Healthy Building Services for the 21st Century

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Healthy Building Services for the 21st Century

Healthy Building Servicesfor the 21st CenturyFrancesco Franchimon MScMaster of Science Degree in Building Services4th Years PhD StudentGroup Public Health Engineering for Built Environments1 st Promotor: Prof. Dr. J.E.M.H. van Bronswijk (B)2 nd Promotor: Emer. Prof. Dr. D.G. Bouwhuis (TM)


HealthSource: WHO, 1948Comfort belongs to HealthApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 2


Building Services (CIBSE)‘everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortableto be in’‘a building must do what it was designed to do - not just provideshelter but also be an environment where people can live, workand achieve’Typical Building Services:• HVAC systems (Heating, Ventilation and Airconditioning)• Potable water systems• Plumbing• Home Automation, Teleservices and Assistive TechnologyBuilding Services = Building Systems (UK vs. US)ISI Journal, no CICIBSE: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers: UK Professional Society(Source URL: www.cibse. . org)April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 3


21 st Century• Health Risks through Poor Indoor Air Quality Homes [Franchi et al, 2006] Schools [Van Dijken et al, 2006] Offices [Wargocki et al, 2004]• Health Risks through Harmful Pollutions in Potable Water Homes [Bagh et al, 2004] Hospitals [Kool et al, 1999]• Global Threats Avian Influenza (Pandemic) [Li et al, 2007] Biological and Chemical Warfare [NIOSH, 2003] Fine Dust [Chan, 1997]• Demographical Changes Ageing [UN PD, 2006]April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 4


Why Building Services?Building ServiceHVAC SystemsPotable Water SystemsPlumbingTeleservicesSuch as personal alarm andvideophonePerformanceSupplying Safe AirProviding Thermal ComfortSupplying Safe WaterRemoving WasteProviding Safety?Providing Social Cohesion?Used for/asConsumptionConsumption and HygieneHygieneIndependence?Quality of Life?April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 5


Barriers Preventing Healthy Buildings• Legislature Building Code [Bouwbesluit 2003]• Ventilation Rate [GR, 1984]• Potable Water [Leidingbesluit, 1960]• Quality SystemAutomotive Industry• World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulationssince(UNECE) setting regulations since 1958 and renewed several timesa year [UNECE]Construction Industry• Total Quality Management (TQM) [Burati et al, 1991]Food Industry• HACCP method developed by NASA in 60s and applied in foodindustry [Vanne et al, 1996]• Improving indoor environs costs money• Health not (yet) USP in construction and building servicesindustryApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 6


Research Methods and Tools (1)• Quality SystemHACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 7Establishing Risk Analysis's of sub-processEstablishing Critical Control PointsEstablishing Critical Threshold limitsEstablishing Monitor ProcedureEstablishing EventsEstablishing VerificationRegistering and DocumentingApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 7


Research Methods and Tools (2)• Addressing Economical Feasibility of enhancedenvironments DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years)DALY = YLL + YLDYLL (Life Lost Years):Premature DeathYLD (Years Lost due to Disability): Reduced Quality of LifeApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 8


HACCP and Indoor AirApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 9


Avian Influenza• Measures to decrease infection risk Raising Relative humidity up to 50% Increasing Ventilation Rate HEPA Filtering UV irradiation• Infection Risk Model: Nazaroff [Nazaroff, 1998] and Well-Riley [Riley et al, 1978]• Efficiencies of measures are based on peer reviewed literatureApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 10


Avian InfluenzaTime t to a 0.95 infection-riskprobabilityA=1 infectorB=2 infectorsC=3 infectorsInfection risk probability Pdue to an infected visitorD=duration of visit 1 hourE=duration of visit 2 hoursF=duration of visit 3 hoursApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 11


Biological Warfare (Anthrax)• Field study (February 2005)Methodology• 8 bachelor students (from Bsc. Installatietechnologie)2 fake-terrorists6 fake-building security officers• Fluorescein as pseudo Anthrax spores• All students received UV-lamp• 10 Hours to attack (between 12.00 PM and 22.00 PM)Results• CCPsInlet of HVAC (on ground level), detection after 30 minutesElevators, detection after 3 hoursApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 12


