Lost in Translation: Assessing knowledge sources, exchange - Relu ...

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Lost in Translation: Assessing knowledge sources, exchange - Relu ...

Policy and Practice NotesNote No. 36 March 2012What are the different arenas ofaction in disease management?Prevention(Reducing the occurrence of animal disease)Anticipation(Predicting and preparing for disease outbreaks)Alleviation(Responding to disease occurrence)e.g. Constraining disease transmission within livestockpopulations or changing livestock management practicese.g. Experimental modelling of disease scenarios and thedesign and testing of contingency planning arrangementse.g. Procedures adopted to control and eradicate diseaseand manage the long-term repercussions of outbreaksHow does policy influencedisease management?The strategic level(Structures and processes that shape containment)The tactical level(Procedures and tools for decision making)The operational level(Practical contexts of disease containment)e.g. The use of legislation to mandate stakeholders to act ondisease risks, such as continuous sampling in the UK under the1999 Cryptosporidium Regulationse.g. Elaboration of criteria for intervening in disease outbreaks,such as the creation of surveillance protection zonese.g. The process of vaccinating birds or livestock or theimplementation of biosecurity measures at livestock marketsThe cycle of disease containment applied to Avian Influenza (Fish et al 2011)PreventionAnticipationAlleviationOperationallevelImplementationof measuresImportsmeasurese.g. veterinarychecks includinglaboratory testingUptake of farmlevel biosecuritye.g.covered/netted outdoorenclosuresEpidemiologicalmodellinge.g. spatiallyexplicit stochasticsimulation modelsContingencyplanningexercisese.g. ExerciseHawthornePassivesurveillancee.g. FarmervigilanceActivesurveillancee.g. Stratifiedsurvey, bloodsamples to detectantibodies to H5and H7 serotypesof low-path. AI;randomised flockswithin the poultryindustryData assimilatione.g. Rapid Analysisand Detection ofAnimal-relatedRisks SystemEstablishmentof protectionand surveillancezonese.g. Restrictionsimposed at least3km around anoutbreak pointCullinge.g. Firebreakculling of poultryVaccinationDuty of careto animalse.g. Livestockdisposal measuresWorkerprotection advicee.g. Advice onpersonal protectiveequipment; issuingof antiviral therapyTrauma andoutreache.g. Farm CrisisNetworkTactical levelShaping plansand approcachesApproaches toimport controle.g Designationof borderinspection postsand proceduresDomesticbiosecuritycampaignse.g. Give diseasethe boot campaignApproaches tocontingencyplanning andpreparednesse.g. Exotic animaldisease frameworkresponse planOptions forsampling andtesting(at different spatialscales andfrequencies)e.g. Nationalsurvey for Avianinfluenza virusesof subtypes H5and H7 indomestic poultrySlaughter andvaccinationprotocolse.g. Vaccinedelivery plansStrategic levelPolitical,economic,legal basis forinterventionImports policye.g. negotiation ofimport rules forthe UKAnimal healthpolicye.g. UK VeterinarysurveillancestrategyTransnationalinitiativese.g. FAO GlobalFramework for theControl ofTransboundaryAnimal DiseasesLegislativeprovisions(at different spatialscales) e.g. EU AIDirective 2005/94;Avian Influenza &Newcastle Disease(England andWales) Order 2003

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