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Delinquency in Florida’s Schools:A Six-Year Study (2004-05 through 2009-10)Florida Department of Juvenile JusticeCharlie Crist, GovernorOFFICE OF PROGRAM ACCOUNTABILITYResearch and PlanningFrank Peterman Jr., Secretary


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTDELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS:A SIX-YEAR STUDY (2004-05 THROUGH 2009-10)Florida Department of Juvenile JusticeOffice of Program AccountabilityNovember 2010Electronic copies of this report are available at the Department’s Research Web site:http://www.djj.state.fl.us/Research/index.htmlMark A. Greenwald, M.J.P.MResearch and Planning2737 Centerview DriveTallahassee, Florida 32399-3100www.djj.state.fl.us(850) 921-0706ii


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTiii


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTA MESSAGE FROM SECRETARY PETERMANI am pleased to present Delinquency in Florida’s Schools: A Six-Year Study for the Florida Department ofJuvenile Justice (DJJ). This document was produced by the DJJ Office of Program Accountability as partof the Department’s ongoing efforts to reduce juvenile delinquency and turn around the lives oftroubled youth. This report contains analyses of delinquency in Florida’s public schools betweenFY2004-05 and FY2009-10.During the 2008-09 legislative session, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1540, which requiredschool districts in Florida to examine their discipline policies for minor offenders. There have beensubstantial reductions in school offenses over the last six years. Specifically, delinquency on schoolgrounds declined 34 percent over the past six years and 31 percent fewer youth were arrested inschools. We will continue working to build upon these encouraging successes.While these improvements have resulted from solid commitment and collaboration of many agenciesand stakeholders, there is much work left to be done as thousands of youth continue to be arrested inschools around the state. For a substantial proportion of the youth arrested in schools last year, thearrest was the youth’s first delinquent charge. There is great opportunity for school-based diversionaryefforts that give children the help and guidance they need to reduce the number of young peoplegetting involved in the juvenile justice system.iv


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................... 1HOW THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE TRACKS AND REPORTSDELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLS ............................................................................................... 2WHO ARRESTS YOUTH FOR DELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLS? .................................................. 2WHAT AFFECTS SCHOOL REFERRAL AND ARREST RATES? .................................................. 2SCHOOL-RELATED DELINQUENCY REFERRALS .................................................................... 3SCHOOL REFERRALS BY COUNTY ........................................................................................ 4SCHOOL REFERRAL RATES BY COUNTY ............................................................................... 5SCHOOL REFERRAL RATES RELATIVE TO STUDENT POPULATION ....................................... 6SCHOOL REFERRAL DEMOGRAPHICS .................................................................................. 7TYPES OF DELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLS ................................................................................ 8CASE OUTCOMES (DISPOSITIONS) FOR SCHOOL OFFENSES ............................................. 10DEMOGRAPHICS AND CASE OUTCOMES FOR SCHOOL OFFENSES .................................... 11DIFFERENTIAL OFFENSE PATTERNS BASED ON DEMOGRAPHICS ...................................... 12SCHOOL OFFENSES AS GATEWAYS TO THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM ............................ 13STUDENT STATUS AND SCHOOL REFERRALS .................................................................... 14DEFINITION OF TERMS AND DATA SOURCES .................................................................... 15v


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report summarizes delinquency referrals received by the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) foroffenses occurring on school grounds, a school bus (or bus stop), or at an official school event betweenFY2004-05 and FY2009-10.• Delinquency referrals for school-related offenses declined 34% over the past six years and 31%fewer youth were arrested in Florida’s schools during the most current fiscal year.• School-related delinquency referrals during FY2009-10 accounted for 15% of all the cases handled byDJJ, which is down from 19% during FY 2004-05.• A statewide average of 13 school-related delinquency referrals were received by DJJ for every 1,000public school students (grades 6-12).• While only representing 21% of the youth ages 10-17 in Florida, black males and females accountedfor almost half (47%) of all school‐related referrals.• The differences are substantial between white youth and their nonwhite counterparts in caseoutcomes for school-related offenses. For example, black males were substantially more likely toreceive commitment dispositions or to have their cases transferred to adult court. In addition, blackyouth were more likely to have their cases ultimately dismissed than their white counterparts.• Misdemeanor “disorderly conduct” and “assault and battery” accounted for 36% of all school‐relateddelinquency referrals.• Drug and weapon offenses accounted for 26% of all school‐related referrals.• Misdemeanors accounted for 67% of school‐related referrals.• First time delinquents accounted for 57% of the youth receiving school-related referrals duringFY2009-10.• School-related delinquency referrals that were ultimately dismissed/not filed or received some typeof diversion service totaled 63% during FY2009-10.• Of youth that were referred from schools, 88% had at least one previous out-of-school suspension. 11 In the 2007-08 Delinquency in Schools report, the Department reported student status and discipline rates (percentages)based on the total number of youth who received a school-related delinquency referral. Department of Education (DOE)analysts are not able to match all DJJ youth to student records because of missing social security numbers or other dataissues. Beginning in 2008-09, DJJ presents student discipline and status rates only for the youth where data between the twoagencies was available. The resulting percentages are higher than what has been reported previously; however, we believethis is a more accurate way of reflecting results. This only affects information in the “Student Status” section of this report(page 18).Page 1


