It’s Not the RoofCovering, It’s HowIt’s AttachedYou have several choices whenchoosing a roof covering for yourhome. Most homes in the U.S. haveasphalt shingles for roof coverings.Other choices include clay or concretetile, metal panels, and slate. But whichperforms better during a hurricane? Theanswer may surprise you. All of thesetypes of roof coverings can performwell if they are attached properly.Whatever roof covering you choose toinstall, always follow the manufacturer’srecommendations as a minimumrequirement. Also remember thatfasteners should be long enough topenetrate the sheathing (plywood) orpenetrate 3/4-inch into wood or plankdecks.Recommended Installation For:Shingles – Hand nailing is best foraccuracy and 6 nails per shingle arepreferred especially in high wind areas.It is also wise to apply a dab of roofcement under each tab.Clay or concrete tile – Nose, butt, orside clips should be used in high windor seismic areas. These are commonlyreferred to as wind clips or stormanchors. Two screws per tile give thehighest wind uplift resistance and willhelp the tile resist shifting.TILEMetal panels – Clips or cleats are preferredover exposed fasteners becausethey aren’t exposed to weather. Theyalso allow the metal to expand andcontract reducing the opportunity forit to buckle. Fasteners should becorrosion resistant and penetrate thesheathing.Slate – Slate should be attached withflat head copper-wire slating nails. Inhigh wind areas a dab of roof cementor polyurethane sealant should beapplied under the exposed part andthe slate then installed using 4 nailsper slate.It’s Hip to Be HippedDid you know that the shape of yourroof can have a lot to do with how itstands up against high winds? Hippedroof systems are more likely to stay putin a hurricane than gabled roof systems.Why? Unlike gabled roofs, ahipped roof slopes upward from allsides of the building. The aerodynamicproperties and construction techniquesinherent in hipped roofs help them performbetter in windstorms than gabledroofs. A gabled roof has two slopesthat come together to form a ridge or apeak at the top – each end looks likethe letter “A.” Homes with gabledroofs are more likely to suffer greaterdamage, such as collapse of the endwall from high winds because theyare often not braced properly duringconstruction. To learn more about rooftypes and roof systems visitwww.flash.org and look for theRoof tab.Your roof’s covering and the deck beneath it work together to shield your home and belongings from wind andrain. Unfortunately, this shield is often damaged during a hurricane. Once it’s damaged, wind and rain can enteryour home, causing further destruction and perhaps the complete collapse of your roof. The good news is that youcan take steps to strengthen your roof against hurricanes.Retrofit During Re-RoofingMost homes in the U.S. have asphaltshingles for roof coverings. While asphaltshingle manufacturers often warranty theirproduct for 20 years, the roof coverings ofmany homes located in extreme weatherclimates will need to be replaced sooner. Infact, every year at least 2 million U.S.homes need a new roof, according to theAsphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association.Particularly bad hurricane seasons, like theones experienced throughout the Gulf Coastin 2004 and 2005, increase the number ofpeople who need their roofs replaced.If you are one of the thousands ofhomeowners replacing your roof due tohurricane damage, or if it’s just time foryou to replace your existing roof due toage, having a licensed, professionalcontractor use the following techniquescan ensure that your new roof betterwithstands future hurricanes:• Install a roof deck of solid plywood, 5/8-inch thickness, to maximize wind and windbornedebris resistance with 10d commonnails spaced at 4 inches along the paneledges and every 6 inches in the field of theplywood panel. Make sure that the nailspenetrate the decking directly into the roofframing – You should not be able to seenails along the sides of rafters or trusses,where the nail penetrates the decking.• Create a secondary water barrier byinstalling self-adhering flashing tape ormodified polymer bitumen strips, commonlycalled “peel and seal,” over the joints inyour roof deck. This will help keep out therain in the event the roof covering is damagedor destroyed by severe weather.Install one layer of #30 underlayment,sometimes called felt paper, over the roofdecking and secondary water barrier. Thefelt helps with drainage in the event watergets under the roof covering.