehicles pay charges forspecific road, bridge,tunnel, etc. which feedsinto congested areavehicles pay distancedbased fee for km travelledRadio transceiverPlate recognitionToll plazasGPS basedCzech Republic,England, France,Greece, Italy,Portugal, Spain +othersAustria, Germany(trucks), Switzerland(trucks), NetherlandsArea licensevehicles pay fee per period(i.e. day) to access a givenareaNumber plate recognitionLondon, MilanIn recent years new advances in technology have enabled the type and complexity of chargingsystems to be expanded to encompass manual, video-based and fully electronic systems. Inaddition the technology now exists, in off-the-shelf, non-proprietary forms, to address traditionalconcerns about data privacy and enforcement issues. In short, technology is no longer a barrier tothe implementation of sophisticated road pricing systems.Despite the clear economic benefits from charging systems, recent advances in technology andclear evidence of their effectiveness as a tool for addressing the growing global phenomenon oftraffic congestion, very few urban congestion charging schemes have actually been implementedaround the World. The key issue that explains the very slow take-up of charging schemes is publicacceptability (or more correctly their unacceptability) to drivers and to others who may beaffected by it, such as businesses located within a charging area.Given all of the above, it is clearly important to understand the primary objectives that underliethe introduction of any particular road pricing scheme and to ensure that the finally implementedscheme is of a form such that it clearly meets the stated objectives. Through instilling such clarityinto the process public understanding and acceptance can be greatly improved.In essence, the objectives that might underlie the introduction of any particular road pricingscheme can be sub-divided into a desire to achieve one or more of four outcomes. These being theattainment of:Page 56


• Economic efficiency - encouraging all motorists to make equitable travel decisions basedon the social marginal cost of their travel• A pre determined minimum level of service, in terms of travel speeds, prevailingenvironmental conditions, etc - encouraging some motorists to change their travelbehaviour for the benefit of those who continue to drive or those who live within aparticular location• Financial cost recovery - simply imposing a charge on all motorists to recover the financialcost of providing roads (under this objective there is no specific need to reduce trafficlevels, the only objective being one of cost recovery within a specified time period)• Revenue maximization - under this objective, no specific targets are set in respect ofefficiency, level of service or cost recovery, maximising revenue is the only considerationThe following tables compare the performance of the most significant Road User Charging Schemesin the world.In summary the key factors than should not be ignored• Scheme must be „sold‟ to motorists• Policy objectives (e.g. reduce congestion, make a financial return, environmental benefits,etc.) have large impacts on actual scheme shape and function• Charing & enforcing can introduce legal complexities• Economic responses: driving less, changing routes, switching to exempt vehicles, movinghouse• Politics trumps technical / economic efficiencyTable A.8: Comparison of Urban Congestion Charging SchemesPage 57


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