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENT• Of youth referred from schools, 34% were identified as Exceptional Student Education (ESE)students. 1HOW THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE TRACKS AND REPORTSDELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLSThe Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) monitors the number of youth referred as well as the numberof referrals received for delinquent offenses that were identified as occurring on school grounds, aschool bus (or bus stop), or at an official school event. Generally, this information is provided to theDepartment by law enforcement as part of the delinquency intake process and is recorded in theDepartment’s Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS). This information is then extracted from JJIS andreported to the public annually through the Department’s “Delinquency in Florida’s Schools” analysis. Adelinquency referral differs from the term “referral” that is commonly used within schools to describe adisciplinary action taken. For the purposes of this report, “referral” means a delinquency case sent toDJJ for handling.WHO ARRESTS YOUTH FOR DELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLS?With few exceptions, local law enforcement (police officers and sheriff deputies) are responsible forarresting youth for alleged acts of delinquency in school. In many communities, local police officers orsheriff deputies serve as school resource officers and are based at the schools. These school resourceofficers may be a part of an existing law enforcement agency or, in some communities, may make uptheir own distinctive law enforcement entity.WHAT AFFECTS SCHOOL REFERRAL AND ARREST RATES?Numerous factors can influence whether or not a youth is arrested and referred to the Department fordelinquency in schools. Each school district in Florida maintains its own distinctive progressive responseor “discipline” plan that outlines how everything from misbehavior to actual crimes should be handled.In addition, law enforcement agencies in each school district have their own policies on how to respondto and deal with delinquency in schools. Availability and use of alternatives to arrest can have asubstantial affect on the number of youth referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice. For example,two of the state’s largest school districts (Miami-Dade and Palm Beach) aggressively use alternatives toarrest, and these districts also have school referral rates that are much lower than the general statewideaverage.Page 2


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL-RELATED DELINQUENCY REFERRALSDelinquency in Florida’s schools decreased 34% between FY2004-05 and FY2009-10. In addition, overthe past six years, 31% fewer youth received a delinquency referral for an offense that occurred onschool grounds. The reductions in school-related referrals far outpaced the reductions in generaldelinquency referrals for an offense occurring somewhere other than school grounds. During FY2009-10, school-related delinquency referrals accounted for 15% of all the cases handled by the Departmentof Juvenile Justice, which was down from 19% during FY2004-05.Delinquency and School-Related Referral and Youth Trends(Statewide) 1Fiscal YearDelinquencyReferralsReceived 2Delinquent YouthReceivedSchool-RelatedReferralsReceivedSchool-RelatedYouth Received2004-05 150,687 95,263 28,008 24,1892005-06 150,104 94,244 25,708 23,0702006-07 146,765 91,497 22,926 20,7362007-08 144,705 89,776 21,289 19,3622008-09 138,372 85,527 20,223 18,2562009-10 121,689 75,382 18,467 16,7846-Year Change -19% -21% -34% -31%1Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).2 As reported in previous school referral studies, but do not match current Delinquency Profile numbers.School Referral Trends81% 83% 84% 85% 85% 85%19% 17% 16% 15% 15% 15%2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10School-Related Not School-RelatedSource: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).Page 3