Fine Dust (Case Study)• Office Building near hotspot (Master Thesis J.R. Balvers)Methodology• Outside and Inside (3 indoor locations) measurementsMass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0)Particle Counting (200 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, 700 nm)Chemical composition of outdoor and indoor samples• Before and after AHU maintenance (Replacement of Filters)Results (median (range) indoor/outdoor ratio)HVAC = on, office hoursHVAC = on, weekendsHVAC = offBeforeAfterBeforeAfterBeforeAfterPM100.19 (2.20)0.21 (3.47)0.01 (1.16)0.00 (0.10)0.05 (3.19)0.04 (4.16)PM2.50.05 (0.60)0.04 (0.70)0.02 (0.18)0.01 (0.14)0.06 (0.69)0.05 (1.20)PM1.00.05 (0.25)0.04 (0.54)0.05 (0.42)0.02 (0.18)0.08 (0.68)0.07 (0.79)0.2-0.3µm0.55 (2.74)0.39 (0.90)0.54 (2.52)0.37 (0.71)0.60 (19.21)0.38 (2.21)0.3-0.5µm0.37 (3.78)0.31 (1.34)0.41 (1.60)0.33 (0.86)0.32 (6.89)0.31 (3.27)0.5-0.7µm0.21 (5.67)0.22 (1.11)0.23 (2.20)0.18 (0.65)0.18 (4.83)0.22 (1.76)April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 13


HACCP and Potable Water• Field Study (Master Project F.J. van Hout)Methodology• 5 dwellingsWater faucetWater meterCold water pipe high in the cupboardHot water pipe near the district heating heat exchangerHot water high in the cupboardCentral heating pipe from district heating heat exchangerAir temperature on ground levelAir temperature high in cupboardApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 14


HACCP and Potable WaterTemperature in cold water tube at 2.2m in upstairs apartmentTemperature in hot water tube in upstairs apartment1.2004001.000300800Count600Count200Legionella Pneumophila400100Legionella Anisa200015,0020,0025,0030,00020,0030,0040,0050,0060,00TemperatureTemperatureApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 15


HACCP and Teleservices• Teleservices and Maslow’s HierarchyMaslow’s HierarchyApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 16


HACCP and Teleservices• Field Study (Master Thesis M.H. Janssen)Methodology• 60 subjects from 12 projects (5 subjects per project)• At least 1 Teleservice presentPersonal AlarmBurglary AlarmVideo intercom• Structured interview7 items on dwelling characteristics27 items on teleservices21 items on individual characteristics of subjects9 items on life changes through teleservicesApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 17


HACCP and TeleservicesResults (Principle Component Analysis)Single men(N=12)Single Women(N=28)Couples(N=20)Components1212341234Change on Daily ActivitiesVariance [%]38.524.424.323.615.011.528.723.713.412.4Safety LevelAge.635.172-.242-.798.158.325.288.654-.262.578More walks during day-timeHealth.165-.844-.506.363.275.443.666.233.057-.404More walks during nightPhysical ability-.905.165.201.600-.333.525.860.111.119.197Going to bed laterHealth Care.775-.069.227-.790.216-.046-.450-.316-.079.665Improved sleep qualityICT capability-.204.817-.304.546.539-.451.315-.824-.230.078Social LevelTeleservices Use.006-.686.701-.057-.270-.158.130.618-.519-.074More visits to leisure centreTechnology Training-.713.088.679.059.258.403.603-.102-.050.274More social contacts in theneighbourhoodDirect performance onsecurity.730.504.791.253.132-.186.675-.189.545.171More hobbiesChanges in daily lifeactivities.729.134.333.047.807.165-.426.499.700.148More sporting activitiesMore shopping aloneApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 18


Building Services and DALYsAFCausativeAgentInterventionRFGainedDALYsICERAcceptableInvestmentHVAC (Indoor Air)Upgradeventilation€ 50,000Asthma0.8HDM0.7520,000COPD0.6ETS0.644,000Lung Cancer0.25ETS0.617,000Potable waterMonochloramination€ 430 x 10 6PneumoniaLegionellaspp0.98,600Teleservices???Mental Disorders?• AF: Attributable Factor• RF: Reduction Factor???• DALY: Disability Adjusted Life Years• ICER: Incremental Cost-Effectiveness RatioApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 19


