SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS - Society for American Archaeology

SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACTS - Society for American Archaeology

2ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGtogether to present new data and new ideas on the Incanorthern frontier area.[16] SYMPOSIUM ■ EXPLORING SEX AND GENDER INBIOARCHAEOLOGYWhile the osteological identification of sex in skeletalremains has been a foundation for gendered analyses ofassociated material artifacts, contemporarybioarchaeologists have begun to challenge thetheoretical and methodological basis for sex assignment.Simultaneously, bioarchaeologists have started toconsider the cultural construction of the gendered bodyand gender roles through the analysis of skeletalremains. This session will bring together the currenttheoretical approaches to traversing the sex and genderdivide in bioarchaeology, and present exceptionalmethodological approaches that are pushing the fieldtowards the holistic reconstruction of gendered social lifeand identity with the use of skeletal remains.[17] SYMPOSIUM ■ QUESTIONING ASSUMPTIONS:CELEBRATING THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF JOHN D.SPETH, PART 1―When your research does NOT work out as youexpected, then you know you‘re making real progress.‖This attitude conveys John Speth‘s basic approach toarchaeological research: questioning assumptions,checking ―known‖ facts, rethinking key concepts, andmaking distinctions. In this session, his former studentshighlight how these ideas helped shape their ownresearch, with topics ranging from biocultural andevolutionary studies of Pleistocene foragers to the studyof inter- and intra-cultural variation and interaction inmany different archaeological contexts. Part 1emphasizes work on the terminal Pleistocene to earlyHolocene, as well as on bio-cultural and nutritionalissues.[18] SYMPOSIUM ■ THEORY, HISTORY, ANDMULTIDISCIPLINARITY: PAPERS IN HONOR OF DON FOWLERSince 1950s, archaeology has become a multidisciplinaryundertaking, involving multiple, overlapping socialnetworks of participants, insightful consultations withindigenous peoples and other historic sourcecommunities, practitioners working from a number ofinstitutional bases, and researchers from numerousdisciplines. One of the proponents of multidisciplinary aswell as the necessity of understanding of the history ofscience and its influences on contemporary archaeologyis Don Fowler. On the 75th anniversary of Fowler's birth,SAA members take stock of the Americanist productionof knowledge about the culture histories and processesoccurring in the Great Basin and the AmericanSouthwest[19] SYMPOSIUM ■ CHEMICAL RESIDUE ANALYSIS INARCHAEOLOGY: METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDUEDIAGENESIS(SPONSORED BY THE SOCIETY FOR ARCHAEOLOGICALSCIENCES)Despite recent successes in the chemical analysis ofresidues recovered from archaeological artifacts, severalproblems continue to prevent studies of this type fromachieving their full potential. This session, sponsored bythe Society for Archaeological Sciences, addressessome of these issues by focusing on analyses conductedon archaeological and experimental samples withemphasis on residue diagenesis, soil-artifact interactions,method development, quality control and explicitdiscussion of assumptions and limitations. Attention tomethods and diagenetic processes, rather than dramaticresults, will help archaeological residue analysis matureas a field.[20] SYMPOSIUM · GRAND ARCHAEOLOGY: LIFE ALONGTHE BANKS OF THE COLORADO RIVER THROUGH GRANDCANYONThe Museum of Northern Arizona and Grand CanyonNational Park recently conducted excavations at ninesites along banks of the Colorado River. This workrepresents the first major excavations conducted at thebottom of the canyon in a generation. Additionally, otherresearchers have been engaged river corridorgeoarchaeology. Papers in this symposium will presentthe wealth of new data produced recently and interpretthe results in light of extant models and hypothesesconcerning past life-ways in the Grand Canyon area ofthe North American Southwest.[21] SYMPOSIUM ■ LOS OTOMÍES EN LA HISTORIAMESOAMERICANATradicionalmente los pueblos de habla otomí han sidorelegados a un papel secundario dentro de la historiamesoamericana. Es a través de las investigacionesrecientes, con los indicadores arqueológicos específicosque permiten la comparación de la cultura material, laevidencia etnográfica y la lingüística, estos grupos vanadquiriendo mayor relevancia. Ahora presentamos estesimposio con objeto de reconocer la importancia quetuvo este grupo en el desarrollo mesoamericano a travésdel territorio que ocupó. Tocaremos regiones distantesdonde vemos la presencia de estos grupos como parteactiva de las sociedades que se formaron en lo que seconoce como Mesoamérica.[22] SYMPOSIUM ■ LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND THE STATUSOF ROCKS IN ARCHAEOLOGY: A TRIBUTE TO GEORGEODELLGeorge Odell, a noted lithic analyst and pioneer in lowpowermicrosopy, revived Lithic Technology and edited itfor 17 years. George transformed LT, making it theforemost journal of lithic analysis in North America. Thissession commemorates his editorial tenure and takesstock of lithic analysis in archaeology. In the process, itshowcases the breadth and depth of contemporarystone-tool studies, both as reference for analysts anddemonstration of the important but unappreciated rolethat lithic analysis plays in archaeology.[23] SYMPOSIUM ■ RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THEARCHAEOLOGY OF SOUTHWEST CHINA AND SOUTHEASTASIAThis symposium will introduce recent archaeologicaldiscoveries in Southwest China and Southeast Asia.Topics covered by the symposium will range fromresearch on the implantation of early agriculturalsocieties in the region to the development of complexsocieties in the Bronze Age and beyond. By encouragingexchange between scholars from Southeast Asia and

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 3Southern China, this symposium will provide a basis forunderstanding the mechanisms which led to the wideranginginteraction spheres which characterized thisregion. This symposium will also highlight the greatdiversity of ecological habitats and adaptive strategiesemployed by the wide range of cultural groups whoinhabited the region.[24] SYMPOSIUM ■ SITUATING MATERIALITY: POWER ANDOBJECTIFICATION IN THE INDIGENOUS AMERICASBe it the destruction of potlatch coppers or the dedicationof a Maya temple, political practices in the indigenousAmericas are often staked and experienced in particularplaces and strictly defined social situations. This sessioninvestigates how political actors in the indigenousAmericas orchestrate such situated practices in anattempt to reify their authority, manifest their politicalpower, and objectify a particular vision of social reality.By examining the practices that actively animate, create,convert, or destroy—indeed, objectify—particular placesand things, the symposium aims to shed light on broaderanthropological notions of objectification, animism, andmateriality.[25] SYMPOSIUM ■ WOOD IN ARCHAEOLOGY: LATESTDEVELOPMENTS FOR PAST SOCIETIESWood has always been a crucial raw materials used byhumans. Although archaeologists may collect woodsamples to identify basic fuel and construction materials,as well as for dendrochronology, recent researchdemonstrates the nuanced and multi-faceted potential ofwood remain analysis and encourages archaeologists togo beyond simply identifying fuel and construction taxa.In this symposium, papers will present and discuss thecurrent status of wood studies in archaeology,highlighting the range and diversity of the methods andapproaches being used by wood specialists around theworld to enrich our understanding of what wood canteach us about ancient societies.[26] GENERAL SESSION ■ PALEOECOLOGY ANDPALEOENVIRONMENTS OF THE NEAR EAST[27] GENERAL SESSION ■ LANDSCAPES, MEMORY, ANDPLACE[28] GENERAL SESSION ■ MAYA COSMOLOGY ANDICONOGRAPHY[29] GENERAL SESSION ■ STONE TOOL TECHNOLOGIES INNORTH AMERICA[30] GENERAL SESSION ■ OF FAUNA, TOOLS, AND FOOD:ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL ANALYSES IN NORTH AMERICA[31] POSTER SESSION ■ “WHO’S IN CHARGE HERE?”POLITICAL ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATIONIN RURAL SOUTHEAST MESOAMERICAThe study of ancient households and communities takesmany forms, ranging from top-down models in which eliteactors shape local behavior patterns to those that seesuch patterns emerging from daily intra- and intercommunityinteractions. This session employs bothapproaches to examine social differentiation and politicalorganization in southeast Mesoamerica. Attention isfocused on administrative strategies, social affiliation,and economic specialization (including craft production,trade, and exchange) as evidenced in the archaeologicalrecord of this dynamic interaction zone to illuminatethese interconnected axes of differentiation and thecomplex worlds residents of seemingly humblesettlements created as they pursued varied goals.[32] POSTER SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGY OF LATINAMERICA[33] POSTER SESSION ■ INSPIRING COLLABORATIVERESEARCH AT PISANAY, PERUResearch sponsored by the National Endowment forHumanities at the site of Pisanay, Department ofArequipa, Peru has produced more than the expectedresults. In addition to revealing evidence of LateIntermediate Period (1000-1450 C.E.) occupation at thesite, the work at Pisanay has inspired a number ofcollaborative, interdisciplinary research projects from thefields of Geology, Geography, Forensic Science and Artfeatured in this session. These projects have beenundertaken primarily by undergraduate womensupervised by disciplinary faculty and coordinated by theproject PI and Co-PI.[34] POSTER SESSION ■ MAYA ARCHAEOLOGY[35] POSTER SESSION ■ PALEOETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES[36] POSTER SESSION ■ PROCESS AND CHANGE INPREHISTORIC SOCIO-NATURAL SYSTEMSThrough this symposium we integrate complementaryresearch domains that describe and explain prehistoricchange in socio-natural systems. A portion of the postersdescribe ritual and institutional responses to systemicshocks (exogenous and endogenous) as agentsnegotiate dynamic socio-natural landscapes. Theremaining posters investigate the underlyingmechanisms that might cause and constrain patterns ofchange in socio-natural systems. The symposium unitesdiverse methodologies and theoretical approaches toaddress a common problem in archaeology: how dopeople negotiate change in coupled biophysical andsocial environments over long durations of time? In sodoing, the symposium seeks to provide a richer (bothgeneral and contextual) understanding of how socionaturalsystems change and why socio-natural systemsare so variable across space and time.[37] SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT RESEARCH ON THEMIDDLE/NORTHERN RIO GRANDE CLASSIC PERIODThe Classic Period in the Middle and Northern RioGrande was defined more than half a century ago as theperiod AD 1325 – 1600, marked by populationaggregation into large, multi-story buildings surroundingplazas and the appearance of new technologies includingglaze pottery and dry farming. Since that time, CRM andacademic investigations have added considerably to ourunderstanding of Classic Period climate trends,agricultural strategies, demographic redistribution,mortuary practices, landscape use and settlementpatterns. This symposium presents recent research that

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 5the late precontact period have been vigorously debatedamong U.S. Southwest Archaeologists for decades.Various researchers have invoked environmental,demographic, and social explanations for this collapsewith the tempo ranging from a catastrophic event to agradual process drawn out over a century. Others havequestioned whether this collapse actually occurredbefore the arrival of the Spanish and European disease,citing problems in archaeological resolution. Vastamounts of new data derived from CRM and academicfieldwork as well as reanalysis of existing collectionsmake this an opportune time to revisit this intriguingtopic.[53] SYMPOSIUM ■ QUESTIONING ASSUMPTIONS:CELEBRATING THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF JOHN D.SPETH, PART 2―When your research does NOT work out as youexpected, then you know you‘re making real progress.‖This attitude conveys John Speth‘s basic approach toarchaeological research: questioning assumptions,checking ―known‖ facts, rethinking key concepts, andmaking distinctions. In this session, his former studentshighlight how these ideas helped shape their ownresearch, with topics ranging from biocultural andevolutionary studies of Pleistocene foragers to the studyof inter- and intra-cultural variation and interaction inmany different archaeological contexts. Part 2emphasizes work on the recent cultural diversity,interaction, and change.[54] SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT RESEARCH ANDAPPROACHES TO THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF COMMUNITIESCENTRAL AND NORTHEAST ASIAThis session addresses a wide range of communitiesincluding symbolic and ideological, biological, economicand exchange related, or those in ethnic and politicalallegiances in the unique socio-spatial setting of InnerAsia, one that invites research foci beyond site basedperspectives and requires innovative research designs.Papers in this session will touch upon the nature ofcommunity in this region as well as how influentialinteractionist perspectives may be applied to these casestudies, the role of networks in the prosperity andproliferation of communities, the relationship betweenplace, place-making, and community and the potentialimplications for nomadic peoples.[55] SYMPOSIUM ■ BRIDGING THE U.S.-CANADIANBORDER: THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARCHAEOLOGY OFNORTHERN IROQUOIAN PEOPLESThe modern international boundary between the UnitedStates and Canada has served as an impediment tocollaboration between archaeologists researching theculture and history of Northern Iroquoian societies. Thisis unfortunate because studies of Wendat,Haudenosaunee, and other related groups (and theirancestors) have much to offer not only our understandingof regional cultural development, but also many largeranthropological issues. The goals of this symposium areto bring together Canadian and American archaeologistsworking on a diverse set of topics and to show the wideranthropological community the broader significance ofresearch into Northern Iroquoian societies.[56] SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT RESEARCH IN MAYABIOARCHAEOLOGYBioarchaeology in the Maya region has always beenlimited by poor preservation and by a general lack ofrepresentative cemetery samples, making broadstatistical comparisons of health, dietary, and geneticdata between populations difficult. Increasingly, however,many bioarchaeological approaches have begun to focusmore on analyses of specific datasets based onindividuals or groups in an effort to identify and interpretbehaviors related to broader social, political, andeconomic processes within ancient Maya communities.Papers in this session discuss studies based ontechniques appropriate for targeted analyses of specificgroups or individuals who were distinguished by mortuarytreatment and/or location.[57] SYMPOSIUM ■ CROWN OF THE WEST: MOUNTAINARCHAEOLOGY FROM THE SIERRA NEVADA TO THE ROCKYMOUNTAINSThe western mountains of North America, including theSierra Nevada, various Great Basin Ranges, and theRocky Mountains, provided a unique and complex set ofenvironmental conditions to which prehistoric peopleshad to adapt. These conditions include the spatial andtemporal variability of patchy subsistence resources,vertically banded biotic communities, irregular mobilityand transport costs due to terrain, and pronouncedseasonality. Prehistoric groups responded to this ecologythrough variable patterns of settlement and mobility,logistical resource acquisition, long-distance trade, riskbuffering strategies such as storage and sharing, etc.This symposium examines the archaeology of thosebehaviors.[58] SYMPOSIUM ■ LANDSCAPE, URBANISM AND SOCIETY:RECENT RESEARCH IN POSTCLASSIC WESTERN MEXICOThis session brings together an international group ofscholars to synthesize recent research in an effort toforge a new understanding of settlement patterns andearly urbanism in Western Mexico during the PostclassicPeriod (A.D. 1000-1520). Employing case studies,participants address regional dynamics, chronology, builtenvironment, and socio-spatial organization. Thesymposium is a unique example of internationalcollaboration on the topics of landscape, urbanism andsociety that promises to significantly revise our currentunderstanding of city and state formation in West Mexico.[59] SYMPOSIUM ■ STANDARDIZATION IN LITHIC USE-WEARANALYSIS: HOW DO WE GET THERE FROM HERE?Forensic evidence of tool use has long captured theinterest of archaeologists. The last four decades inparticular have witnessed a remarkable proliferation ofapproaches and techniques for studying thesemicroscopic attributes of stone tools. However, thediscipline has established only minimal methodologicalstandards in the context of use-wear analysis. Thissession is meant as a forum for discussion and debateregarding how best to foster greater analyticalstandardization within this field of study. Geography andtime period are open as we are aiming for as broad across-section of papers as possible to further the aim ofmethodological standardization.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 7addressing the meaning of Ishi and his entrance intocivilization, as well as his importance to academichistory, Native Americans, California, local historicalsocieties, and the general public in the larger context ofour shared history.[78] FORUM ■ THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHAEOLOGICALETHICS AS A LIVING DOCUMENT: IS REVISION NECESSARY?(SPONSORED BY COMMITTEE ON ETHICS)In October 2008, twelve archaeologists of diversebackgrounds, interests, and ages, met at IndianaUniversity, Bloomington, to discuss the SAA‘s Principlesof Archaeological Ethics and their implications forarchaeological practice. Originally inspired by theconcerns of Native American archaeologists, discussionshighlighted the need for improving collaborative practice.Out of that meeting came an open letter to the SAApublished in various electronic and paper formats,including the SAA Archaeological Record and the RPANewsletter, among others. This forum is intended topresent information concerning a perceived need torevisit or revise the Principles.[79] FORUM ■ FIELD SCHOOLS: WHAT ARE WE DOING?This forum will bring together participants from CRM, theRPA, and various universities to discuss the status ofarchaeological field schools. What are we teaching? Howdoes this correspond with the skills employers arelooking for? What pedagogies have proven successful?What strategies have people discovered for interactingwith universities, funding sources, and local governingagencies? If you teach a field school, train fieldtechnicians, or hire students coming out of field schools,attend this forum and join the conversation.[80] POSTER SESSION ■ AMERICAN RECOVERY &REINVESTMENT ACT (ARRA)–FUNDED PROJECTSTHROUGH THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS(USACE), ST. LOUIS DISTRICT (SLD): OPPORTUNITIES,INNOVATIONS, CHALLENGES, AND RESULTS, PART 1In 2009–2010, the USACE, SLD awarded 25 milliondollars in ARRA contracts under 40 individual deliveryorders to Statistical Research, Inc., John MilnerAssociates, Inc., and Brockington and Associates, Inc.for three projects assisting districts nationwide tocomplete often-neglected mandated tasks on USACEownedor –administered properties: National HistoricPreservation Act Section 110 planning surveys and otherprojects; the pilot Veterans Curation Project, andsupplemental NAGPRA compliance funding. Thissession provides a variety of management and researchperspectives on the work, which can be characterizedboth by the opportunities and challenges it presented andthe planning innovations that resulted.[81] POSTER SESSION ■ AMERICAN RECOVERY &REINVESTMENT ACT (ARRA)–FUNDED PROJECTSTHROUGH THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS(USACE), ST. LOUIS DISTRICT (SLD): OPPORTUNITIES,INNOVATIONS, CHALLENGES, AND RESULTS, PART 2In 2009–2010, the USACE, SLD awarded 25 milliondollars in ARRA contracts under 40 individual deliveryorders to Statistical Research, Inc., John MilnerAssociates, Inc., and Brockington and Associates, Inc.for three projects assisting districts nationwide tocomplete often-neglected mandated tasks on USACEownedor –administered properties: National HistoricPreservation Act Section 110 planning surveys and otherprojects; the pilot Veterans Curation Project, andsupplemental NAGPRA compliance funding. Thissession provides a variety of management and researchperspectives on the work, which can be characterizedboth by the opportunities and challenges it presented andthe planning innovations that resulted.[82] POSTER SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE NEWDEAL: HOW ROOSEVELT‟S „ALPHABET SOUP‟ PROGRAMSCONTINUE TO INFLUENCE MODERN ARCHAEOLOGY(SPONSORED BY HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY INTERESTGROUP)Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s ‗Alphabet Soup‘ work reliefprograms funded archaeological investigations acrossmost of the 48 states that comprised the U.S. during theGreat Depression. These work relief investigationsgenerated extensive collections of artifacts and fieldrecords that have continuing research potential.Archaeologists working across the U.S. today directlybuild on the legacy of the New Deal archaeologiststhrough reanalysis and reinterpretation of curatedcollections. The posters in this session highlight differingperspectives on the archaeological legacy of the NewDeal.[83] POSTER SESSION ■ THE ARCHAEOLOGY OFMANAGING WATER IN THE WEST: U.S. BUREAU OFRECLAMATION‟S CULTURAL RESOURCES PROGRAMIn 1902, the U.S. Reclamation Service (later the Bureauof Reclamation) was established to ―reclaim‖ arid landsfor human use, primarily through irrigation projects foragrarian purposes. This resulted in re-engineering of theWestern landscape through the construction ofmonumental dams, large reservoirs, expansive irrigationsystems, and extensive power transmission systems.Reclamation projects played a major role in twentiethcentury history of the West, with these massive projects,besides becoming historic resources themselves, directlyand indirectly affecting pre-existing archaeologicalresources. This session provides a glimpse into themyriad of challenges facing Reclamation to managecultural resources on a daily basis.[84] FORUM ■ THE PERILS, PITFALLS, AND INCREDIBLEPERSUASION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FICTION(SPONSORED BY PALEORESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC.)More archaeologists are trying their hands at fiction andusing it as an interpretive vehicle for their research. Wethink it's time to take a serious look at archaeologicalfiction, its uses, pitfalls, problems, and advantages.[85] SYMPOSIUM ■ ANCIENT MAYA CERAMIC PRODUCTION,DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTIONInvestigation of pottery has long been considered one ofthe most productive methods of obtaining informationabout social, economic, and political organization inancient societies. While traditional methods of ceramicanalysis, such as the Type-Variety system ofclassification, continue to play an integral role in ceramicanalysis, advances in investigative technology and the

8ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGaddition of new analytical methodologies have widenedthe range of potential information we are able to derivefrom Maya pottery. The intention of this symposium is toilluminate the use of new methods and technologies inthe analysis and understanding of Maya ceramicproduction, distribution, and consumption.[86] SYMPOSIUM ■ COME TOGETHER: REGIONALPERSPECTIVES ON SETTLEMENT AGGREGATIONThe investigation of how people came to live in largepopulation aggregates, after having lived in considerablysmaller social groups for millennia, is an important globalresearch question. The aim of this session is to explorethe social processes involved in the formation andmaintenance of aggregated settlements cross-culturally.While many studies of settlement aggregation to datehave focused on the regional scale, the participants herewill explore how processes of coalescence played ‗out onthe ground‘ in the diverse and historically contingentsettings of everyday life.[87] SYMPOSIUM ■ HUMAN LIMITATIONS, ANARCHEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVEThis symposium examines how the limitations of ancientpeople and modern archeologists have shaped the pastand our view of it. Ancient limiting factors includeenvironmental ones such as the availability of water,barriers such as mountains and oceans, and socialfactors such as inter-group hostility. Archeologists whostudy these ancient limitations are themselveschallenged by financial, bureaucratic, technological, andtime limitations.[88] SYMPOSIUM ■ NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE ARCHAICPERIOD OF COASTAL CHIAPAS, MEXICORecent archaeological, paleobotanical andgeoarchaeological research on the Chiapas coastprovides new insights about the lifeways of ArchaicPeriod people (7500-3500 yrs BP). We now detectchanges in fishing practices and an earlier onset offarming. We muster multiple lines of evidence tounderstand the purpose of unusual superimposed floorsat one shell mound. Using spatial data from inscribedfeatures, chemical elements, phytoliths, chipped stone,densities of small bones and color differences in the claymatrix, we infer past activities carried out on the floorsurfaces. Proposed activities include drying aquaticresources, food consumption and pickup dice games.[88] SYMPOSIUM ■ NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE ARCHAICPERIOD OF COASTAL CHIAPAS, MEXICORecent archaeological, paleobotanical andgeoarchaeological research on the Chiapas coastprovides new insights about the lifeways of ArchaicPeriod people (7500-3500 yrs BP). We now detectchanges in fishing practices and an earlier onset offarming. We muster multiple lines of evidence tounderstand the purpose of unusual superimposed floorsat one shell mound. Using spatial data from inscribedfeatures, chemical elements, phytoliths, chipped stone,densities of small bones and color differences in the claymatrix, we infer past activities carried out on the floorsurfaces. Proposed activities include drying aquaticresources, food consumption and pickup dice games.[89] GENERAL SESSION ■ OF SHORELINES AND SHIPS:COASTAL ARCHAEOLOGY[90] SYMPOSIUM ■ TROPICAL LOW-DENSITY URBANISMAND LANDSCAPE HISTORIESThe Khmer and other South Asian peoples builtmonumental architecture horizontally across thelandscape (e.g., at Angkor), while the Maya builtvertically in concentrated locations. These patternsrepresent different practices for expressing cosmologiesand for recording political histories (visual vs. memory).In contrast, farmers built according to agriculturaldemands—intensive or extensive practices, and so on.Many Khmer farmers were committed to fixed, boundedrice fields while many Maya farmers needed to move tonew fields. How did these strategies articulate with thepolitical and social landscape? How can we identifydifferent historical landscapes to address such questions(e.g., LiDAR)?[91] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGY AND PALEOECOLOGY INRANGE CREEK CANYON, UTAHRange Creek Canyon is a mid-elevation canyon in theWest Tavaputs Plateau in central Utah. Located in a veryrugged and remote region, the canyon contains aremarkably intact record of an intense Fremontoccupation between A.D. 900 – 1200. To date over 400sites have been recorded and only a fraction of thecanyon has been surveyed. This symposium focuses onthe results and direction of research now centered at therecently established University of Utah field station.Paper topics include experimental archaeology,population estimates, isotopic analysis of soils, highelevation occupation, remote sensing, palynology, firehistory, and dating.[92] SYMPOSIUM ■ BEYOND DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS:RECENT ADVANCES IN THE STUDIES OF LIME PLASTERS(SPONSORED BY SOCIETY FOR ARCHAEOLOGICALSCIENCES)This symposium brings together recent studies onarchitectural plasters in both the Old and New Worlds inorder to explore their social implications from acomparative perspective. A number of previous studieshave remained descriptive without fully exploring thesocial, political, economic, and technological informationwe can retrieve from the products of lime technology.The symposium will focus on the development of burntlimetechnology, the organization of lime plasterproduction, residues preserved in lime plaster floors andwalls, and the recent development of analyticaltechniques, including the radiocarbon dating of limecarbonates in plasters.[93] SYMPOSIUM ■ INTERSECTION OF PERSPECTIVES ONPOLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE ANCIENTAMERICASQuestions about the role of economic production in―political‖ transformations in ancient societies have long―vexed‖ archaeologists. The initial focus was placed onthe reconstruction of ―economic systems‖. This approachwas later criticized for a tendency to overlook the role ofindividuals inside the proposed systems. Scholars have

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 9argued that a better vision of past might be generated ifsystemic and agent-centered approaches are consideredtogether. This session adopts a comparative frameworkand seeks to generate conclusions about the mostproductive ways to approach the intersection of politicaldevelopment and economic production.[94] SYMPOSIUM · ADVANCES IN GREAT BASIN ANDSOUTHWESTERN ARCHAEOLOGY: PAPERS IN HONOR OFDON D. FOWLERContemporary archaeology would not be what it is, if notfor the endeavors of the hundreds of men and womenwho have worked in the American West. One of theseindividuals is Don D. Fowler, the Mamie Professoremeritus at the University of Nevada-Reno and formerpresident of the SAA. Fowler has long focusedspecialized in the American Southwest and the GreatBasin region as part of a more broadly conceptualizedAmerican West. The papers in this session focus onadvances that have been made to theoretical andempirical studies during Fowler‘s life time and suggestarenas for future research.[95] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARQUEOLOGÍA DEL VALLE DE OAXACA:LOS PROYECTOS DE ATZOMPA Y EL CAVOLos trabajos arqueológicos en Oaxaca han avanzadoespecialmente en los Valles Centrales. Se presenta lainformación recopilada por el Proyecto Arqueológico deAtzompa, componente de Monte Albán. Sus objetivos,hallazgos, interpretaciones y retos al futuro.Consecutivamente se presentan los avances de losproyectos en sitios que conforman el CorredorArqueológico del Valle de Oaxaca (CAVO), como son elcaso de Lambityeco, Yagul y Mitla, y que en los añosrecientes han continuado los trabajos por arqueólogosque nos antecedieron, así como el inicio de nuevosproyectos a la luz de conceptos integradores dentro de laarqueología y la conservación académica.[96] GENERAL SESSION ■ RAW MATERIAL ACQUISITION,STONE TOOL PRODUCTION, AND SUBSISTENCE[97] SYMPOSIUM ■ THE CUTTING EDGE: THE STATE OFPLAY IN WORLD OBSIDIAN STUDIES(SPONSORED BY SOCIETY FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCEAND INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR OBSIDIANSTUDIES)Obsidian characterisation is one of archaeometry‘sgreatest success stories. While the original aim was touse sourcing to interrogate major archaeological issues,the past two decades arguably witnessed the ‗big picture‘social science questions being overshadowed byanalytical innovations. This panel provides a criticalreview on obsidian studies over the past 50 years(sourcing and dating), offering state-of-play statementson methodological issues and how we are contributing tosome of today‘s major themes at the global scale,including: ‗early hominin cognition‘, ‗Neolithisation‘,‗exchange and ideational flow‘, ‗material culture andidentity‘, ‗trade and power‘ and ‗communities of practice‘.[98] SYMPOSIUM ■ GODS AND HUMAN BEINGS:ANTHROPOMORPHIC REPRESENTATIONS IN HIGHLANDMEXICO FROM PRECLASSIC TO EPICLASSICAnthropomorphic representations in the highlands ofMexico have been embodied in diverse media includingclay, stone, stucco and other types of mortar, as well asnatural outcrops. These include three dimensionalrepresentations such as figurines or sculpture, as well astwo dimensional forms on murals, ceramic decorationand rock art. Who is represented? High status figures,ancestors, spirits, gods? What is the relationshipbetween public and private representations? And whatwere the functions of these works? The goal of thesession is to emphasize the regional and temporalvariation of their meaning and function using contexts ofproduction and use contexts, iconographic comparisonsand ethnographic analogies.[99] SYMPOSIUM ■ TREE-RINGS, CLIMATE AND BEHAVIOR:THE LEGACY OF JEFFREY S. DEANDendroarchaeology, the use of tree-ring data to addressarchaeological questions, was pioneered in theSouthwest. Tree-rings provide the most accurate andprecise nondocumentary chronometric data available toarchaeologists, are used to generate retrodictions of pastclimate variability, and when collected fromarchaeological contexts, illuminate past humanbehaviors. Jeffrey S. Dean has been in the forefront ofdendroarchaeological research for the past 50 years andhas contributed to our understanding of almost everyculture in the Southwest. This symposium honors JeffDean by presenting original research on chronometric,climatic, and behavioral issues in the Southwest invarious temporal-spatial and cultural contexts.[100] SYMPOSIUM ■ STUDYING BEADS AROUND THE INDIANOCEAN: NEW APPROACHES, METHODOLOGIES, ANDINSIGHTS FROM AN OVERLOOKED ARTIFACTUntil recently beads have been undervalued as artifacts,primarily due to challenges in extracting fresh insightsand exploiting them fully as material culture. However,beads can help archaeologists better understand a broadrange of ancient behaviors including socio-politicalorganization, craft production, trade networks, and evenidentity. In this session we discuss the use of a variety ofmethods, from laboratory analysis to anthropologicalapproaches, which illuminate the cultural processesunderlying the occurrence of beads in ancient contexts.Papers will focus on beads made from glass, shell, andstone and from a variety of locations across the IndianOcean world.[101] GENERAL SESSION ■ HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES INTHE AMERICAS-PART 1[102] SYMPOSIUM ■ NEW PERSPECTIVES ON OLD ISSUESPART II: SPATIAL CONSTRUCTSCan pictorial space be separated from the space of thereal world? In this session, we seek to test this scenario,which is apparent in recent anthropological and arthistorical approaches. As a highly social construct,spatiality serves as an indispensible analytic model toexamine ancient Maya material culture. While analysis ofsite planning and settlement distributions introduceimportant ways of looking at the archaeological record,such considerations address but one manner in whichthe Maya consciously used space. The papers in thissession explore and expand the potential of spatial

10ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGanalyses in the study of ancient Maya art.[103] GENERAL SESSION ■ MONUMENTAL ART ANDARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH AMERICA[104] POSTER SESSION ■ A ROAD RUNS THROUGH IT: THESCHLAGE SITE AND THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF SUB-ROADBEDDEPOSITS[106] POSTER SESSION ■ INTERACTION, TRADE, ANDEXCHANGE[107] POSTER SESSION ■ IRISH COASTAL LANDSCAPES:DYNAMIC COMMUNITIES AND CHANGING ISLAND LIFE INWESTERN IRELANDDrawing upon archaeological research, oral histories andhistorical records, researchers from the CulturalLandscapes of the Irish Coast project seek to develop amulti-faceted understanding of the changing social andeconomic contexts of life of western Connemara, Co.Galway. Presenters utilize comparative perspectives inelucidating local understandings of the land and use ofcoastal areas, from the prehistoric through historicalperiods, and shed new light upon the dynamics ofcyclical abandonment and habitation of coastal Ireland.This research demonstrates the potential for developingnuanced interpretations for changing concepts aboutspace, place and social/geographic landscapes incoastal Ireland.[108] POSTER SESSION ■ PLEISTOCENE LANDSCAPES,TECHNOLOGIES, AND LIFEWAYS[109] POSTER SESSION ■ THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF IRINGA,SOUTHERN TANZANIAThe Iringa of Tanzania is best known as the place wherethe Isimila Acheulean site is located. But recent researchhas documented a long post-Acheulean archaeologicalrecord in a series of rockshelters and open air sites. Tworockshelters, Mlambalasi and Magubike, contain apossibly continuous record of Middle Stone Age, LaterStone Age, Iron Age and historic occupations. Thisposter symposium reviews current research by membersof the Iringa Region Archaeological Project.[110] SYMPOSIUM ■ CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENTAND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE AMERICAS ANDEUROPE: A FORUM ON SAA AND EUROPEAN ASSOCIATIONOF ARCHAEOLOGISTS (EAA) COLLABORATION(SPONSORED BY SAA HERITAGE VALUES INTERESTGROUP AND ICAHM)Archaeology is a mature academic discipline as it ispracticed in the Americas and in Europe, but one thathas matured differently on each side of the Atlantic. Theintent of this forum is to begin a discussion about thedifferent objectives, methods, and substance of culturalheritage management and archaeological research as itis undertaken by members of the EAA and SAA. Ourdesired outcome is an exchange and synthesis of ideas,and the development of joint programs that willimplement these ideas.[111] ELECTRONIC SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT METHODS INPALEOETHNOBOTANYThe field of paleoethnobotany has changed enormouslyover the past 20 years. The goal of this electronicsymposium is to provide a forum for discussion of paperssubmitted in preparation for a volume covering the stateof the art in paleoethnobotanical methodology. Thesession will include papers that address three areas ofstudy: taphonomy and recovery of macrobotanical andmicrobotanical remains; quantification, analysis, andintegration of those remains; and methods forinterpretation of paleoethnobotanical remains from avariety of theoretical perspectives. Invited presenterswork in different parts of the world and bring a widevariety of expertise to the session, providing a broadcomparative perspective on the subject.[112] FORUM ■ THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY!SHPO TALES - LEARNING FROM OUR PAST: A DISCUSSIONOF CALIFORNIA CASE STUDIES SET WITHIN THEREGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF SECTION 106 OF THENATIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACT"In the historic preservation process, archaeology isrepresented by two separate yet equally importantgroups: the Federal Agencies driving the undertakingsand the SHPO's reviewing their findings. These are theirstories..." Not every project under Section 106 reviewgoes smoothly. Archaeologists sometimes get too muchattention, vilified for allegedly stopping or delayingprogress. SHPO's and agencies have many such cases.Panelists will discuss case studies involving linearfeatures, Native American consultation, mid-constructiondiscoveries, industrial archaeology, management ofhistoric resources within wilderness areas, and politicallydriven renewable energy projects. SHPO staff andagency managers will focus on various problems,challenges, successes, and solutions.[113] SYMPOSIUM ■ RESEARCH IN ARCHAEOLOGICALLITERACY: CONSENSUS BUILDING, CONCEPTUALUNDERSTANDING, CULTURAL LANDSCAPES, AND SOCIALNETWORKINGAs archaeology education matures, practitionersincreasingly rely on evaluation and research to guide thedevelopment of new projects and programs. Thissymposium examines recent research in the use ofarchaeology in education, in both informal and formallearning venues. Authors examine the connectionsbetween archaeology and culturally significant places inAlaska and the western United States, conceptualunderstanding of science through archaeologyinstruction, the use of social networking in distributingeducational programming, and the use of Delphi surveymethodology for building consensus for archaeologicalliteracy.[114] SYMPOSIUM ■ ADVANCES IN THE PREHISTORY OF THESOUTHERN CAUCASUSThe session is dedicated to the prehistory of theSouthern Caucasus. More specifically, we are seeking toexplore the role of the area in the global processes inprehistory - especially those involving cultural spread,movement and diffusion - including the initial peopling ofthe Old World, dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humansand the spread of agriculture.

12ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGsubaltern to speak? Can we conceive of narrative formsthat leave the imagination of past subjects open?Because (re)presentational form is unavoidablyconnected to content, reflections on the ways ofpresenting the past foreground the constructed nature ofarchaeological knowledge and challenge us to imagineradically different pasts.[123] SYMPOSIUM ■ Small Islands, Big Implications:The California Channel Islands and theirArchaeological ContributionsThe eight California Channel Islands have the potential toaddress important questions at the forefront ofarchaeological thought. Although this has led to theislands being well represented in publication, much ofthis recent work has been done with limited dialoguebetween researchers working in different regions,particularly between the northern and southern islands.In this session, archaeologists working throughout theislands will discuss a variety of theoretical andmethodological topics in different geographic settings.Through inter-island comparisons, this session willhighlight the tremendous importance of the ChannelIslands and their contributions to archaeology as awhole.[124] GENERAL SESSION ■ HISTORICAL ECOLOGY ANDANTHROPOGENIC CHANGE IN THE AMERICAS[125] SYMPOSIUM ■ FROM THE CIUDADELAS OF CHANCHAN TO THE PLATFORMS OF FARFÁN: PAPERS IN HONOROF CAROL J. MACKEYFor more than 40 years Carol Mackey has been a vitalforce in Andean archaeology. This session recognizesher numerous contributions to the discipline, and herinfluence on generations of Andeanists. Carol's work hasadded greatly to our knowledge of Andean prehistory indiverse areas, such as state expansion, ceramics,iconography, space/architecture. The papers in thissession concentrate on space and architecture and takediverse approaches to the method and theory ofarchitecture-based problems - much as Carol has donethroughout the course of her career.[126] SYMPOSIUM ■ FRYXELL SYMPOSIUM: PAPERS INHONOR OF R. LEE LYMANR. Lee Lyman is the recipient of the 2011 Fryxell Awardfor Interdisciplinary Excellence in Zoological Sciences.For over 35 years, Lyman has been making seminalcontributions to a range of topics including taphonomy,biogeography, mammalogy, conservation biology,historic archaeology, and quantitative methods. Thissymposium celebrates Lyman's enormous contribution tozooarchaeology and beyond, assembling Old and NewWorld scholars whose work has been enriched byLyman's theoretical and methodological approaches.[127] SYMPOSIUM ■ PROFESSIONALISM: GETTING THE JOBAND FINDING SUCCESS IN THE REAL WORLD(SPONSORED BY STUDENT AFFAIRS COMMITTEE)The transition from student to professional cansometimes be difficult, confusing, and fraught with perils.How one goes about preparing to job search, applyingand interviewing for jobs, and then maintaining a positioncan be daunting for the soon-to-be graduate. ThisStudent Affairs Committee sponsored forum is designedto provide students with an idea of the process of gettinga job, and what the expectations are for the newly hired.Both new and seasoned professionals will share theirexperiences of both sides of the job search, as well asgiving tips and guidelines for a successful search.[128] SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT RESEARCH IN COPÁNARCHAEOLOGYThe site of Copán, Honduras has one of the longesthistories of research in the Maya region. Todayinvestigators associated with multiple academic and nonprofitinstitutions are able to sort through a century ofdata to arrive at more nuanced interpretations of theancient city and its inhabitants. In this session we presentpreliminary results from our ongoing field projectsincluding new models of social organization, issues ofidentity and ethnicity, and recently uncoverediconographic and hieroglyphic evidence. Most importantlywe emphasize the role of archaeological research andeducation within the socioeconomic reality of present-dayHonduras.[129] GENERAL SESSION · PALEOETHNOBOTANICALSTUDIES: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES[130] FORUM ■ THE NEW GRADUATE EDUCATION:MASTER‟S PROGRAMS IN APPLIED ARCHAEOLOGYThe past decade has seen repeated calls for reform inarchaeology graduate education. As more students entergraduate school with the goal of pursuing careers inCRM, the traditional graduate education has become anawkward fit. In response, in 2008 the SAA published amodel curriculum for a Masters in applied archaeology.Concurrently, archaeology graduate education hasmoved sharply toward the applied: Master‘s programsexplicitly designed to provide training for careers in CRMhave become increasingly common, and more traditionalacademic programs have revised their curricula. Thisforum will explore challenges and opportunities ingraduate training in applied archaeology.[131] GENERAL SESSION ■ HOUSEHOLDS ANDCOMMUNITIES IN MESOAMERICA -PART 1[132] GENERAL SESSION ■ COASTAL ARCHAEOLOGY INTHE AMERICAS[133] GENERAL SESSION ■ PALEOECOLOGY ANDPALEOENVIRONMENTS OF AFRICA AND EURASIA[134] POSTER SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ATPETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK, AZ(SPONSORED BY PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK)Petrified Forest National Park, located in northeasternArizona, contains archaeological resources spanning thePaleoindian through Historic periods. This symposiumhighlights recent discoveries in the park and currentresearch into the park's many and varied resources.Recent identification of Paleoindian sites, new insightsinto the Pueblo I period, and an explosion of Pueblo IVaggregated villages in an area previously thought to besparsely inhabited represents just a few of the exciting

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 13discoveries and research projects currently underinvestigation. This NPS sponsored symposiumdemonstrates the benefits of strong relationshipsbetween academic researchers and NPS Archaeologists.[135] POSTER SESSION · ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE AMERICANSOUTHWEST-PART 1[135] POSTER SESSION · ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE AMERICANSOUTHWEST[136] POSTER SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGY OF THEAMERICAN SOUTHWEST-PART 2[137] POSTER SESSION ■ EIGHT YEARS OF COOPERATIVERESEARCH BETWEEN PIMA COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND THEBUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT IN WEST-CENTRALARIZONAPima Community College and the Bureau of LandManagement have conducted a cooperative inventorysurvey of the Burro Creek/Pine Creek area of westcentralArizona for the last eight years. This postersession summarizes the overall findings andmethodology of the survey and includes posters fromundergraduate student survey participants who areconducting additional research using data collectedduring the project. Posters will cover the survey goalsand methodology, use of local lithic materials, typology ofprojectile points, distribution of ground stone relative tovegetation, prehistoric fortified hilltop sites and thehistoric use of the area.[138] POSTER SESSION ■ LIFE, DEATH, AND SURVIVAL INTHE BLACK RANGEIn the late 1800s the interaction between several groupsshaped the development of New Mexico‘s southwesternfrontier and helped determine its present geography.Since 2008 the Gila Archaeological Project hasinvestigated the interactions among Apache, BuffaloSoldiers, and miners, focusing on the ghost town ofHermosa and surrounding sites. This year staff andstudents from Howard University, Indiana University ofPennsylvania, the Mescalero Apache Reservation, theUniversity of Arizona, and the Gila National Forestcontinued documenting the town, a nearby battle site,and an early fort using archaeological, historical,geophysical, and forensic techniques. This sessionpresents their latest findings.[139] POSTER SESSION ■ MODERN PEOPLE ONHISTORICAL LANDSCAPESToday, Native American communities are concentratedon reservations but the homes of their ancestors arescattered across sprawling sunbelt cities and the ―empty‖public lands of the modern Southwest. Despite thedisplacement of modern peoples from their ancestralhomes, archaeological sites remain an essential part ofthe history of contemporary communities.Anthropologists and Native Americans draw onarchaeological sites, stories, song cycles, and placenames in order to understand the connections of peopleto the landscape. This poster session presents innovativeprojects that interpret with maps, photographs, andartwork that can be used in educational settings.[140] GENERAL SESSION ■ TRADE AND INTERACTION INTHE OLD WORLD[141] GENERAL SESSION ■ MORTUARY ANALYSIS IN THEAMERICAN MIDWEST[142] GENERAL SESSION ■ ADVANCES IN ANDAPPLICATIONS OF XRF AND LA-ICP-MSX[143] SYMPOSIUM ■ MORTUARY PRACTICES IN THEAMERICAN SOUTHWEST: META-DATA ISSUES IN THEDEVELOPMENT OF A REGIONAL DATABASEThe study of prehistoric mortuary practices in theAmerican Southwest is undergoing tremendous changein the new millennium. The challenges (andopportunities) of NAGPRA implementation, declines inthe number of large samples being excavated, and lossof data from previously excavated samples have alteredmortuary archaeology in the region. Given this state ofaffairs, the development of an integrated regionaldatabase of prehistoric mortuary practices is imperative.Participants in this session will develop the frameworksand structures for building a regional mortuary database.The database that is developed will expand the potentialfor research with existing and future burial samples.[144] FORUM ■ PLANNING FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL DIGITALDATA MANAGEMENTThe National Science Foundation (NSF) mandates thatproposals include a "data management plan." Thisrequirement broadens research opportunities by makingaccess to NSF-generated data easier. It also representsa challenge to grant seekers not familiar with theconceptual and technical issues of data sharing andlong-term preservation. To help SAA members betterunderstand NSF's requirement and how to address it,this forum will introduce guides to best practice in digitaldata management and two archaeological digital datamanagement systems, the Digital Archaeological Record(tDAR), maintained by Digital Antiquity and OpenContext, maintained by the Alexandria Archive Inst. / UCBerkeley.[145] SYMPOSIUM ■ RESEARCH UTILIZING THE MAYAHIEROGLYPHIC DATABASEThe Maya Hieroglyphic Database holds nearly 50,000records, each representing a glyph block, coded forepigraphic, linguistic, temporal, geographic, andbibliographic data. The glyphic texts come from theClassic period monuments, murals, and inscribedobjects; from the Postclassic codices; and from textscarved and painted on ceramics. It facilitates bothtemporal and spatial distribution of graphemes, linguisticforms, names and titles, and political entities. Over 20years in the making, and still growing, large portions ofthe database are now available to scholars in severalformats. Papers here represent a variety of researchfindings that have benefitted from the database.[146] SYMPOSIUM ■ THREE-DIMENSIONALARCHAEOLOGICAL MODELING: THEORY, METHOD,PRACTICEThe use of three-dimensional modeling in archaeology is

14ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGa robust and rapidly growing methodological field.Advances in laser scanning, reverse engineering, andthe growing integration of map systems continue to pushresearch in exciting directions. Three-dimensionalmodels offer a unique forum for the production andanalysis of archaeological data, responsive to both thequalitative and quantitative considerations of research.As a form of digital media, models can be used todisseminate research findings, replicate artifacts,hypothesize site formations, and present interpretivereconstructions. Papers will highlight the use of threedimensional models in the production, analysis andrepresentation of archaeological data.[147] SYMPOSIUM ■ TRATAMIENTO FUNERARIO EN ELNOROESTE DE MÉXICOPartiendo del hecho de que en México existe unalegislación diferente de los Estados Unidos en relacióncon el tratamiento de los restos óseos humanos de lassociedades prehispánicas, nos atrevemos a proponereste simposio con el interés de honrar a los antiguoshabitantes de estas tierras y examinar los diferentesaspectos de su cultura mediante el estudio de lasevidencias materiales de las actividades realizadasalrededor de la disposición de sus muertos.Consideramos que los sistemas sociales queestructuraron sus vidas, pueden ser revelados y revaloradosmediante el análisis de las diversas formas deltratamiento funerario y enriquecer el conocimiento sobreel pasado humano a través de la arqueología, pararomper las visiones prevalecientes tanto de losexploradores tempranos del Noroeste de México comode las sociedades actuales.[148] SYMPOSIUM ■ ANCIENT MAYA WATER AND LANDMANAGEMENT: INQUIRY INTO THE ORGANIZATION OFCOMMUNITY IN THE EASTERN PETÉNAncient Maya water and landscape management wereclearly dependent on each other for form and function.However, variations in water features and landscapeelements are not limited to these parameters and mayreflect a multitude of factors including geomorphology,environment, water sources, water quality, and the socialand political factors impacting their production. Withthese already complex issues in mind, the papers in thissession will address the varying ancient water andlandscape management configurations in the easternPetén and their use in understanding the socio-politicalorganization of the ancient Maya of this area.[149] SYMPOSIUM ■ ISSUES IN THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OFPERIPHERAL NORTHEAST ASIA: FROM TRIBES TO STATESIn this session we present case studies and theoreticalstudies concerning social evolution in the Koreanpeninsula and the Japanese archipelago -- regionsgeographically peripheral to China. Scholars havepreviously hypothesized that local polities in theseregions evolved as a result of interaction with China.However, we emphasize aspects of social evolutionindependent of China. We also draw attention to theinternal and external characteristics of social evolution inperipheral regions of the Korean peninsula and theJapanese archipelago. Even during the time when stategradually emerged, peripheral regions in the peninsulaand archipelago maintained considerable independencefrom central polities.[150] SYMPOSIUM ■ NATIONAL GUARD CONTRIBUTIONS TONORTH AMERICAN STUDIES OF PREHISTORY(SPONSORED BY NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU)Shifts in military policy have placed the spotlight on theNational Guard. As the only branch of the military with afull presence in every state, the National Guard has aunique opportunity to contribute to prehistoric researchnationwide. The breadth of these contributions presentedin this symposium highlights the archaeological potentialthat lies on National Guard property. Sharing this diversecollection of information emphasizes an important pointthat we, as anthropologists, must be diligent inremembering: We cannot focus on ever narrowingspecializations in archaeology at the expense of a broadunderstanding and general knowledge of regional culturehistories.[151] SYMPOSIUM ■ PREHISTORIC OCCUPATION IN THEBALLONA LAGOON, WEST LOS ANGELESThis session details human behavioral responses to achanging physical and cultural world over 8,000 years ofnative occupation in the Ballona, in west Los Angeles.Responses to environmental and cultural changes in theLos Angeles Basin involved continuation of traditionalpractices as well as the development of new traditions.Papers in this session will use geoarchaeological,archaeological, ethnohistoric, and historic data fromarchaeological sites and archival records to address howNative Californian behavioral responses were culturallyconstructed. This session will focus on perceptions ofcultural continuity and ethnogenesis as expressedthrough material culture in the Ballona.[152] SYMPOSIUM ■ Remembering andCommemorating: The Mortuary Archaeology andBioarchaeology of ancient Near Eastern societiesIntentional burial – a characteristically human behaviorthat first occurred nearly 100,000 years ago in the NearEast – is one of the most fundamental acts ofcommemoration. The study of burials by archaeologistsin this region is nearly as old as the discipline itself, andhas been inspired by communal memories of theseancient societies. This session will present recentapproaches to the mortuary and bioarchaeology ofancient Near Eastern societies, drawing upon differentkinds of data, including human and faunal remains,ceramics, jewelry, spatial analysis, and others to explorehow people remember and commemorate across timeand space.[153] SYMPOSIUM ■ Archaeological CartographiesMaps are a fundamental medium of communication forarchaeologists. Practically all field archaeology involves amapping activity of some kind, whether placing siteswithin a larger geographical context, recordinggeophysical anomalies, or planning features within anexcavation unit. Yet aside from a small but usefulliterature, maps and mapping have been relatively underexploredwithin archaeology. This symposium will bringtogether an international, multidisciplinary group ofscholars to explore the past, present, and future ofmapping in archaeology from a critical perspective. The

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 15goal will be to produce a broad view of mapping inarchaeology from theoretical, methodological, andpractical perspectives.[154] GENERAL SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAND PUBLIC OUTREACH IN THE AMERICAS[155] SYMPOSIUM ■ CLOVIS: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ONTECHNOLOGY, CHRONOLOGY, AND ADAPTATIONS (PART II)(SPONSORED BY CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF THE FIRSTAMERICANS)Howard‘s work at Blackwater Draw in 1933 providedconclusive evidence that fluted spearpoints, now called―Clovis,‖ were associated with mammoth bones. Since,sites with Clovis-style points have been found throughoutthe continent, and archaeologists have sought to identifya suite of adaptive and technological traits dating to thesame chronological period. Recently, research focusshifted to explaining diversity and distinguishing Clovisfrom non-Clovis. This symposium asks, what is and is notClovis? Authors present the status of Clovis archaeology,nearly 80 years after the type-site discovery. With sitelevel,regional, and continental perspectives, thesepapers define Clovis technology, chronology, andadaptations.[156] SYMPOSIUM ■ HUMAN SACRIFICE ON THE NORTHCOAST OF PERU: NEW PERSPECTIVES FROM DIACHRONICAND MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF ANCIENT RITUALKILLINGSacrifice has long been a focus within Andeanarchaeology, but bioarchaeological studies of humanremains are producing a paradigm shift inunderstandings of ritual violence on the north coast ofPeru. Discoveries over the last decade reveal adiachronic sequence detailing the evolution of methods,forms, and meanings of sacrifice from first millenniumA.D. Moche era through the terminal late pre-HispanicInka period. We explore continuity and change inofferings of human lives, body manipulation, andconnections between human, animal, and object sacrifice–underscoring context-embedded bioarchaeology,archaeometry, and social theory in reconstructions ofancient rituals, identities, and ideologies.[157] SYMPOSIUM ■ MESOAMERICAN ORIGINS: PAPERS INHONOR OF MARY D. POHLThis symposium celebrates Mary Pohl‘s long and diversecareer in Mesoamerican archaeology. Mary‘s researchhas covered topics as varied as the origins of agriculture,sociopolitical complexity, iconography, writing, andanimal husbandry. She has consistently employedinnovative methods in her investigations of the Olmecand Maya. Her work has spanned archaeometric projectsto symbolic analyses. For decades Mary has shared herpassion for archaeology with colleagues and students. Inhonor of her recent retirement this session presentspapers reflecting her enthusiasm for understanding theorigins of cultural institutions and practices inMesoamerica.[158] SYMPOSIUM ■ ENRICHING ARCHAEOLOGICALSTUDIES: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ROCK ART TO THEARCHAEOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE PREHISTORICWESTERN UNITED STATES AND THE PACIFIC RIM(SPONSORED BY ROCK ART INTEREST GROUP)By including petroglyphs and pictographs as artifacts inarcheological research designs, archaeologists and rockart specialists continue to contribute additional layers ofinsight and understanding of prehistoric cultures.Contextual studies of rock art, applying multi-facetedapproaches, have made a difference in thearchaeological understanding of a region, place, orcultural history. Focusing on the western United Statesand Pacific Rim such studies have employed differentmethods and theories that provide new insights for amore informed and inclusive understanding of pasthuman cultures.[159] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGY, INUIT, AND THEINTERNATIONAL POLAR YEARThe International Polar Year of 2007-08 inspired largescaleinterdisciplinary archaeological fieldwork across theNorth American Arctic. In particular, many projectsaddressed major issues in the culture history of Inuit,including their origins in Alaska, their movements acrossthe Canadian Arctic and Greenland, and the changeswhich led from early Thule Inuit to the more diverse Inuit,Iñupiat, and Inuvialuit societies of recent times. Papers inthis session will describe the latest developments onthese issues, and relate them to climate change impacts,interaction with other societies such as Norse and laterEuropeans, and internal social dynamics within past Inuitsocieties.[160] SYMPOSIUM ■ TOOLSTONE GEOGRAPHY OF THEPACIFIC NORTHWESTThe Pacific Northwest of North America containssubstantial and diverse lithic resources technologicallyimportant to native peoples of the region for makingstone tools. Obsidian, chert, basalt, jade, and othertoolstones occur in high concentrations in certaingeological contexts. Since time immemorial nativepeoples have had an intimate knowledge of thesetoolstone resources. Archaeologists are just beginning tolearn about them and how to apply that knowledge tounderstanding the archaeological record. Thissymposium explores the cultural geography of lithicresources including studies of toolstone quarries, lithicprocurement strategies, reduction technologies, and theirsocial, political, and spiritual contexts.[161] POSTER SESSION · ARCHAEOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAND PUBLIC OUTREACH IN THE AMERICAS[162] POSTER SESSION · CULTURAL HERITAGE AND SITEPRESERVATION[163] POSTER SESSION · MAPPING TECHNIQUES ANDAMERICAN LANDSCAPES[164] GENERAL SESSION · COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION,STORAGE, AND CONSTRUCTED SPACE[165] GENERAL SESSION · HOUSEHOLDS ANDCOMMUNITIES IN MESOAMERICA: PART 2

16ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING[166] GENERAL SESSION · CULTURAL HERITAGE ANDCOMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA[167] GENERAL SESSION · TRADE AND INTERACTION INAFRICA AND EURASIA[168] GENERAL SESSION · HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES INTHE AMERICAS: PART 2[169] GENERAL SESSION · PALEOETHNOBOTANICALSTUDIES: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES[170] GENERAL SESSION · MESOAMERICAN COSMOLOGIES,RITUALS, AND SACRED SPACE[171] GENERAL SESSION · COASTAL ARCHAEOLOGY:SETTLEMENT, SUBSISTENCE, AND BURIAL DATA[172] SYMPOSIUM ■ EPA IGNORES HISTORICPRESERVATION LAWSreview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency'slack of compliance with the National Historic PreservationAct and Section 106 throughout the United States and itsterritories. Specific examples of the resulting destructionof historic and archaeological resources will bepresented. Discussion will focus on what must happen tobring the EPA into legal compliance.[173] SYMPOSIUM ■ LIVING LEGACIES: MANAGEMENT OFCULTURAL RESOURCES, INSTITUTIONS, AND PEOPLE. ASESSION ORGANIZED IN MEMORY OF DR. ALBERT A. DEKIN,JR.Conflicts in heritage politics are common. This does notsignify that we, as archaeologists, anthropologists, andmanagers are improving our dealings with them. Thissession, organized to remember Dr. Albert A. Dekin, Jr.(1944-2010), focuses on heritage politics and departsfrom a project directed in part by Dekin. A full decadebefore NAGPRA became a reality affecting Americanarchaeology, the Utqiakvik (Barrow, Alaska) Projectincluded reburial and respect for elders and community.Today, remembering Dekin, this session investigatesprojects and management to ascertain how culture isdefined, what cultural differences exist, and how differentstakeholders operate to arrive at useable strategies.[174] GENERAL SESSION ■ MONUMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONAND ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH AMERICA[175] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGY, INEQUALITY AND THEINLAND NORTHWESTHistorical archaeology has a long history of involvementin exploring inequalities based on race, class and genderin many parts of the world. Yet the Pacific Northwest is aregion that has been somewhat overlooked by historicalarchaeologists, with the exception of a small number ofarticles. This session represents highlights some recentwork in the region that explores the disenfranchised andhow their histories can be more thoroughly understoodthrough historical archaeology[176] POSTER SESSION ■ COMPLEX HUNTER-GATHERERSOF THE WESTERN CANADIAN PLATEAU: NEW RESEARCHDIRECTIONS IN PREHISTORIC PITHOUSE VILLAGESUnderstanding causal factors in the emergence andcollapse of cultural complexity are central issues inresearch of prehistoric pithouse villages in the Mid-FraserRegion of British Columbia. New methods andinterdisciplinary research at a number of sites are helpingbroaden our understanding of the timing and conditionssurrounding the emergence of these complex cultures.These posters present results of research programs atKeatley Creek, McKay Creek and nearby fishing sites,which integrate lithic, faunal, isotope, botanical,geoarchaeological and new radiocarbon data, and whichwork toward developing new methods to assist ininterpreting the occupation histories of these complexcultures.[176] POSTER SESSION ■ COMPLEX HUNTER-GATHERERSOF THE WESTERN CANADIAN PLATEAU: NEW RESEARCHDIRECTIONS IN PREHISTORIC PITHOUSE VILLAGES[177] POSTER SESSION ■ FAUNAL ANALYSIS ANDTAPHONOMY[178] POSTER SESSION ■ FISHING AND HUNTING IN THEPACIFIC NORTHWEST[179] POSTER SESSION ■ HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES INTHE AMERICAS[180] POSTER SESSION ■ OF RABBIT AND DEER: ANIMALHUNTING AND CONSUMPTION IN NORTH AMERICA[181] POSTER SESSION ■ SETTLEMENT AND MOBILITY INTHE ARCTIC[182] SYMPOSIUM ■ MESOAMERICAN PLAZAS: PRACTICES,MEANINGS, AND MEMORIESThroughout Mesoamerican history, plazas haveconstituted an essential component of site layouts and afocal point of public life. Despite this ubiquity and longhistorical tradition, archaeological studies of ancientMesoamerican plazas have been limited compared tothose of surrounding monumental architecture. This lackis the result of a shared impression by researchers that itis difficult to elicit meaningful data from plazas due totheir nature as vacant spaces. The goal of thissymposium is to challenge this perceived difficulty,focusing on plazas as arenas for human practice, whichgenerates political and symbolic meanings as well associal memory.[183] SYMPOSIUM ■ RE-CONCEPTUALILZING NICARAGUANPREHISTORYArchaeological investigations over the past ten yearsindicate a significant revitalization of research inNicaragua. As new discoveries are made, challengeshave been suggested to the traditional culture history,which is largely based on Colonial period 'mythstories.'Additionally, archaeological perspectives are graduallyexpanding beyond the Pacific side of the country into thenorthern and central regions, addressing long heldconceptions of cultural networks in the process. This

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 17electronic symposium is designed to bring together someof the scholars who are currently working in Nicaragua,with the goals of presenting new information whilecritically discussing how new data impact existinginterpretations.[184] FORUM ■ TWO DECADES OF NAGPRA:REFLECTIONS AND PROSPECTSThe Native American Graves Protection and RepatriationAct (NAGPRA) has been a factor in Americanarchaeology for the last 20 years. Recent regulations onthe disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remainshave generated controversy. This forum brings togetherarchaeologists with different perspectives to discuss thehistory of NAGPRA, how well it has worked, the impact ofthe new regulations, and where we go from here. Thepanelists will focus on constructive analysis, informed bytheir personal experiences with the law‘s implementationand repatriation in general. The audience is invited tocontribute to the moderated discussion.[185] FORUM ■ PUTTING CULTURE INTO THE FIGHT:CULTURAL HERITAGE PROTECTION IN MILITARYOPERATIONS AT HOME AND ABROADRecently a U.S. Soldier asked his post's residentarcheologist and cultural antiquities sensitivity trainer ―if Iwas fired upon from an insurgent hiding in a cemetery,could I return fire?‖ Like it or not, cultural properties are apart of military operations. How should the Department ofDefense (DoD) cultural property protection (CPP)professionals address this problem? This symposium willpresent case studies for discussion and presentationsthat highlight current DoD international CPPachievements and domestic installation CRM successes,while exploring DoD‘s newest initiatives. The goal is toexchange ideas and insights between DoD culturalproperty professionals and SAA members.[186] SYMPOSIUM ■ HOUSEHOLD AND COMMUNITY ATMIDDLE PRECLASSIC LA BLANCA, SAN MARCOS,GUATEMALALa Blanca occupied a key role in the development ofsocial complexity in Pacific Guatemala and Chiapas,during the Middle Preclassic Period, 900-600 BC. Recentinvestigations at the site have focused on the relationshipbetween households and the developing institutions ofcentralized political authority. The papers in this sessionexamine data on household economy and ritual toexamine the diversity of approaches to negotiating thatrelationship. A variety of data sets illustrate thatresponses were not uniform across socio-economicstatus, but that they were structured by broad scaleeconomic conditions as well as cultural traditions.[187] GENERAL SESSION · CERAMIC ANALYSIS IN THEUNITED STATES[188] SYMPOSIUM ■ FALLS CREEK ROCK SHELTER:REANALYSIS OF BASKETMAKER II SITE(SPONSORED BY UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE, SANJUAN PUBLIC LANDS)In 1938, Earl Morris conducted excavations at the FallsRock Shelters. Atifacts, rock art, and human remainsfrom the Falls Creek Rockshelters are being reanalyzedprior to repatriation of these items. A multi-disciplinaryteam will present papers on the current analyses. TheFalls Creek Rockshelters have been considered by manyto be the "type-site" for the "Eastern" Basketmakers IIculture. The site contained an important collection ofperishable materials. The U.S. Forest Service ispartnering with the State Historical Fund, MountainStudies Institute, the Hopi Tribe and several Pueblos onthis project.[189] SYMPOSIUM ■ PRODUCING SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS INPRE-COLONIAL SOUTH ASIA: MATERIALITY AND THESOCIAL STRATEGIES AND CONSEQUENCES OF MAKINGTHINGSSouth Asia's rich archaeological record is replete withanalyses of people producing things in unique sociohistoricalcontexts; but how did the making of things inturn recursively produce their producers and widersocieties? This panel investigates culturally embeddedsocial strategies of production—inclusive of activitiesranging from specialized craft manufacture, agro-pastoralsubsistence and even the construction of builtenvironments—and their role in the (re)constitution ofsocial relationships in pre-colonial South Asia through thethings they made. The aim is to bring together a series ofpresentations of current archaeological research thatdemonstrate how the making of things and food were notsimply activities of obtaining sustenance or addressingfunctional needs, but also practices that created andrecreated social relationships and subjectivities byproducing an array of efficacious material and symbolicobjects through a recursive process that populated theirsocial environments.[190] GENERAL SESSION ■ MAYA CRAFT PRODUCTION,TRADE, AND MARKETS[191] SYMPOSIUM ■ RITUAL, VIOLENCE, AND THE FALL OFTHE CLASSIC MAYA KINGSMaya kings, like their counterparts in other early statesthroughout the world, were held responsible for theprosperity of their kingdoms. When they failed to meettheir obligations, kings and their courts were subject tovarious forms of ―termination,‖ including ritualdecommissioning of their royal residential courtyards,and even violent death. This symposium explores aseries of such events that coincided with the end of theLate Classic period (ca. 800 A.D.). The various data setsprovide some key insights into the sociopoliticaltransformation that has long been referred to as theMaya ―collapse.‖[192] SYMPOSIUM ■ CATCHING FIRE: NEW METHODS ANDRESEARCH FOR IDENTIFYING ANTHROPOGENIC FIRE ANDLANDSCAPE MODIFICATIONRecent archaeological and ecological studiesacknowledge the role humans have in shaping theenvironments they inhabit. A common tool in modifyingand managing landscapes is the controlled use of fire.However, difficulty lies in determining anthropogenic fromnaturally occurring fire. The key issue for advancing thisobjective is to develop and refine methods. Fireecologists and anthropologists have approached this byconsidering vastly different scales, typically focusing onthe ecosystem and local archaeological contexts,

18ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGrespectively. This session attempts to resolve thisdisparity by bringing together methods and research fromacross disciplines that focus on identifying anthropogenicfire occurrence in the past and human landscapemanagement processes.[193] SYMPOSIUM ■ 1ST INTERNATIONAL SAA SYMPOSIUMFOR RECENT, INTERNATIONAL ADVANCES IN THE USE OFPXRF AND OTHER PORTABLE, FIELD TECHNOLOGIES FORARCHAEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SITES IN THE AMERICAS(SPONSORED BY WONDJINA RESEARCH INSTITUTE,COUNTRY CHEMIST; CO-SPONSORED BY THE SOCIETY FORARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, THE PXRF USERS GROUP,OLYMPUS INNOV-X )Below the surface of every landscape is chemicalevidence of past human activity and, potentially, a site ofhuman activity. Recent advances in the use of portableX-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF), RAMAN and othertechnologies and the reduction in costs for laboratoryanalyses have made these technologies affordable forfield studies that "complete the circle of understanding" ofterrestrial and marine sites through the integration ofArchaeochemistry, Archaeogeophysics, LiteratureResearch, Oral interviews and Excavation.[194] SYMPOSIUM ■ BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL ANDARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON MIGRATION, DIETAND HEALTH IN PREHISTORIC CENTRAL CALIFORNIAThe pioneering research conducted three decades agoby Pete Schulz and others demonstrated the utility of abioarchaeological approach to central Californiaprehistory. A recent collaborative effort betweenindigenous Californians and archaeologists has resultedin greatly expanding our knowledge of central Californiapaleodemography, beginning at 4300 years cal BP. Thissymposium offers an array of papers drawing upon newarchaeological and osteological data from numeroussites around San Francisco Bay and the Central Valley.Through the application of isotopic analysis and DNAresearch a more comprehensive picture of diet, health,migration and settlement patterns in central Californiahas emerged.[195] GENERAL SESSION ■ HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY[196] SYMPOSIUM ■ RISING FROM THE ASHES: GLORY,TROUBLE AND RENAISSANCE AT THE ROBERT S. PEABODYMUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGYBetween 1901 and 1980, Moorehead, Kidder andMacNeish, among others, made seminal advances inAmerican archaeological method and theory andcontributed valuable research collections to the Museum.During the 1990s the Peabody took a leadership role inNAGPRA compliance. Despite this, the Museum wasshuttered twice during the past 30 years. Today, withemphasis placed on teaching and some research,Phillips Academy faculty and students collaborate withPeabody staff, archaeologists, and Native leaders todevelop innovative experiential programs that serve theircommunities. This symposium gives voice to theMuseum's journey from past to present.[197] SYMPOSIUM ■ ON THE EDGE OF (A) REASON:ARCHAEOLOGY, ACTIVISM, AND THE PURSUIT OFRELEVANCEArchaeology is entrenched in socio-politics, andincreasingly archaeologists are embracing their activistrole, using archaeological theories/methods to addresscontemporary human issues. Session participantsdemonstrate the necessity and worth of applied/actionarchaeology; presenting and discussing examples ofcurrent activist practice. They share personal andprofessional consternations and ethical dilemmas thataccompany activist archaeology and explore possiblesolutions. Participants offer insight and encouragementabout archaeology‘s ability to address suchcontemporary social issues as environmental and socialrestorative justice; intellectual property; sustainability;poverty and homelessness; energy and waste creationand management; workers' rights and labor organization;economic development and; literacy and education.[198] SYMPOSIUM ■ SURPLUS: THE POLITICS OFPRODUCTION AND THE STRATEGIES OF EVERYDAY LIFEThe study of surplus is one of the hallmarks ofarchaeological research on sociopolitical complexity. Formany, surplus is central to theories of political inequalityand institutional finance. For others studying surplus alsocan elucidate the multi-faceted strategies of everydaylife. Surplus, that is, has historically particularmanifestations in relation to social, political, andbiological needs and goals. This symposium takes thisperspective on surplus and asks ―why produce asurplus?‖ in reference to various social actors, scales,institutions, roles, places, and things. Such an endeavorwill generate new questions and methodologies toelucidate the past.[199] SYMPOSIUM ■ WHAT WE DON'T KNOW ABOUTAGRICULTURE IN THE PREHISTORIC NORTH AMERICANSOUTHWESTThis symposium examines gaps in our knowledge, weaklinks in our causal arguments, and field and theoreticalwork needed to advance our understanding of agriculture(and related domains) in the prehistoric North AmericanSouthwest. These gaps and weak links are often glossedin our presentations as we expect others want to knowwhat we do know. In this symposium, we explicitlyidentify and argue what we don‘t know and why it isimportant that we address these deficiencies. We willidentify more questions than answers. Our purpose is tostimulate new thinking for future research.[200] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGICAL APPROACHES TOINDIGENOUS POST-CONQUEST DEVELOPMENTS IN NEWSPAIN AND CENTRAL AMERICA: PAPERS IN MEMORY OFTHOMAS H. CHARLTONInspired by Thomas H. Charlton‘s major contributions tothe field of historical archaeology, the papers in thissession advance our understanding of indigenous postconquestdevelopments in New Spain and CentralAmerica. Contributors explore the central themes ofThomas Charlton‘s work, including questions about theimpact of European colonialism, demography, urban andrural relations, trade and exchange, and ceramictechnology from the 16th through the 19th centuries. Keyissues that run through these papers include

20ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGpersonal expression and privacy become increasinglyrelevant. Another issue is the publication of informationthat may adversely affect the archaeological recordthrough the identification of sensitive and potentiallysacred sites. In this session we will explore thesequestions and the complexities of archaeologicalblogging with perspectives from students, professors,professional archaeologists and full-time archaeologybloggers.[214] SYMPOSIUM ■ BLOGGING ARCHAEOLOGYA vital, diverse community of archaeologists areexperimenting with online weblogs or ―blogs‖ forpublishing research data, reaching out to their colleaguesand the public, and as a venue for personal expression.Once considered a relatively rare and nonstandardpractice, blogging is becoming a part of archaeologicalpractice during excavations, in classroom settings, andby professional organizations as a venue for outreach.Even as the number of personal and professionalarchaeology blogs increases, their use has remainedlargely unscrutinized and unrewarded within theprofession. Even so, blogging has become an incrediblesource of archaeological news and data that bypassestraditional media sources, giving unprecedented publicaccess to working archaeologists. However, this accessis not without repercussions as issues of anonymity,personal expression and privacy become increasinglyrelevant. Another issue is the publication of informationthat may adversely affect the archaeological recordthrough the identification of sensitive and potentiallysacred sites. In this session we will explore thesequestions and the complexities of archaeologicalblogging with perspectives from students, professors,professional archaeologists and full-time archaeologybloggers.[215] FORUM ■ A LIFE IN RUINS? WORK-LIFE BALANCE INARCHAEOLOGY(SPONSORED BY COSWA)For its practitioners, archaeology can be a profession, apassion, a pastime, and a problem. At work,archaeologists may have professional responsibilitiesthat can complicate their personal lives. Challengesrange from maintaining a family while working far fromhome to staying financially afloat while trying to succeedin school. Bringing together archaeologists from acrossthe spectrum of the profession, this session is designedto examine the question: how do archaeologists jugglethe sometimes unusual demands placed on them by theirprofession with the realities of everyday life? We seek toidentify common problems and consider effectivesolutions.[216] SYMPOSIUM ■ FROM THE GROUND UP: BESTPRACTICES FOR BALANCING USABILITY WITH THEORETICALUTILITY IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATABASESThis symposium focuses on best practices for dealingwith the variety of archaeological databases that existtoday. Database construction, management, usage, andinteroperability are established practical requirements atevery level of archaeological investigation. The design,implementation, and utility of archaeological databasesremain as pressing concerns in all sectors ofarchaeological practice. Participants will addresspractices for database design and operation which canhelp overcome the often noncontiguous demands ofproject recording, resource management, andtheoretically-driven research which have resulted in arich variety of archaeological database practices but alsoconfusion about best practices in archaeological datamanagement.[217] SYMPOSIUM ■ THE FUTURE OF BIOARCHAEOLOGY: AFORUM IN HONOR OF JANE E. BUIKSTRA, THE 2010FRYXELL AWARD WINNER(SPONSORED BY FRYXELL AWARD COMMITTEE)In 2010, the Society for American Archaeology honoredJane E. Buikstra with its Annual Fryxell award forinterdisciplinary research. Through her work defining,building the foundations of, and nurturing the field ofbioarchaeology, Buikstra has significantly enhancedmultidisciplinary awareness and cooperation withinAmerican archaeology. After 35 years, the role ofbioarchaeology and bioarchaeologists in contemporaryarchaeology is a testament to the enduring impact hermultidisciplinary approach has had and continues to haveon our field. The discussants in this forum will honorBuikstra‘s contributions through a discussion of wherebioarchaeology as a discipline is going, what are thecurrent trends and new horizons, and where more workis needed.[218] SYMPOSIUM ■ TRANSITIONS IN THE PALEOLITHIC:RESEARCH HISTORIES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ONCHANGING INTERPRETATIONSThe Paleolithic is a period divided by different transitionalprocesses: chronological, technological, anthropological,etc. This session approaches the Paleolithic by focusingon a very specific group of transitions: those marked byresearch carried on the main questions that the study ofthis period poses, and how different research programs,methods and perspectives have influenced theinterpretations of the archaeological record and affectedsubsequent investigations on the same or similar issues,sites, regions and collections. This varied introspectiveapproach aims at achieving a greater understanding ofthe current state of affairs in Paleolithic research.[219] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON THEB-SQUARE RANCH, FARMINGTON, NEW MEXICOThis symposium focuses on recent research undertakenduring the 2006 to 2010 seasons of the TotahArchaeological Project, a summer field school conductedby San Juan College of Farmington, New Mexico. Duringthese seasons, TAP has excavated portions of the PointSite (LA 8619), a great house community located on theB-Square Ranch, immediately south of Farmington, NM.The results of these excavations and other related TAPresearch are presented here with the goal to increaseunderstanding of regional patterns exhibited at the PointSite and related communities.[220] SYMPOSIUM ■ FROM THE FIELD TO THESYNCHROTRON RING: DISCOVERING ANCIENT WORLDSTHROUGH MODERN TECHNOLOGIES(SPONSORED BY THE SOCIETY FOR ARCHAEOLOGICALSCIENCES)There has been an increasing emphasis on exploring the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 21potential value of physical evidence from themacroscopic to the submicron level using nondestructivetechniques for the study of archaeological and culturalmaterials of anthropological interest. The symposium willexplore the current and potential applications of state-ofthe-artfield and laboratory techniques including pXRF,multispectral imaging and FEG VPSEM-EDS combinedwith synchrotron radiation in archaeology andconservation. It will report latest researchaccomplishments for the study of a variety ofarchaeological materials from diet and paleoforensicstudies to the production methods and materialdistribution of various artifacts in the archaeologicalrecord.[221] SYMPOSIUM ■ LATE AND TERMINAL CLASSICPOLITICS IN THE NORTHERN MAYA LOWLANDSMany scholars agree that Chichen Itza expanded rapidlyas a regional power at the beginning of the TerminalClassic. The nature of this expansion and Chichen Itza'sinteractions with other sites on the Yucatan Peninsulacan be considered controversial. This symposium willevaluate archaeological evidence and correlates used indeveloping political history, present new data fromcurrent field projects, and explore past politicalreconstructions of this area, updating them in light of newfindings.[222] SYMPOSIUM ■ THE STUDY OF INDIGENOUSLANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN CENTRALCALIFORNIAThe anthropogenic management of the central Californiacoast by hunter-gatherers in Late Holocene andHistorical times is the focus of an inter-disciplinary projectsupported by NSF and California State Parks.Participants from state parks, the Amah Mutsun Ohlonetribe, and local universities and research institutions arecollecting pertinent types of archaeological andecological data from both on-site and off-site contexts toconstruct regional fire histories, ecologicaltransformations, and changing cultural practices. Specificpapers in the session describe the project in detail andpresent updates on the results.[223] SYMPOSIUM ■ APPROACHES TO PREHISPANICAGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE NEW WORLDThis symposium will discuss recent approaches to thestudy and analysis of Prehispanic agricultural soils in theNew World. Participants will address methodologicalapproaches to soil research in the broader context ofreconstructing and explaining the Prehispanic past whilediscussing the relevance of their research tocontemporary and future agricultural land use. Thepapers will address many different aspects of soil andsediment analysis related to agriculture, including theidentification and use of fields, canals or otheragricultural features, soil fertility and the productivity ofagricultural crops, anthropogenic modification of soils, orthe resilience and sustainability of the agroecosystem.[224] SYMPOSIUM ■ RECOGNIZING SOCIAL BEHAVIOR INANCIENT QUARRIES AND LITHIC WORKSHOPS(SPONSORED BY PREHISTORIC QUARRY AND EARLY MINESINTEREST GROUP, CENTER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OFANCIENT QUARRIES, AND LAPORTA AND ASSOCIATES,L.L.C., GEOLOGICAL CONSULTANTS)This Prehistoric Quarry and Early Mines Interest Groupsponsoredsession concerns the range of sites andbehaviors associated with quarries and workshops. Itspans identifying quarry and production techniques,which can occur in different places on the landscape,both from an archaeological or ethnoarchaeologicalperspective. Contributions on raw material quarrying, thereduction sequences, or the types and characteristics ofraw materials in a geographic region will be compared toaddress questions about the social organization ofproduction, the role of workshops in prehistoriceconomies, or the significance of certain rare or distantraw material choices.[225] SYMPOSIUM ■ THE ENDURING LEGACY OF CEIBALForty years after Harvard University‘s excavations at theancient Maya site of Ceibal, archaeologists havereturned to this important center to investigate the originsand development of Maya society. Previously heraldedfor its perseverance as a major Maya center into theninth-century A.D., recent research has focused on thefoundation of this community and the emergence ofsocial inequality during the Middle Pre-Classic period(900 – 300 B.C.). Since Harvard‘s work at Ceibal, therehave been numerous archaeological projects in thesouthern lowlands which have provided a more completeunderstanding of Classic Maya politics and society. Inlight of this research, this symposium presents researchresults from recent archaeological investigations at thesite of Ceibal and the surrounding area.[226] SYMPOSIUM ■ FIRE AND THE BODY: CREMATION ASA CONTEXT FOR SOCIAL MEANINGThe social and cultural context of secondary mortuarypractices and cremations remain poorly understood inanthropological frameworks. The variable pathways ofsecondary burial and complex social meanings ofcremations challenge archaeologists to developinnovative research approaches, models, and analyticaltechniques. This symposium will integrate theoreticalperspectives and archaeological evidence to address thetreatment of the body and individual and communalidentities, the dynamic relationships of the living and thedead, and the significance of the dead in the landscapeof social memory.[227] SYMPOSIUM ■ DOMESTIC RESPONSES,CHALLENGES, AND COOPERATION IN ANDEAN STATEDEVELOPMENTStudying state administrative structures and subjectpopulations includes the spheres of political, economic,and social life and the scope and limits of administrativepower. As a center of independent state formation, theAndes provide diverse case studies on local reactions tostate policies. Regional and site-specific research fromcoast to highlands and province to capital in variousdevelopment periods demonstrate the state‘s navigationof local contexts in turn. Participants discuss domesticeconomy, ideology, identity, and factionalism in relationto larger state administration and bureaucracy,illuminating how native and migrant populations andnewly constituted ethnicities act for local or state interest.

22ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING[228] GENERAL SESSION · EXPLORING IDENTITY, MOBILITY,AND INTERACTION THROUGH CERAMIC ANALYSIS[229] SYMPOSIUM ■ COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES ONCULTURE CONTACT AND INTERACTION: OBJECTS,CONTEXTS, AND PRACTICEThe transformative effects of culture contact have longbeen of interest to archaeologists investigating themovement of people, materials, and information betweenregions and across social boundaries. The last twodecades have marked a critical period of reassessmentin contact studies. New theoretical frameworks haveallowed researchers to describe and explain a widerbreadth of contact scenarios, the processes thatstructure them, and their behavioral impacts acrossdiverse regions and time periods. This symposium willevaluate how these new frameworks have beenoperationalized, and further examine more nuancedapproaches to culture contact through the considerationof objects, contexts, and practice.[230] SYMPOSIUM ■ CHASING RAINBOWS FROM THEGREAT BASIN TO THE PACIFIC SHORE: HONORING THEACCOMPLISHMENTS, INNOVATIONS, AND CONTRIBUTIONSOF C. WILLIAM CLEWLOW, JRDuring a career that has spanned more than 40 yearsand that continues to be productive, C. William Clewlow,Jr. has made significant contributions to the archaeologyof the Great Basin and California. Although Billy is widelyknown as a rock art specialist, his North Americanresearch is broad in geographical and temporal scope.His major research projects range geographically fromcentral Nevada to the inland Chumash region of southernCalifornia, and from the Pleistocene to the historic period.Presentations by his colleagues, research collaboratorsand friends represent the diversity of his interests.[231] GENERAL SESSION ■ PALEOINDIAN TECHNOLOGIESAND SUBSISTENCE[232] SYMPOSIUM ■ THEORIZING THE SALISH SEA: NEWPERSPECTIVES ON THE GULF OF GEORGIA REGION OF THENORTHWEST COASTThe Salish Sea, encompassing the Coast Salish world atcontact, has been at the center of model-building inNorthwest Coast archaeology and complex huntergatherertheory. Many of the seminal works addressingthe region are now decades old, and much new data hasemerged. Accordingly, a renewed effort at theorizing thiskey region is warranted. Papers in this session developand apply theoretical approaches to current data from theregion, providing fresh perspectives on persistentproblems and new approaches to studying this keyregion of the Northwest Coast.[233] POSTER SESSION ■ BIOARCHAEOLOGY OF THEAMERICAS[234] POSTER SESSION ■ FROM MOMENTS TO MILLENNIA:MULTISCALAR ANALYSES OF THE NEOLITHIC-EARLYBRONZE AGE MORTUARY LANDSCAPE OF TORRESVEDRAS, PORTUGALThis session engages with different scales of temporaland spatial analysis toward understanding the lives andpractices of humans buried in the Torres Vedras regionof Portugal, one of the richest landscapes for Neolithic-Early Bronze Age archaeology of Iberian Peninsula. TheSizandro-Alcabrichel Research Project (co-directed byKatina Lillios – University of Iowa - and Michael Kunst –DAI/Madrid) is focused on assessing the dynamics ofsocial, biological, and ecological change in this region.Posters consider regional and site-specific analyses,employing formal studies of burials,geoarchaeological/GIS reconstructions of site histories,bone chemistry studies, and bioarchaeology.[235] POSTER SESSION · MORTUARY ANALYSIS IN THEAMERICAS[236] POSTER SESSION · MORTUARY ANALYSIS IN THE OLDWORLD[237] POSTER SESSION · THE DEAD DON‟T BURYTHEMSELVES*: TAPHONOMY AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTANDVIOLENCE AND SEX IN THE PASTBioarchaeologists and archaeologists are increasinglyengaged in using empirical data from field and lab in theinterpretations of violence. Although taphonomy is acrucial part of archaeological method, it is often notintegrated fully in analyses of violence (e.g., warfare,captivity, raiding, massacre, sacrifice, execution,homicide and cannibalism). The role of demographicfactors such as age and sex has also been underreported (e.g., are all ages and both sexes equallyrepresented) resulting in a misleading picture of groupsat risk. Through a case-study approach, this sessionhighlights important taphonomic processes that need tobe included when possible. *Pearson 1999:3[238] GENERAL SESSION ■ AGRICULTURE, WATER, ANDANTHROPOGENIC LANDSCAPES IN MESOAMERICA: PART 2[239] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGY BEHIND THEREDWOOD CURTAIN: RECENT RESEARCH ON THE NORTHCOAST OF CALIFORNIARecent and current investigations among the coastalredwoods of northern California apply 21st-Centurymethods and techniques to a variety of researchquestions. This session presents a selection of papersshowcasing results of studies contributing to a moredetailed understanding of the archaeological recordbehind the redwood curtain. Assemblages from bothinland Coast Range forests and coastal strands reveallong indigenous occupations following a variety ofsubsistence strategies. Efforts to compile, consolidate,and synthesize the known archaeological records of theNorth Coast promise to greatly enhance our ability to linkthe present with the past by incorporating scientific andindigenous knowledge.[240] GENERAL SESSION ■ INTERACTION AND EXCHANGE INTHE AMERICAS[241] GENERAL SESSION ■ NATIVE AMERICAN RESPONSESTO EUROPEAN CONTACT, COLONIZATION, ANDASSIMILATION

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 23[242] SYMPOSIUM ■ A NEW FRONTIER FOR HISTORICPRESERVATION: SPACE AND AVIATION HERITAGEThe National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 camethree years before the height of the U.S.-Russian spacerace that brought humans to the Moon for the first time.Archaeological sites and structures, both on Earth andbeyond, are associated with some of the most importanttechnological achievements of humankind, yet they arerelatively young in age and inaccessible to the public.Collectively, the six papers in this symposium addressthis unique class of cultural resources and how changesin our approach to historic preservation can protect thesevery important sites.[243] GENERAL SESSION ■ CERAMIC ANALYSIS INMESOAMERICA[244] GENERAL SESSION ■ CULTIVATION AND SETTLEMENTIN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST[245] GENERAL SESSION ■ ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE DEAD INSOUTH AMERICA: PART 2[246] GENERAL SESSION ■ COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION,STORAGE, AND CONSTRUCTED SPACE IN AFRICA[247] GENERAL SESSION ■ GLOBAL CULTURAL HERITAGEAND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT[248] SYMPOSIUM ■ RECENT RESEARCH AT ARIZONANATIONAL PARKS AND MONUMENTSArizona National Parks and Monuments manage adiverse and dynamic archaeological landscape.Archaeologists working in this area undertake intensiveresearch projects to expand the knowledge that guidesthe development of best practices in managing theprehistoric and historic cultural resources. This sessionfocuses on the creative application of recent researchconducted at Grand Canyon National Park, NavajoNational Monument, Walnut Canyon National Monument,Wupatki National Monument, and Southern ArizonaNational Monuments.[249] FORUM ■ ANTHROPOGENIC SEDIMENTS ASARCHAEOLOGICAL OBJECTS: A DISCUSSION FORUM(SPONSORED BY GEOARCHAEOLOGY INTEREST GROUP)Anthropogenic sediments and soils make up the bulk ofarchaeological sites and cover much of the habitableearth‘s surface. Field archaeologists are experts atidentifying such deposits, yet the processes by whichthey are made often defy definition, even when assessedthrough sophisticated laboratory analyses. In soilscience, systematic classification of archaeologicalanthrosols awaits definition. This forum considersanthropogenic deposits in term of the processes of theircreation and the ―objects‖ or products they become. Weseek to refine problems, and debate definitions. Aninvited panel will provide comments to spark dialogueand all attendees are welcome to participate.[250] FORUM ■ GIS MODELING AT THE SITE OF JOYA DECERÉNThis forum will provide the opportunity for Joya de Cerénscholars and GIS modelers to work together on issuesspecific to this site. The focus of the forum will be theapplication of GIS modeling to diverse queries.Specialists in the areas of paleoethnobotany,zooarchaeology, micromorphology, lithics, ceramics,architecture, ritual, space, and ecology will be able towork with the GIS modelers in an interactive way. TheCerén specialists will help to guide the UCB participantstoward completing the data set and visualization at thesite. The UCB participants will help to guide the Cerénspecialists in the use of the ArcMap software and digitalCerén model.[251] FORUM ■ TODAY'S ONLINE MEDIA BLACK HOLE ANDARCHAEOLOGY(SPONSORED BY MEDIA RELATIONS COMMITTEE AND GENES. STUART AWARD COMMITTEE)Archaeologists always struggle to get the press to printaccurate and high quality articles. Today, mostnewspapers and magazines have at least an onlinepresence. In fact, anyone can publish online. Articles,blogs, tweets, and other online products have anauthority simply because they are found online, butpopularity is not good quality. Discussants will addresshow the move to online formats affects the quality ofpress coverage about archaeology. Do onlinenewspapers and magazines have more leeway to printarchaeological stories? How do archaeology blogsportray the field? Are online newsletters and discussionsreputable news on archaeology?[252] FORUM · WHEN THE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE AREONE: EXPLORING THE IMPLICATIONS OF INDIVISIBLECULTURAL HERITAGE FOR ARCHAEOLOGYArchaeology is concerned foremost with the tangiblemanifestations of past lifeways, leaving the intangible toethnographers and others. However, in many indigenoussocieties there may be little distinction made between―tangible‖ and ―intangible‖ heritage; thus, ―artifacts‖ and―sites‖ not only reflect ancient activities, but holdknowledge or even embody ancestors. Such indivisibility,when and where it occurs, has profound implications forhow the archaeological record is approached,interpreted, and valued; how cultural heritage isprotected (or not); and how community needs andconcerns are addressed. Panelists explore therelationship between the ―tangible‖ and the ―intangible‖ atthe intersection of traditional worldviews andarchaeological practice.[253] SYMPOSIUM ■ DETECTING AND INTERPRETING RITUALIN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITESRitual is pervasive to human experience; however itsidentification in archaeological contexts can be elusive toresearchers since the boundaries between daily andritual life are often indistinct. Ritual analysis wasconsidered an almost unattainable aspect of research,while influence of processual and especially postprocessualtheories changed the perspective ofarchaeologists in relation to the ritual life of pastpopulations. In recent years an increased interest instudies of ritual can be perceived in archaeologicalconferences and journals. In this symposium we intend topresent current worldwide research focused on ritual anddiscuss new strategies for research development in thisarea.

24ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING[254] SYMPOSIUM ■ AN ARCHAEOLOGY OF HERITAGE:WHAT DOES THE PRESERVATION OF REMAINS FROM THEPAST REVEAL ABOUT THE PRESENT?Archaeologists often take for granted that remains of thepast are inherently valuable and deserve to be preservedin perpetuity, if at all possible. The goal of this session isto historicize and contextualize this preservationistparadigm that underlies much of contemporaryarchaeology and ―historical preservation.‖ By undertakingan ―archaeology of heritage‖ we intend to examinecontemporary heritage discourse. What do ―heritage‖activities and artifacts (signposts, guidebooks, preservedbuildings, reconstructions, museums, traditionalperformances etc.) reveal about our own time? To whatextent is the discipline of archaeology a manifestation ofthe modern heritage discourse?[255] GENERAL SESSION ■ ISOTOPE RESEARCH: INSIGHTSAND CONTRIBUTIONS[256] SYMPOSIUM ■ THE SACRAMENTO RIVER AND ITSMOUNDS: A FRESH LOOK AT ITS PREHISTORYEarly California archaeologists recorded many prehistoricmound sites along the Sacramento River; many of whichhave since been plowed under or otherwise destroyed.Based on burials they developed a chronology that is stillwidely used today. New theories and methods forunderstanding the prehistoric population of this regionhave been developed and are currently being applied inarchaeological fieldwork and analysis. Looking at thefields of paleobotany, faunal remains, andgeoarchaeology; analyzing artifacts from old collectionsand ongoing excavations, and applying a variety oftheoretical backgrounds provides a more thorough lookat the prehistoric lifeway of the Sacramento Riverwatershed.[257] SYMPOSIUM ■ MAPPING AND TECHNOLOGICALEXPERIMENTS IN ARCHAEOLOGYExperimental Archaeology represents an opportunity togain an understanding of the past through actions in thepresent. Classically, experimental studies reproduce thetechnology of the past. More recently, these studies alsoinclude predicting site location and site extent based onexperimental mapping. While these efforts may differgreatly in methodology, the central goal of makingstatements about the past through experimentation in thepresent remains the same. The challenges then remainto evaluate the accuracy of our statements concerningthe past and how to best emulate the archaeologicalrecord through experimentation.[258] GENERAL SESSION ■ POWER, CONFLICT, AND RITUALIN EURASIA[259] GENERAL SESSION ■ SITE PRESERVATION: LEGAL,ETHICAL, AND METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES[260] GENERAL SESSION · SYMBOLISM, ART, AND IDENTITY[261] SYMPOSIUM ■ HUMAN SOCIAL DYNAMICS IN EASTPOLYNESIA: INSIGHTS FROM ARCHAEOLOGY, DEMOGRAPHYAND ECOLOGY IN LEEWARD KOHALA, HAWAIICollaborative research funded by the Human SocialDynamics program and the Biocomplexity program (NSF)has allowed for intensive study of the dynamicinteractions between volcanic island ecology, humanpopulations, agricultural intensification, and householdsocial units. This symposium reports upon three years ofresearch in Leeward Kohala, located on the northern tipof Hawai‗i Island. Kohala transformed into a vastagricultural landscape over a period of 400 years. Ourresearch has focused on the chronology of populationgrowth and social transformation, and also sought toinvestigate the pre-historic engineering of agriculturalsurplus in the context of island ecology and seasonalweather.[262] SYMPOSIUM ■ NEW LOOKS AT OLD SITES: THERESULTS OF RECENT RESEARCH AT PALEOINDIAN SITES INTHE GREAT BASINAlthough the Great Basin may not immediately come tomind when considering Paleoindian research, over 75years of fieldwork has produced numerous well-knownsites that have yielded data related to chronology,mobility, and land-use. Today, researchers continue toglean important information from both open-air sites andcaves and rockshelters. This symposium highlights theserecent efforts and addresses outstanding questionsincluding: (1) when was the Great Basin first colonized?;(2) how did the environment of the late Pleistocene/earlyHolocene influence Paleoindian land-use patterns?; and(3) how can source provenance studies of lithic artifactscontribute to our understanding of Paleoindiantechnological organization?[263] SYMPOSIUM ■ PLACES THROUGH TIME: SITE-SPECIFIC HISTORICAL ECOLOGY ON THE PACIFIC COAST OFNORTH AMERICASite-specific historical ecology allows archaeologists tounderstand localized resource depressions and reboundsand short-term adaptive adjustments. Resourcefluctuations documented by cycles of abundance anddepression become evident at a local scale, illuminatingpatterns not visible in some broader scales of analysis.This symposium addresses diachronic perspectives fromindividual sites or site clusters found in specific coastalsettings, such as bluffs and promontories, caves androck shelters, embayments, and rocky and sandycoastlines. By comparing specific site types, we hope toillicit the general patterns and trends that shaped theevolution of human maritime adaptations along the NorthAmerican Pacific Coast.[264] SYMPOSIUM ■ BEYOND POTTERY TYPES:RECONSIDERING CERAMIC DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY INTHE AMERICAN SOUTHWESTAlthough the ceramic type is an important analytical toolin the American Southwest, typologies often are specificto particular regions and times. For this reason they maycause us to overlook overarching ceramic decorative andtechnological themes that crosscut ceramic types. Thegoal of this symposium is to examine patterns that maybe missed through typological analyses. We are notcriticizing the use of typologies, rather we are suggestingthat interpretation of past social relations can be madericher by examining pottery themes through alternativeanalytical categories.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 25[265] SYMPOSIUM ■ SUBMERGED PREHISTORIC SITESARCHAEOLOGY IN THE AMERICAS: METHOD, THEORY, ANDRESULTS BY ACADEMIC AND CRM PROJECTS ALIKEPresenters in this session report advances in methodand theory regarding intertidal and fully submerged,underwater prehistoric archaeological sites, and howmodeling and testing for these sites is increasinglypossible, as well as of increasing importance for culturalresource managers. The search for submergedprehistoric sites is of interest to many prehistorians andthese papers expose the state of the art today,addressing the nitty gritty of finding and managingsubmerged prehistoric sites with examples of eroded andsubmerged prehistoric sites, and reconstructions ofpaleolandscapes with potential site locations using soundunderwater imagery and different sediment samplingstrategies.[266] SYMPOSIUM ■ CURRENT APPROACHES INMESOAMERICAN CAVE ARCHAEOLOGYAlthough still relatively new, Mesoamerican CaveArchaeology remains an active and rapidly changing subdiscipline.The growing awareness of the importance ofcaves in the ancient landscape is reflected in the diverseapproaches of its practitioners. Ongoing fieldinvestigations continue to produce new data whilelaboratory analyses uncover exciting new information.Iconographic analyses, additionally, provide new insightsinto the indigenous representations of these importantlandmarks. This session presents a cross-section of thecurrent research being carried out in MesoamericanCave Archaeology.diverse backgrounds and experiences in archaeologyeducation. We will critically address the politics ofeducation and successes and challenges of publicarchaeology in various learning contexts.[269] SYMPOSIUM ■ ARCHAEOLOGICAL, ETHNOHISTORICALAND ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH IN CUSCO, PERUOver the past century, a variety of national andinternational projects have excavated portions of formercapital of the Inca Empire. Unfortunately, the results havenot always been comparable as different projects havecollected and analyzed data under distinct sets of criteria.Research is further complicated by the number ofscholars and stakeholders invested in the varioustangible and intangible resources of the pre-Columbianpast. The participants in this symposium are part of aresearch project to revalue underpublished excavations,contextualize the urban remains with the surroundinglandscape and actively address the concerns andinterpretations of the present day population.[267] SYMPOSIUM ■ MINING AND QUARRYING IN THEANCIENT ANDES(SPONSORED BY PREHISTORIC QUARRY AND EARLY MINESINTEREST GROUP, CENTER FOR THE INVESTIGATION OFANCIENT QUARRIES)The earth‘s resources have contributed in important waysto economic and social life in the prehispanic Andes. Thissymposium focuses on mining and quarrying in theAndes throughout prehistory with research on procuringmaterials that include stone, metals, clay, colorants, andsalt from primary deposits. Research themes range fromextraction technologies, archaeological sites associatedwith mines and quarries, social and ritual elements ofancient mining, and evidence of contemporary smallscalemining in the Andes.[268] FORUM ■ FORMING PARTNERSHIPS AND PREPARINGNEW GENERATIONS OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS(SPONSORED BY PUBLIC EDUCATION COMMITTEE)Outreach is integral to many archaeological projects andmany archaeologists work with teachers and schools.These interactions can be valuable reciprocal learningexperiences and build long-lasting partnerships.However, archaeologists and educators do not alwaysshare the same needs and agendas which can makeexchanges between these stakeholders complex andeven problematic. Successful public archaeology projectsrequire understandings of educational systems andextensive collaboration with local educators. This forumbrings together archaeologists and educators with

26ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGABSTRACTS OF INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATIONSAaberg, Steve [113] see Alegria, Crystal B.Abbott, David (Arizona State University), SophiaKelly (Arizona State University), Andrew Lack(Arizona State University) and Margaret Beck(University of Iowa)[187] The Provenance of Patayan Pottery from thePatayan Enclave at Las ColinasNumerous Patayan ceramics in a full suite of vesselforms suggest the presence of a Patayan enclave at theprehistoric Hohokam village of Las Colinas in thePhoenix basin of Arizona. We investigate if the Patayanpottery was locally made by chemically assaying temperparticles of phyllite with an electron microprobe andcomparing them to the chemical signatures of bedrockphyllite from the flank of the nearby Phoenix Mountains.Our findings demonstrate unambiguous differencesbetween the temper fragments and the raw PhoenixMountains samples, suggesting that the Patayan potterywas not made at Las Colinas.[52] DiscussantAbbott, David [187] see Lack, AndrewAbe, Hillary (Robert S. Peabody Museum - PhillipsAcademy) and Forrest Cox (Phillips Academy)[196] Can an Elite High School and a North AmericanArchaeological Museum Succeed in Giving Back toIndian CountryIn this paper the trials, pitfalls and successes ofmatriculating Native students into an independentresidential high school are presented. What do schoolsand archaeological museums have to offer contemporaryNative students and how do they position themselves todeliver those needs? Can museums play a role in helpingthese students adjust to their milieu and to help educatethe broader school community on current Native issues?Attempts to partner with Native students and theircommunities to fashion new avenues of cross-culturaldialogue between museums, indigenous peoples, andthe community at-large are discussed.Aben, Kathrina (Howard University)[138] Comparison of Miner Encampments in the BlackRange Mountains, New MexicoIn the late 1800's, the community of Hermosa in theBlack Range of New Mexico, centered its economicstability around silver mining. This poster will explore thepurpose of two sites found in the area related to miningoccupation: a single-room structure situated on a flatarea next to Palomas Creek, and a wall fortification builton top of a hill facing the town. A cross-comparison andanalysis of artifacts, oral history and architecturalremains will help determine the function of each area andflesh out the identities of the individuals whoseoccupation was so principal to the region.Abraham, Sarah (University of California, SantaBarbara) and Aileen Balasalle[208] The Architecture of La Quinta: Interpreting ColonialStrategies of Conquest and Conversion at Pukara, Peru.The results of architectural study of La Quinta, a colonialchapel built on the archaeological site of Pukara, Peru,are presented. La Quinta predates the construction of thetown‘s church in A.D. 1610 and is architecturally distinctfrom other colonial buildings in the region. Along withSpanish architectural attributes, analysis identified Incaelements, including portions of a building incorporatedinto the chapel. This fusion may reflect imperial conqueststrategies, including the cooption of important places andsyncretism. Lastly, the study places La Quinta within thecontext of the extensive history of reoccupation andmodification at this prominent site.Abraham, Shinu (St. Lawrence University), P. J.Cherian (Kerala Council for Historical Research)and Heather Christie (St. Lawrence University)[100] Pattanam/Muziris: The Glass Bead Corpus from anIndian Ocean Port Site on the Malabar Coast of Kerala,IndiaRecent excavations at Pattanam on the southwesternIndian coast have yielded a variety of artifacts attesting torobust participation in early and medieval Indian Oceanexchange networks. These artifacts include glass beadsfrom nearly all occupation levels. I will report on thebeads from the 2007/2008 excavation seasons,comprising about 4000 of the total 20,000 recovered todate. As one of the few south Indian sites providingstratigraphic context for this artifact category, thePattanam beads present a unique opportunity toinvestigate this port site as a node linking localproduction processes with inter-regional transoceanicsystems.[100] Second Chair [100] Second OrganizerAckerly, Neal (Dos Rios Consultants, Inc.)[199] A River In Need of Irrigation: Searching forPrehistoric Irrigation Systems Along the Rio Grande MainStemOne puzzlement in southern New Mexico prehistory isthe relative dearth of evidence regarding prehistoricirrigation along the Rio Grande main stem. This isparticularly true of the segment extending south betweenSan Marcial and El Paso. Today, vast floodplains arecultivated to their limits, yet evidence of prehistoricirrigation systems in these same geographies is sorelywanting. Anecdotal accounts, early maps, and otherdocumentary sources are discussed that may provideinsights into what kinds of irrigation systems may bepresent, why they may be difficult to find, and wherealong this segment archeological investigations may bemost productive.Adams, Andrea [161] see McMahon, CatherineAdams, Christopher (Gila National Forest) andJoe Encinas (Gila National Forest)[138] Archaeological Investigations of the VictorioCampaign: New Insights on the May 24-25, 1880Palomas Fight, New Mexico TerritoryFor the last three years the Gila National Forest HeritageProgram and the Gila Archaeological Project have beenconducting archaeological investigations at the PalomasFight. This fight represents the only time Victorio (WarmSprings Apaches) was defeated on the Black Range andit was not at the hands of the military, but by HenryParker, Chief of Scouts and sixty Western Apache

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 27Scouts. This poster will highlight some of thearchaeological techniques, forensic studies and new GIStechnologies that were used at the Palomas Fight.Adams, E. Charles [136] see Hedquist, Saul L.Adams, Jacob (University of Montana) and DouglasMacDonald (University of Montana)[160] Differential Selection of Lithic Raw Materials byPrehistoric Hunter-Gatherers in the Upper YellowstoneRiver Valley, Montana/WyomingThe Upper Yellowstone River Valley ofMontana/Wyoming in Yellowstone National Park providesan excellent case study by which to evaluate directversus embedded stone procurement strategies duringprehistory. Two lithic raw material sources—ObsidianCliff obsidian and Crescent Hill chert—are locatedequidistant from archaeological sites in the study area,but were differentially utilized during the Holocene.Attributes such as stone morphology, quality, andavailability, not to mention individual/cultural influences,contributed to the variable procurement, use, and discardof stone by hunter-gatherers at sites in the region.Adams, Jeffrey (Interior West Consulting), JohnKennedy (SWCA Environmental Consultants) andMark Lowe (Interior West Consulting)[179] Archaeological investigations along the terraces ofthe Upper Green River, WyomingThe study included a 365-acre area along T1-T3 terracesof the Upper Green River at the BLM Warren BridgePublic Access Area, Sublette County, Wyoming. Theinvestigations included pedestrian survey (15 meterintervals), broadcast shovel probe surveys (419 probesat 19 locations), excavation of 5 test units, andexcavation of 3 thermal features. A total of 15 prehistoricarchaeological sites (14 with subsurface deposits) and 9isolated finds were documented. Sites contained lithicdebitage and tools, projectile points, ceramics, faunalremains, fire-altered rock, and rock-filled roasting pits.Radiometric dates were obtained from features at 3 sites.Adams, Jenny (Desert Archaeology, Inc.)[59] Use-Wear on Surfaces – Stepping Away from theEdgeRecent applications of experimental and microscopicresearch techniques to the study of stone tool surfaceshave broadened the recognition of use-wear patterns.Building on the research of tribologists who study wear inorder to prevent it, wear mechanisms have beenidentified that are distinctive to the relative nature ofcontacts between two surfaces in addition to the natureof substances worked between contacting surfaces.Wear mechanisms encompass surface fatigue, adhesion,abrasion, and tribochemical interactions that arecontinuously in play, so that what we see depends onwhen this process was interrupted.Adams, Jenny [22] see Burton, MargieAdams, Karen R. (Crow Canyon ArchaeologicalCenter)[199] The Archaeobotany and Agronomy of AncientMaize: We're Still LearningUnderstanding the introduction and movements of maize(Zea mays) landraces in the ancient American Southwestwould offer insight into the history and interactions ofhuman groups. Many historic maize landraces aremorphologically distinguishable. However, mostarchaeological maize has preserved in charred andfragmented condition, and modern charring/breakageexperiments suggest chances for determining ancientlandraces are diminished. For modeling maizeproductivity, controlled grow-outs of indigenous SW USmaize landraces indicate relevance of environmentalvariables (precipitation timing, cumulative growingseason heat units, effects of cold air drainage) notroutinely considered by archaeologists.[20] see Smith, Susan; [188] see Paterson, Judy M.;[199] see Hard, Robert J.; [244] see MacWilliams, ArthurC.Adams, Richard [101] see Schroeder, Bryon A.Adams, Ron (AINW)[160] Columbia Hills Toolstone QuarryingArchaeological investigations in the Columbia Hills ofsouth-central Washington have revealed myriad sourcesof cryptocrystalline silicate toolstone material. Denselyclustered prehistoric cryptocrystalline silicate quarriesand smaller lithic procurement sites are scattered acrossthe crest of the hills. The lithic material found at theseprocurement locales is of exceptional quality and ideal fortool making. Prehistorically, this toolstone resource wasdug from mining pits and reduced from large bouldersthat scatter the surface. This paper explores toolstoneprocurement strategies of the Columbia Hills and theirsignificance in relation to prehistoric village sites of thearea and the larger regional lithic landscape.[160] Second ChairAdderley, Paul (University of Stirling) [249]DiscussantAdler, Daniel (University of Connecticut), R. Pinhasi(University College Cork, Ireland), B. Yeritsyan(Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography,Armenia), Boris Gasparian (Institute of Archaeologyand Ethnography, Armenia) and K. Wilkinson(Winchester University, UK)[114] Current Palaeolithic research at Nor Geghi 1 andLusakert Cave 1, ArmeniaCurrent Palaeolithic research in the Southern Caucasus,specifically Armenia, is beginning to yield new insightsinto the Pleistocene occupation of the region. TwoArmenian sites, Nor Geghi 1 and Lusakert Cave 1, spanthe late Middle and Upper Pleistocene, and documentintriguing patterns of lithic procurement/production andforaging. This paper will present preliminary datagathered during recent excavations (2008–2010)followed by a brief comparison with sites located inneighboring regions.Adler, Michael (Southern Methodist University)[199] What we don't know about canal irrigation in thePrehispanic Northern SouthwestPrehispanic canal irrigation is archaeologically welldocumented in the Sonoran desert regions of theAmerican Southwest, but the same is not the case in thenorthern Southwest. This paper investigates evidence(and lack thereof) for prehispanic canal irrigation acrossthe northern Southwest, particularly the northern Rio

28ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGGrande region. Challenges to our present knowledge ofthe spatial and temporal extent of canal irrigation in thisregion include limited contact period accounts, a dearthof archaeological investigations of purported canals,dating of archaeological deposits, and historic landmodifications by later occupants of the region.Adolph, Arthur [176] see Billy, NoraAdovasio, James (Mercyhurst ArchaeologicalInstitute) and C. Andrew Hemmings (MercyhurstArchaeological Institute/Mercyhurst College)[265] Inundated Landscapes and the Colonization of theNortheastern Gulf of MexicoThe initial colonization of the Americas probably occurredsomewhere on the edge of the now-submerged InnerContinental Shelf. Continued research at inundatedlocations in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is facilitatingthe reconstruction of a portion of this ancient landform.Extensive Paleo-river drainages, interfluvial ridges, andchert-bearing limestone exposures have been identifiedat multiple loci. Based on terrestrial analogues, thosefeatures could have influenced human and animalmovements to and from the ever encroaching sea at theend of the Pleistocene. Findings are summarized andsuggestions are offered to verify an early humanpresence on this shrinking Pleistocene landscape.Adovasio, James [196] see Richardson, James B.Adriano-Morán, Carmen Cristina [25] see McClung DeTapia, Emily S.Afonso, Marisa[253] Archaeological approaches to ritual inSoutheastern Brazil: shell mounds and Tupi GuaranisitesRitual analysis still poses challenges to archaeologists.This paper intends to discuss the role of shell and lithicartefacts as archaeological evidences of rituals in shellmounds and also the role of ceramic vessels associatedwith funerary functions located in Tupi Guarani sites inSoutheastern Brazil, specifically from archaeologicalinvestigations conducted in the State of São Paulo. Shellmounds and ceramic sites present very differentarchaeological and funerary contexts.Ethnoarchaeological studies may help understandingfunerary rituals in Tupi Guarani sites, even though shellmound building communities were no longer active at thetime European colonizers arrived in Brazil.Agarwal, Sabrina (UC Berkeley)[16] The Sex and Gender of Aging in BioarchaeologyThis paper examines how the fundamental use ofbiological sex and age determination in skeletal remainsaffects and can limit our analyses of bioarchaeologicaldata and the questions that we ask, particularly in thestudy of gender in health and aging in the past. Usingempirical data on patterns bone loss in aging in historicalpopulations, I suggest that the division of populations intocategories by sex and age may well obscure thebiocultural influences that have been embodied in theskeleton over the life course, and cut across populationsin different and revealing ways.[16] First ChairAgha, Andrew (Brockington and Associates), InnaMoore (Brockington and Associates) and DamonJackson (Brockington and Associates)[81] ARRA Archaeology in the Ozarks: Section 110Survey for the Little Rock District, USACEArchaeological survey of select parcels within the ArmyCorps of Engineers Little Rock, Arkansas Districtdiscovered 34 sites and located 3 previously identifiedsites. The work was conducted on Beaver Lake in theOzark Mountains, near Nimrod Lake in the northernOuachita Mountains, and near Millwood Lake in the RedRiver Valley region. Some of these Prehistoric sites arelarge and produced several hundred artifacts, helping usunderstand more about Arkansas‘ prehistory and pastland use. This work was conducted as part of theAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment Act instilled byCongress in 2009.Agostini, Mark [62] see Van Keuren, ScottAhlman, Todd (Historical Research Associates,Inc.), Gerald Schroedl (University of Tennessee),Barbara Heath (University of Tennessee), GrantGilmore (St. Eustatius Center for ArchaeologicalResearch) and Jeffrey Ferguson (University ofMissouri Research Reactor)[121] An examination of inter- and intra-island trade ofAfro-Caribbean ware in the Lesser AntillesRecently, 168 Afro-Caribbean ware sherds and 10 claysamples from 19 sites on 7 islands were submitted to theUniversity of Missouri Research Reactor for analysis byInstrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Theresearch goals include the examination of inter- andintra-island trade among free and enslaved Africans. Theresults suggest evidence for inter-island, but areambiguous in regard to trade networks. The data showlocal variation in the islands' markets as many differentpaste recipes are represented in the St. Eustatius Afro-Caribbean ware, but there are fewer paste recipes in theSt. Kitts and Nevis Afro-Caribbean ware.Ahlman, Todd [121] see Braly, Bobby R.Ahlstrom, Richard (HRA, Inc. ConservationArchaeology)[99] Temporal and Spatial Scales of Analysis inPuebloan DendroarchaeologyDendrochronological evidence is not distributed evenlyover systemic and archaeological contexts, but clusterswithin realms involving specific categories of materialculture. A realm central to Jeffrey Dean‘sdendroarchaeological research concerns southwestpuebloan architecture. The scope of puebloandendroarchaeology is a function of puebloan wood-use,datability of exploited tree species, preservation of treeringmaterials, and patterns of archaeological fieldwork.The quality of the sample of tree-ring-dated events variesby scale of analysis. Relevant temporal scales includetree-ring seasons and years as well as multi-year units.Dendroarchaeology contributes to puebloan spatialanalysis at the levels of behavioral, geographic, andsocial space.Ahrens, Corrie (Colorado State University) andChristopher T. Fisher (Colorado State University)[58] Food Storage at Sacapu Angamucu

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 29Food storage has long been seen as an important aspectof economic and socio-political relationships inMesoamerica. Evidence for potential storage structureshas been identified at the site of Sacapu Angamucu,located in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, Michoacán, Mexico.Here I examine the spatial distribution of these granariesto provide insights into economic relationships, sociopoliticaldifferentiation, and site function during thePostclassic period (A.D. 1000-1520).Aikens, Clyde (University of Oregon)[94] Introducing Don FowlerIntroducing Don Fowler By C. Melvin Aikens Don Fowlerhas finally become older than dirt, not considered a badthing by people such as we here today, some havinggrown old in the profession of archaeology, others stilltrudging toward that goal, and some perhaps starting towonder if they really want to. On this occasion wecelebrate Don‘s long and productive history ofaccomplishment in our chosen field, and my purposetoday is to briefly sketch his trajectory as a scholar, whichbegan more than a half-century ago in Ogden, Utah.Aimers, Jim (SUNY Geneseo) and Helen Haines(Trent University)[243] The Pottery of Ka'Kabish, BelizeIn this paper we report on pottery from the site core ofKa‘Kabish, Belize excavated during the summer of 2009.Given the proximity of Ka‘Kabish to the site of Lamanai(about 10 km), which is well-known for its substantialPostclassic period occupation, we had expected to findsubstantial quantities of Postclassic period pottery.Instead, almost the entire pottery sample consisted oftypes associated with the Late Preclassic and EarlyClassic periods in the Maya lowlands. We describe thekey types uncovered in 2009 and we speculate on theirsignificance in terms of chronology and the regional roleof Ka‘Kabish.[243] First ChairAimers, Jim [190] see Murata, SatoruAinis, Amira (California State University, LosAngeles) and Renè Vellanoweth (California StateUniversity, Los Angeles)[263] Historical Ecology of Bay Point, San Miguel Island:6,000 Years of Intertidal Shellfish and Human DynamicsShellfish remains from Cave of the Chimneys (CA-SMI-603) a stratigraphically intact, extremely well-preservedsite located on the northeast coast of the island providesan ideal opportunity to examine long term dynamicsbetween humans and intertidal shellfish communities.Our results suggest fluctuating patterns of resourcedepressions and rebounds, foraging efficiency, andsubsistence intensification and diversification throughtime. Trans-Holocene patterns also show decreases inshell size, increases in foraging catchments, anddecreases in shellfish use relative to marine vertebrates.This research contributes to our understanding of thehistorical ecology of Bay Point and the evolution ofsubsistence economies on the Channel Islands.[263] First ChairAiuvalasit, Michael [80] see Schuldenrein, JosephAkins, Nancy (Office of Archaeological Studies,Museum of NM)[143] Exploring Mortuary Variability in the Northern RioGrandeMuch of the data on Northern Rio Grande mortuarypractices is presented as summaries without regards toage or sex and without definitions of the terms used todescribe basic treatment. To manage and compare burialpractices from projects in the Tewa and Galisteo Basins,a data base was created that could summarizedemography, grave location and characteristics, bodyposition, and grave goods as well as explore patternswithin and between sites. A regional data base would notonly allow us to examine a wide range of questions butwould improve our reporting and recording of burialencountered in the future.[237] see Toll, H. WolcottAkoshima, Kaoru (Tohoku University)[149] The Tagajo Fort Site and frontier processes innortheastern Japan during the eighth century A.D.The paper examines socio-cultural processes in northernborder regions of the Ritsuryo State of Japan. I introducethe results of fifty years long research, mainly conductedby the Tagajo Fort Site Research Institute of MiyagiPrefecture. Accumulated data revealed details of the fortstructure, spatial differentiation, and renovation ofbuildings. Its geographical location confronting thenorthern Emishi tribal territory doomed the site bothpolitical and military roles integrated as the frontier fort.State-controlled production is represented in abundantroof tile kiln sites. Regional differences within the MutsuProvince between north and south are discussed inhistorical and ―peripheral‖ perspectives.Albarracin-Jordan, Juan [231] see Capriles, José M.Alconini, Sonia (University of Texas At San Antonio)and Sara K. Becker (University of North Carolina,Chapel Hill)[245] Trophy Head Taking in the Eastern TiwanakuPeripheries: The Site of Wata Wata in the CharazaniValley, BoliviaThe taking of trophy heads is not a new concept amongprecontact peoples in Andean South America. Howeveramong Tiwanaku skeletal collections, physical evidenceof human crania being processed is a rare phenomenon.This paper reports on three crania found in ritual contextat the Wata Wata site in Charazani, Bolivia. The skeletalremains show evidence of trauma consistent withsacrifice including decapitation, cut marks, bonebreakage, and possible eye removal. These data providenew information concerning the nature of violence, ritual,and social interactions that Tiwanaku maintained with theeastern, Charazani populations during the Formative toTiwanaku-era transition.Alconini, Sonia [106] see Hanson, ThomasAldenderfer, Mark (University of California)[23] Recent archaeological research on the TibetanplateauRecent research on the Tibetan plateau has shed newlight on the nature of interaction of plateau peoples withtheir neighbors in the surrounding lowlands. In thispresentation, I will summarize the results ofarchaeological, genetic, bioarchaeological, and linguistic

30ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGdata on this process.[57] DiscussantAlegria, Crystal (Project Archaeology), Shane Doyle(Montana State University), Steve Platt (MontanaDepartment of Transportation), Steve Aaberg(Aaberg Cultural Resource Consulting) andJeanne Moe (Bureau of Land Management)[113] Baa Xiiash A Lee Kio: A Collaborative ArchaeologyEducation ProjectTest excavations at the Absaroka Agency, a former CrowIndian Agency located near Absaroka, MT provided anopportunity to develop educational materials. Thesematerials use archaeology to teach Montana studentshistorical and scientific inquiry with authenticarchaeological data. Crow tribal members, educators andarchaeologists collaborated to develop the educationalmaterials with Crow community members providing theenduring understandings, or main concepts, for thematerials. This paper will discuss the learning outcomesof the Crow students who piloted the materials, and theconnections they make between the archaeologicalrecord and their own lives.Alexander, Elise (AMNH and CUNY Graduate Center)[131] Postclassic Jalieza: a hillside settlement in theValley of Oaxaca, MexicoThis report presents preliminary results from a programof systematic survey, including topographic mapping andcontrolled, intensive surface collecting, at the Postclassiccomponent of Jalieza. This single phase settlement wasinhabited after the decline of the Monte Alban-basedZapotec state, but before the Late Postclassiccacicazgos documented in the codices, thus offering auseful window into an understudied time period. Theresearch design focuses primarily on householdcomposition and site layout. A preliminary assessment ofthe ceramic assemblage explores features that may helpdefine an early Period V/ Liobaa occupation, furtherrefining the ceramic sequence for the Valley of Oaxaca.Alexander, Rani (New Mexico State University) [200]First ChairAlexander, Rani [200] see Kepecs, SusanAlix, Claire (CNRS UMR9096 / Université de Paris 1Sorbonne), Nancy Bigelow (University of AlaskaFairbanks) and Laura Crawford (University of AlaskaFairbanks)[159] The importance of wood for Thule settlement atCape Espenberg, Northwest AlaskaAs in many western Arctic sites, wood remains areabundant at the large Thule settlement of CapeEspenberg. Structural elements, artifacts and charcoalare found in all four houses excavated by amultidisciplinary research team since 2009. In this paper,we present preliminary results of a multi-tiered approachto analyze the availability and use of wood at the varioustimes the houses were occupied between AD 1100-1700.Systematic analysis of archaeological remains coupledwith tree-ring analysis of modern and sub-moderndriftwood are performed to explore the relationship (ifany) between climate, wood availability, settlementpatterns and construction practices.Alix, Claire [25] see Elliott, Michelle [25] see Crawford,Laura J.; [25] First Chair [25] Second OrganizerAllen, Casey [134] see Cerveny, Niccole V.Allen, Jennie [105] see Whistler, Emily L.Allen, Josh (University of Idaho) and JamieCapawana (University of Idaho)[175] Excavating Inequality: The Archaeology of WorldWar II Japanese Internment in Northern Idaho (1943-1945)On February 19, 1942, over 120,000 individuals ofJapanese heritage were forced to leave the comfort andsolace of their homes and communities and relocate tointernment camps spread throughout some of theharshest locales in the Western United States. Over thepast fifteen years, archaeologists have excavatedinternment camps to help draw attention to the history ofthe United States' imprisonment of Japanese Americans.This paper outlines archaeological studies and publicoutreach taking place at Northern Idaho's KooskiaInternment Camp and considers how this research cancontribute to historical and archaeological knowledge ofthe broader internee experience.Allen, Kathleen M. (University of Pittsburgh), andSandra Katz (University of Pittsburgh)[55] Iroquoian Settlements in Central New York State inthe Sixteenth Century: A Case Study of Intra- and IntersiteDiversityIroquoian settlement studies have shifted away fromnormative views of similar large villages on thelandscape to more dynamic approaches that focusattention on the diversity of site types present. Largevillages, hamlets, camps, and a multitude of specialpurpose sites have been identified. Comparisonsbetween these sites have led to greater understanding ofthe range of activities carried out at any one time and theways in which Iroquoian populations responded tochallenges in the political, social and physicalenvironment. Investigations at two settlements in theAllegheny Uplands of central New York have focused onrecovering settlement pattern information. Comparisonsof site sizes, structure diversity, and the types andamounts of cultural material show patterning supportingvariability both within and between the sites in theintensity of occupation and the emphasis on specificactivities. The implications of this research forunderstanding settlement variability and improving datarecovery techniques to allow for more detailedcomparative studies are discussed.Allen, Kathleen [164] see Katz, SandraAllen, Mark (California State Polytechnic University,Pomona)[48] California: A Land of ViolenceArchaeologists now commonly consider the role ofwarfare in the past, with the notable exception of lesscomplex hunter-gatherer societies. Lacking fortifications,mass casualties in cemeteries, or specialized weapons,they are often assumed to have been essentiallypeaceful. California demonstrates this tendency well.There have been numerous investigations of warfare incultures characterized by sedentism, hierarchy, and other

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 31rappings of complexity; but few examples from othergeographic areas or earlier periods. Nonetheless, thereis evidence for a wide range of violence and warthroughout California‘s pre-European past. This diverseland of plenty was nevertheless very much a land ofviolence.Allen, Melinda (University of Auckland) [261]DiscussantAllen, Susan (University of Cincinnati) and GjipaliIlirian (Centre for Albanaological Studies, Albania)[169] Wetlands and the Transition to Agriculture inEurope: The 2010 Southern Albania NeolithicArchaeological Project (SANAP) Excavation at Vashtëmi,AlbaniaThe Southern Albania Neolithic Archaeological Project‘s(SANAP) 2010 excavation at the site of Vashtëmi,Albania sheds light on the transition to agriculture insouthern Europe. The first systematically recoveredassemblages of plant and animal remains from an openairEarly Neolithic (EN) site in Albania provide the firstglimpse of the environmental conditions that earlyfarmers had to negotiate in this former wetland settingand the choices in land management that they made.Radiocarbon dates from the site place its earliestoccupation in the mid-seventh millennium B.C.,contemporary with EN sites in Greece, to its south.Almer, Jon [220] see Friedman, Elizabeth S.Alonso, Alejandra [221] see Ardren, TraciAlonzi, Elise (University of Notre Dame), MarkSchurr (University of Notre Dame), Cheryl AnnMunson (Indiana University) and Susan Spencer(Indiana University)[35] Stable Carbon-Isotopes and Maize Consumption inCaborn-Welborn VillagesThe Caborn-Welborn phase in southwestern Indianaencompasses a protohistoric culture likely arising aftercollapse of the Angel Chiefdom around A.D. 1500.Caborn-Welborn sites were arranged in a hierarchy fromlarge villages, to small villages, through hamlets and tofarmsteads. Studies of human carbon stable isotoperatios from the Slack Farm site, a large Caborn-Welbornvillage, indicate that maize consumption was highlyvariable at this large site. Stable carbon -isotope ratiosfrom human burials from the villages of Hovey Lake andMurphy are used to assess intra- and inter-communitydietary variation within the Caborn-Welborn phase.Alt, Susan (Indiana University Bloomington)[229] Persons, Places, Things: Hybrid Moments and theProcesses of ChangeCulture contact studies usually focus on dramaticsituations such as conquest and colonization. Suchstudies have driven the development of diversetheoretical tools. But, as I will argue, the same processesentailed in dramatic contact situations are present in lessfraught encounters, and operate even under lessdramatic circumstances. Using examples from theCahokia region I will discuss the utility of deployinginsights from culture contact studies in explicating socialand political change when contact relates to migration. Ialso suggest that encounters with difference are notlimited to persons; things and places can engender thesame kinds of processes.Altschul, Jeffrey (Statistical Research, Inc./SRIFoundation), Richard Ciolek-Torrello (StatisticalResearch, Inc.) and Donn Grenda (StatisticalResearch, Inc.)[151] Long Term Research in the Ballona Wetlands ofwest Los Angeles, CaliforniaSince 1989, the historic Ballona Lagoon in and aroundMarina del Rey, California has been the focus of intensearchaeological, paleoenvironmental, ethnohistorical, andhistorical research. Various compliance-driven projectshave been performed under a research design umbrellathat focused on human adaptation to a dynamic coastalwetland environment. This paper outlines the researchdesign and highlights the salient results of the project.[118] DiscussantAlvarado, Jennifer [111] see VanDerwarker, Amber M.Alvarez, Damian (INAH-Teotihuacan), CristinaDesentis (Universidad de las Américas, Puebla)and Yuko Koga (Aichi Prefectural University)[224] Social Behaviors related to the ArchaeologicalIdentification of Metate-production from the Quarry to theDomestic Workshop: An Ethnoarchaeological Study fromPuebla, MexicoThe identification of different kinds of workshops hasrevealed a great potential for addressing issues oneconomic and social organization at different levels ofanalysis. Nevertheless, the recognition of the reductionsequence at both quarries and domestic workshops ofground-stone implements (such as metates) hasreceived little attention. Here we present some of thesocial behaviors that affect the formation processes andhence the identification of these activities, based on anethnoarchaeological research in Puebla, Mexico.Alvarez, María [177] see Gutierrez, Maria A.Amadio, Ayla (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale) and Meadow Campbell (Southern IllinoisUniversity-Carbondale)[206] Formative Mesoamerican Canines: Companions,Spirit guides, and Ritual AnimalsThe presence of purposefully domesticated dogs withinarchaeological assemblages throughout Mesoamericahighlights their long-held cultural significance. Theadaptability of dogs may have contributed to theinfluence and use of this animal in various activities.Furthermore, the presence of dog iconography andceramic figurines highlights the multi-dimensionalimportance of this species in daily and ritual activity. Anexamination of the morphological and physiologicalvariation in three types of dogs is analyzed to determinetheir impact within Formative Mesoamerica. Results fromthis study contribute to an emerging pattern in humananimalrelationships throughout Mesoamerica.Amador, Julio (UNAM)[60] Spaces, themes and cultural functions within a rockartsite: La Proveedora in the Sonoran DesertRock art sites often have a complex internal structurereflecting different cultural functions. This paper seeks toidentify, inside the main Trincheras rock art site of

32ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGnorthwestern Sonora, namely La Proveedora-Cerro SanJosé, the association between different figures andthemes, each depicted in well defined spaces, and thedifferent functions assigned to those spaces. Severaldifferentiated spaces within the site are analyzed. Theanalysis provides evidence for spatial structure.Supported spatial and iconographic functions include theperformance of magic, warrior purification rituals, foodprocessing-fertility ritual propitiation, collective ritualactivities, and astronomic observations.Ambro, Richard D. [230] see Wells, HelenAmbrose, Stanley (U. Illinois, Urbana-Champaign),Marina Drigo (University of Illinois), Polly Weissner(University of Utah) and Philip Slater (University ofUtah)[12] Kalahari San ostrich eggshell stable isotopeanalysis: implications for reconstructing prehistoricexchange systemsOstrich eggshell beadwork was the most common giftamong Kalahari San foragers. Reciprocal gift-giving(xaro) networks among the !Kung spanned up to 200 km,opening rights of access to distant territories, therebyreducing risk in unpredictable environments. Carbon,oxygen and strontium isotope analysis of San beads fromfive regions were conduced to evaluate the potential ofthis technique for testing hypotheses of differences inprehistoric exchange network sizes in risky Pleistoceneversus stable Holocene environments. Our results showthat strontium isotope differ between regions andsometimes within necklaces. Carbon and oxygenisotopes distinguish beads made from different eggshellswithin regions.Ameri, Marta (Fashion Institute of Technology)[47] Seals, Sealing and Regional Identity in theHarappan WorldThe study of Harappan seals has long focused on theirrole as supports for the Indus script or on the possiblemythological scenes depicted on a few of the extantartifacts The function of the seals as administrativeobjects and as markers of identity has until recentlyreceived less attention. Accordingly, this paper utilizesthe art historical methodologies long used in the study ofAncient Near Eastern glyptic to examine the stylistic andiconographic attributes of seals from geographicallydistant sites in the Indus, analyzing the ways in whichseals functioned as markers of both personal andregional identity.[47] DiscussantAmes, Kenneth (Portland State University) [232]DiscussantAmore, Maria Grazia [27] see Galaty, Michael L.Anders, Jake (University of Alaska-Anchorage)[27] Rethinking upland "Places" in Aleutian ArchaeologyRecent research conducted on archaeological sites inupland areas of Adak Island provides a new avenue fordiscussion about the pre-contact people of the AleutianIslands. Past interpretations of Unangan populationswere based on settlement models placing the greatestvalue on coastal habitations and almost no importanceon upland areas, implicitly finding them devoid ofmeaning. The presence of upland concentrations ofsubstantial cultural depressions establishes that areasaway from large coastal habitations are significant.These upland sites force us to reconsider ourinterpretations of how ―place‖ was conceived by the precontactinhabitants of Adak Island.Anderson, Cheryl (University of Nevada, Las Vegas),Debra Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) andJennifer Thompson (University of Nevada, LasVegas)[235] Taphonomy and Cremation of Human Remainsfrom San Francisco de BorjaSan Francisco de Borja is a cave-shelter burial sitelocated in Chihuahua, Mexico, that was excavated in the1950s by Richard and Sheilagh Brooks and is nowcurated at UNLV. Human remains collected from thiscave site include male, female and juvenile individualsdating from the historic-contact period. This projectdocuments and analyzes the wide range of taphonomicprocesses that have affected these remains. Theseprocesses include perimortem chop marks, surfacebleaching and burning. Based on these observations,violence and partial cremation of some individuals issuggested.Anderson, David (Tulane University)[14] Cultural Identity Issues: Life in the PreclassicNorthern Maya LowlandsThe recent boom in known Preclassic sites in theNorthern Maya Lowlands has raised questions aboutmany aspects of Maya cultural development, includingthe relationship between the North and the SouthernMaya ―heartland.‖ We need to ask how theseNortherners viewed themselves and their relationshipwith the heartland. Did the Northern Maya seethemselves as peers to the Southerners? Did they viewthe South as a role model, or as an annoyingly moresuccessful sibling? Using newly reported data fromacross the region, these identity issues will be exploredin an attempt to understand and contextualize NorthernMaya Preclassic culture.Anderson, David (University of Tennessee) [84]DiscussantAnderson, David G. [216] see Yerka, Stephen J.Anderson, Derek (SCIAA and the University ofArizona ), D. Shane Miller (University of Arizona)and William Haas (University of Arizona)[155] Reconceptualizing Clovis Mobility: Sites andProjectile Point Distributions in North AmericaArchaeologists typically conceptualize prehistoricpopulations along a theoretical continuum betweenextremes of sedentism and mobility. We use the conceptof spatial autocorrelation to re-conceptualize residentialmobility along a tripartite gradient ranging betweenclustered, random, and dispersed. This slightmodification allows us to interpret spatial and temporalvariation in Clovis artifact distributions from thePaleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA). We findthat the rank-size plots of projectile point counts bycounty tend to follow Zipf distributions, but variation in theexponents (log-log slopes) suggest varying degrees ofmobility across time and space.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 33Anderson, Kirk (Museum of Northern Arizona,Flagstaff) and Ted Neff (Museum of NorthernArizona)[20] ―Out of site‖ formation processes, geoarchaeology,and the archaeological record of Grand Canyon, ArizonaRecent NPS/MNA sponsored excavations in GrandCanyon integrate site formation processes intoarchaeological interpretations of past human behavior.Investigations of natural ―site formation processes‖(paleofloods, distal debris fan activity, colluviation,ponding, eolian activity) properly re-focuses geomorphicresearch onto sites and the surrounding landscape,allowing researchers to arrive at reasonableinterpretations of cultural history and landscape changesinterpreted through the filter of geoarchaeology. Newdata and interpretations include paleoflood influences onPueblo II settlement patterns, use of original layout ofexhumed agricultural hamlets to evaluate loss to erosion,and Holocene chronostratigraphy to reconstructlandscapes during early farmstead habitations.Anderson, Kirk [99] see Elson, Mark D.Anderson, Lars E. [17] see Lemke, Ashley K.Anderson, Meredith [259] see Thomas, Ben S.Anderson, Patricia (CNRS, Nice, France) [59]DiscussantAnderson, Shelby (University of Washington),Adam Freeburg (University of Washington) andJames Jordan (Antioch University New England)[263] Understanding 5,000 years of Human-Environmental Dynamics at Cape Krusenstern, AlaskaThe Cape Krusenstern beach ridge complex of northwestAlaska is a unique landscape ideally suited for study ofhuman-environmental dynamics during the last 5,000years. Environmental changes and cycles of coastalstorminess are recorded across the 3,642 hectare ridgecomplex, which preserves the most extensive evidenceof Late Holocene coastal occupation in the NorthAmerican Arctic. Paleoenvironmental fluctuations alteredresource availability and habitability of this landscape bycoastal peoples who adapted in part through changes insettlement, subsistence and technology. Study of highresolution paleoenvironmental and archaeologicalrecords at Cape Krusenstern informs explanations ofmaritime hunter-gatherer evolution in the North andbeyond.Anderson, Shelby [159] see Freeburg, Adam K.Andersson, Anna-Karin[195] The archaeology of 19th century– is it worth theeffort?In Sweden there is increasing interest in the archaeologyof 19th century crofts. However, since mostarchaeologists are convinced that necessary facts can begained from historical documents, they are not inclined toexcavate. Ignoring the role of archaeology in the study of19th century remains will however influence what storiesof the past that are told today and will be told tomorrow.That raises questions of which type of the culturalheritage that should be preserved and who are to decide.Indeed, those kinds of decisions will influence both thesociety and individuals and needs to be addressed.Andolina, Darren (University of California, Davis)and Rebecca Gilbert (University of California, Davis)[57] Steatite Sourcing: Results from Multiple SourceLocations in CaliforniaHistorically steatite has proven a difficult material to geochemicallysource. However, recent attempts tocharacterize steatite sources using INAA and LA-ICP-MShave shown promise. Our paper will present the resultsof the chemical analysis of multiple steatite sourcescollected from several regions of California including theSierra Nevada Mountains, Inyo Mountains, and SouthernCalifornia. These analyses were successful indistinguishing between steatite from these regionsindicating the potential for answering questions relatedtrade and exchange through time.Andrade, Agustín [95] see Ibarra, julio C.Andre, Clarissa [109] see Skinner, AnneAndrefsky, William (Washington State University)[22] Comparing Flake Tool Efficiency or What Won‘tWhittle Wood?In past several decades lithic technological studies havesometimes linked unretouched flake tools to aspects oftechnological expediency. Recent investigations fromseveral parts of the world suggest that unretouched toolsmay have been more effective in performing varioustasks than retouched tools. This paper exploresefficiency of retouched and unretouched flake tools fromreplicated and excavated assemblages. Results showunretouched flake tools are more efficient than retouchedtools for certain tasks and that expediency of productionmay not be the primary reason for their use. Instead,these were the preferred tools when tool-stoneabundance allowed for their production.[59] see Vardi, Jacob; [78] First Moderator; [160] seeFerris, Jennifer M.; [257] DiscussantAndres, Christopher (Indiana University - PurdueUniversity Fort Wayne), Jason J. Gonzalez(University of Georgia) and Shawn Morton(University of Calgary)[9] Architecture and Community Patterns at Tipan ChenUitz, Cayo District, BelizeIn this paper, we discuss the results of our first season ofinvestigations in the monumental precinct of the largeand recently reported pre-Hispanic Maya center of TipanChen Uitz. In contrast with patterns identified in otherparts of Belize, our 2010 excavations and mappingactivities suggest that Tipan was founded late and mostlikely experienced a relatively short large-scaleoccupation. In this presentation, issues of architecturalform, function, chronology, and access to space areconsidered in an effort to better define Late-to-TerminalClassic period sociopolitical developments in this part ofthe southern Maya Lowlands.Andres, Christopher [266] see Morton, Shawn G.Andrews, Anthony (New College of Florida) [221]Discussant

34ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGAndrews, Bradford [190] see Johnson, Laura E.Andrews, E. Wyllys (Tulane University) [225]DiscussantAndrieu, Chloé (Université Paris X Nanterre) andKazuo Aoyama (Ibaraki University)[116] Lithic Production and Distribution in the MayaLowlands: Implications for Centralized vs. DecentralizedEconomic PowerAbsence of workshops and other evidence are usuallycited to argue for minimal elite involvement in economyand craft production. Yet recent detailed technologicalanalyses of lithic special deposits, royal burials, and rawmaterial management reveal more complexity thantraditional opposition of ―centralized‖ vs. ―decentralized‖economy. Also specific lithic materials and distributions insome sites have very segmented production chains,perhaps suggesting central coordination. Yet other Mayasites have a completely different pattern. Here we brieflyreport new extensive analyses of lithic patterns atCancuen, Copan, Calakmul and other sites in terms of―control‖, variability, and change.[116] Second OrganizerAndrushko, Valerie (Southern Connecticut StateUniversity)[233] Skeletal Evidence for Inca Warfare from Cuzco,PeruThe osteological evidence for Inca warfare is addressedthrough the analysis of burials from 11 sites in the Cuzcoregion of Peru. In the Inca Imperial Period (AD 1400–1532), 18 individuals had warfare-related injuries to thecranium (8.2%, 18/219), consisting of large, complete,and/or perimortem fractures. This frequency was asignificant rise from earlier time periods, when warfarerelatedinjuries were scarce (Middle Horizon, AD 600–1000, 2.8%, 1/36; Late Intermediate Period, AD 1000–1400, 2.5%, 5/199). These injuries were commonly seenat some Inca sites and absent at others, revealingsignificant geographical differences in the prevalence ofwarfare-related activities.Angelbeck, Bill (Independent)[232] An ―Indirect Historical Approach‖ to CulturalChange: Considering Shifts in Societal Tensionsthroughout the Coast Salish PastThe Direct Historical Approach has been used tounderstand past societies by extending ethnographicallyknown practices to archaeological patterns. Theapproach has had success in regions of temporalcontinuity, but less so in areas marked by discontinuity,such as Euroamerican contact with the Northwest Coast.Discontinuities are not limits to understanding, however,but can be lenses for insights by revealing how societaltensions manifest and reorganize. Building uponProudhon's characterization of society as not amonolithic whole but as a bundle of tensions, I apply an"indirect historical approach" to gauge changes insocietal frictions throughout the Coast Salish past.Angelo, Diana [87] see Riggs, JohnAngeloff, Nick (Bear River Band of RohnervilleRancheria)[239] California Humboldt Subsistence SettlementThe Borax Lake Pattern within far northern California isthought to represent a generalized technologicalorganization representing an upland foragingsubsistence-settlement strategy with little variationbetween archaeological assemblages throughout theregion. Current research has focused on this variation, asminimal as it may appear, to flesh out our understandingof human behavior during the early Holocene, revealingvariability in technological organization in response toecological conditions that is relevant to ourunderstanding of the Borax Lake Pattern.Anovitz, Lawrence (Oak Ridge National Laboratory),Mostafa Fayek (University of Manitoba), David Cole(Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Tristan Carter(McMaster University)[97] Analysis of Obsidian Hydration: The Current State ofthe ArtIn 1997 Anovitz et al. reported to the SAA the results ofour initial attempts to understand the process of obsidianhydration using Secondary Ion mass Spectroscopy(SIMS) to directly analyze the concentration of water as afunction of depth in archaeologically-hydrated obsidian,showing that the technique‘s primary difficulty to thatpoint was the inherent imprecision and inaccuracy ofoptical measurement. Subsequent analysis of bothexperimental and archaeological samples (Mexico andTurkey) has elucidated hydration mechanisms, shownthat high-precision extrinsic dating is possible, andprovided a new method for determining paleoclimaticdata.Anschuetz, Kurt [53] see Trigg, Heather B.Antônio Dantas DeBlasis, Paulo [253] see Bianchini,Gina F.Aoyama, Kazuo (Ibaraki University)[225] Preclassic and Classic Maya Lithic Artifacts fromCeibal and Its Neighboring Sites, GuatemalaThis paper discusses the results of an analysis of morethan 40,000 lithic artifacts collected in and around Ceibal,Guatemala, and studied between 2005 and 2011. Theselithic artifacts pertain to the Middle Preclassic through theTerminal Classic period and can serve as sensitiveindicators for reconstructing one aspect of long-termchanging patterns of the pre-Columbian Mayasociopolitical and economic systems in the study region.The results of my study suggest that importation ofobsidian blade cores from highland Guatemala and localproduction of prismatic blades began during the MiddlePreclassic period as the result of sociopoliticaldevelopment at Ceibal.[116] see Andrieu, Chloé; [93] see Izeki, MutsumiApple, Rebecca [50] see Gibson, HeatherAprile, Jamie (The University of Texas at Austin)[4] The Lofkënd Survey Project: A Small IntensiveSurvey in the Gjanica River Valley in Central AlbaniaIn 2007-2008, a small intensive surface survey wasundertaken in the Gjanica River valley in central Albania.The purpose of the project was to explore thearchaeological remains in the vicinity of a recentlyexcavated Late Bronze-Early Iron Age tumulus near thevillage of Lofkënd, Albania in order to situate it in the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 35landscape and determine if a contemporaneoussettlement was located nearby. Preliminary results revealan open-air Palaeolithic occupation as well as a numberof small Hellenistic/Late Roman period sites. Recenthistorical ruins were also documented througharchaeological observations, Communist period maps,and interviews with local residents.Aquino, Valorie (University of New Mexico), KeithPrufer (University of New Mexico) and DouglasKennett (University of Oregon)[34] Using Bayesian Statistics to Refine ChronologyBuilding at UxbenkaWith over 100 high precision AMS 14c dates, Uxbenká isone of the more tightly dated sites in the Maya lowlandsusing absolute techniques. We present a precise AMS14C chronology, anchored on well-defined stratigraphicrelationships between carbonized samples and culturaldeposits. A Bayesian framework is used to interpret AMS14C data from two groups in the site core and severalsettlements. By combining non-quantitative informationwith probability distributions, we discuss how theserefined methods for chronology-building are shaping ourunderstanding of the growth and decline of a Maya polity.Arakawa, Fumiyasu (Crow Canyon ArchaeologicalCenter) and Jamie Merewether (Crow CanyonArchaeological Center)[117] Evaluating Chaco Influences in the Central MesaVerde Region Using Material Culture during the Chacoand Post-Chaco PeriodsArchaeologists have assumed that the frequency ofinteraction and trade between the people of the MesaVerde region and those outside the region changed froman open, frequent interaction during the ChacoPhenomenon (AD 1060–1140) to a very limitedexchange in the Post-Chaco period. To investigate this,we looked at ―trade‖ items found in Chaco and Post-Chaco deposits in the Mesa Verde, Totah, and Chacoregions. The data should support the assumption aboutfrequent trade during the Chaco period or, alternatively,suggest that the Mesa Verde people were isolated,maintaining their own traditions from A.D. 1060 to 1280.Arakelyan, Dmitri [114] see Egeland, Charles P.Araujo, Astolfo (Museum of Archaeology andEthnology - USP)[231] Paleoindians in Southeastern Brazil: New Datafrom Rio Claro and Lagoa SantaRio Claro and Lagoa Santa are two areas inSoutheastern Brazil that have been subject to studiesregarding Paleoindian occupations in South America,and new archaeological data concerning both regions arenow available. These data, coupled withpaleoenvironmental and chronological information, pointto a complex scenario that should be taken intoconsideration when discussing the peopling of theAmericas.Araujo, Astolfo [6] see Okumura, MercedesArchila Montanez, Sonia (Los Andes University)and Inés Cavelier (Independent Researcher)[25] Wood use as fuel for pottery production in theColombian Andean highlandsThis paper present results from a research projectcarried out in the Andean highlands of Colombia whichmain purpose was to reconstruct the history of wood useas fuel for the pottery production since prehispanic times.In this paper we compare different fuel resources usedfor ceramic manufacturing in three moments:prehispanic, colonial and recent times. Severalmethodological strategies were carried out during theproject. The project uses data from ethnoarchaeologicalresearch (fuel use) and charcoal analysis fromarchaeological middens. It will be discussed the value ofthese methodological strategies to understand pasthuman relationships to their wood resources.Ardren, Traci (University of Miami), FernandoGodos (Universidad de Colima, México), AlejandraAlonso (University of Calgary/Instituto Nacional deAntropologia e Historia), Eric Stockdell (IndianaUniversity) and T. Kam Manahan (Kent StateUniversity)[221] The architectural and archaeological transition fromLate Classic to Terminal Classic at Xuenkal, Yucatan,MexicoRecent excavations at the site of Xuenkal, Yucatan,demonstrate a long occupational sequence andarchitectural record, starting in the Late Preclassic. Themost dramatic changes to this sequence are found in thetransition from Late Classic to Terminal Classic periods.Occupants at the site participated in a regional traditionof core-veneer architecture during the Late Classicperiod, while during the Terminal Classic even elitearchitecture is constructed of reutilized materialsconstructed in a haphazard manner. Analyzed in concertwith the artifactual transition, these architectural changescan be understood to reflect changes in the sociopoliticalorganization and economy of the region.Ardren, Traci [14] see Lowry, Justin P.Areshian, Gregory (University of California) andBoris Gasparian (Institute of Archaeology andEthnography of the National Academy of Sciences ofArmenia)[114] Patterns Of Cave Occupation During The Pre-Subboreal Holocene Of The Caucasus And Central NearEastern HighlandsPost-Paleolithic cave occupation is little studiedphenomenon in the Caucasus. From the Epipaleolithic tothe formation of Maikop assemblages of the fourthmillennium BCE caves were used in some areas ashabitations of hunter-gatherers transitioning to foodproducingeconomies. Recent discoveries in Armeniasuggest substantial variability in the Neolithic transition.Pre-pottery Neolithic cave site of Kmlo co-existed withagricultural open-air settlements. Discoveries at Areni-1demonstrate that the growth of societal complexity duringthe Chalcolithic (fifth millennium BCE) led to aspecialized usage of caves as ritual spaces bycommunities of farmers occupying open-air settlements.Argent, Gala (University of Leicester)[260] Tattoos, Transcendence and Time: Humans,Horses and Cosmology in the Pazyryk WorldExcavations of the Pazyryk archaeological culture of IronAge Inner Asia have yielded not only a wealth of artifactsbut also, due to preservation in permafrost, actual bodies

36ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGand clothing of the humans buried—and their horses. Inthis presentation I use a relational and phenomenologicalapproach to human-horse interactions to argue that thetattoos found on many of the human bodies have beenmisidentified as theriomorphs, and instead representactual horses. I further discuss how these horses etchedupon human skin reflect cosmological values and thepassing of time for the Pazyryk people.Arguello Garcia, Pedro Maria (University ofPittsburgh)[260] Rock art and domestic ritual. A locational analysisof El Colegio petroglyphs, center of Colombia.The analysis of the distribution of both petroglyphs andhouseholds in El Colegio has permitted to evaluate somehypothesis about the rituality of rock art. In Colombia,rock art has generally been considered as a part of avery special ritual behavior, differentiated from thedomestic sphere. Such explanations are the result of theconsideration of rock art isolated from otherarchaeological objects and as a primary source ofsymbolic information. On the contrary, an archaeologicalattempt using several lines of evidence at different scaleshas provided a different picture in which rock art seemsmore related to domestic activities.Ariel, Frank [59] see Castro, Alicia S.Arksey, Marieka (British Museum) and PatrickWilkinson (University of Arkansas)[208] Constructing Histories in Sixteenth CenturyMesoamerica: Landscape, Resistance, and IdentityThis poster explores the concept of landscape as beingfundamental to the creation and maintenance of anindigenous historical identity which was able to persistthroughout the early colonial period in WesternMesoamerica. The lack of ‗true writing‘, as understood bythe Europeans, meant that the indigenous writingsystems were discounted. Different concepts oflandscape, as evidenced within codices and maps,meant that their importance to the creation of indigenouspeoples‘ identities went unrecognized. Understanding theroles that such concepts can offer conflict studiesprovides a fresh perspective on the ability of such studiesto identify the indigenous perspective.Arksey, Marieka [124] see Wilkinson, PatrickArkush, Elizabeth [233] see Velasco, Matthew C.Arnett, Christopher[96] Evidence of Ritual Activity at an Nlaka'pamux RockArt Landscape through an Analysis of Lithic Debitageand Glass ShatterAnalysis of lithic debitage and glass shatter recoveredfrom an Nlaka‘pamux rock art landscape (site EbRk-2) onthe Stein River, British Columbia, shows consistency ofsize in debitage and shatter and absence of cores andfinished tools. Preliminary interpretations are that thisassemblage represents the latter stages of bifacereduction in the manufacture of lithic and glass tools notnecessarily associated with the processing of game.Rather, it is suggested that the assemblage representstool making associated with ritual activity at the site byshwoonA-m (―Indian doctors‖) in the 19th century andpossibly earlierArnold, Dean (Wheaton College (IL)), Bruce Bohor(US Geological Survey, retired), Hector Neff(California State University Long Beach), GaryFeinman (Field Museum of Natural History) andRyan Williams (Field Museum of Natural History)[142] Indigenous Knowledge and the Sources ofPalygorskite used in Maya BlueMaya Blue was created from indigo and palygorskite,both part of Yucatec Maya indigenous knowledge. In the1960's, Arnold and Bohor hypothesized that thepalygorskite in Maya Blue came from two modernsources of the mineral. To test this hypothesis, weanalyzed 154 samples of palygorskite using LA-ICP-MS,and compared them with the analyses of Maya Blue (N =9) from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. The palygorskite inthese samples came from the two modern sources. Thisapproach to Maya Blue demonstrates the value ofcombining indigenous knowledge, ethnohistory,archaeology, and the techniques of the physical sciencesto answer archaeological questions.[85] DiscussantArnold, Jeanne (UCLA), Eric Fries (UCLA), LanaMartin (UCLA) and Stephanie Salwen (UCLA)[123] From Paleoclimate to Ancient Production Systems:Current Channel Islands ResearchArchaeological investigations into hydrological history,plant communities, exploitation of hydrocarbons, andsocial contexts of bead-making on the northern ChannelIslands yield results that invite comparison to modernissues. Studies of climate and paleobotanicalassemblages provide insights into the consequences ofdrought for Chumash settlement, health, plant harvests,and risk management–all germane to contemporaryclimate and food production issues. Major asphaltumseeps facilitated a transportation revolution a millenniumago (plank-boat construction); as today, petroleumproducts were noxious but prized resources. Studies ofspecialized bead-making communities of practicegenerate insights into apprenticing and the culturaltransmission of technological information.Arnold, Shannon (University of Utah)[91] Estimated Population Density and Potential CropYields in Range Creek Canyon, UtahThis study concentrates on estimating the populationdensity of Range Creek Canyon, Utah, during the shortFremont occupation of the valley floor, approximatelyA.D. 900-1100. Two estimates will be made. First, thesize and number of residential surface structures locatedon the valley floor will be used to estimate the maximumnumber of individuals living in the canyon. The secondmeasure will examine the arable lands on the valley floorusing area, slope, and distance to water to create a scaleof agricultural potential under ideal growing conditions.The results will be developed through further excavationof suspected residential structures in the canyon, thecollection of additional radio carbon dates, and isotopicanalysis of potentially farmable areas identified in thisstudy.Arnold, William (College of Wooster)[27] Running Around and Settling Down: CulturalInteractions and Identity along the Germanic Borderduring the Migration Period

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 37In recent centuries, the existence of a politically unifiedGermany has caused people to question whether there isa unified German identity. Through all of recordedhistory, the region now known as Germany housed afractured and disparate people only loosely connectedwith one another. The present study will examine theGermanic peoples living in the area during the MigrationPeriod (A.D. 400-600) and the early Middle Ages (A.D.600-800), paying special attention to material culture andextant Old High German texts, in an attempt to define theinfluences of indigenous ideologies on these peoples‘sense of identity.Arpaia, Angela (University of California, Davis) andCarly Whelan (University of California, Davis)[62] Basalt Sourcing for Seirra Nevada FoothillsX-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been usedsuccessfully to trace the geological sources of obsidianartifacts by comparing their chemical signatures with adatabase of known source locations. The results ofobsidian sourcing analysis can be used to reconstructprehistoric mobility and trade patterns. Basalt sourcinganalysis has the potential to reveal similar kinds ofinformation about prehistoric people who relied on basaltin addition to, or instead of obsidian. I will present theresults of XRF sourcing analysis undertaken on basaltsources and artifacts excavated from several prehistoricsites in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California.Arrizabalaga, Alvaro (The University of the BasqueCountry) and María-José Iriarte (The University of theBasque Country)[218] Identifying the Signs: The Middle-UpperPalaeolithic Transition in Southwest Europe from theperspective of the lithic recordThe lithic record, together with archaeozoologicalremains, makes up the most abundant assemblages atEuropean Palaeolithic sites. During many decades in thetwentieth century, the classical typological analysis (theBordesian paradigm) has been used to articulate thesequencing of the different cultural and chronostratigraphicunits. At the same time, since the 1960s analternative methodology known as Analytical Typology,proposed by Georges Laplace, has been available.Arroyo, Barbara (Museo Popol Vuh UFM Guate)[182] The Plaza Space in the Maya Highland MiddlePreclassicThe study of Preclassic architecture has been animportant subject in the Maya Lowlands. Little is knownfrom the Maya highlands. This paper will presentinformation on plazas identified in the highlands ofSoutheastern Mesoamerica during the Middle Preclassic.The core information comes from recent work at Naranjoin highland Guatemala, yielding data on the arrangementof the site‘s Middle Preclassic site layout. The role of theplaza at the site has showed the importance of this ritualspace. Information on the role of the plaza at Naranjo willbe presented, showing the integration of its landscape aspart of the site composition. The presence of three rowsof monuments associated to the plaza, contributes todemonstrate the ritual use of such space. Comparisonswith contemporary sites will be presented to place thisarchitectural practice in perspective.Arsenault, Daniel (CELAT-UQAM, Montreal, Quebec)[60] ―It‘s a bird… it‘s a plane… no, it‘s a memekweshuat!‖Interpreting some peculiar figures in the Canadian Shieldrock art.In the Canadian Shield rock art the human body isusually depicted with a minimum of details (no facialfeatures, hands, feets) showing therefore a schematicfigure with only basic traits (head, trunk, arms legs).However there are examples of human-like figureswhose body features are more detailed. I argue thatsome of them could be interpreted as the representationof a peculiar species, the memekweshuat. Since thereare tales in Algonquian oral traditions or ethnohistoricalaccounts describing them, these data can be used todiscuss how and why such personages are representedin the rock art sites located in Québec.Artz, Joe (University of Iowa)[234] The Architecture of Ritual: the Creation of a Rock-Cut Tomb at Bolores, Torres Vedras, PortugalSome 4,800 years ago, people chose a sandstoneoutcrop overlooking the Rio Sizandro as a burial place forthe dead. The outcrop, a Jurassic deltaic stream channel,is conspicuous in the locality. The people carved anarched, sloped-ceiling rock shelter into the soft, easilyworked sandstone, and excavated its floor into shaleunderlying the sandstone. During its two millennia of use,this ritual space was modified by further excavation intothe shale, and by the slab construction of smallchambers. Through microstratigraphic and geospatialanalyses we are identifying and modeling the differentphases in the site‘s architectural history.[234] see Thies, Meagan E.Asa, Cheryl [126] see Marshall, Fiona B.Asbury, Sophia (Washington State University)[257] Testing the Limits of Rim Sherd MeasurementArchaeological investigations utilizing ceramic materialsare often handicapped by fragmentation in ceramicassemblages. This study seeks to determine theoperational limits on the use of rim sherds to extrapolateorifice size. The correlation between orifice diameter andvessel size makes rim sherds particularly useful,however the researcher‘s ability to accurately projectvessel diameter from a rim sherd may be impacted bysherd size. The percentage of the total circumference (ordegree of arc) that is needed in order to obtain accuratediameter projections is tested. Additionally, given theobjective nature of this measure, replicability betweenresearchers will also be addressed.Ashkanani, Hasan (University of South Florida) andRobert Tykot (University of South Florida)[63] Using non-destructive XRF analysis for sourcing ofbronze age ceramics from Kuwait and BahrainCeramics from Kuwait and Bahrain were analyzed toaddress trade and exchange in the Bronze Age, the firstsuch scientific study in the Persian Gulf. The statisticallysignificant number of ceramic samples used in thisanalysis were collected from the early second millenniumBC sites of F6 (known as a Governor Palace) and Al-Khidr in Kuwait, and from Dilmun temple, known asBarbar, in Bahrain. The ceramics were analysed using anon-destructive, portable X-ray fluorescencespectrometer (pXRF). The quantitative data producedwere used to examine the variation in both of the

38ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGceramics‘ components by examining their trace elementcompositionAshley, Michael (University of California, Berkeley),Cinzia Perlingieri (University of California, Berkeley)and Ruth Tringham (University of California,Berkeley)[3] CoDiFi:CoDiFi is an application developed for and byarchaeologists to make the process of managing,processing and publishing archaeological data andmedia radically simple. Through the example of the peerreviewedmonograph by the Berkeley Archaeologists atÇatalhöyük, we take you behind the scenes anddemonstrate how CoDiFi makes it easy to create areusable, citable and durable digital archaeologicalrecord. CoDiFi is equally useful for new projects andmassive legacy datasets. Starting from simplespreadsheets or complex databases, CoDiFi provides acustomizable workflow that is standards based, aimed atfacilitating all steps involved in archaeologicalpublication.Astuhuaman, Cesar (Universidad Nacional Mayor deSan Marcos)[15] The Inca network of provincial centers and roadswithin the Highlands of Piura, Northern PeruThe aim of this paper is propose some interpretationsabout the Inca presence within the Highlands of Piura,Far Northern Peru. First, I describe the archaeologicalevidence of the Late Intermediate Period within thePiuran highlands to try understanding the subsequentInca presence there. Next, I explain the theoreticalapproach about imperial institutions to try linkingarchitectural remains and Inca institutions. In the centralpart of this paper, I describe the record of four Incaprovincial centers and roads through tables, plans andmaps. This record allows elaborating severalinterpretations about the Inca rule within the analyzedregion.Atalay, Sonya (Indiana University)[197] Engaging Archaeology: Positivism, objectivity andrigor in activist archaeology―Any attempt to make the case for activist scholarshipruns directly up against objections, encapsulated in threepowerful words: positivism, objectivity and rigor.‖ In hisedited volume on activist scholarship, Charles Hale asksscholars to consider these three common objections toactivist research. This paper critically assesses theseobjections in relation to activist archaeology. I considerthe feasibility of engaging in activist research while stillmaintaining a level of objectivity and rigor. Must wesacrifice objectivity and rigor in doing activistarchaeology? If so, what are the implications forarchaeologists who are committed to applied and actionorientedresearch?[78] DiscussantAthens, J.[73] Archaeology of Northern Highland Ecuador Beforethe Inka: Chronology and Processual ImplicationsA synthesis of archaeological and paleoenvironmentalfindings provides the foundation for a chronology of thepre-Inka archaeology of the highland region of northernPichincha and Imbabura Provinces of Ecuador. Evidencefor a preceramic occupation is unclear, but beginningwith the introduction of maize agriculture, the naturalinter-Andean landscape was transformed into an entirelymanaged anthropogenic ecosystem. It culminated in therise of hierarchical social systems with majormonumental constructions. Findings having implicationsfor socio-politico processes are highlighted.Atici, Levent (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)[69] Zooarchaeology at Körtik Tepe, SE Turkey:Preliminary Results on Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)SubsistenceSoutheastern Turkey is now considered part of thearchaeological domain where the ―Neolithic Revolution‖took place independently. The recent archaeologicalprojects in the region have greatly contributed to a betterunderstanding of Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocenearchaeology. Thus, it is crucial to develop a fineresolutionpicture of hunter-gatherer behavioral strategiesand changes therein during this period of rapid culturaland environmental change in southeastern Anatolia.Körtik Tepe near Batman is one of the PPNA (10thmillennium BP) sites with astonishing findings. Thispaper presents the preliminary results of the faunalanalysis from Körtik Tepe and focuses on the animalexploitation strategies.[216] see Kansa, Sarah W.Authier, Martin (Southern Methodist University) andManuel Perales Munguía[106] Dynamics of local and long-distance exchangefrom 1200 to 400 B.C. at the Castillo de Huaricanga,Fortaleza Valley, PeruExcavations at the Castillo de Huaricanga revealed acontinuous local subsistence exchange between theinland farmers of Huaricanga and nearby littoralcommunities. Furthermore, the presence of non-localmaterial—spondylus, cinnabar, obsidian—demonstratesa long-distance exchange network operating from 1200 –400 B.C., coinciding with the peak and decline of theChavín phenomenon. The Fortaleza Valley was animportant route from the coast to the highlands nearChavín, and Huaricanga‘s location probably afforded thelocal population access to exchange networks operatingthroughout the Central Andes. We discuss thesignificance of these exchange dynamics forunderstanding the social processes operating atHuaricanga.Avery, George [64] see Hargrave, Michael L.Awe, Jaime J. (Institute of Archaeology)[90] Evidence for Low-Density Urbanism in WesternBelize: A Re-examination of Prehistoric SettlementPatterns in the Belize River ValleyBeginning with Gordon Willey‘s settlement pattern studyin the Belize River more than half a century ago,continuous settlement research makes this area one ofthe most intensively studied in the Maya Lowlands.Recent analysis indicates that in spite of differences intheir historical development, location, and generalconfiguration, none of the major centers in the valley eversubstantially exceeded the size or socio-political statureof its neighbors. Our investigations demonstrate thatalthough some sites were occupied for almost athousand years, settlements around these centers