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL REFERRALS BY COUNTYDuring FY2009‐10, school‐related referrals accounted for an average of 15% of all delinquency referralshandled by the Department of Juvenile Justice. Broward County, while not the largest school district,recorded the highest actual number of school‐related referrals (1,668).CountySchool-Related 2NotSchool- Total 4 % School-Related 3 RelatedPage 4CountySchool-Related 2Not School-Related 3 Total 4 % School-RelatedALACHUA 365 1,450 1,815 20% LAKE 340 1,570 1,910 18%BAKER 39 146 185 21% LEE 307 3,072 3,379 9%BAY 216 1,151 1,367 16% LEON 380 1,318 1,698 22%BRADFORD 45 132 177 25% LEVY 36 175 211 17%BREVARD 351 2,832 3,183 11% LIBERTY 3 22 25 12%BROWARD 1,668 9,392 11,060 15% MADISON 23 120 143 16%CALHOUN 5 31 36 14% MANATEE 505 2,276 2,781 18%CHARLOTTE 118 744 862 14% MARION 546 1,589 2,135 26%CITRUS 88 432 520 17% MARTIN 117 653 770 15%CLAY 160 948 1,108 14% MONROE 92 291 383 24%COLLIER 276 1,264 1,540 18% NASSAU 23 272 295 8%COLUMBIA 98 317 415 24% OKALOOSA 145 1,176 1,321 11%DADE 1,544 9,775 11,319 14% OKEECHOBEE 84 201 285 29%DESOTO 32 238 270 12% ORANGE 1,263 9,062 10,325 12%DIXIE 6 66 72 8% OSCEOLA 338 2,070 2,408 14%DUVAL 599 4,883 5,482 11% PALM BEACH 692 5,296 5,988 12%ESCAMBIA 564 2,250 2,814 20% PASCO 329 2,063 2,392 14%FLAGLER 122 486 608 20% PINELLAS 1,034 5,424 6,458 16%FRANKLIN 7 32 39 18% POLK 978 4,726 5,704 17%GADSDEN 47 252 299 16% PUTNAM 274 616 890 31%GILCHRIST 22 80 102 22% ST. JOHNS 144 701 845 17%GLADES 8 40 48 17% ST. LUCIE 615 1,646 2,261 27%GULF 5 60 65 8% SANTA ROSA 111 700 811 14%HAMILTON 36 98 134 27% SARASOTA 249 1,468 1,717 15%HARDEE 25 257 282 9% SEMINOLE 424 2,897 3,321 13%HENDRY 87 298 385 23% SUMTER 41 164 205 20%HERNANDO 157 618 775 20% SUWANNEE 69 251 320 22%HIGHLANDS 166 763 929 18% TAYLOR 11 97 108 10%HILLSBOROUGH 1,274 8,048 9,322 14% UNION 5 46 51 10%HOLMES 19 73 92 21% VOLUSIA 768 3,335 4,103 19%INDIAN RIVER 145 590 735 20% WAKULLA 21 200 221 10%JACKSON 57 166 223 26% WALTON 47 219 266 18%JEFFERSON 7 50 57 12% WASHINGTON 22 128 150 15%LAFAYETTE 2 19 21 10% OTHER 5 71 1,397 1,468 5%3Number of delinquency referrals received by DJJ that were not identified as "school-related."5Cases where the county of residence could not be determined.Delinquency Referrals by Type and County(Fiscal Year 2009-10) 11Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).2 Number of delinquency referrals received by DJJ that were identified as "school-related."4Total number of delinquency referrals received by DJJ during fiscal year 2009-10.TOTAL 18,467 103,222 121,689 15%


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL REFERRAL RATES BY COUNTYDuring FY2009‐10, there was an average of 13 school‐related delinquency referrals to the Department ofJuvenile Justice for every 1,000 students. Putnam and Hamilton counties experienced the highest ratesof school‐related referrals (50 and 42 for every 1,000 students, respectively). The following tablepresents school referral rates by county for FY2009‐10.School Referral Rates by County from Highest to Lowest(Delinquency Referrals) Fiscal Year 2009-10CountyStudentPopulation 1SchoolReferrals 2 Rate 3 CountyStudentPopulation 1SchoolReferrals 2 Rate 3PUTNAM 5,463 274 50 COLLIER 22,062 276 13HAMILTON 856 36 42 OSCEOLA 27,925 338 12ST. LUCIE 20,633 615 30 BROWARD 137,823 1,668 12BRADFORD 1,570 45 29 WASHINGTON 1,820 22 12ESCAMBIA 20,691 564 27 FRANKLIN 582 7 12HIGHLANDS 6,287 166 26 CHARLOTTE 9,837 118 12ALACHUA 14,550 365 25 MARTIN 9,785 117 12MARION 22,218 546 25 LEVY 3,045 36 12HENDRY 3,553 87 24 SEMINOLE 35,916 424 12MANATEE 21,504 505 23 SARASOTA 22,365 249 11LEON 16,343 380 23 HOLMES 1,737 19 11OKEECHOBEE 3,663 84 23 SUMTER 3,846 41 11VOLUSIA 33,729 768 23 HARDEE 2,422 25 10SUWANNEE 3,033 69 23 DUVAL 60,642 599 10MONROE 4,368 92 21 CITRUS 8,914 88 10POLK 47,343 978 21 PASCO 35,275 329 9COLUMBIA 4,906 98 20 OKALOOSA 15,696 145 9PINELLAS 57,409 1,034 18 BREVARD 38,450 351 9GADSDEN 2,709 47 17 ST. JOHNS 16,362 144 9FLAGLER 7,053 122 17 WAKULLA 2,455 21 9BAY 13,105 216 16 DADE 182,438 1,544 8GILCHRIST 1,366 22 16 CLAY 19,849 160 8LAKE 21,136 340 16 SANTA ROSA 13,899 111 8MADISON 1,444 23 16 TAYLOR 1,433 11 8BAKER 2,474 39 16 PALM BEACH 92,304 692 7JACKSON 3,630 57 16 LEE 41,103 307 7INDIAN RIVER 9,485 145 15 DIXIE 956 6 6ORANGE 90,401 1,263 14 CALHOUN 1,077 5 5GLADES 602 8 13 GULF 1,117 5 4JEFFERSON 529 7 13 UNION 1,188 5 4WALTON 3,592 47 13 LIBERTY 725 3 4DESOTO 2,473 32 13 NASSAU 6,033 23 4HILLSBOROUGH 99,375 1,274 13 LAFAYETTE 570 2 4HERNANDO 12,397 157 13 OTHER 4 N/A 71 N/ATOTAL 1,379,541 18,467 131Source: Florida Department of Education (DOE), 2009-10 Survey 2 Data. Public school students in grades 6-12 during the 2009-10 school year.2Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).3 Number of school related referrals for every 1,000 students ([School Referrals/Student Population]*1,000).4Cases where the county of residence could not be determined.Page 5


