Utilisation of Low Rank Coal in the APEC Region - Expert Group on ...

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Utilisation of Low Rank Coal in the APEC Region - Expert Group on ...

Introduction to IEA CCCWebsite: www.iea-coal.org


Power Generation & Dewaterong>inong>gong>ofong> ong>Lowong> ong>Rankong> ong>Coalong>sDr Nigel S Dong5 July 2012, Beijong>inong>g


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Power Generation-- Domong>inong>ant use ong>ofong> low rank coalProven recoverable coal reserves (Mt)Production and use ong>ofong> subbitumong>inong>ous coal• The world’s proven reserves ong>ofong> lignite + subbitumong>inong>ous coal are vast, est. 414,680 Mt• Deposits widespread across ong>theong> norong>theong>rn hemisphere• Production concentrate ong>inong> North America, central/eastern Europe, Chong>inong>a and Oceania• The majority ong>ofong> low rank coals is used for power generation• The majority ong>ofong> low rank coals is used for power generation• Lignite/brown coal is rarely hauled over long distance; used ong>inong> mong>inong>emouth power plants• Subbitumong>inong>ous coal is shipped: PRB coal to eastern power plants, Indonesian exports• Power generation plant type: PCC, FBC, and ong>inong>creasong>inong>gly IGCC


Pulverised-coal combustionCurrent status· Currently ong>theong> domong>inong>ant power generation technology for low quality coals· Net unit efficiency: 30-36% (LHV) for subcritical PCC units, ong>theong> majority ong>ofong> current ong>inong>stalled capacitiesup to 43.2% (LHV) for supercritical PCC unit· Best performong>inong>g unit: SC Niederaussem K, 965 MW, lignite (>50% moisture content), 43.2% (LHV)· Larger boiler and associated equipment required compared with hard coal-fired PCC units (size ×2.5)· Coarser mill output, larger flue gas volume, high excess air ratio, cong>ofong>irong>inong>g is rare· Availability ong>ofong> 90% has been achieved for lignite, with low foulong>inong>g and slaggong>inong>g tendenciesMaong>inong> issues:· High moisture content: lower ong>theong>rmal efficiency· Foulong>inong>g and corrosion, thus high maong>inong>tenance costs· Feed variation, how to accommodate?Neurath BoA 2&3, under constructionFuture developments· Efficient and safe dewaterong>inong>g prior to combustion· Increasong>inong>g adoption ong>ofong> supercritical conditions· Load-followong>inong>g to support renewables· Carbon capture & storage


Fluidised bed combustionCurrent status· CFBC is ong>theong> prevailong>inong>g FBC technology for power generation, while most BFBC ong>inong> ong>inong>dustrial application· CFBC units small-medium capacity (30-300 MW), but can accommodate a wider range ong>ofong> feedstocks· Cheaper emissions control: ong>inong>-furnace S capture and low NOx formation· CFBC could ong>ofong>fer cost advantages over PCC ong>ofong> same capacity when emissions control cost considered· ong>Lowong>er efficiency than PCC ong>ofong> same capacity (fan power need > power savong>inong>gs ong>inong> pulverisong>inong>g)· Adoption ong>ofong> supercritical steam lags behong>inong>d PCC (First SC CFBC unit, Lagisza ong>inong> Poland, 460 MWe)Maong>inong> issues· High moisture content: lower efficiency, larger furnace, operational difficulties· Bed agglomeration/defluidisation, ash deposition/corrosion, erosion due to aggressive ash· Feedstock variationFuture development· Unit scale-up to 500-600 MW, and 800MW ong>inong> ong>theong> longer term· Supercritical steam conditions (Poland, Russia, Chong>inong>a)· Carbon capture & storage- Post-combustion: Czech Republic Hodonín, among>inong>e scrubbong>inong>g- Oxyfuel: OXYCFB300 Compostilla, Spaong>inong>Potential examong>inong>ed for ong>theong> Lagisza unit, PolandLagisza, 460MWe, 275MPa/557 o C/578 o Cnet plant efficiency 43.3% (LHV)Plant Location Unit/Capacity Technology/Provider Commission YearZhungeer Inner Mogolia 2×300 MW CFBC/Shanghai Boiler Co. 2009DafanPu Chong>inong>aSandow 5 Texas, USA 2×315 MW CFBC/Foster Wheeler 2009Seward PA, USA 2×292 MW CFBC/Alstom 2004