• Install a roof covering that has been testedto ASTM D 3161 (modified to 110 mph)for wind resistance and UL 2218 forKeeping The Roof Over Your Headimpact resistance. Be sure to specify thesestandards and look for labels on the productsconfirming these standards becauseordinary roofing materials may not look anydifferent from the wind resistant versions.• Install hurricane “straps” at every wallto-rafter(truss) connection to reinforce theroof. These connections will dramaticallyincrease your home’s overall wind resistance.Pay special attention to the reinforcementof gable end connections, whichare more likely to fail in high wind.Other ConsiderationsAlso consider having a licensed, professionalcontractor do the following while youare replacing your roof:• Brace gable ends. The collapse of a gableend wall is a common failure during hurricane.Most often, the gable end framingis not sufficiently braced during a construction,causing it to possibly fail under thestrong pressures of hurricane force winds.To learn more visit:www.blueprintforsafety.org, and look for theWind Retrofit tab.• If you do not install a new roof deck, havethe contractor re-nail the existing deckwith 10d common nails spaced at 4 inchesalong the panel edges and every 6 inches inthe field of the plywood panel.Evaluation Diagram for Evaluating and Retrofitting RoofsDuring re-roofing,conduct these activities1. Install hurricanestraps at roof-wallconnections.2. Brace gableend walls.3. Re-fasten roofsheathing.4. Seal all roofsheathing joints.5. Re-roof withapproved hurricaneresistant covering.Re-roofing soon?Does the house have an accessibleattic to reach all exterior walls?*YESNORe-roofing soon?YES NO YES NOWith attic access,conduct these activities1. Install hurricanestraps at roof-wallconnections.2. Brace gableend walls.3. Apply constructionadhesive to glueroof sheathing torafters/trusses.4. Or apply structuralfoam to glue the roofsheathing to rafters/trusses in addition tosealing all jointsagainst waterpenetration.During re-roofing,conduct these activities1. Install hurricanestraps at roof-wallconnections.2. Brace gable endwalls that haveceiling diaphragms.3. Re-fasten roofsheathing.4. Seal all roofsheathing joints.5. Re-roof withapproved hurricaneresistant covering.IMPACT-RESISTANT SHINGLESHURRICANE STRAPSEvaluate feasibilityof installing hurricanestraps at all roof-wallconnections1. Is it feasible toinstall hurricanestraps at all roofwallconnectionswith access fromthe exterior?2. Is it feasible to installhurricane straps atall roof-wall connectionswith accessfrom the interior?*If not, the chances are the house has gables. Evaluate whether or not the house has any significant gable end walls (larger than 15' wideat the base of the gable). If the gable end walls are not built continuously (balloon-frame construction), and do not have a ceiling diaphragm(usually means raised or cathedral ceilings), attention should be brought to the homeowner of likely damage during the next severe storm.Windows, doors and skylights areparticularly vulnerable componentsof your home’s protectiveshell, or envelope, because they are easilypenetrated by wind-borne projectiles oftengenerated by storms like hurricanes. If thatenvelope is breached during a storm, highwinds can enter your home and exert highpressure on your walls and roof. Theseinternal pressures combined with theexternal pressure and suction caused bythe wind blowing over your home can leadto extreme roof damage and even the lossof your roof.Even if your roof is not severely damaged,failure of your home’s windows anddoors allows wind, wind-driven rain, anddebris to enter your home, further damagingthe interior and your belongings.All Products Are Not Testedand Approved EquallyYou can protect your home’s openings byinstalling impact-resistant windows, doorsand skylights, or installing permanentimpact-resistant coverings, such as shutters,over windows and doors. Impactresistantglass and shutters are specificallydesigned to meet a combination of impactand pressure from the wind. Always useproducts that have been tested andapproved to one of these standards andhave been designated as such through aWindows And Doors Of Opportunityrecognized product approval system orevaluation report. These standards are:SBCCI SSTD 12; ASTM E 1886 and ASTM E1996; or Miami-Dade Protocols PA 201, PA202, and PA 203.What Do Product TestingStandards Mean