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL REFERRAL RATES RELATIVE TO STUDENT POPULATIONFor the purpose of this analysis, a school district is considered to have a low to average referral rate if itsrate is less than or equal to the statewide average (13 referrals for every 1,000 students). Schooldistricts with a referral rate higher than 13 for every 1,000 students are considered to have a highreferral rate. A review of Florida’s school referral rates relative to student populations for FY2009‐10revealed the following:School Referral Ratesby School District SizeDistrict Size Low HighSmall District Rates 58% Rates 42%Medium District 56% 44%Large District 62% 38%School Referral Rates Relative to Student PopulationsFiscal Year 2009-10Low - Average 4 High 5 Low - Average 4 High 5 Low - Average 4 High 5GLADES PUTNAM HERNANDO ST. LUCIE HILLSBOROUGH ESCAMBIAJEFFERSON HAMILTON COLLIER ALACHUA BROWARD VOLUSIAWALTON BRADFORD OSCEOLA MARION DUVAL POLKDESOTO HIGHLANDS SEMINOLE MANATEE PASCO PINELLASWASHINGTON HENDRY SARASOTA LEON BREVARD ORANGEFRANKLIN OKEECHOBEE OKALOOSA BAY DADECHARLOTTE SUWANNEE ST. JOHNS LAKE PALM BEACHMARTIN MONROE CLAY LEELEVY COLUMBIA SANTA ROSAHOLMESSUMTERHARDEECITRUSWAKULLATAYLORDIXIECALHOUNGULFUNIONLIBERTYNASSAULAFAYETTESmall School Districts 1 Medium School Districts 2 Large School Districts 3Referral Rate Referral Rate Referral RateGADSDENFLAGLERGILCHRISTMADISONBAKERJACKSONINDIAN RIVER12345Districts w ith 10,000 or less middle & high school studentsDistricts w ith 10,001 - 29,999 middle & high school studentsDistricts w ith 30,000 or more middle & high school studentsDistricts w hose referral rate w as less than or equal to 13 for every 1,000 studentsDistricts w hose referral rate w as 14 or more for every 1,000 studentsSources: Student Population Data are derived from Florida Department of Education (DOE),2009-10 Survey 2 Data; Population of public school students (excludes lab) in grades 6-12during the 2009-10 school year. School-related delinquency referral data are derived from theFlorida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).Page 6


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL REFERRAL DEMOGRAPHICSA comparison of demographics suggests that minority youth are more likely to receive a school-relatedreferral than their white counterparts. Of the 18,467 school-related referrals received by theDepartment during FY2009‐10, 6,195 (or 34%) were for black males and 4,778 (or 26%) were for whitemales. Black females accounted for 2,458 (or 13%) and white females accounted for 1,588 (or 9%) of allschool-related delinquency referrals. The table below presents demographics for referrals received fora school-related offense as well as other “nonschool” delinquent offenses.Intake Demographics for Referrals Received(Fiscal Year 2009-10)Demographic GroupSchool-RelatedReferrals% of TotalSchool-RelatedReferralsOtherDelinquencyReferrals% of OtherDelinquencyReferralsWhite Males 4,778 26% 28,413 28%White Females 1,588 9% 12,817 12%Black Males 6,195 34% 31,459 30%Black Females 2,458 13% 11,194 11%Hispanic Males 2,182 12% 11,652 11%Hispanic Females 547 3% 3,730 4%Other Males 584 3% 3,019 3%Other Females 135 1% 938 1%16%Total 18,467 100% 103,222 100%Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice information System (JJIS).School ReferralDemographics(Males)4%35%School ReferralDemographics (Females)11%3%34%45%White MalesBlack MalesHispanic MalesOther MalesSource: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), JuvenileJustice Information System (JJIS).52%White FemalesBlack FemalesHispanic FemalesOther FemalesSource: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), JuvenileJustice Information System (JJIS).Page 7