Integrated Gasification Combong>inong>ed CycleCurrent status· Technology beong>inong>g demonstrated at commercial scale, but experience with firong>inong>g low rank coal limited· Worldwide, just 3 IGCC plants (firong>inong>g low quality fuels) ong>inong> operation, 2 are under construction· Gasifier: 3 use fluidised bed, 1 use oxygen-blown entraong>inong>ed flow, 1 use Lurgi movong>inong>g bed· Efficiency ong>ofong> current best-performong>inong>g plant matches that ong>ofong> most advanced PCC plant, i.e. 41.8% (HHV)· ong>Lowong> air emissions and CO 2 emission per unit ong>ofong> output· Products flexibility (electricity, methanol, ammonia, hydrogen, etc)Maong>inong> issues· Relatively low availability and associated high maong>inong>tenance costs, generally high capital cost· Ash-ong>inong>duced operational problems: corrosion, foulong>inong>g and slaggong>inong>g· Syngas cleanong>inong>g imposed efficiency lossFuture developments· Reduce costs· Improve availability and efficiency· Improve plant economics, polygeneration· Large capacity (gas turbong>inong>e, gasifier)· More efficient oxygen production tech.· Carbon capture & storage- pilot trial at Puertollano started ong>inong> 2010Plant Location Unit/CapacityVresova Czech Republic 2×200 MW(gross)Gasifier/ProviderDry‐bottom movong>inong>g bedLurgiSanghi India 60 MW Dry‐bottom fluidised bedU‐GasCommission Year1995‐96Puertollano Spaong>inong> 335 MW Oxygen‐blown song>inong>gle‐2004staged entraong>inong>edflow/PRENFLOTRIG TM USA 582 MW Dry‐bottom fluidized2014bed/KBRMorwell Australia 600MW IDGCC/HRL 20132002


CO 2 emission reduction by key technologiesLatrobe Valley lignitegCO2/kWh28-29.0%1400 gCOAverage worldwide2 /kWh EU state‐ong>ofong>ong>theong>‐artlignitehard coal30.0%43-44%1116 gCO 2 2/ /kWhEU av hard coal930 gCO 2 /kWh38%881 gCO 2 /kWhState‐ong>ofong>‐ong>theong> artPC/IGCC hard coal45%743 gCO 2 /kWhAdvanced d R&DHard coal50%Advanced lignite55%740 gCO 2 /kWh669 gCO 2 /kWhbut deep cutsonly by CCS>2030Data for hard coal‐fired power plants from VGB 2007; data for lignite plants from C Henderson, IEA Clean ong>Coalong> Centre; efficiencies are LHV,netEnergy Efficiency i makes big change but tdeep cuts ong>ofong> CO 2 emission i can be done only byCarbon Capture and Storage (CCS)


CCS activities usong>inong>g low rank coals- Projects and proposalsLoy Yang pilot plant, AustraliaProposed CCS activitiesPost-combustionSchwarze Pumpe, GermanyOxyfuel CombustionPuertollano IGCC plant, Spaong>inong>IGCC+CCS•CCS is ong>ofong> vital importance for ong>theong> future ong>ofong> low rank coal•Already a number ong>ofong> CCS ong>inong>itiatives, ong>inong>volvong>inong>g ong>theong> use ong>ofong>low rank coals, underway or proposed, coverong>inong>g all ong>theong>technological options currently beong>inong>g examong>inong>ed


Dewaterong>inong>gDeep dryong>inong>g low rank coals is difficultDestroy origong>inong>al small pore structure is requiredThermalMechanicalDemonstration on existong>inong>g power plantsThermal methodsIndirect evaporative dryong>inong>gDirective evaporative dryong>inong>gSuperheated steam dryong>inong>gMicrowave-agitated dryong>inong>gSolar dryong>inong>gThermal dewaterong>inong>g processesMechanical methodsMechanical ong>theong>rmal expressionHigh velocity air flow grong>inong>dong>inong>g/dryong>inong>gWTA @ Niederaussem Unit K25% feed dried, 110 t/h dried lignite12% moisture, efficiency up by ~4%DryFong>inong>ong>inong>g TM @ ong>Coalong> Creek Station540 t/h raw lignite dried on Unit 1 & 2respectively, moisture 38.5% to 29%Oong>theong>rsChemical extraction under pressure and heatMicrobial hydrolysis


Upgradong>inong>gTransformed to higher CV, more stable,safer for transport or storagecrushong>inong>gdewaterong>inong>gbong>inong>dong>inong>gUpgradong>inong>g holds ong>theong> potential forcapturong>inong>g remote market opportunitiesBriquettong>inong>gAdvanced upgradong>inong>g processesmaong>inong> differences lie ong>inong> ong>theong> dewaterong>inong>g methodProcess Origong>inong> Existong>inong>g Plants & depolymentK‐Fuel®UBC®Synong>Coalong>®USAJapanUSA750 Kt/y, Wyomong>inong>g, USA song>inong>ce 2005New projects ong>inong> Chong>inong>a and Indonesia600t/d, Kalimantan, Indonesia song>inong>ce 2010,possible scale‐up to 5000 t/dA demo plant ong>inong> Montana, USA 1993‐2001,with total 2 Mt product soldCowboy USA 20 Kt/y, Wyomong>inong>g, USAConvertong>Coalong> USA No referenceGTL EnergyAustraliaLicense it to Solid Energy ong>inong> New Zealand ong>inong>2011GTL Energybriquettestockpile atong>theong> Dakotaplant.PT Kaltim Supacoal (KSC), Tabang, IndonesiaWhite Energy’s Bong>inong>derless ong>Coalong> Briquettong>inong>g process, 1 Mt/y


Thank YouDr Nigel S DongNigel.s.dong@iea-coal.org

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