to You?ASTM D 3161; UL 2218; SBCCI SSTD 12; ASTM E 1886 and ASTM E1996; Miami-Dade Protocols PA 201, PA 202, and PA 203.The above may look like a word jumble,but these product standards terms do have meaning.ASTM D 3161 – This is the testing standardfor wind resistance in residential roofingproducts. The combination of lettersand numbers translates to the AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials StandardD 3161. The test involves using fans toblow air across product test panels at aspeed of 60 mph for two hours.UL 2218 – This is the testing standard forimpact resistance in residential roofingproducts. The UL stands for UnderwritersLaboratories, which developed the testingcriteria. The 2218 identifies the test protocol,which consists of dropping steel ballsfrom designated heights onto roofing materialsat specified locations.SBCCI SSTD 12 – This is a testing standardfor impact-resistant glass and shutters.The combination of letters and wordstranslates into Southern Building CodeCongress International Standard 12.BAHAMA SHUTTERSASTM E 1886 and ASTM E 1996 –Another testing standard for impact-resistantglass and shutters, the letters andnumbers stand for American Society forTesting and Materials. The E 1886 is thetesting method while the E 1996 is thespecification for determining the performanceof impact-resistant products.Miami-Dade Protocols PA 201, PA202, and PA 203 – The most stringenttesting standards in the nation for impactresistantglass and shutters. The PA standsfor Product Approval. PA 201 is the largemissile impact test; PA 202 is the test forstructural pressure, air, water, and forcedentry; and PA 203 is the test for cyclicpressure.Window Protection OptionsImpact-resistant windows usually consistof a clear plastic-like film sandwichedbetween two specially-treated pieces ofglass, giving the window greater strengththan glass alone.Equally important as the strength of theglass is the strength of the window’s frame.An impact-resistant window is tested as aunit that includes the glass, the frame, aswell as the attachment hardware and theinstallation method. Impact-resistant windowsshould always be installed followingthe manufacturer’s recommendations.Permanent shutter types and stylesinclude “Bahamas,” electric roll-downs,accordion, and “Colonial.” Choosing a shutterstyle can be based on several criteriaincluding home location in relation to thecoast, and the cost and ease of operation.Ease of operation is critical. If shutterscover windows on upper floors or hard-toreachlocations, they should be operablefrom the inside. Roll down shutters areoften the easiest to operate in theseconditions.Newer options for window protectioninclude fabric screen and see through plasticproducts. Again, whatever you choose,always use products that have been testedto one of these standards and have beendesignated as such through a recognizedproduct approval system or evaluationreport: SBCCI SSTD 12; ASTM E 1886 andASTM E 1996; or Miami-Dade Protocols PA201, PA 202, and PA 203Door Protection OptionsExterior doors should also be impactresistant with the door frame securelymounted to the building or protected withan impact-resistant covering. Exteriordoors that open out rather than in arealways the best option. Don’t forget to protectyour garage door, which is particularlyvulnerable to high winds because of thelong span of opening they cover and therelatively lightweight material they aremade of. The two options available forgarage doors are to replace the door andtrack with a system that is designed towithstand high winds and wind-bornedebris; or protect the garage door witha tested and approved impact-resistantcovering.Proper InstallationIs Key to EffectiveProtectionImpact-resistant windows and doors,and impact-resistant coverings must beinstalled according to the manufacturer’sinstructions to ensure effectiveprotection of your home’s openings.Read the installation instructions thataccompany the product you have chosenfor installation. You may choose tohire an inspector to confirm the properinstallation of your opening protectionproducts prior to making full paymentto the installer.Which Opening ProtectionMethod is Right for You?While many window and door protection product options exist, getting startedcan be confusing and cost comparisons can be time-consuming.FLASH’s online Shutter Tool offers you two ways to calculate the approximatecost of six different product types – temporary plywood shutters, metal panels,accordion shutters, colonial/swing shutters, electric roll down shutters or impactresistantglass. To get started visit www.blueprintforsafety.org and look for theShutter Tool tab.