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTTYPES OF DELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLSThe majority of school‐related offenses were for misdemeanor assault/battery and disorderly conduct(21% and 15%, respectively). Misdemeanor and felony weapon offenses accounted for 5% and drug oralcohol-related offenses accounted for 21% of school‐related referrals. The most common felony wasaggravated assault/battery, representing 11% of all school referrals.Most Common School-Related Delinquency ReferralsFiscal Year 2009-103,9372,793 2,6892,111898Assault/Battery(M)DisorderlyConduct(M)Violiolation ofDrug Laws(M)(M) = MisdemeanorAggravatedAssault/Battery(F)(F) = FelonyTrespassing(M)During FY2009‐10, 49% of the general delinquency referrals received by the Department were formisdemeanors, 29% were for felonies, and 22% were some other types of offenses (violation ofordinances, violation of probation, etc). During the same time period, 67% of school‐related referralswere for misdemeanors and 33% were for felonies.School Offense CategoriesFiscal Year 2009-1067%33%FeloniesMisdemeanorsPage 8


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTTYPES OF DELINQUENCY IN SCHOOLS (Continued)During FY2009-10, misdemeanors (67%) were the most common type of offense referred to theDepartment. However, there are notable differences between counties with the percentage ofmisdemeanor referrals ranging from 100% to 14%. Of the large school districts, Lee reported the lowestpercentage of misdemeanor referrals (25%) and Dade reported the highest percentage (45%). The tablebelow presents school referrals by offense category and county.School Referrals by Type and CountyFiscal Year 2009-10CountyMisd.Offenses 1FelonyOffenses%Misd%FelonyCountyMisd.Offenses 1FelonyOffenses%Misd%FelonyALACHUA 246 119 67% 33% LAKE 229 110 68% 32%BAKER 18 21 46% 54% LEE 229 78 75% 25%BAY 159 56 74% 26% LEON 297 80 79% 21%BRADFORD 29 16 64% 36% LEVY 21 14 60% 40%BREVARD 240 110 69% 31% LIBERTY 1 2 33% 67%BROWARD 1,112 552 67% 33% MADISON 9 14 39% 61%CALHOUN 3 2 60% 40% MANATEE 389 112 78% 22%CHARLOTTE 74 44 63% 37% MARION 454 92 83% 17%CITRUS 61 27 69% 31% MARTIN 82 35 70% 30%CLAY 97 63 61% 39% MONROE 79 13 86% 14%COLLIER 222 54 80% 20% NASSAU 18 5 78% 22%COLUMBIA 56 42 57% 43% OKALOOSA 109 33 77% 23%DADE 844 696 55% 45% OKEECHOBEE 70 14 83% 17%DESOTO 20 12 63% 38% ORANGE 801 458 64% 36%DIXIE 4 2 67% 33% OSCEOLA 201 137 59% 41%DUVAL 342 253 57% 43% PALM BEACH 414 275 60% 40%ESCAMBIA 389 171 69% 31% PASCO 217 112 66% 34%FLAGLER 83 38 69% 31% PINELLAS 713 315 69% 31%FRANKLIN 2 5 29% 71% POLK 660 312 68% 32%GADSDEN 20 27 43% 57% PUTNAM 181 92 66% 34%GILCHRIST 16 6 73% 27% ST. JOHNS 96 45 68% 32%GLADES 6 2 75% 25% ST. LUCIE 474 138 77% 23%GULF 4 1 80% 20% SANTA ROSA 73 37 66% 34%HAMILTON 24 12 67% 33% SARASOTA 186 63 75% 25%HARDEE 20 5 80% 20% SEMINOLE 274 149 65% 35%HENDRY 62 25 71% 29% SUMTER 29 12 71% 29%HERNANDO 119 35 77% 23% SUWANNEE 50 19 72% 28%HIGHLANDS 122 43 74% 26% TAYLOR 4 7 36% 64%HILLSBOROUGH 843 430 66% 34% UNION 2 3 40% 60%HOLMES 9 9 50% 50% VOLUSIA 489 273 64% 36%INDIAN RIVER 107 38 74% 26% WAKULLA 16 4 80% 20%JACKSON 44 13 77% 23% WALTON 36 11 77% 23%JEFFERSON 5 2 71% 29% WASHINGTON 13 8 62% 38%LAFAYETTE 1 1 100% 0% OTHER 2 44 27 62% 38%TOTAL 12,363 6,031 67% 33%1Number of misdemeanor delinquency referrals received by DJJ that were identified as "school-related."2Cases where the county of residence could not be determined.Page 9