Discussion• Applying HACCP appears to be an effective method to understand thecontrol points better in order to guarantee safe consuming productssuch as indoor air and potable water• Control Points must be measurable (step 2), how to measureindependence and quality of life (Social Sciences) should be definedbefore controlling is achievable• ICT in 21 st century ready for automatic control of building servicesconsumption products• Population based intervention are macro-economically feasible• Quality Systems such as HACCP adds Values (Value Engineering )thus USPsApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 20


ConclusionApplying HACCP leads towards healthy indoor environmentsand economyApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 21


References (1)Bagh LK, Albrechtsen HJ, Arvin E, Ovesen K, 2004. Distribution of bacteria in a domestic hot watersystem in a Danish apartment building, Water Research 38(1) : 225-235Burati JL, Matthews MF, Kalidindi SN, 1991. Quality Management in construction-Industry. Journalof Construction Engineering and Management–ASCE, 117(2): 341-359Chan YC, Simpson RW, Mctainsh GH, Vowles PD, Cohen DD, Bailey GM, 1997. Characterisationof chemical species in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols in Brisbane, Australia. AtmosphericEnvironments 31(22): 3773-3785Franchi M, Carrer P, Kotzias D, Rameckers EMAL, Seppanen O, van Bronswijk JEMH, Viegi G,Gilder JA, Valovirta E, 2006. Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe, Allergy 61(7):864-868GR, 1984. Advies inzake het binnenhuisklimaat, in het bijzonder een ventilatieminimum, inNederlandse woningen. Den Haag, 1984Kool JL, Bergmire-Sweat D, Butler JC, Brown EW, Peabody DJ, Massi DS, Carpenter JC,Pruckler JM, Benson RF, Fields BS, 1999. Hospital characteristics associated with colonizationof water systems by Legionella and risk of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease: A cohort study of 15hospitals, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 20(12): 798-805Li Y, Leung GM, Tang JW, Yang X, Chao CYH, Lin JZ, Lu JW, Nielsen PV, Niu J, Qian H, SleighAC, Su HJJ, Sundell J, Wong TW, Yuen PL, 2007. Role of ventilation in airborne transmission ofinfectious agents in the built environment - a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indor Air 17(1):2-18Nazaroff WW, Nicas M, Miller SL, 1998. Framework for Evaluating Measures to Control NosocomialTuberculosis Transmission. Indoor Air 8 (4): 205-218April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 22


References (2)NIOSH, 2003. Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect BuildingEnvironments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks. DHHS(NIOSH) Pub No. 2003-136Riley EC, Murphy G, Riley RL, 1978. Airborne spread of measles in suburbanelementary schools. American Journal of Epimediology 107(5): 421-432Van Dijken F, Van Bronswijk JEMH, Sundell, J, 2006. Indoor environment and pupils'health in primary schools. Building Research and Information 2006, 34(5):437-446UN PD, 2006. World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Population Database.http://esa.un.org./unpp/ . 2006. United Nations, Population DivisionVanne L, Karwoski M, Karppinen S, Sjoberg AM, 1996. HACCP-based food qualitycontrol and rapid detection methods for microorganisms, Food Control 7(6): 263-276Wargocki P, Sundell J, Bischof W, Brundrett G, Fanger PO, Gyntelberg F, HanssenSO, Harrison P, Pickering A, Seppanen O, Wouters P, 2002. Ventilation andhealth in non-industrial indoor environments: report from a European MultidisciplinaryScientific Consensus Meeting (EUROVEN), Indoor Air 12 (2): 113-128WHO, 1946. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted bythe International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World HealthOrganization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 23


Thank you for your Attention!April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 24


HACCP and Indoor Air• Avian Influenza (Pandemic)CCP 1 = Household membersCCP 2 = Visitors• Biological Warfare (Anthrax)• Fine DustCCP 1 = Inlet HVAC (Outdoor air)CCP 2 = Air Handling UnitCCP 3 = DuctsCCP 4 = Indoor Environments (e.g. post rooms)CCP 1 = Inlet HVAC (Outdoor air)CCP 2 = FilterCCP 3 = Indoor Environments (movement of people)April 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 25


Comfort Technology and DesignDesignTechnologiesA Multidisciplinary ChallengeHealthComfortApril 24, 2008 Francesco Franchimon MSc 26

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