DISASTER SAFETYTHROUGH PARTNERSHIPACADEMIC PARTNERSActuarial FoundationAustin CollegeCentral US Earthquake ConsortiumFlorida International UniversityInternational Code CouncilTexas Tech Wind Scienceand Engineering Research CenterNATIONAL PARTNERSAmerican Red CrossAmerican Society of Home InspectorsCitigroupFEMAFirewiseGeorgia PacificInstitute for Business and Home SafetyNational Roofing Contractors AssociationNational Storm Shelter AssociationNational Weather ServiceNationwideNeighborWorks Insurance AllianceSt. Paul TravelersState Farm Insurance CompaniesThe Home Depot FoundationThe Home Depot, Inc.The Salvation ArmyUSAAEach year, tornadoes, hurricanes, andother severe windstorms rip through communitiesacross the U.S., killing and injuringpeople and causing millions of dollars inproperty damage.You can better protect your family frominjury caused by the extreme winds and flyingdebris of a windstorm by constructingor installing a safe room in your home.In most cases safe rooms consist of asmall room in a house, such as a closet orbathroom that has been reinforced to provideprotection. But they can also be builtin a garage or outside area away from thehome. The value of safe rooms has beenTornado Safe Rooms Save Livesproven. After a May 1999 tornado outbreakin Oklahoma killed 40 people and injuredhundreds, a Federal EmergencyManagement Agency rebate programresulted in the construction of more than6,000 safe rooms. When a tornado hitOklahoma City three years later, residentstook shelter in these safe rooms and nolives were lost.Visit www.flash.org and look for theTornadoes tab to view an animated how-toon safe rooms. Also, FEMA has ready-touseplans for homeowners to build asafe room in an existing house or in anew house.This interior bathroom, the only room with walls still standingin a home destroyed by a 1974 tornado in Xenia, Ohio, inspiredthe design of safe rooms.For more information, visit: www.fema.gov/hazard/tornado/to_saferoom.shtm.REGIONAL PARTNERSApalachee Regional Planning CouncilRocky Mountain Insurance Information AssociationSouthwestern Insurance Information ServiceTampa Bay Regional Planning CouncilSTATE PARTNERSAlabama Department of InsuranceArkansas Department of InsuranceBuilding Officials Association of FloridaCalifornia Earthquake AuthorityCitizens Property Insurance CorporationDisaster Contractors NetworkFlorida Department of Community AffairsFlorida Department of Environmental ProtectionFlorida Department of Financial ServicesFlorida Division of ForestryFlorida Emergency Preparedness AssociationFlorida Fire Chiefs AssociationFlorida Highway PatrolFlorida Insurance CouncilFlorida SelectGeorgia Department of InsuranceGeorgia Emergency Management AgencyIndependent Insurance Agents of TexasInsurance Council of TexasKentucky Division of Emergency ManagementKentucky Office of InsuranceKentucky Weather Preparedness CommitteeNew Jersey Office of Emergency ManagementNew York State Insurance DepartmentNorth Carolina Department of InsurancePoe Financial GroupTexas Department of InsuranceTexas Department of Public SafetyTravelers of FloridaVirginia Bureau of InsuranceVirginia Department of Emergency ManagementVolunteer FloridaWest Virginia Insurance CommissionCOMMUNITY PARTNERSBrevard PreparesCity of Anderson, IndianaCity of Deerfield Beach, FloridaDuval PreparesHernando County Emergency ManagementHillsborough County Office of Emergency ManagementHome Builders Association of Greater DallasMiami-Dade Emergency ManagementTulsa PartnersVolusia PreparesLEADERSHIP PARTNERSWalter A. Bell, Alabama Insurance CommissionerJeb Bush, Florida GovernorJane L. Cline, West Virginia Insurance CommissionerErnie Fletcher, Kentucky GovernorTom Gallagher, Florida Chief Financial OfficerAlfred W. Gross, Virginia Insurance CommissionerGlen Jennings, Executive Director, Kentucky Officeof InsuranceJim Long, North Carolina Commissioner of InsuranceJohn W. Oxendine, Georgia Insurance& Fire Safety CommissionerRick Perry, Texas GovernorMike Pickens, Arkansas Insurance CommissionerRESOURCE PARTNERSDuPontFamilySafePGT IndustriesSimpson Strong-TieSmart VENT, Inc.Ventilated AwningsWayne-Dalton1427 East Piedmont Drive, Suite 2Tallahassee, FL 32308www.flash.orgToll-Free (877) 221-SAFENON PROFIT ORG.U.S. POSTAGEPAIDTALLAHASSEE, FLPERMIT NO. 283