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTCASE OUTCOMES (DISPOSITIONS) FOR SCHOOL OFFENSESAt the time of this report’s publication, not all school-related referrals had been disposed of by thecourt. Primary court dispositions were available for 16,787 of the 18,467 school-related delinquencyreferrals received by the Department during FY2009-10. Of the school-related delinquency referrals,63% were dismissed/not filed or received some type of diversion service.Primary Case DispositionsFiscal Year 2009-10DispositionNumber ofCases% of TotalDiversion Services 7,340 40%Dismissed, Not Filed, Etc. 4,261 23%Probation 2,734 15%Other Outcome 1,834 10%Residential Commitment 498 3%Transfer to Adult Court 120 1%Total 16,787 91%40%School Referral Case DispositionsFiscal Year 2009-1023%15%10%3% 1%DiversionServicesDismissed,Not Filed,Etc.ProbationOtherOutcomeResidentialCommitmentTransfer toAdult CourtPage 10


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTDEMOGRAPHICS AND CASE OUTCOMES FOR SCHOOL OFFENSESThere are substantial differences in case outcomes for school offenses between white youth and theirnonwhite counterparts. Black youth were substantially more likely to have their cases dismissed thantheir white counterparts. Black youth were involved in 51% of cases that were dismissed or not filed,compared to 32% for white youth. In addition, black males were much more likely to receive acommitment disposition or to have their cases transferred to adult court. Of the cases that resulted in atransfer to adult court, 70% involved a black youth.Case Disposition Demographics for School Referrals (Fiscal Year 2009-10)Disposition TypeWhiteMaleWhiteFemaleBlackMaleBlackFemaleHispanicWhiteMaleHispanicWhiteFemaleHispanicBlackMaleHispanicBlackFemaleOtherMaleOtherFemaleDiversion Services 2,079 804 1,895 1,028 941 266 37 20 204 66 7,340Dismissed, Not Filed, Etc. 965 374 1,587 600 426 118 33 7 123 28 4,261Probation 744 177 1,046 353 254 36 26 9 72 17 2,734Other Outcome 501 134 680 228 181 46 6 2 46 10 1,834Residential Commitment 125 9 234 49 45 6 3 0 26 1 498Transfer to Adult Court 17 1 82 2 9 0 3 0 6 0 120Total Dispositions 4,431 1,499 5,524 2,260 1,856 472 108 38 477 122 16,787TotalCase Disposition Demographic Percentages for School Referrals (Fiscal Year 2009-10)Disposition TypeWhiteMaleWhiteFemaleBlackMaleBlackFemaleHispanicWhiteMaleHispanicWhiteFemaleHispanicBlackMaleHispanicBlackFemaleOtherMaleOtherFemaleDiversion Services 28% 11% 26% 14% 13% 4% 1% 0% 3% 1% 100%Dismissed, Not Filed, Etc. 23% 9% 37% 14% 10% 3% 1% 0% 3% 1% 100%Probation 27% 6% 38% 13% 9% 1% 1% 0% 3% 1% 100%Other Outcome 27% 7% 37% 12% 10% 3% 0% 0% 3% 1% 100%Residential Commitment 25% 2% 47% 10% 9% 1% 1% 0% 5% 0% 100%Transfer to Adult Court 14% 1% 68% 2% 8% 0% 3% 0% 5% 0% 100%% of Total Dispositions 26% 9% 33% 13% 11% 3% 1% 0% 3% 1% 100%TotalCase Dispositions by Race/EthnicityFiscal Year 2009-10Disposition Type White Black Hispanic Other TotalDiversion Services 39% 40% 17% 4% 100%Dismissed, Not Filed, Etc. 31% 51% 14% 4% 100%Probation 34% 51% 12% 3% 100%Other Outcome 35% 50% 13% 3% 100%Residential Commitment 27% 57% 11% 5% 100%Transfer to Adult Court 15% 70% 10% 5% 100%Total 35% 46% 15% 4% 100%Page 11


Disorderly Conduct (M)Assault/Battery (F)Assault/Battery (M)Trespassing (M)Other Robbery (F)Other (M)Vandalism (M)Alcohol Offenses (M)Drug Laws (F)Drug Laws (M)DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTDIFFERENTIAL OFFENSE PATTERNS BASED ON DEMOGRAPHICSThere are substantial differences in the types of school offenses for white youth and their nonwhitecounterparts. The Department determined that there was a much higher prominence of black youthbeing charged with disorderly conduct and assault and battery compared to whites. In addition, therewas a much higher frequency of drug and alcohol offenses among white youth compared to their nonwhitecounterparts.800600400Black Male vs. White Male School Offense GAP AnalysisFiscal Year 2009-10Black male youth were more likelyto have school referrals related to:White male youth were more likely tohave school referrals related to:2000-200-400-600-800(M) = Misdemeanor(F) = FelonyDisorderly conduct is a broad category used to describe a variety of minor offenses, but in the context ofschool-related delinquency, it is most commonly associated with the disruption of a school function orthe disruption of school administration. Obstruction of justice is also a relatively broad category that isusually associated with resisting arrest without violence.Page 12


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSCHOOL OFFENSES AS GATEWAYS TO THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMA school offense was the gateway to the juvenile justice system for 10,508 youth (57% of all youthreferred for a school offense) during FY2009-10. However, there are notable differences betweencounties with the percentage of first-time offenders ranging from 100% to 28%. Of the large schooldistricts, Pinellas reported the lowest percentage of first-time offenders (37%) and Lee reported thehighest percentage (62%).School-Related Referrals for First-Time Offenders by CountyFiscal Year 2009-10CountySchool-RelatedYouth 1 First Referral 2 % First Referral CountySchool-RelatedYouth 1 First Referral 2 % First ReferralALACHUA 320 173 54% LAKE 316 195 62%BAKER 36 20 56% LEE 289 180 62%BAY 189 120 63% LEON 328 191 58%BRADFORD 41 24 59% LEVY 35 27 77%BREVARD 335 195 58% LIBERTY 3 2 67%BROWARD 1,517 860 57% MADISON 22 15 68%CALHOUN 5 4 80% MANATEE 458 273 60%CHARLOTTE 113 70 62% MARION 513 349 68%CITRUS 82 64 78% MARTIN 104 55 53%CLAY 153 105 69% MONROE 81 44 54%COLLIER 247 128 52% NASSAU 23 14 61%COLUMBIA 91 55 60% OKALOOSA 131 81 62%DADE 1,441 886 61% OKEECHOBEE 71 49 69%DESOTO 31 21 68% ORANGE 1,168 701 60%DIXIE 6 6 100% OSCEOLA 313 190 61%DUVAL 569 328 58% PALM BEACH 615 262 43%ESCAMBIA 528 329 62% PASCO 300 152 51%FLAGLER 115 78 68% PINELLAS 871 322 37%FRANKLIN 7 5 71% POLK 853 416 49%GADSDEN 44 22 50% PUTNAM 228 120 53%GILCHRIST 21 12 57% ST. JOHNS 129 75 58%GLADES 8 3 38% ST. LUCIE 521 289 55%GULF 5 4 80% SANTA ROSA 101 65 64%HAMILTON 33 17 52% SARASOTA 236 144 61%HARDEE 25 7 28% SEMINOLE 394 234 59%HENDRY 80 48 60% SUMTER 41 30 73%HERNANDO 138 85 62% SUWANNEE 62 46 74%HIGHLANDS 147 77 52% TAYLOR 11 9 82%HILLSBOROUGH 1,204 704 58% UNION 5 4 80%HOLMES 17 8 47% VOLUSIA 688 395 57%INDIAN RIVER 132 82 62% WAKULLA 21 16 76%JACKSON 49 24 49% WALTON 40 27 68%JEFFERSON 7 4 57% WASHINGTON 18 10 56%LAFAYETTE 2 1 0% OTHER 57 31 54%TOTAL 16,784 9,582 57%1Unduplicated number of youth received by DJJ with at least one school based delinquency referral.2Unduplicated number of youth received by DJJ whose school-based offense was their first delinquency referral.Page 13


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTSTUDENT STATUS AND SCHOOL REFERRALS 2Analysts from the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) and the Department of Education (DOE)examined 16,784 youth who received a school-related referral during FY 2009-10 to determine theextent to which certain behaviors or statuses affect delinquency in schools. DOE analysts were able tomatch 9,888 of these youth to education status and discipline records. The results indicated that, forthe youth where this information was available, a large percentage of youth who received a schoolrelateddelinquency referral had a prior history of truancy or suspension. Smaller proportions of theseyouth were identified in an Exceptional Student Education (ESE) status or were previously expelled fromschool. Specifically:School Referral Students & SchoolStatus/History (FY 2009-10)100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%88%OUT-OF-SCHOOLSUSPENSION64%IN-SCHOOLSUSPENSION53%CHRONICABSENTEEISM34%ESE STUDENT8%PREVIOUSEXPULSIONSource: Department of Eduction (DOE). Percentages reflect rates for only youthwhoseschool discipline and status data were available (n=9,888 out of 16,784).2 In the 2007-08 Delinquency in Schools report, the Department reported student status and discipline rates (percentages)based on the total number of youth who received a school-related delinquency referral. Department of Education (DOE)analysts are not able to match all DJJ youth to student records because of missing social security numbers or other dataissues. For 2009-10, DJJ presents student discipline and status rates only for the youth where data between the two agenciesare available. The resulting percentages are higher than what has been reported previously; however, we believe this is amore accurate way of reflecting results. This only affects information in the “Student Status” section of this report.Page 14


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTDEFINITION OF TERMS AND DATA SOURCESCHRONICALLY ABSENT – refers to a youth with 21 or more absences during a school year and within twoyears of being referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice for school-related delinquency. DataSource: Florida Department of Education.DELINQUENCY REFERRAL RECEIVED – refers to a “case” involving a youth that has been received by theFlorida Department of Juvenile Justice. Local, state and federal law enforcement arrest and refer youthto the Department. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, Juvenile Justice InformationSystem (JJIS).DELINQUENT YOUTH RECEIVED – refers to the unduplicated number of youth received by theDepartment of Juvenile Justice during the fiscal year. Some youth may be arrested and referred to theDepartment multiple times over the course of a single year. A youth with multiple delinquency referralsis only counted once in this category. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, JuvenileJustice Information System (JJIS).DISMISSED, NOT FILED, ETC – refers to cases that were ultimately dismissed, not filed or otherwise notpursued by the juvenile or adult court. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, JuvenileJustice Information System (JJIS).DIVERSION SERVICES – refers to cases disposed by the court to diversion services. Examples ofdiversion services include but are not limited to: civil citation, teen court, intensive delinquencydiversion services (IDDS), and juvenile alternative services program (JASP). Data Source: FloridaDepartment of Juvenile Justice, Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION (ESE) – refers to a student enrolled in or eligible for enrollment inthe public schools in a district that requires special instruction. This can include services to take fulladvantage of or respond to educational programs and opportunities because of a physical, mental,emotional, social or learning exceptionality. Data Source: Florida Department of Education.FIRST REFERRAL – refers to youth whose first delinquency referral was school-related. Data Source:Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).FISCAL YEAR – the state of Florida fiscal year runs from July 1 through June 30.IN-SCHOOL SUSPENSION – refers to youth who received one or more in-school suspension within twoyears of being referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice for school-related delinquency. After orduring school detention is an example of an in-school suspension. Data Source: Florida Department ofEducation (DOE).OUT-OF-SCHOOL SUSPENSION – refers to a youth who received at least one out-of-school suspensionwithin two years of being referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice for school-related delinquency.Data Source: Florida Department of Education (DOE).Page 15


DELINQUENCY IN FLORIDA’S SCHOOLS: SIX YEARS OF IMPROVEMENTRATE (SCHOOL RERERRAL) – refers to the number of school-related delinquency referrals for every1,000 students in public school grades 6-12.RESIDENTIAL COMMITMENT – refers to cases that were disposed to a Department of Juvenile Justiceresidential commitment placement. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), JuvenileJustice Information System (JJIS).SCHOOL-RELATED REFERRALS RECEIVED – refers to a “case” involving a youth that has been received bythe Florida Department of Juvenile Justice for an offense occurring on school grounds, a school bus, anofficial school bus stop, or a school event. Local, state and federal law enforcement arrest and referyouth to the Department. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile JusticeInformation System (JJIS).SCHOOL-RELATED YOUTH RECEIVED – refers to the unduplicated number of youth received by theDepartment of Juvenile Justice during the fiscal year for an offense occurring on school grounds, aschool bus, an official school bus stop, or a school event. Some youth may be arrested and referred tothe Department multiple times over the course of a single year. A youth with multiple delinquencyreferrals is only counted once in this category. Data Source: Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ),Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).STUDENT POPULATION – refers to the number of public school students in grades 6-12 during the 2008-09 school year. Student population figures do not include students participating in “virtual” schools or insome specialized schools, (i.e. FSU LAB, FAMU LAB, FAU LAB, UF LAB, Dozier, DEAF/BLIND or FLVA).Data Source: Florida Department of Education (DOE), Survey 2 Data.PREVIOUS EXPULSION – refers to a youth who was expelled from a public school within two years ofbeing referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice for school-related delinquency. Data Source:Florida Department of Education (DOE).PROBATION SERVICES – refers to cases that were disposed to general juvenile probation. Data Source:Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).OTHER OUTCOME – refers to cases that were not disposed at the time of this report or received someother outcome such as court fines or a judicial warning. Data Source: Florida Department of JuvenileJustice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT – refers to cases that were transferred to adult court. The majority oftransfers to adult court cases were direct-filed by local state attorneys. Data Source: Florida Departmentof Juvenile Justice (DJJ), Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS).Page 16

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