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 39remained relatively dispersed in a manner that isconsistent with models of Low-Density Urbanism.[266] see Moyes, Holley [56] see Freiwald, Carolyn R.[56] see Wrobel, Gabriel D.Baca Marroquin, Ancira Emily (University of Illinoisat Chicago)[228] Ceramic Production under Inca Imperial dominationin the Central South Coast of Perú, Asia Valley.The production and distribution of prestige goods werethe prerogatives of elite groups in Andean polities, andthrough this medium elites expressed their social identity,ideology and authority resulting in a powerful media.Presence, absence and exchange of ceramic attributesallow us to explore identity struggles arising after Incaimperial dominance, and unveil the strategies employedin the conquest of the Asia Valley, Peru. I examine aceramic sample from the site of Uquira, and consider theconsequences of the new political conditions imposed bythe Incas on the local population of the Asia Valley.Bachand, Bruce R. [51] see Lowe, Lynneth S.Backes, Clarus (SWCA, Inc.)[230] The Baby in the Bath Water: Revisiting Heizer andClewlow‘s "Prehistoric Rock Art of California"Heizer and Clewlow‘s 1973 publication "Prehistoric RockArt of California" assembled data collected over a twentyyearperiod by the University of California ArchaeologicalSurvey into a comprehensive assessment of Californiarock art. Although it was criticized at the time of itspublication, the study refined the classificatory schemeand style areas that continue to frame most Californiarock art studies today. This paper revisits Heizer andClewlow‘s study and the reactions it sparked in thearchaeological and rock art communities, and usesrecent data from sites in southern California to assesscriticisms of their methods, results and interpretations.Backo, Heather (Tulane University)[156] Huaca de la Luna Plaza 3A and the Taphonomy ofHuman SacrificeThis paper explores and compares a combination ofnewer and traditional taphonomic techniques designed tointerpret sample size, patterns of disarticulation andtrauma, contextual data, and orientation to explore thetype and level of postmortem alterations among a groupof 100+ sacrificed individuals from Plaza 3A, located atthe Moche site of Huaca de la Luna. Unusual patterns ofelement representation, disarticulation and dispersal, andgrouping/positioning can then be illustrated andcompared to known patterns of taphonomic activity,which are then either confirmed or excluded. In addition,it will be shown how these techniques can give insightinto the level of taphonomic winnowing present in a site.Badal, Ernestina (University of Valencia), MichaelBarton (Arizona State University), YolandaCarrión (Centro de Investigaciones sobreDesertificación), and Margaret MacMinn-Barton[25] Reconstructing Past Landscapes from Charcoal.New Data from Middle Chevelon Creek (Arizona)The Mogollon Region Small Sites (MRSS) project carriedout systematic survey and excavation of Late Archaicthrough Pueblo I farming hamlets in the middle ChevelonCreek drainage. Analysis of charcoal from excavateddomestic structures at the Chevelon Crossing site allowsus to reconstruct the prehistoric vegetation alongChevelon creek. The taxonomic variability observedindicates the presence of diverse vegetationcommunities. The most important of these were pine andjuniper woodland, and a riparian community with willow,poplar, and maple among the arboreal taxa. Taphonomicstudy of the charcoal assemblage also providesinformation about post-depositional events at the site.Badam, Gyani (Delhi Institute of Heritage Research &Management)[12] Ratite and Human Interaction SymposiumOne of the landmark discoveries made in Indianarchaeology has been of ostrich egg shell pieces,reported from various Upper Palaeolithic levels of morethan 70 sites. These have been studied in detail fromphylogenetic, biochemical, ecological and chronologicalpoints of view. Some shell pieces are engraved andsome have cross hatched designs on them, constitutingthe earliest datable evidence of applied art in India. Theostriches also had several breeding centers in India.However, the presence of this bird in the form ofpictographs in various rock shelters is rather debatable.Baichtal, James [181] see Carlson, Risa J.Bailey, Amanda (University of Wisconsin La Crosse)[233] Artificial Cranial Modification At the Carson MoundsSiteThe Carson Mound site is one of the largest prehistoricceremonial centers in the Mississippi alluvial valley. It is aMississippian mound center and dates fromapproximately 900-1500 AD. In 1894 Cyrus Thomasincluded a map of this site that showed more than 80mounds, today only a few remain. Excavations of the sitebegan in 2008. During the summer of 2009 burial pit fourrecovered approximately 33 individuals. In burial pit fourtwo individuals showing signs of artificial cranialmodification were identified. Analysis looked atintentional vs. unintentional modification and therelationship that has to status.Bailey, Dave [107] see Gunter, Madeleine [22] seeGoodale, Nathan B.Bailey, Doug (San Francisco State) [122] DiscussantBailey, Ralph (Brockington Cultural ResourcesConsulting), Inna Moore (Brockington CulturalResources Consulting) and Damon Jackson(Brockington Cultural Resources Consulting)[81] Understanding Settlement, and Site Impacts alongthe Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway: Section 110 SiteEvaluations for the Charleston District, USACEIn South Carolina, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterwaypasses through one of the region‘s richest and mostsensitive cultural areas for the Pre-Contact era. It is thenorthern reach of the shell rings built during the LateArchaic and the southern reach of the dense clammiddens left along the marsh edge during theMississippian period. These coastal shell sites hold theclues to the lives and traditions of South Carolina‘searliest residents, yet little is known about them. Thisproject will help the Corps of Engineers understand theseresources, how the waterway is impacting them, and how

40ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGthe Charleston District can protect them.Baillie, Harold[32] Late Classic Rio ViejoThe intent of this poster is to examine the variousactivities that occurred on the Río Viejo Acropolis duringthe Late Classic Period (500-800 C.E.). Through theanalysis of excavations conducted during various fieldseasons, 1988 (RV88), 2000 (RV0A), and 2009 (RV09), Iwill examine how the Late Classic (500-800 CE)architecture and social practices which occurred at theacropolis reflect political authority. I will also examinehow the life history of the acropolis reflects the changesof the Río Viejo polity over the course of the Late Classic.Bain, Allison (Université Laval, Québec, Canada),Michael Burn (University of the West Indies,Kingston Jamaica), Lisa Kennedy (Virginia Tech),Allison LeBlanc (Virginia Tech) and Anne-MarieFaucher (Universite Laval, Quebec)[202] Recent Research in Environmental Archaeologyand Paleoecology in Antigua and BarbudaAn intensive examination of past environments andclimates is being undertaken on the islands of Antiguaand Barbuda by an international team of scholars fromNorth America, Jamaica and the UK. Sedimentaryrecords spanning the last ca. 2000 14C years containostracods, molluscs, charophytes, microcharcoal, andpollen as well as evidence of past hurricane events.Archaeological data in the form of preserved charcoaland seeds compliment these data sets. Combined withthe ongoing archaeological investigations from both thepre-contact and Colonial Periods, we are studying theislands‘ long term ecodynamics developing a morecomprehensive narrative of the past.Bair, Daniel (Brigham Young University), RichardTerry (Brigham Young University) and Bruce Dahlin(Ancient Maya Environmental Studies Center)[225] Ancient Maya Activities at Public Plazas andHousehold Patios at Ceibal, GuatemalaLines of evidence including location, trade routes,artifactual evidence of exchange, open space, proximityto public structures, low platforms and rock alignmentsmay denote market spaces, but regular patterns in soiland floor chemical concentrations also point tomarketplace use. The objectives of the study were toapply geochemical and geospatial analysis of the soilsand floors from the Central Plaza in Group A of Ceibal, todiscover the anthropogenic chemical residues of P andheavy metals associated with the exchange of foodstuffsand workshop items that may have been marketed there.Baitzel, Sarah [233] see Somerville, Andrew D.Balasalle, Aileen [208] see Abraham, Sarah J.Baldwin, Lisa [248] First Chair [248] Second Organizer;[248] see Stehman, Kelly M.Bale, Martin (Early Korea Project, Harvard University)[149] Periphery of a Periphery? Socio-politicalDevelopment and Subsistence Patterns of the TaehwaRiver Basin in Southeast Korea, c. 1500-300 BCThe Korean Peninsula is thought to have been peripheralto the socio-political developments and subsistencepatterns of China‘s central plains region, and the TaehwaRiver Basin is assumed to have been peripheral to thesame changes in the peninsula. I examine theseassumptions by analyzing settlements, households, andsubsistence patterns. The Taehwa basin lost itsperipheral status and was gradually integrated into thematerial cultural mainstream of South-central andWestern Korea in the latter half of the Middle MumunPeriod (850-700 BC), and local agents may have playedan active role in the domestication of crops such assoybean.[149] Second Chair [149] Second OrganizerBalicki, Joseph (JMA [John Milner Associates, Inc.])[80] ARRA Stimulates the JMA Cultural Resources TeamJohn Milner Associates (JMA), and a team of eight subconsultants,was selected by the U.S. Army Corps ofEngineers District-St Louis to undertake NHPA Section110 projects nationwide. Funded by ARRA the JMA teamworked to develop and implement cultural resourcesprojects in 17 Corps Districts throughout the eastern andsouthern United States. The team accomplished a broadrange of tasks including Phase I surveys, shorelinesurveys, Phase II evaluations on historic and prehistoricsites, development of site predictive models, geophysicaltesting, GIS-databases of District cultural resources,National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibilityevaluations, curation assessments and buildingassessments.Balicki, Joseph [80] see Majewski, TeresitaBall, Joseph (San Diego State) [14] DiscussantBallantyne, Marianne (BHE Environmental,Inc.) and Kevin Magee (University of Cincinnati)[259] Archaeological Enclaves: The Effects of 22 Yearsof Differential Land Management Policy on theArchaeological RecordFrom 1947 to 1969, Clarksville Base, located within theFort Campbell Military Installation in southwesternKentucky and northern Tennessee, served as an atomicweapons storage facility. During that time, it wasregarded as a separate entity from the remainder of theinstallation and adjacent lands, and was restricted toselect military personnel. Archaeological investigationsconducted by BHE Environmental since 2003 havesurveyed over 2000 acres of land inside and outsideClarksville Base. This study investigates how twodecades of differential land management policies haveimpacted archaeological phenomena, creating twodifferent views of the archaeological record.Ballenger, Jesse (University of Arizona)[231] The Densest Concentration on Earth? QuantifyingHuman-Mammoth Associations in the San Pedro Basin,Southeastern ArizonaThe San Pedro Basin (SPB) contains four Clovismammothassociations, making it one of the densestconcentrations of human-proboscidean sites on earth. Icompare the Clovis-age archaeofaunal record to itspaleontological background to measure the level ofpredation that created this record. My analysis indicatesthat Clovis people affected mammoth populations to asignificant degree, a situation expected in the presenceof abundant mammoths. I argue that this circumstance

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 41occurred in the SPB, possibly in the form of a refugium. Ifthe refuge hypothesis explains mammoth predation, thenClovis-mammoth associations should occur as clustersas they do in the SPB.Balsom, Janet (Grand Canyon National Park), LisaLeap (National Park Service, North Central ArizonaMonuments) and Jennifer Dierker (Grand CanyonNational Park)[20] People, Place and Preservation in Grand CanyonNational ParkGrand Canyon National Park (GCNP) has been home tonative peoples for over 12,000 years. From the banks ofthe Colorado River to the high elevations of the NorthRim, the canyon is a place of emergence, home, refugeand return. Thousands of people lived within the canyon,leaving behind the footprints of their passing inthousands of archaeological sites. Preservation of theseresources and their information is core to ourstewardship responsibilities. For over 100 years,archaeologists have documented these places in hopesof better understanding the dynamic nature of human useand occupation of the marginal canyon environment.[20] Second ChairBaltus, Melissa (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign), Sarah Otten (University of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign) and Timothy Pauketat(University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign)[24] Elements of Ancient Power and AgencyPower in ancient eastern North America cannot besegregated a priori into political, social, and religiousdimensions. Rather, it was a commonly dispersedattribute of human-nonhuman social fields that might betransferred, gathered, embodied, or emplaced. Thus,political power was realized, at least in part, throughsocio-religious practices involving ancestors, elements,and otherworldly forces. Deconstructing the dichotomy ofreligion and politics, we focus on practices of materialmanipulation, burning and burial at and around the 11thand 12th century complex of Cahokia along theMississippi River. Specifically, we detail a number ofcontexts where temple buildings, human remains, andmarker posts were transubstantiated, especially throughburning, and hence their power transformed. Personswere constructed, places of power were built, politicalagents were defined, and enemies were eliminatedthrough fire and earth.Balzotti, Chris [225] see Terry, Richard E.Banffy, Eszter (Archaeolical Institute Has, Budapest,Hungary)[247] Cultural Heritage Management and ArchaeologicalResearch in the Americas and Europe A Forum on SAAand EAA CollaborationThe theoretical issues about cultural heritage strategiesin the Americas and in Europe show up differences, buteven within Europe a special case is the cultural heritageof countries of the former socialist bloc. The contributionwill shed light upon the - sometimes controversial -strategies and practice in Central and Eastern Europe.[110] DiscussantBarba, Luis (Universidad Nacional Autonoma DeMexico) and Isabel Villaseñor (Posgrado Unam)[92] Lime Technology And The Mesoamerican CulturesLime is a very important technological discovery forMesoamerica. This material implies a substantial changein preindustrial technology that involved large quantitiesof energy and sophisticated social organization. Limemortars allowed over the years to build thin walls andeven vaults. They also favored the urbanization processby providing hygienic surfaces and preventing plaguesand epidemics. In addition, lime made it possible to getthe maximum energy out of the corn crops through thelime processing, the nixtamalization. This paper showsrecent developments in the study of ancient limetechnology, calling attention to this valuable product.[92] Discussant [92] First ChairBarber, Sarah (University of Central Florida), DevinWhite (Integrity Applications Incorporated) andAllison Matos (University of Central Florida)[38] Modeling Coastal Trade in Precolumbian OaxacaThe identification of transportation corridors using GIS isa useful technique for examining ancient economic andpolitical relationships. In Mesoamerica, where theprovisioning of highland cities with coastal resources wasan important factor in the development and expansion ofcomplex societies, identifying highland-lowlandtransportation corridors has proven to be a fruitful avenueof research. However, GIS has not been widely used toconsider the costs and advantages of maritime, interestuarine,and land-based coastal trade. In this paper,we present a least-cost analysis of land and water-basedtransportation routes along the Pacific Coast of Mexico.[215] First ChairBarber, Sarah [5] see Brzezinski, Jeffrey S.Barca, Donatella [92] see Crisci, Gino M.Barca, Kathryn G. [55] see Rodriguez, Erin C.Bárcena, J.Roberto [103] see Cahiza, Pablo A.Barden, Allison (UC Berkeley) and Shanti Morell-Hart (UC Berkeley)[62] GIS Applications in Mesoamerican Archaeology:Spatial Distribution of XRF-Sourced Obsidian Artifacts atPuerto Escondido, HondurasThe Formative site of Puerto Escondido, excavated in themid-1990s, is the oldest inhabited site thus far identifiedin Honduras. Artifacts yielded by excavations includepaleoethnobotanical remains, human burials, faunalremains, ceramics, carbon, shell, and obsidian. Exhibitedhere is the input of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry(XRF) obsidian analysis data into an ArcGIS model.Using a grid-unit map created in ArcGIS, theconcentrations of these materials are plottedgeographically. Spatial distribution of obsidian flakes,cores, and blades are specifically targeted, and related tomaterial sources. The distribution of obsidian in variousactivity areas is explored in relation to theories ofpractice.Bardolph, Dana (University of California SantaBarbara)[229] Pluralism and Practice: Negotiating Identity in theLate Prehistoric Central Illinois River ValleyCentral to the archaeology of culture contact is the

42ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGassessment of cultural change and continuity throughmaterials. However, quantifying material attributes alonemasks variability central to understanding contactsituations. Reframing questions in terms of practicemoves analysis beyond solely that of materialsthemselves. Recognizing that different opportunities andchoices existed for social actors in pluralistic settings, Iexplore construction of Native American social identityusing ceramic, lithic, and macrobotanical data from theLate Prehistoric Lamb site in the Central Illinois RiverValley. Such archaeological materials point to people inthe past—procuring, processing, preparing, serving,consuming—in essence, creating communities ofpractice.[229] First ChairBarfod, Gry [194] see Jorgenson, GinaBarge, Meghan and Thomas Wake (University ofCalifornia, Los Angeles)[186] Vertebrate Consumption in an Elite Household atLa Blanca, GuatemalaVertebrate remains constitute the most enduring dietaryevidence recovered from the Middle Formative Periodcenter of La Blanca, Guatemala. Analysis focuses onspecies and element representation through time inMound 11. A primary research question concerns thedistribution of animals in relation to social status.Variation in vertebrate consumption patterns may help totrack social differentiation and changing elite occupation.Dietary patterns observed at La Blanca are compared tovertebrate faunal assemblages from earlier sites such asEl Varal, Salinas la Blanca and Paso de la Amada toexamine regional patterns of higher animal use duringthe Middle Formative Period.Barker, Alex (University of Missouri)[53] Is More Enough? Population, Resources and theProblem of Sufficiency: Three Cases from theSoutheastern USThe rise of sociopolitical elites generally assumes controland command of surplus production. Because theunderlying notions of sufficiency, surplus and nominalgroups size are so basic to our conceptions of complexityin middle range societies--and at first glance seemrelatively transparent and straightforward constructs-- werarely examine these notions critically, particularly inrelation to one another. Three case studies from theAmerican Southeast are considered to explore therelationships between scale, sufficiency and surplus inprestate hierarchical societies, and to illuminate thedifferent ways these notions are employed both inprehistory and by prehistorians.Barker, Andrew (University of North Texas), NoraReber (University of North Carolina at Wilmington)and Steve Wolverton (University of North Texas)[19] Results of Round Robin Part II: Food Mixtures andResidue DiagenesisIn order to further refine techniques in archaeologicalresidue analysis, earthenware bowls were used to cook amixture of foods. After being rinsed with water, one bowlwas stored in cold, dry conditions while another wasburied in clay-rich soil for one month. Following recoveryof the buried sample, each bowl was cut into a series ofvertical transects. These transects were distributed toseveral independent laboratories so that a variety ofresidue analysis methods could be applied. Thispresentation summarizes the results of theseexperiments and evaluates the effects of short-termweathering on our ability to identify residues.[19] First ChairBarker, Andrew [19] see Venables, Barney J; [19] seeStevens, Stanley M.Barker, Claire (University of Arizona) and PatrickLyons (Arizona State Museum)[264] Exploring the Meaning of the Late PrehispanicYellow Ware HorizonDuring the late A.D. 1200s and early 1300s, a color shiftoccurred that cross-cut wares and types in many areasfrom northern Mexico to the Hopi Mesas and the northernRio Grande. In the northern U.S. Southwest, potterycharacterized by black and white painted designs on ared or an orange background was replaced by potterypainted in black and red on a buff or a white background.In this paper, we examine the chronology of thisphenomenon and we consider what it might mean in thebroader social context of feasting, the Southwestern Cult,the Katsina religion, and the Kayenta diaspora.Barkwill Love, Lori (University of Texas at SanAntonio)[187] From the Receiving End: A Ceramic Analysis of a13th Century Site in the Northern Rio GrandeTraditionally, archaeologists believed Mesa Verdeinhabitants migrated to the Northern Rio Grande region.However, little research has been conducted on 13thcentury sites in the Northern Rio Grande to assess thepossibility of this migration. To help fill this gap, I amconducting attribute and compositional analyses on theceramics from Pueblo Alamo (LA 8), a 13th century sitein the Santa Fe/Galisteo Basin area, New Mexico. Byexamining the relationship between technological styleand design style, a better understanding of 13th centuryceramics may be gained, as well as insight into the socialidentity and interaction with other regions.Barnash, Alicia [139] see Bernardini, WesleyBarnes, Ethan (University of Cincinnati)[195] Perceived Identity and the Archaeological Record:Material Culture in Early Twentieth Century OhioAlthough many studies about the American past havefocused on the people who had the socioeconomic orpolitical clout to create a legacy, historical archaeology iswell-equipped to focus on those seemingly forgotten.Utilizing both historical records and archaeologicalevidence acquired during a systematic surface survey ofan early twentieth century homestead in southwesternOhio, this paper discusses how the former occupantsexpressed social identity through material culture andconsumer choices. Explicating the dissonances that arisebetween these historical and material resources, thisresearch ultimately addresses why people in rural Ohioenvisioned, and subsequently displayed, a perceivedsocial status.Barnett, Kay [201] see Diederichs, Shanna R.Baron, Joanne (University of Pennsylvania)

44ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGChina Lake and the Greater Mojave DesertThe Pleistocene Lake China basin and adjacent lowlandspreserve one of the richest records of terminalPleistocene-early Holocene human occupation in thesouthwestern Great Basin. Similar, if more limited,evidence of early settlement has been documented inother sectors of the Mojave Desert. Differences in thearchaeology of these scattered localities promptintriguing questions regarding variation in the content anddensity of local sites/assemblages, the nature of earlysubsistence-settlement systems, and how changingecological parameters influenced population distributionsduring this era.[150] see Norton, William L. [239] see Larson, William E.Bauer, Andrew (University of Chicago)[189] Materials and Materiality: Soils, Stones, and SocialLandscapes in Iron Age South IndiaIn this paper I explore how Iron Age social differenceswere negotiated in and through the production of asymbolic and material field—complete with nonhumanparticipants that informed, constrained, and enabled theimaginative possibilities of strategic actions during theperiod. I suggest that the cultural meanings of particularplaces were manipulated through the physicalmodification of things and material forms—forms thatstructured movement, limited access, changedenvironmental conditions, and altered perceptions. Theseforms were not unidirectionally built by people, however,but also built by dynamic environmental constituents thatcontributed to their uses, maintenance, and socialhistories.[189] Second ChairBauer-Clapp, Heidi (University of MassachusettsAmherst), Laura Solar Valverde (Instituto Nacional deAnthropología e Historia) and Lisa Rios (Universityof Massachusetts Amherst)[237] The Blessing and the Curse of TaphonomicProcesses: A Bioarchaeological Analysis of a ShaftTomb from Southern Zacatecas, MexicoThe discovery of an unlooted shaft tomb in SouthernZacatecas, Mexico, offered an undisturbed example ofthis mortuary tradition common in West Mexico duringthe Formative and Early Classic eras (300 B.C. to A.D.400). However, 2000 years of taphonomic processestook their toll on the tomb‘s contents. This paper reviewsarchaeological and ethnographic resources forunderstanding these taphonomic processes and theexcavation techniques that preserved as much data aspossible. We focus on four skeletons from the tomb: twoindividuals joined by a shell belt and the two adjacentindividuals who held atlatls in their hands.Baumann, Timothy (Glenn A. Black Laboratory ofArchaeology, IU ), G. William Monaghan (Glenn A.Black Laboratory of Archaeology, IndianaUniversity) and Christopher Peebles (Glenn A. BlackLaboratory of Archaeology, Indiana University)[82] The Legacy of Glenn A. Black and the WPAExcavations at Angel Mounds (12Vg1)From 1939 until 1942, Glenn A. Black directed a WPAexcavation at the Angel site (12Vg1), a large palisadedMiddle Mississippian agricultural town on the Ohio River,near Evansville, Indiana. This Depression-era researchincluded expansive excavations on the East Village,Mound F, and a segment of the outer Palisade, whichtogether by volume still represents the majority ofexploration done at this site. The work of Black and hisWPA crew has led to nearly 80 years of continuousresearch on Angel Mounds, establishing it as a formativesite for professional archaeology in Indiana and theMidwest.Baxter, Carey (USACE ERDC-CERL), Dick Gebhart(USACE ERDC CERL), Michael Hargrave (USACEERDC CERL), H. Allen Torbert (USDA-ARS) andAntonio Palazzo (USACE ERDC CRREL)[162] Quantifying military training impacts using soilchemical and mechanical propertiesEvaluating the impact of recent military training onarchaeological deposits is complicated by earlierimpacts. At many sites, the uppermost stratum is alreadyseverely impacted by farming, timbering, grazing, andearlier military activities. Intact deposits may remain infeatures that extend into deeper, undisturbed strata.Ongoing research is developing a method to identify theonset and quantify the extent of new disturbance basedon changes in soil mechanical properties, organic matter,and chemical elements at the A/B or A/E interface. Initialresults from Fort Benning suggest that metals such asCr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, which are relatively immobile, maybe useful indicators.Baxter, Jaimie (Humboldt State University)[148] Spatial Visualization: Dos Hombres to Gran CacaoSettlement SurveyAs researchers, archaeologists understand theimportance of geography and its emphasis on spatiality.An essential component to analyzing the Ancient Mayawater and landscape management practices is spatialvisualization. By using a Geographic Information System(GIS), the eastern Petén region and its manyarchaeological sites come to life by way of spatialvisualization and predictive modeling. GIS can be usedfor large-scale regional analysis as well as predictivemodeling of settlement patterns and land use. GIS willprovide a vital element to the analysis of water featuresand landscape elements in correlation with thegeomorphology and regional environmental zones.Baxter, Jaimie [148] see Cortes-Rincon, Marisol [148]see Boudreaux, Sarah N.Baxter, Jane (DePaul University) [79] DiscussantBaxter, Paul (Museum of Natural and CulturalHistory, U. Oregon), Thomas Connolly (University ofOregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History)and Craig Skinner (NW Research Obsidian StudiesLab)[160] Obsidian Use in the Willamette Valley and AdjacentWestern Cascades of OregonThe distribution of geochemically characterized obsidianhas long been used to give insight into prehistoric tradenetworks. We examine patterning in the obsidiansourcing data from 4953 obsidian artifacts recoveredfrom 115 sites in order to understand obsidianprocurement and use within the Willamette Valley andadjacent Western Cascades of Oregon. Within this dataset, twenty-four obsidian sources from six regions ofOregon and northern California are represented

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 45suggesting the presence of long term trade routes anddistribution networks.Baxter, Paul [160] see Connolly, TomBay, George [221] see Parker, Evan A.Bayala, Pablo [71] see Flensborg, GustavoBayham, Frank (California State UNIV., Chico), ErikMartin, Adam Gutierrez (California State University,Chico), Christopher O'Brien (Lassen NationalForest) and Antoinette Martinez (California StateUniversity, Chico)[77] The Last Meals of the Yahi: Contact Period FaunalRemains from Kingsley CaveRepatriated archaeofaunal materials from Kingsley Cavehave a degree of stratigraphic integrity and, based onassociated points types and beads, the uppermost strataare temporally associated with Contact Period.Comparison of these remains with the underlyingprehistoric materials may provide a window into therefuge survival strategies employed by Ishi and his fellowYahi in the decades preceding 1911. We here exploretaxonomic composition, economic utility andfragmentation analyses to determine how and in whatways mundane subsistence activities in the foothills ofthe Sierra Nevada range were impacted by theencroachment of Euroamericans.Bayham, Frank [77] see O'Brien, Christopher [77] seeMartinez, AntoinetteBeach, Timothy (Georgetown University) and SherylLuzzadder-Beach (George Mason University)[223] Soil Evidence for Use and Formation of WetlandFields and Canals in Northern BelizeWe use soil evidence from 2009-2010 excavations tounderstand ancient Maya use, formation, and chronologyof wetland fields and canals near Lamanai, Blue Creek,and Dos Hombres in northern Belize. The lines of soilevidence include micromorphology, stratigraphy, blackcarbon, magnetic susceptibility, general chemistry,carbon isotopes, and elemental analysis. We alsocompare these with paleoecological evidence, includingpollen, phytoliths, and macrobotanicals, from differentsoil layers and field and canal zones of the wetlands.These lines of evidence show crops that range frommaize to fruits, and imply different managementstrategies over Late Holocene environmental changes.[249] DiscussantBeach, Timothy [148] see Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl[238] see Krause, SamanthaBeardmore, Rebecca (University College London)[54] An approach to understanding change in the lateBronze and early Iron Age communities of Kazakhstanthrough geoarchaeology and phytolith analysisUsing case studies from the ancient delta of the SyrDarya river and the Talgar alluvial fan, this paper willhighlight ways in which geoarchaeology and phytolithanalysis can shed light on changes seen in thearchaeological record in the late Bronze and early IronAges in the territory of Kazakhstan. The theoretical andpractical aspects of such research will be explored whileseeking to contextualize this approach as part ofmultidisciplinary archaeological investigation. The paperwill demonstrate how such a study might further ourunderstanding of change and continuity in the prehistoriccommunities of Central Asia.Beasley, Melanie (University of California, SanDiego), Jack Meyer (Far Western AnthropologicalResearch Group, Inc.), Eric J. Bartelink (CSU,Chico) and Randy Miller (CSU, Chico)[194] Human Bone Diagenesis in a Prehistoric BurialMound from the Central California Delta:Bioarchaeological and Geoarchaeological ApproachesThis presentation examines the use of geoarchaeologyand measures of diagenesis to understand burialpreservation at archaeological sites. Stable isotopeanalysis of human bone aims to recover in vivosignatures from prehistoric people. Recent isotopicresults from CA-CCO-548, a mid-to-late Holocene site(ca. 4000-3000 B.P.) located along Marsh Creek inContra Costa County will be a case study for comparingdifferences in burial preservation. Using standarddiagenesis indicators from analysis of human bonecollagen and apatite (n=242), the results indicate thepossibilities of using geoarchaeology as an additionalprescreening tool to select viable isotope samples.Beasley, Melanie [255] see Schoeninger, Margaret J.[194] see Bartelink, Eric J.Beaubien, Harriet (Smithsonian - MuseumConservation Institute), Ainslie Harrison(Smithsonian-National Museum of the AmericanIndian), Kim Cullen Cobb (Smithsonian-NationalMuseum of the American Indian) and RichardCooke (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute)[193] Piecing together a history of goldworking in Pre-Columbian Panama: the XRF contributionIn studies of Pre-Columbian metalworking, Panama hasreceived comparatively less attention than neighboringregions in the Americas, despite numerous gold objectsattributed to Panama in collections, ethnohistoricaccounts and more recent archaeological evidence,which indicate an active goldworking tradition. To add atechnological perspective, the Smithsonian's MuseumConservation Institute, in collaboration with theSmithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama), isconducting a large-scale technical study of Pre-Columbian Panamanian gold, to date comprising keycollections at the Smithsonian Institution and in Panama,including recent scientifically excavated finds. This paperdiscusses the research contribution of portable x-rayfluorescence analysis.[250] DiscussantBeaudry-Corbett, Marilyn (Cotsen Institute ofArchaeology, U.C.L.A.) [250] DiscussantBeaver, Joseph (University of Minnesota Morris)[180] Efficiency and Effectiveness of Sex-BiasedUngulate Hunting: Simulation Modeling and ImplicationsIn polygynous species, including most ungulates (hoofedanimals), far fewer males than females are required toproduce each new generation. Modern sport huntingtakes advantage of this to allow higher overall huntingrates by focusing hunting on males. A simulation model

46ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGof predator-prey interactions is used here to examine thecircumstances under which human subsistence hunterscan maximize their total harvest by biasing huntingtowards male ungulates.Beck, Charlotte (Hamilton College) and GeorgeJones (Hamilton College)[94] Moving into the Mid-Holocene: ThePaleoarchaic/Archaic Transition in the IntermountainWestIn most of North America the transition from Paleoindiantechnology to that known as Archaic appears gradual,especially with respect to point technology. In the East,for example, fluting continues after Clovis withCumberland, Simpson, and Dalto, while notching seemsto evolve through the ‗waisting‘ of earlier forms. In theIntermountain West, however, this transition is moreabrupt: stemmed forms, which are at least coeval withClovis elsewhere, persist unchanged for about 4,000years and then disappear along with other distinctivecomponents of the toolkit. Here we explore possibleexplanations for such an abrupt technological change inthis region.Beck, Charlotte [262] see Jones, George T.Beck, Margaret [187] see Abbott, David R.Beck, R. Kelly [126] see Broughton, Jack M.Beck, Robin (University of Michigan)[86] Making Communities of Aggregations in theFormative Lake Titicaca BasinOne of the greatest challenges to any new form ofcommunity is to balance the need for common identitieswith the need for recognizing the distinctions amongdiverse constituencies. The built environment offers animportant medium for materializing these dual challengesin the context of a recently aggregated population. InBolivia‘s Lake Titicaca Basin, Middle Formative villagers(800-250 BC) built platform complexes that visuallydominated everyday life in their respective communities.These complexes simultaneously anchored villagers to acommon identity while legitimizing asymmetric relationsamong kin-based constituencies. This forging of identityand difference was essential for making communities ofaggregations.Becker, Rory (USDA-NRCS)[87] Across the Landscape: The Potentials andLimitations of LiDAR Use in Identifying Historic TrailsHistoric trails can present a difficult situation for those ofus employed in the business of cultural resourcemanagement. These historic properties can span entirestates, even connecting different regions of the county,and, at the same time, may be difficult to identify out onthe landscape. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)technology may prove a useful tool in both theidentification and management of these historicproperties.Becker, Sara (University of North Carolina, ChapelHill)[245] Labor in the South Central Andes: ABioarchaeological Study of Activity within the TiwanakuPolityThe control and distribution of labor is an essential topicfor understanding the character and development inprehistoric state formation. Within this paper, I provide acomparative framework of specific skeletal evidence tothe archaeological record by using biological markers toinfer how habitual activity varies within Tiwanaku stateformation both in the Titicaca Basin, Bolivia and theMoquegua Valley, Peru. These data provide insight intothe routine of individuals and their contributions to thesocial groups in which they live, revealing divisions oflabor such as status or gender differences.Becker, Sara K. [245] see Alconini, SoniaBeckwith, Sue (University of Toronto)[201] The Built Environment organizing SocialEncounter: Public and Private Space in Pueblo She, NewMexicoPuebloan architecture structured visibility and utilizedproxemics to enhance or inhibit human co-awarenesswhich ultimately promoted a sequential hierarchicalsocial organization. Visibility graph analysisdemonstrated that the built environment of Pueblo Shé,New Mexico (A.D. 1325-1600) controlled socialencounter through the development of a plaza andentranceway system. Visually connected areas affordedopportunities for potential social encounter. Small plazaswith limited intervisibility to other areas created privatespaces to promote social bonding in subsections of thepopulation. While large and highly visually connectedplazas provided public space for community wideceremonial performances.Beeker, Charles [69] see Conrad, Geoffrey W. [260]see Foster, John W.Beekman, Christopher (University of ColoradoDenver)[98] Mesoamerican Symbols of Authority in the ShaftTomb Figures of West MexicoThe hollow ceramic figures of Jalisco, Colima, andNayarit are still commonly treated as either idyllicrepresentations of people engaged in everyday activities,or as conceptually abstract depictions of shamans andtheir transformations. These interpretations date from the1960s when the imagery had little archaeological context.The earliest interpretations of the artwork in the 1940sare more consistent with current archaeological data.Bodily decoration makes reference to Mesoamericanconcepts of rulership and its basis in control over nature,and identifies both males and females as holders ofdiverse positions in a system of diffuse legitimate politicalauthority.[98] Second Organizer [98] First ChairBeier, Zachary (Syracuse University)[121] "All peaceable and quiet": Reading the Role ofMilitary Labor at the Cabrits Garrison, Dominica (1765-1854)Historical archaeologies of the African Diaspora inCaribbean colonial history have focused primarily on theeconomic, social and cultural aspects of plantations,while the military sites necessary for their defense havereceived far less attention. This paper explores how theeveryday lives of non-Europeans and Europeansintersected at the Cabrits Garrison on the island of

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 47Dominica. Using datasets collected from eighteenth andnineteenth century residential quarters includingenslaved laborers and soldiers I demonstrate howinteractions within military fortifications were critical in thedevelopment of colonial identities during a period ofconflict and economic volatility across the Atlantic World.Bejko, Lorenc [27] see Galaty, Michael L.Belardi, Juan (Univ Nac de la Patagonia Austral) andGustavo Barrientos (CONICET - UCNyM UNLP -UNCPBA)[101] Hunter-gatherers mobility and guanaco (Lamaguanicoe) hunting tactics in the Cardiel Chico plateau(Southern Patagonia, Argentina)The environmental and archaeological distributional data(lithics and rock art) show a primarily seasonal andlogistical use of the Cardiel Chico basaltic plateau (1000m.a.s.l.), fitting the Late Holocene picture already knownfor other surrounding plateaus. The archaeologicallandscape consists of a rather continuous, low densityartifactual distribution where the highest peaks in densityare associated to lagoons. Besides, the high frequency ofhunting blinds (―parapetos‖) together with their size,shape, topographic locations and lithic assemblagessuggest different guanaco hunting tactics. Thearchaeology of the plateaus highlights the other side ofthe coin represented by the lower basins.Belfer-Cohen, Anna (The Hebrew University ofJerusalem)[114] The Nature of the Georgian UP as recognized fromthe sites of Dzudzuana and Kotias KldeThe lithic assemblages deriving from the UpperPalaeolithic sequences at the sites of Dzudzuana caveand Kotias Klde rockshelter compare well with otherUpper Palaeolithic assemblages from past excavations inwestern Georgia. They bear characteristics whichdistinguish them from contemporaneous assemblagesknown from western Eurasia, though they exhibitcommon Upper Palaeolithic traits, such as an overall risein the bladey/bladelet component. Though the reductionsequences employed are known elsewhere, theirchronological association differs, indicating anindependent local evolution, influenced most probably byideas and concepts that derived from outside the region,but are firmly incorporated within the matrix of localtradition.[203] see Bar-Yosef, Ofer [86] see Goring-Morris, NigelBelknap, Samuel (University of), Cecil Lewis(University of Oklahoma), Raul Tito (University ofOklahoma), Robert Ingraham (University of Maine)and Kristin Sobolik (University of Maine)[206] Oldest Dog in the New WorldThe oldest identified dog in the New World has beenfound in a human paleofecal sample recovered fromHinds Cave in Texas and directly dated to 9,260+170Cal. B.P. The bone was identified both visually andthrough ancient DNA analysis of the bone. The age ofthe material predates all published genetic data by 7800years. These data substantiate the Eurasian origin ofNew World domestic dogs, the accompaniment of dogswith humans during the peopling of the Americas, andthe earliest use of dogs as a food source.Bell, Arran [77] see Crawford, Kristina M.Bell, Colleen (University of Tulsa)[74] Blade Caches at Ayn Abu NukhaylaThis paper analyses the contents of two blade cachesfound in the site of Ayn Abu Nukhayla, an Early Neolithic,PPNB (9,500 BPcal) settlement in southern Jordan. Thefirst cache is comprised of 51 opposed platform blades,both retouched and unretouched, and points. The secondcontains 80 such blades mostly unretouched. The social,demographic, and economic implications of stores,stocks, and caches are explored in the context of thosefrom Ayn Abu Nukhayla.Bell, Ellen (California State University, Stanislaus),Cassandra R. Bill (M.A.R.I. / Tulane University)and Marcello A. Canuto (M.A.R.I. / Tulane University)[31] Who‘s at the Top in a ‗Top-Down‘ Approach?: SocialDifferentiation and Administrative Strategies in the ElParaíso Valley, Department of Copan, HondurasWhile the dichotomy between ―bottom-up‖ and ―topdown‖models of social differentiation and politicalorganization is pervasive in the archaeological literature,the elites whose actions are scrutinized in top-downapproaches often remain numinous, faceless entities—metaphors for power rather than flesh and blood peoplepursuing social, political, ideological and economic goals.In this poster we draw on recent archaeological researchto explore the wide variety of actors who sought to exertinfluence in the El Paraíso Valley, western Honduras,during the Classic period (AD 250-900). We alsoexamine the dual-center model of political organizationcreated through these complex, contested interactions.[31] First ChairBellew, Serena [185] Discussant [185] First ModeratorBellifemine, Viviana (University of Cambrdge, UK)[71] Indicators of Inka Imperial Governance Interactionsreflected in Mortuary Practices in the Cuzco ValleyThe success of the expansion of the Inka Empire wasbased on multiple governing strategies applied toconquer and control their subjects. The Imperialgovernance interaction is reflected in the mortuarybehavior through the agency of the actors involved,which is expected to present distinct characteristics. Avariety of sites are re-examined to refine a ―Cuzco-Inkastyle‖ of mortuary treatment, which is used to compareand contrast with that of subject populations. Severalsites are explored to determine variations in thegovernance interaction between the Inka state anddifferent subject populations. These results arecompared with accounts from ethnohistoric chronicles.Bellifemine, Viviana [194] see Nechayev, IrinaBelmaker, Miriam (Harvard University)[218] From Africa and beyond: Shifting paradigms in theecological milieu for Early Pleistocene hominin dispersalsfrom AfricaSince the excavations of the earliest Pleistocene sitesout of Africa in the 1960‘s, one of the main paradigmswas the idea of the expansion of the African Savannaand the dispersal of hominin with other taxa. Since then,the identification of new sites, taxonomic andpaleoecological revised methodology and the

48ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGdiversification of international communication haveshifted this paradigm and promoted new interpretationsof this issue. This paper will describe history of researchand illuminate the role faunal identification andmethodological development played in understandingexternal vs. internal hypotheses in ‗Out of Africa I‘models in the 20th century.Bement, Leland (Oklahoma Archeological Survey,OU) and Brian Carter (Oklahoma State University)[155] From Mammoth to Bison: Changing Clovis PreyAvailability at the End of the PleistoceneClovis hunters of the North American Great Plains areknown for their ability to hunt mammoths. Less is knownof their hunting strategies for other large animals.Investigation of the southern Plain‘s Jake Bluff siteidentified a Clovis bison kill in an arroyo. Jake Bluffprovides the opportunity to study changing huntingstrategies, including landscape use, related to changingprey species availability as mammoths became extinct.The Jake Bluff site yielded Clovis-style projectile points,22 Bison antiquus, and a late date of 12,838 cal BP.Bemmann, Jan (University of Bonn)[54] The Orkhon Valley – Center of several MedievalSteppe Empires. The Testimony of the ArchaeologicalRecordBetween 2008-2010 an international, interdisciplinaryresearch project carried out surveys in the middle andupper Orkhon Valley. One goal was the documentation ofall visible walled enclosures, to date them, to analysetheir context and function and to compare them with thewell-known cities of Karakorum and Kara-Balgasun. As aresult most enclosures belong to the Uighur period. Onlyfew belong to the time of the Mongol World Empire.There are no indicators that the Orkhon Valley was apolitical center during theXiongnu period, however thatmay have looked like. A palace-city of the Manchu periodwas we mapped completely.Bencze, Jennifer (University of California Davis),Christyann Darwent (University of California Davis)and Jelmer Eerkens (University of California Davis)[181] Frozen Soils: Using Chemical Analyses to DiscernPrehistoric Inuit Household ActivitiesIn 2009-2010 six prehistoric Thule winter houses wereexcavated at the sites of Qaqaitsut, NW Greenland (ca.AD 900-1500), and Cape Espenberg, NW Alaska (ca. AD1200-1400). Soil samples were taken from every 50cmquadrant across the house and tunnel floors, which inturn were analyzed for pH and for carbon and nitrogenisotopic concentration. Spatial analysis of these valuesyielded distinct inter- and intra- house variations, whichmay provide insight into whether the journey from Alaskato Greenland facilitated a change in how Thule peopleorganized and used their interior spaces.Benden, Danielle [229] see Pauketat, Timothy R.Bendremer, Jeffrey (Salish Kootenai College)[113] Training Tribal Archaeologists and Tribal HistoricPreservation Staff: Curriculum Development andPedagogical ChallengesEvery American Indian Tribe is engaged in efforts topreserve, protect and investigate cultural resources.Tribes also routinely consult with government agencieson issues that affect cultural properties, archaeology andhistoric landscapes. Most tribes fulfill theseresponsibilities though cultural departments and/orTHPOs. Few formal educational alternatives to generaldegrees in anthropology, archaeology or NativeAmerican studies exist to train these practitioners. Tribalcolleges are well positioned to provide training tostudents intent on working in tribal historic preservation.Pedagogical, administrative and cultural challenges ininstituting such a program are discussed as is acurriculum being developed at Salish Kootenai College.Benjamin, Jonathan (Wessex Archaeology andUniversity of Edinburgh)[89] Managing submerged prehistoric archaeology:Research objectives and cooperation with industry‗Submerged prehistory‘ (archaeology andpaleolandscapes) is generating increasing interest on aninternational scale. A European framework designed tofacilitate training, collaboration and knowledge-transfer isnow underway and advancements in theoretical andpractical aspects of this emerging field will help to definethe methods used to study and evaluate prehistoric sitesthat are now underwater. Furthermore, offshore work inthe United Kingdom demonstrates effective collaborationbetween archaeologists and marine industry. Suchcooperation provides insight the relationship betweenheritage management (CRM) and industry in the marineenvironment; an activity that should be internationallyencouraged.Bennett, Rochelle (Bureau of Reclamation)[83] Analysis of Human Remains Recovered From FortCraig Cemetery, New MexicoFort Craig Cemetery lies on Bureau of Reclamation landin south central New Mexico and was primarily used as amilitary cemetery from the 1850's to the 1880's. Duringthe summer of 2007, a team of contract and Bureau ofReclamation archaeologists disinterred human remainsfrom Fort Craig Cemetery, after discovering it had beenlooted and additional human remains may still bepresent. Sixty-three individuals and one surgeons pitwere recovered. This session presents the result of theskeletal analysis including data on demography,pathology, and trauma.Bentley, Alex [255] see Whittle, AlasdairBentley, Sylvia (Utah Valley University) andHaagen Klaus (Utah Valley University)[156] Reconsidering Retainers: Offerings, Sacrifice, andBurial in Ancient PeruOn the north coast of Peru, retainer burials are oftenassumed to be sacrifices of wives or male kin of aparamount lord. Critical synthesis of archaeological,taphonomic, and bioarchaeologal data of retainersspanning Moche and Middle Sican tombs indicates thatnot all retainers were sacrifices nor did they experiencesynchronous deaths with the principal personage of theirassociated tombs. However, biodistance analysis cannotreject the hypothesis that some female retainers werewives. Detailed and careful consideration of the ―retainer‖concept is warranted highlighting relationships betweensacrifice, gender, kinship, and mortuary patterns inancient Peru.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 49Berenguer, José [267] see Salazar, DiegoBerg, Caryn (Left Coast Press) [215] First Moderator[215] Second OrganizerBergin, Sean (School of Human Evolution and SocialChange, ASU), Isaac Ullah (Arizona StateUniversity), C. Michael Barton (Arizona StateUniversity), Hessam Sarjoughian (Arizona StateUniversity) and Gary Mayer (Southern IllinoisUniversity Edwardsville)[36] Simulating Neolithic Landscape Dynamics: ACoupled ABM-GIS Model of Agro-Pastoral Systems inEastern SpainWe examine the impact of multiple household-levelsubsistence strategies on landscape dynamics within amodeling environment called AP-SIM, which couplesABM, GIS, vegetation, and climate models to permitsimulation experiments on human-environmentalinteractions. Within AP-SIM, household agents makedecisions about farming and herding strategies, basedupon their surrounding landscape. These farming andherding practices then feed into models of landscapechange. In the AP-SIM environment, we compare thesocio-ecological consequences of different strategies asa series of 'experiments' focused on Neolithic hamlets ina recreated Holocene landscape of the Penaguila Valley(eastern Spain).Bergin, Sean M. [42] see Roberts, Christopher M. [36]see Ullah, Isaac I.Bernal, Darío [92] see Domínguez-Bella, SalvadorBernal, Judy (California State University LongBeach), Gregory Holk (The Institute for IntegratedResearch in Materials, Environments, and Societies,CSU, Long Beach), Carl Lipo (The Institute forIntegrated Research in Materials, Environments, andSocieties, CSU, Long Beach) and Hector Neff (TheInstitute for Integrated Research in Materials,Environments, and Societies, CSU, Long Beach)[5] An Experimental Study of Mineralogical Changes andHydrogen Isotope Fractionation in CeramicPyrotechnologyThe study of mineralogical and isotopic changes withinexperimental ceramics provides insight into ancient firingtechnology. Here, we investigate changes that occurwithin ceramics as a function of time and temperature.Using TGA, XRD, and PIMA spectroscopy we observethe formation of new minerals that result from thedehydration of talc and quartz at two temperature ranges.In addition, we show that dehydration processes thattake place during firing result changes in hydrogenisotope fractionation. These findings support thedevelopment of techniques that allow researchers tostudy variability in the dynamics of pyrotechnology usedin the manufacture of ceramic objects.Bernaldo de Quiros, Federico, Jose Manuel Maillo(UNED) and Ana Neira (Universidad de Leon)[218] Beahavioral changes in the Middle-UpperPaleolithic transition in Cantabria (Spain) from a historicalview"The transition between the Middle to Upper Palaeolithicpresents in the Cantabrian Region a series ofpeculiarities that force us to question the classic visionbased in the presence of the so called "modern"behaviour. The revision of the ideas proposed about thisquestion in the history of investigations at the Cantabrianarea suggests a interesting way to understand theevolution of investigators ideas about the transition andhow the discoveries change this visions.‖Bernardini, Wesley (University of Redlands), AliciaBarnash (University of Redlands) and NathanStrout (Redlands Institute, University of Redlands)[139] ―Process Cartography‖ and the Ancestral HopiLandscapeWhile GIS excels at static depictions of space it isrelatively weak in dynamic representations of changeover time or movement across a landscape. That is,while GIS is a good tool for ―mapping people‖ it is weakat facilitating the process of ―people mapping‖ – atrepresenting the reflexive process by which peopleunderstand and experience landscapes, and landscapesin turn shape the cosmology of the peoples who inhabitthem. This poster presents an example of ―processcartography‖ designed to facilitate a virtual yetexperiential exploration of the ancestral Hopi landscape.[79] DiscussantBernardini, Wesley [134] see Theuer, Jason G. [134]see Schachner, GregsonBernatz, Michele (SUNY Fredonia)[102] Near Earth and Sky: The Spatial Realm of theMaya God LMaya art incorporates enigmatic characters while recentscholarship connects it more closely than ever to realworld places. Artists imagine a discernible reality evenwhen visualizing obscure essences and otherworldlyattributes. Though sometimes pervasive, the territories ofgods are definable spaces to be entered and exited asneeded. Traditional commentaries describe God L as anunderworld dweller living deep within the earth. Incontrast, this paper re-defines God L‘s realm as aborderland of earth and sky. His territory encompassesspaces where material wealth is produced, and hisstoryline narrates the spectacle of kings as purveyors ofmerchant trade.Bernbeck, Reinhard (Freie Universitaet Berlin)[122] From Archaeological Knowledge to Narrativeswithout SubjectsSome basic elements of archaeological knowledge areits fragmentary nature, lack of insight into actingcharacters and their motivations, and the impossibility ofgiving names to most of those whose material remainswe explore. Past people remain in a haze. In contrast,archaeological texts are overloaded with details on form,color, hardness, and other qualities of materials. I arguethat the French literary form of the nouveau romanprovides useful guidelines for the construction ofnarratives that do justice to subjects in the past. "Doingjustice" means resisting the temptation to colonize thepast with the subjects of our imagination.[122] First Chair [122] Second OrganizerBerry, Kimberly (Boston University)[238] Thirty Years of Wetland Research at Pulltrouser

50ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGSwamp: Extracting Ourselves and Meaning from theClay-rich SedimentsOver 30 years ago, Peter Harrison and B.L. Turnerconducted seminal research on the settlements adjoiningPulltrouser Swamp and the ―raised fields‖ that theyargued were constructed and used for agriculture byancient Maya people. Fifteen years ago that stance waschallenged by researchers who maintained that these―fields‖ were natural formations that may, at most, havebeen casually modified early and later abandoned due torising water levels and uplift from gypsum precipitation.To resolve this issue, the K‘axob Wetlands Project hasexamined artifacts, ecofacts, and microstratigraphic thinsectionsfrom the region. This paper presents ourfindings and conclusions.Berryman, Judy [115] see Stone, SuzanneBertrando, Ethan (Cuesta College/California ArmyNational Guard)[150] Culture as Constraint on Costly Signaling Theory:Gender Roles and Social Stratification Influencing―Show-Off‖ Behavior and the Archaeological Record inCentral California.Efforts to explain prehistoric shifts in hunting behavioridentified in the Great Basin and California havestimulated a vigorous debate on the application andarchaeological interpretation of Costly Signaling Theory.Increases in big game identified in the archaeologicalrecord of the Late Holocene have been viewed as male―Show-Off‖ behavior to improve male Darwinian fitness.Alternate views suggest intensification or climate changemay be responsible for this pattern. In this study,anthropologically inferred gender roles and socialstratification are considered to explain clearly divergenthunting patterns in the Late Holocene of CentralCalifornia.[150] First ChairBethard, Jonathan [156] see Gaither, CatherineBettinger, Robert (University of California-Davis)[230] Aboriginal Use of the White Mountains, EasternCaliforniaThe White Mountain alpine zone (>10,000 ft) documentssubstantial changes in aboriginal land use through time.The pre-bow pattern is characterized by short-termoccupations connected with large game hunting. Themore intensive post-bow pattern features villages withwell-built houses and midden deposits as rich, andmilling assemblages as extensive, as any found on theadjacent valley floor. White Mountain alpine villages andvalley floor villages developed simultaneously inresponse to population growth that diminishedopportunities for mobility. Both changes are likelyconnected with the late prehistoric spread of Numicspeaking peoples across the Great Basin.Bettinger, Robert [43] see Richerson, Peter JBeyin, Amanuel (Turkana Basin Institute, stonyBrook University)[171] Early to Middle Holocene shoreline adaptations innortheast Africa: Analogies and contrasts betweencoastal Eritrea and Lake Turkana (northern Kenya)This paper compares technological and subsistencepatterns between two early to middle Holocene shorelineadaptations in northeast Africa: Eritrea‘s Red Sea Coast,and Kenya‘s Lake Turkana. The Turkana Basin yieldedthe region‘s first data on early Holocene socio-economictransformations (e.g., aquatic intensification, initialceramic technology). A recent research project on theBuri Peninsula and Gulf of Zula coastal plains of Eritreadocumented Early-Mid Holocene (8000-5000 BP) shellmidden sites. Comparing the two regions shows someparallels and contrasts. For example, while humanssubsisted primarily on fish in the interior lakeshoresettlements, mollusk shells were the typical resources atthe coastal sites.[171] First ChairBeyries, Sylvie (CNRS)[59] How to model the results of functional analyses?Use wear analysis is based on a comparative approachassociated with various forms of experimentation.Experiments can take several forms depending on thegoals of individual studies, ranging from standardizedexperiments used to address specific archaeologicalproblems or more customized experimental designs usedin ethnographical contexts to reconstruct behavioralprocesses. It would be a mistake to consider one type ofexperiment as being superior to any other; different kindsof experiments are suited to addressing different kinds ofquestions. For an effective modeling of experimentalresults, whatever approach is taken, due diligence mustbe paid in terms of methodological rigor.[22] DiscussantBezerra De Almeida, Marcia (Universidade Federal doPará/CNPq/Brasil) [268] Second OrganizerBezy, Philippe[102] Sound and Space: Maya Shell Trumpets in RitualPerformancesArchaeological contexts for Precolumbian Maya shelltrumpets demonstrate that these wind instruments wereembued with supernatural qualities independent of theirbeing actively played. Iconography also providesexamples of shell trumpet use in varied contexts, thusoffering additional perspectives into ancient Maya spatialconcepts. Of particular significance are representationsof shell trumpet use in ritual performance. The sharing ofthe same pictorial space by deified ancestors andhumans allows an examination of the perceivedpermeable boundary between the real world andsupernatural spaces. The Maya also required specificspecies for specialized rituals, which encourages furtherexploration of related spatial concepts.Bhiry, Najat [159] see Gendron, Daniel [25] see Roy,Natasha [25] see Lemus-Lauzon, IsabelBianchini, Gina, Rita Scheel-Ybert (MuseuNacional/UFRJ), Maria Dulce Gaspar (MuseuNacional/UFRJ) and Paulo Antônio DantasDeBlasis (Universidade de São Paulo/USP)[253] [Tropical feasting by the edge of the sea:evidences of plant use in a funerary shellmound site fromSouthern Brazil]Anthracological analysis from Jabuticabeira-IIshellmound site presents evidence of plant selectionrelated to mortuary practices. Sediments from excavated

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 51areas were sampled and charcoal remains obtained byflotation. Results demonstrate that the site was locatedon restinga environment, but Atlantic Rain Forest wasalso part of their catchment area; Lauraceae wood wasprobably selected for burial fencing and relatedstructures; and, also, the presence of edible plants (fruitsseeds and nuts) strictly associated to funerary structurescorroborates the hypotheses of feasting and/or mortuaryofferings.Bicho, Nuno [4] see Haws, Jonathan A.Bickle, Penny [255] see Whittle, AlasdairBiehl, Peter (SUNY Buffalo), Ingmar Franz (FreiburgUniversity), David Orton (Cambridge University),Sonia Ostaptchouk (Paris University) and EvaRosenstock (Free University Berlin)[26] Rethinking the Neolithic-Chalcolithic Transition inCentral AnatoliaThe paper scrutinizes the process of cultural, social,economic and symbolic transition between the Neolithicand Chalcolithic in Central Anatolia as revealed at theÇatalhöyük East and West Mounds. It will situate thetransition in the palaeo-environmental changes in theKonya plain and will examine how humans responded tothe climate change that occurred during the 8200 calBP‗climate event‘. The key hypothesis is that the change inclimate and environment caused people to movewestwards into Western Anatolia and across Europe.Çatalhöyük offers a microcosm that may help us unlocksome of the key questions surrounding this time period.[26] First ChairBies, Michael (BLM Worland FO), Neffra Matthews(BLM National Operations Center) and Tommy Noble(BLM National Operations Center)[60] Baseline Data Collection With Close RangePhotogrammetryThe utility of close range photogrammetry as a means ofestablishing a baseline data set for future analysis ofimpacts to petroglyphs is examined in this paper. Duringthe 2009 and 2010 field seasons close rangephotogrammetry was conducted on petroglyph panels inproximity to a potential bentonite mine and haul road.Several panels were imaged during both field seasons.This paper discusses the reproduction of comparableimage sets for rock surfaces without permanent artificialreference points. The paper will also address the use of3D modeling to compare surface change over time.Bigelow, Nancy [159] see Hoffecker, John F. [159] seeAlix, Claire [25] see Crawford, Laura J.Bigney, Scott (California State University DominguezHills), Janine Gasco (California State UniversityDominguez Hills, Department of Anthropology) andHector Neff (California State University Long Beach,Department of Anthropology)[62] Characterization of Obsidian from Five LatePostclassic sites in the Soconusco Region of Chiapas,MexicoObsidian exchange is a common activity among complexsocieties wherever obsidian exists; this is especially truefor Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican societies. This is a studyof 348 obsidian artifacts from five Late Postclassic sitesin the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. The mainobjectives are to chemically characterize each obsidianartifact using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and to bestcharacterize the artifacts to a specific quarry source inorder to observe the obsidian distribution. This study hasthe potential to elucidate political and economic factorssuch as obsidian exchange systems, and contributetowards defining the Aztec occupation of the region.Biittner, Katie (University of Alberta)[109] Characterization of Stone Age Lithic Artifacts fromSouthern TanzaniaMacroscopic and microscopic techniques were used todescribe lithic artifacts from two Stone Age rocksheltersin Iringa region, southwestern Tanzania. This approachallowed for the accurate characterization of the stone rawmaterial types in order to evaluate inter- and intraassemblagevariability, as well as the inference ofpotential source locations. The implications ofunderstanding differential resource use are explored inthe context of the selection of local versus non-localsources.Bill, Cassandra R. [31] see Szirmay, Jenica [31] seeBell, Ellen E.Billard, Claire (Student in Mesoamerican archaeologydir. Faugere)[98] Gods and human beings: anthropomorphicrepresentations in highland Mexico from Preclassic toEpiclassicIn this presentation we will follow the iconographicevolutions of the anthropomorphic representation of theOld God of Fire. From the Preclassic to the Epiclassicwhat evolutions can we really notice in therepresentations of this god ? How particular are theserepresentations of the Old God of Fire compared withother anthropomorphic icones ? We will explore all thesequestions during the event of the SAA.Billo, Evelyn [60] see Mark, Robert K.Billy, Nora (Xaxli'p First Nation), SuzanneVilleneuve (Simon Fraser University), ArthurAdolph (Xaxli'p First Nation), Naoko Endo (SimonFraser University) and Eric Carlson (University ofMontana)[176] Results of the Sxetl‘ Basket Excavations at Six MileRapids along the Fraser River, British ColumbiaSalmon fishing has been a primary economic resourcefor the Stl‘átl‘imx people for generations. Oral historiesdocument a long tradition of fishing at Sxetl‘ (Six MileRapids), one of the most productive salmon fishinglocations along the Fraser River and a place of deeplyembedded social and symbolic importance. Excavationsof a well preserved intact large birch bark storagecontainer recovered from the Billy camp, and detailedbotanical, lithic, faunal, chemical, entomological, andDNA analysis help reconstruct a story of generations ofpractice and provide us with some of the firstarchaeological insights at these fishing grounds.Bilton, David (University of Toronto) and BrynLetham (University of Toronto)[232] Beyond the River: A Look at the Intersections ofLandscape and Culture in shíshálh Prehistory

52ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGNorthern Coast Salish peoples did not have access tomajor rivers equal in size and resources to the Fraser. Assuch, their existence within and use of the landscapediffers in important respects from the southern CoastSalish. Through survey and excavations within Shíshálhtraditional territory, we compare patterns of land usewithin our study area and with the wider Salish Searegion. We present a detailed study of human existencewithin a landscape not dominated by a major salmon run,and consider how this affects our understanding of theculture/ecology paradigm embedded in the Gulf ofGeorgia cultural sequence.Bingham, Paul (Stony Brook University) and JoanneSouza (Stony Brook University)[43] The Unique Power of the North American RecordAllows Tests of a New Theory of Social EvolutionThe archaeological record reveals dramatic localincreases in social complexity ranging from the―agricultural‖ Anasazi to the ―non-agricultural‖ Chumash.Our new theory of human evolution and history (2008,JTheoretBiol. 253, 261; 2009, ―Death from a Distanceand the Birth of a Humane Universe‖) predicts that allsocial revolutions result from increases in social scale,produced, in turn, by new coercive technologiespermitting enlarged scale of control of conflicts ofinterest. Remarkably, the bow‘s arrival in North Americaprecedes diverse local social revolutions precisely aspredicted. We will review evidence for this strong claimand its crucial, general implications for archaeology.Binning, Jeanne (California Department ofTransportation) and Alan P. Garfinkel (AECOM)[231] The Manifestation of Clovis in the Far WesternUnited States: An Example from Inyo County, CaliforniaThere are two questions every researcher asks of Clovisdata from the Far Western, continental United States: 1.)Are Clovis points from the Far West within themorphological range of Clovis points from other parts ofthe continental United States? 2.) Are Clovis points fromthe Far West contemporaneous with the narrow timeperiod within which Clovis lifeways have beenestablished in the Southwestern, Midwestern andEastern United States? An obsidian Clovis point fromInyo County, California provides an opportunity toaddress these questions.Birch, Jennifer (University of Georgia)[86] Settlement Aggregation and Social Transformation:Negotiating community in the context of coalescenceAt various times and places throughout the globe,dispersed populations coalesced, coming together intoincreasingly large and complex social aggregates. Whilemany studies of settlement aggregation have focused onthe regional level, the actual mechanisms for thedevelopment and maintenance of new social formationsdeveloped within individual communities. How do wereconcile community-level processes and contingencieswith regional perspectives on settlement aggregation?This paper will introduce some of the overarching themesof this session and introduce an example from easternNorth America that provides new insights into the socialtransformations which occurred within local populationsin the context of coalescence.[86] First ChairBirch, Jennifer [55] see Pihl, RobertBird, Douglas [192] see Bird, Rebecca [74] seeZeanah, David W. [11] see Codding, Brian F.Bird, Rebecca (Stanford University), Douglas Bird(Stanford University) and Brian Codding (StanfordUniversity)[192] Foraging with Fire: identifying anthropogenic fireregimes in Western AustraliaIn Western Australia, Martu frequently use fire whileforaging. We show that Martu burning functions toincrease immediate hunting returns with sand monitorlizards, but also has some epiphenomenal benefits. Bothof these hinge on differences in scale between humanand lightning caused fires. Human fires occur at a scalecharacteristic to human foraging. The resultingsuccessional mosaic is more diverse than a lightingmosaic at the human scale, but is indistinguishable atlarger scales. As such, attempts to indentify differencesin human vs. lightning fires in the past will requiremethods capable of operating at this characteristichuman scale.Biro, Peter (Abteilung fur Altamerikanistik)[221] A New Epigraphic Interpretation of TerminalClassic Northern Maya Lowlands HistoryAndrews and Robles Castellanos (1985) proposed aninterpretation of Terminal Classic Northern Mayalowlands suggesting that ethnic Itza invaded the areaand occupied Chichen Itza, creating a stand-off betweenPuuc Maya and Coba territories. Northern city collapseswere directly connected to this invasion, and Coba wasabandoned due to attacks and isolation around AD 1100.Using new epigraphic data, I suggest Coba wasabandoned in the early 800s and there is no evidence ofoccupation, attack, or any Chichen Itza-related activity,contrary to Andrews and Robles. Instead, I propose anew Terminal Classic history based on epigraphic andcolonial data.Bishop, Ronald [187] see Canouts, VelettaBiskowski, Martin (California State University,Sacramento)[200] Aztec and Postconquest Food Preparation in theEastern Teotihuacan ValleyComparisons of Aztec and Postconquest grinding toolsfrom Charlton‘s surveys in the eastern TeotihuacanValley highlight important continuities and changes inapproaches to staple food preparation. Both Aztec andPostconquest maize-grinding used gracile manos. Theselightweight artifacts sharply differentiate later collectionsfrom more robust, earlier grinding equipment andprobably reflect a greater intensity of maize preparation.On the other hand, Postconquest tools are less diverse inform. This change may reflect both changes in grindingtool production and a decrease in the variety ofalternative foods in use in Postconquest times.Bissett, Thaddeus (University of Tennessee,Knoxville) and Stephen Carmody (University ofTennessee, Knoxville)[129] Diet breadth in the Middle Archaic Midsouth:Paleobotanical and faunal evidence for resourceabundance during the Hypsithermal Interval.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 53Paleobotanical and faunal data from the Midsouth andlower Midwest suggest that Middle Archaic foragersfocused intensely on a relatively few major plant andanimal resources. In that area, the Mid-Holocene wasmarked by warmer, drier conditions associated with theHypsithermal Interval, which has in some cases beensuggested as a period of resource stress. Substantialcontraction of diet breadth during the peak of theHypsithermal runs counter to such arguments. Evidencefor increasing social complexity in this region during thelate Middle Archaic may reflect the effects of highresource abundance during, rather than after, theHypsithermal Interval.Blackman, M. James [200] see Fournier, Patricia [187]see Canouts, VelettaBlackwell, Bonnie (Williams College), A.E Deely (RFKScience Research Institute), M.R. Kleindienst(University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga,ON), J.R. Smith (University of Washington at St.Louis), Christopher Hill (Boise State University,Boise, ID) and Christopher Hill (Williams College,Williamstown, MA; RFK Science Research Institute)[218] Dating the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in the EgyptianHigh Desert Oases: Constraining Occupations at Kharga,Dakhleh, and Bir TarfawiToday, the Western Desert is hyperarid. In the 1930's,MSA occurrences associated with Pleistocene lacustrinesediment and spring tufa near Kharga were typologicallysequenced. Now, 230Th/234U tufa dates and ESR fossiltooth and mollusc dates pinpoint when surface water andsavannas permitted human occupation. Bir Tarfawi sawbeach sands deposited at 110 ka (OIS 5d). At Kharga,freshwater and savannas existed at 365-275 ka (OIS 9-10), 245-265 ka (OIS 8). At Dakhleh and Kharga, theyexisted at 235-95 ka (OIS 7e-5b), with pulses at ~70 ka(early OIS 4), ~50 ka (mid OIS 3), and ~15Blackwell, Bonnie [2] see Zhou, Cathy XYBlainey, Marc (Tulane University)[41] Techniques of Luminosity: Iron-Ore Mirrors asEvidence of Shamanistic Practice among the AncientMayaShamanism persists as a contentious issue amongarchaeologists. On the one hand, many scholarscontinue to identify prehistoric forms of shamanism,claiming to have found examples across the ancientworld of what Mircea Eliade called ―techniques ofecstasy.‖ However, other scholars have denounced theapplication of the ―shamanism‖ label to cultures outsideof the concept‘s original Siberian and Central Asiancontext. With reference to the cultural remains of theancient Maya, this paper analyzes how archaeological,iconographic, and ethnohistoric instances of iron-oreartifacts termed ―mirrors‖ are most effectively interpretedas evidence for shamanistic practices in ancient Mayasociety.[41] First ChairBlair, Elliot (UC Berkeley) and Rachel Cajigas(American Museum of Natural History)[10] Mapping the Mission: An Integrated Geochemicaland Geophysical Analysis of Site Structure at 17thcenturyMission Santa Catalina de GualeThe use of geochemical soil analyses has a long historyin archaeological site prospection, and the multi-elementanalysis of archaeological soils to identify activity areas isbecoming increasingly common. Here, we combine bothapproaches to conduct a multi-scalar, multi-elementalanalysis of site structure and feature function at theNative village of 17th century Mission Santa Catalina(Georgia). Using systematically collected soil samplesanalyzed by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we makeinferences about settlement structure and identifyspecific activity areas, integrating our results withpreviously collected geophysical survey data.Blake, Emma [89] see Schon, RobertBlake, Karry (Statistical Research, Inc.) and RobertM. Wegener (Statistical Research, Inc.)[80] The Alamo Dam Area: A Lithic ProcurementLandscape in West Central ArizonaThe Alamo Dam area of west central Arizona is oftencharacterized as peripheral to the major cultural groupsassociated with prehistoric habitation of Arizona.Research in this region has identified numerous sitesconsisting of low-density lithic scatters and seldomevidence of prolonged use or habitation. SRI‘s recent3000 acre survey, supported by U.S. Army Corps ofEngineers ARRA funding, resulted in recordation of 37additional lithic scatters located primarily in bajadasettings. We examine these lithic scatters in a regionalland-use framework and the aboriginal use of locallyubiquitous lithic raw materials in the Alamo Dam region.Blake, Michael (University of British Columbia)[232] Modeling Territories along the Northern Shores ofthe Salish SeaThe ways in which people travel on both land and seahave long been recognized as a key factors indetermining how territories are defined and used.Territoriality in the Coast Salish region was highlystructured by both the modes of movement and thedistinctive attributes of the landscape and seascape. Ipropose a model of Coast Salish territoriality thatincorporates the technology of transportation on waterand on land to show how this unique set of social,technological, and environmental factors contributed,paradoxically, to both intensive interaction and tosustained regionalism among the peoples of the SalishSea.[232] see Schaepe, David M.Blakeslee, Donald (Wichita State University)[7] Capturing Process: Stacked Outline Analysis in LithicStudiesArchaeologists analyzing chipped stone toolassemblages deal with the products of a series ofprocesses: wear, resharpening, breakage, repair,recycling and so on. In this paper, I present a techniquethat captures shape data exclusively, while allowing all ofthe items in an assemblage to be viewed simultaneouslyrather than sequentially as the eye moves from one itemto the next. This allows visualization of the fundamentalprocesses involved in making and using stone tools andallows testing of the (necessarily) extensive definitions ofthe analytical classes we create. Elaborations of thebasic technique allow other forms of analysis.

54ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGBlet-Lemarquand, Maryse [100] see Dussubieux, LaureBliege Bird, Rebecca [74] see Zeanah, David W.Blinman, Eric (NM Archaeology), H. Wolcott Toll (NMArchaeology) and Steve Lakatos (NM Archaeology)[37] The Galisteo Basin and the Perception of theClassic Period in the Northern Rio GrandePerception of the Classic period in the Galisteo Basinhas both reflected and shaped our models of Puebloanhistory. Pueblos with 100s to 1000s of rooms, dominanceof maize subsistence, and katsina religious institutionsare reflected in plaza pueblos, rock art, and potterytraditions. This ―Classic‖ manifestation is seen as thetransition from the tumult of Pueblo migrations to thepeoples encountered by the Spanish andanthropologists. The detailed historical narrative is farmore interesting, within a strong rhythm of adaptation toclimate change, intraregional population movement,complicated patterns of settlement aggregation, andunderlying ethnolinguistic diversity.Bloch, Lindsay (UNC-Chapel Hill)[207] Trends in Redware Use and Production in theChesapeakeCoarse earthenwares, exemplified by redwares, arenearly ubiquitous on historic sites of the seventeenth tomid-nineteenth century. The limited range of forms andglazes, coupled with abundant manufacturing sites in theChesapeake and beyond leaves the provenience ofthese wares often uncertain. Through comparativeanalysis of domestic site assemblages across the region,spatial patterning in the attributes of these waresemerge. These patterns signal distinct uses and possiblydistinct production origins for piedmont and coastalassemblages. Tracing networks from producer toconsumer allows consideration of the social andeconomic relationships of American craftspersons withintheir communities and beyond.Blong, John (Texas A&M University)[181] Prehistoric Upland Use in the Central AlaskaRangeCurrent research into Central Alaskan lithic assemblagevariability centers on landscape use to explain thedecision to use inset microblade versus bifacial lithictechnology. Critical to this research is balancing thedepth of knowledge from lowland archaeological siteswith evidence from the uplands. In summer 2010 weconducted archaeological survey in the Savage andSusitna River drainages in the uplands of the centralAlaska Range to document prehistoric land use fromearliest human occupation to less than 1,000 years ago.This data will inform hypotheses of landscape use andlithic assemblage variability in the region.Blustain, Jonah (University of Nevada, Reno)[208] Down from on High: Archaeological Investigationsof Cornish Row‘s Industrial Landscape, Virginia City, NV.Initial survey of the slopes of Mount Davidson nearVirginia City, Nevada revealed a series of abandonedplatforms alongside historic Howard Street. Theplatforms comprised part of what was historically anethnically Cornish neighborhood that existed betweenc.1865 and c.1885. The Cornish miners were integral tothe extraction of the Comstock ore due to theirknowledge of hardrock mining techniques. Test unitswere inserted on the platforms to determine how thesespaces were used and by what means they wereconstructed. The excavation in conjunction with historicaldata will provide vital information regarding theconstruction of the Comstock‘s industrial landscape.Blustain, Malinda (Robert S. Peabody Museum ofArchaeology) [196] First Chair [196] see Doheny,Marcelle A [196] see Hagler, Jeremiah CBoada, Ana (University of Pittsburgh)[68] The Evolution of Social Inequality in MuiscaSocieties of the Sabana de Bogotá, ColombiaThe purpose of this paper is to use two models toanalyze the relationship between regional populationdistribution and prime agricultural land, using datacollected from a regional systematic surface survey of240mk² conducted in the Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia.The first model states populations congregate aroundprestigious and wealthy families (Drennan 1987). Thesecond states that a few individuals appropriate andcontrol basic resources such as land, labor, or water(Earle 1991, Gilman 1991). This analysis contributes tothe evaluation of models explaining the emergence ofearly communities and development of social complexity.Bocherens, Herve [205] see Julien, Marie-AnneBocinsky, R. Kyle [70] see Newbold, Bradley [46] seeChisholm, Brian S.Boczkiewicz, Roberta (University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee)[104] An Analysis of the Schlage Site FaunalAssemblage: Animal Exploitation in an Eastern OneotaDevelopment Horizon SettlementThe Schlage site is a single component Oneotaoccupation situated near the eastern shores of LakeWinnebago, in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin.Excavations of the site below the roadbed of USH 151yielded a faunal assemblage of over 12,000 elements.The faunal assemblage suggests a diverse diet ofterrestrial mammals including elk, deer, bear, raccoon,beaver, porcupine, rabbit, squirrel, chipmunk and canidsas well as fish, water birds, reptiles, amphibians andfreshwater mollusks. Bison elements, sometimes foundin Eastern Oneota assemblages, are not present but thehigh reliance on fish is typical of most excavated Oneotafaunal assemblages[104] see Boczkiewicz, RobertaBoehm, Andrew (Southern Methodist University)[6] Experimental Bison Butchery: A New Mexico StudyThis study documents the butchery of an American bisonas part of an on-going effort to examine the range ofhuman variation in butchery practices. An individual withyears of experience butchering bison and other largemammals butchered the bison used in this study withstone tools. To be comparable with data from previousstudies, all portions of the animal were weighed andmeasured and the time required to butcher particularelements was recorded. This study also reports thecorrelation between tool strokes and cut marks toevaluate previous experimental conclusions regardingprocessing intensity.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 55Boehm, Matthew [240] see Foster, ThomasBoeka Cannon, Molly [57] see Cannon, Kenneth P.Boggess, Douglas (Lone Mountain ArchaeologicalServices, Inc.), Richard Lundin (Wondjina ResearchInstitute) and Claudia Brackett (Country Chemist,California State University-Stanislaus, and theUniversity of the Pacific)[193] Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyses of Plantand Soil samples at Two Sites in Southeastern NewMexicoThe identification of archaeological sites and features inthe Mescalero Sands of southeastern New Mexico hasdepended on our ability to spot these remains on erodedand partially eroded surfaces. Eolian processes canexpose and rebury archaeological remains rapidly, andidentifying portions of sites still buried within sandsheetsthat are likely to yield additional significant data hassometimes relied on destructive mechanical processes.X-Ray Fluorescence analyses of plant and soil sampleswere tested as a possible alternative to mechanicalscraping during the data recovery of LA 99434 and thetesting of LA 154539 with promising results.Bohor, Bruce [142] see Arnold, Dean E.Bolender, Douglas (Kenyon College)[198] The production of intra- and inter-householdsurplus in Viking Age political economiesThe Viking Age settlement of Iceland fractured politicalstructures as early colonists claimed individual householdproperties. During the initial settlement, productionstrategies were based on complex stratified householdsconsisting of landowning families with dependentlaborers and slaves. While inequality within thehousehold could be profound there was relatively littleinstitutionalized hierarchy among households. Aspopulation rose and the landscape filled in with additionalfarms significant inter-household stratification emerged.This paper compares the political context of surplusproduction for consumption within the household tosurplus production for consumption outside thehousehold, primarily as rents between landlords andtenants.[42] see Schreiner, Amanda MarieBoley, Michael [179] see Gabler, Brandon M.Bolfing, Christopher (Texas State University - SanMarcos) and S. Margaret Spivey (WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis)[166] The Practice of Archaeology and Identity Formationamong Disenfranchised Native AmericansVarious types of disenfranchisement have inspired arising trend among Native American peoples to pursuean education in academic archaeology. The disciplinebecomes both a search for archaeological information inthe traditional sense and a search for answers about theself. This trend contrasts the idea of performingarchaeology as an act of preserving a cultural past.Rather, it is the active creation of a new identity. Thisidentity is informed by the knowledge of the past and anunderstanding of the changes in culture that areinterpreted within the context of present struggles andexperiences.Bomalaski, Anne [167] see Massey, DavidBon-Harper, Sara [207] see Smith, Karen Y.Bond, Kristina (Humboldt State University), ToddBraje (Humboldt State University), Torben Rick(Smithsonian Institution), Jon Erlandson (Universityof Oregon) and Gaia Dragosani (Humboldt StateUniversity)[263] Anthropogenic Forcing on the Structure of Intertidaland Near Shore Ecosystems: Evidence from Otter Point,San Miguel IslandArchaeological data on deep historical interactionsbetween indigenous people and near shore ecosystemscan offer important insights on marine ecosystem andfisheries restoration. We use archaeological records ofmaritime hunting, fishing, and gathering at Otter Point,with 13 discrete components dated between ~7300 yearsago and AD 1820, to investigate the long-term ecologicalhistory of shellfish, finfish, and sea mammal use on SanMiguel Island. Although there is some continuity in preyspecies through time, human exploitation resulted insignificant temporal fluctuations in the average size ofshellfish and changes in the relative abundances ofshellfish, fish, and sea mammals.Boney, Chris [12] see Garvey, JillianBonsall, Clive (University of Edinburgh), IvanaRadovanovic (University of Kansas), AdinaBoroneant (Archaeological Institute, Bucharest,Romania), Catriona Pickard (University of Edinburgh,UK) and Gordon Cook (Scottish UniversitiesEnvironmental research Centre, East Kilbride, UK)[255] Distinguishing between freshwater- and terrestrialbaseddiets? The case of the Iron Gates MesolithicStable isotopes are used routinely to reconstruct ancientdiets. Analysis of human remains from sites in the IronGates (SE Europe) has led to conflicting interpretationsof Mesolithic diets. One view (Radiocarbon 2004) is thatdiets were based on riverine resources throughout theMesolithic. A competing hypothesis (J Arch Sci 2010)argues that Mesolithic diets were more varied, with theemphasis on terrestrial resources in the Early Mesolithic,and riverine resources only becoming important in theLater Mesolithic. Our paper revisits this issue, discussingthe stable isotopic data in relation to archaeozoological,osteoarchaeological and radiocarbon evidence.Boomgarden, Joel (University of Utah)[91] Experimental Archaeology: Granary Construction inRange Creek Canyon, UtahOf the over 400 sites recorded in Range Creek Canyon,Utah, since 2002, nearly 25% are storage sites. Theseconsist of cists, caches, and granaries. The granariesinitially appeared quite costly to construct. The building oftwo experimental granaries, one located under anoverhang and one out in the open, allowed a measure ofcosts associated with construction and maintenance. Thesize, time invested and amount of water used weremeasured. The granaries were filled with corn and leftunattended for the year. The results will be discussed.Boone, Cristie (University of California, Santa

56ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGCruz) and Diane Gifford-Gonzalez (University ofCalifornia, Santa Cruz)[222] The Fauna from QuirosteFine-grained recovery methods permitted insights into awide range of faunal taxa at Quiroste. The archaeofaunacomprises mainly mammal and fish remains. Fishes arenearshore species, dominated by pricklebacks andsurfperches, with significant numbers of rockfishes. Theassemblage also includes small schooling fishes,greenlings, sculpins, and salmonids. Taxa reflectexploitation of sandy beach and rocky intertidal zones.Mammal specimens are mainly mule deer-sizedruminants and smaller mammals, with a smallrepresentation of carnivores, including rare northern furseal. The low representation of birds at Quirostecontrasts with that of earlier and contemporaneousassemblages from the region, suggesting culturalselectivity.Booth, Kimberlie (Pima Community College)[137] Projectile Point Typology and Distribution in theBurro Creek/Pine Creek Survey AreaProjectile points are prevalent on the sites of the BurroCreek/Pine Creek area, with both dart and arrow pointscommonly occurring. The survey conducted by PimaCommunity College includes the collection of suchdiagnostic artifacts. This poster summarizes thetypologies of the projectile points found, along with ananalysis of the distribution of each type in the surveyareas. Such analyses should help to elucidate thetemporal placement of the sites.Borchardt, Nikki [18] see Roberts, HeidiBorck, Lewis (University of Arizona)[136] A Gallina Gateway: Movement and migrationthrough the ancestral puebloan landscapeIn the highlands of northern New Mexico, the Gallinaculture existed as what many call a peripheral group.Recent research, however, is indicating that far frombeing peripheral, the mere presence of the Gallinainformed decisions made by members of the larger, more‗modern‘ Ancestral Puebloan world. The Gallina, using atraditionalist identity to enact a course of resistancethrough isolation, eventually forced many other people tomake choices regarding paths of movement and,particularly toward the end of the 13th century, paths ofmigration.Borgstede, Gregory [67] see Robinson, Eugenia J.Boroneant, Adina [255] see Bonsall, CliveBorrazzo, Karen [22] see Charlin, Judith E.Borrero, Luis Alberto [231] see Martin, Fabiana M.Boszhardt, Robert [229] see Pauketat, Timothy R.Boudreaux, Sarah (University of Texas at Austin),Marisol Cortes Rincon (Humboldt StateUniversity) and Jaimie Baxter (Humboldt StateUniversity)[148] Overview of Settlement Survey Studies atProgramme for Belize Archaeological Project (PfBAP)Settlement studies are essential in archaeology as theseinvestigations provide an array of information, includingsettlement hierarchies within a region. This paper willpresent an overview of previous survey research carriedout at the Programme for Belize Archaeological Projectand the methodology used by the Dos Hombres to GranCacao Settlement Survey Project (DH2GCSSP). Thebiodiversity between Dos Hombres and Gran Cacao isdense and immense. The project team recorded thelocation and layout of settlements (including ecologicalchanges) along the DH2GCSSP transect. Thisinterdisciplinary effort when placed in a GIS context, willyield a detailed picture of the region.Boudreaux, Sarah [148] see Cortes-Rincon, MarisolBoulanger, Matthew (University of Missouri) andMichael O'Brien (University of Missouri)[218] Variation and Innovation in the AmericanPaleolithic: Morphometric Analysis of EasternPaleoindian Projectile PointsSince their first association with remains of extinctmegafauna, fluted bifaces have been considereddiagnostic of the first inhabitants of North America.However, it remains unclear how various fluted pointstyles relate to each other, whether the continent-wideoccurrence of fluted points represents a singular culturalexpression, and if variants in point shape representadaptations to regional environments. Here, we employmorphometric analysis to evaluate fluted point forms fromthe eastern United States. We examine how these formsmay relate to each other and to the selectiveenvironments in which they occurred.Boutin, Alexis (Sonoma State University) andBenjamin Porter (University of California, Berkeley)[152] Dying in Dilmun: Revisiting the Peter B. CornwallCollectionThe Dilmun Bioarchaeology Project‘s goal is to study andpublish the results of Peter Cornwall‘s 1940-41expedition to Bahrain and eastern Saudi Arabia. Thecollection, which resides in the Hearst Museum ofAnthropology at UC Berkeley, aided Cornwall in relocatingancient Dilmun, a polity that ran along thewestern side of the Persian Gulf during the Bronze andIron Ages. Since 2008, the DBP has been analyzingthese skeletal and artifactual remains to understand theexperience of commemorating death in Dilmun. Theelaborate burial of an individual with a congenital growthdefect makes an important contribution to thisunderstanding.[217] Discussant [152] Second OrganizerBovy, Kristine M. [210] see Sterling, Sarah L.Bowden, Mark (English Heritage) and DavidMcOmish (English Heritage)[153] Archaeological mapping: the British traditionSince the 17th century the British have developed aparticular method of mapping archaeological remains inthe landscape; though often called ‗analytical earthworksurvey‘ it encompasses much more than the portrayal ofearthworks. In fact it attempts ‗total landscape history‘ inmapped form. The tradition owes much to the OrdnanceSurvey, Britain‘s national (and originally military) mappingorganisation, and Royal Commissions on HistoricalMonuments; it is not replicated in continental Europe or

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 57other non-Anglophone parts of the world. This paper willexplore the history of this tradition and how it mightevolve in the future.Bower, John[247] Serengeti Breakthrough: Opening the Door to CHMin Tanzania's World Famous Wildlife ParkThe first archaeological excavation in the SerengetiNational Park took place in 1971, when the authorexcavated a site threatened by construction of a gameviewing lodge. This was followed by excavations aimedat scientific discovery, not salvage, and supported by theSerengeti Research Institute. The work stretched overtwo decades, but was ultimately obstructed by park'smanagement on the basis of a "no excavation" clause innewly established management guidelines. This papersketches the developments that led to a reversal of thepark's "no excavation" policy and its replacement by acommitment to cultural heritage management.Boxt, Matthew (CSU Northridge), Mikael Fauvelle(CSU Northridge), L. Mark Raab (UMKC) and RebeccaB. González Lauck (Investigadora del Centro INAHTabasco, Mexico)[67] Archaeosols from Isla Alor in the La Venta OlmecHinterlandA flotation analysis of archaeological soils from Isla Alor,a farmstead in the La Venta Olmec hinterland, isreported. Evidence of diet, settlement, and long-distanceexchange from two distinct periods of occupation arediscussed. The kinds and quantities of Olmec andPostclassic data are strikingly similar, suggesting acontinuity of settlement and subsistence practices acrossmillennia and, most probably, cultures. Our findingsindicate that the lives of ordinary people in the shadow ofmajor Mesoamerican cities, such as La Venta, remainedrelatively stable despite dynamic urban shifts nearby.Boyd, Jon (Pima Community College) and JonathanHaller (Pima Community College)[137] Life on the Edge: Lithic sources in the BurroCreek/Pine Creek regionThe Burro Creek/Pine Creek Archaeological Survey haslocated sources for lithic materials. This has led to adeeper understanding of artifact types and materialsources for the region. This poster summarizes locationsand distribution of lithic sources and the materials foundat sites for the Burro Creek/Pine Creek region, providinginitial indications of primary use of local materials withlimited importation of lithic materials by the members ofthe Prescott culture in the Burro Creek/Pine Creek area.Boyd, Jon [137] see Boyd, Jon R.Boz, Basak (Thrace University Department ofArchaeology Edirne) and Lori Hager (ÇatalhöyükResearch Project)[152] Intramural Burial Practices at Çatalhöyük, CentralAnatolia, TurkeyThe study of intramural burials from the Neolithic site ofÇatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey, reveals complexburial customs lasting ~1400 years. Burying their dead inthe houses in main rooms, side rooms, under centralfloors and platforms, most interments were primary orprimary disturbed single events with fewer secondarycontext burials. The limited amount of space requiredmultiple uses of certain burial locales. Continuity in theuse of space vertically and horizontally suggests arelationship of the living to the dead where rememberingthe dead and forgetting the dead were part of the dailylives of the Çatalhöyük people.Bozarth, Steven [75] see Tomasic, John J.Brackett, Claudia [193] see Lundin, Richard J. [193]see Boggess, Douglas H M [158] see Howe, Mark L.Bradbury, Andrew [22] see Carr, Philip J. [257] seePrice, Sarah EBradley, James (Archlink)[196] Negotiating NAGPRAThe passage of NAGPRA added an unexpecteddimension to efforts at revitalizing the R. S. PeabodyMuseum in the early 1990s. Viewed as an opportunityrather than obstacle, NAGPRA became a major catalystin rebuilding the Museum. Some of the decisions madeduring that process are reviewed as well as how thosechoices affected my tenure on the NAGPRA ReviewCommittee from 1998 to 2004.Brady, James (Cal State L.A.)[266] Preliminary Observations on the Investigation ofMidnight Terror Cave, BelizeA survey and surface collection of Midnight Terror Cavewas conducted from 2008 to 2010 by the Western BelizeRegional Cave Project directed by Dr. Jaime Awe. Thispaper outlines the major findings of the project thatinclude the recovery and analysis of a ceramicassemblage of over 25,000 sherds, the documentation ofthe utilization of large speleothems as sacred space andthe recovery of a very large human osteologicalassemblage. The project recorded extensive modificationof the cave suggesting a systematic plan of constructionthat argues for the involvement of a planning entity at apolity level.[266] see Cobb, Allan B.Brady, Ryan [150] see Farquhar, Jennifer M.Braje, Todd (Humboldt State University), JonErlandson (University of Oregon) and Torben Rick(Smithsonian Institution)[123] Paleocoastal Technologies on California‘s NorthernChannel IslandsUntil recently, we knew very little about technologiesassociated with Terminal Pleistocene peoples on theNorthern Channel Islands. Our recent work has identifiedsix Paleocoastal sites dating between 12,200 and 11,400cal BP, producing the first comprehensive picture of earlymaritime technologies and their connections to otherearly traditions in western North America. Stemmedpoints and crescents suggest cultural links to theWestern Pluvial Lakes Tradition and a coastal migrationfrom northeast Asia into the Americas. Although muchhas been lost to rising seas, stemmed points found interminal Pleistocene sites from Japan to South Americasupport this scenario.Braje, Todd [263] see Bond, Kristina JBraly, Bobby (University of Tennessee), Todd

58ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGAhlman (Historical Research Associates, Inc.) andGerald Schroedl (University of Tennessee)[121] Expedient Stone and Glass Tools from EnslavedAfrican Contexts on St. Kitts‘ Southeastern PeninsulaSt. Kitts, the first permanent English Caribbean colony,was dominated by sugar monoculture. During the heightof the island‘s eighteenth century financial and politicalpower, the arid Southeast Peninsula was home toseveral sugar and cotton plantations. Recent excavationshave recovered considerable data relating to enslavedAfricans that worked these plantations, including arelatively large assemblage of stone and glass tools. Thestone tools are dominated by cores, bifacial flakes, andutilized flaked tools and the glass tools are primarilyunifacial scrappers. Most tools are made of local chertand were used to scrape wood or other soft material.[121] Third OrganizerBraly, Bobby [82] see Sullivan, Lynne P.Brandt, Steven (University of Florida) and LucasMartindale Johnson (University of Florida)[96] Lithics, Community Organization and Early StateFormation at the Pre-Aksumite site of Mezber, N.E.EthiopiaA second season of analyzing > 6000 lithics fromMezber, NE Ethiopia has expanded our knowledge ofPre-Aksumite technological/social organization. Local,possibly specialized knappers obtained obsidian (50%)and other raw materials from near-distant sources,possibly through/for trade. ―LSA‖-like assemblages,absent of foreign influence, were produced fromprepared and unprepared blade/flake, radial, and bipolarcores via direct and indirect percussion. Functional andactivity differences are suggested by raw materialspecifictypes and lithic variability between architecturalunits. We conclude with discussing the role of lithics inshaping Pre-Aksumite community activities/relations andearly state formation in N. Ethiopia/Eritrea during the 1stmillennium B.C.E.Brant, Erika [39] see Zori, ColleenBrashler, Janet (Grand Valley State University), LauraSherrod (University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown)and Donald Gaff (University of Northern Iowa)[115] Remote Sensing at the South Flats Earthwork,20MU2This paper presents results of a remote sensing projectconducted during the summer of 2010 at the South FlatsEarthwork located in Muskegon County, Michigan.George Quimby tested the site in 1937 and Grand ValleyState University returned in 2006 to reexamine the site.Results from this research, including mapping andexcavation data, suggested minimal disturbance and thepossibility of subsurface features. To explore thispossibility, both GPR and magnetometer surveys weredone at the site in 2010, making it possible to test severalhypotheses about the site structure and functiongenerated by earlier fieldwork.[115] First ChairBrashler, Janet [236] see Madden, Gwyn D.Braswell, Geoffrey (UC San Diego)[116] Production, Distribution, and Control: MayaObsidian in the Classic to Postclassic PeriodsObsidian or volcanic glass was subject to widespreadcirculation in ancient Mesoamerica. Yet there is littleevidence that Maya elites sought direct control ofoutcrops and quarry sites. Thus, elite control of thisimportant resource either: (1) did not exist; (2) wasmanifested in some other aspect of the means ofproduction; or (3) involved distribution rather production.This paper seeks to examine important changes in theproduction and distribution of obsidian as that materialbecame commodified during the Classic to Postclassicperiods.[224] Discussant [116] Third OrganizerBraun, David [97] see Dillian, CarolynBraun, Gregory (University of Toronto)[55] Ancestral smoke: social aspects of Iroquoianceramic productionThis paper investigates some of the social contexts andfunctional considerations underlying smoking pipe andpottery production at several Late Woodland Iroquoianvillage sites in southern Ontario. Manufacturingcharacteristics, examined through petrography andmacroscopic observations, suggest that certain rawmaterials held symbolic value; that pottery and pipeproduction were very differently organized; and thatthese differing modes of production shed light uponbroader social changes that had occurred by thebeginning of the late Woodland Period. In particular, thispaper explores what the production of smoking pipesmight tell us about changes to religious and shamanisticpractices.Braun, Matthew [162] see Wescott, KonnieBray, Tamara (Wayne State University)[24] Huacas, Ritual Commensality, and the Imperial IncaAgenda: Non-Human Persons as Political Agents in thePre-Columbian AndesThe late pre-Columbian landscape comprised a multitudeof cultural and natural features classified as huaca.Native peoples regarded these phenomena as bothanimate and powerful. This paper considers how huacaswere socially constituted and engaged, and how theyfigured in the political agenda of Tawantinsuyu. Thetheoretical approach adopted recognizes the significanceof commensality in the construction of social relations,advances the notion of material agency, and allows forthe idea of other-than-human persons as relevant socialactors. The manner of Inca engagement with differenthuacas suggests their importance as political allies andthe role they played in materializing the imperial agenda.[15] see Echeverria, JoseBreister, Anne (California State University, LongBeach) and Carl Lipo (California State University,Long Beach)[207] Technological Changes in Brownware from Owensand Death ValleysThe brownware of Owens and Death Valleys changed intheir technologies over time and through space. Analysishas been conducted to evaluate the hardness, firingtemperature, surface area and roughness, and thethermal parameters of ceramic samples from this area.This information sheds light on the use of the pottery as

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 59both transportation and cooking vessels. This researchwill ultimately contribute to the broader discussion ofprehistoric Western Great Basin ceramics.Brennan, Ellen (National Park Service), Ian Hough(National Park Service/Grand Canyon NationalPark) and Charlie Webber (National Park Service/Grand Canyon National Park)[248] Investigating A New Organic Amender CompoundFor Use During Stabilization Activities On PrehistoricStructures at Grand Canyon National ParkThe Grand Canyon National Park Vanishing TreasuresProgram is using a new, organic, amending material tohelp control erosion on the earthen bench in Kiva A atTusayan Ruins. Architectural preservation in theAmerican southwest is focusing on the application ofmaterials that are both functional and sympathetic withoriginal prehispanic architecture, providing the context fortesting and applying new non-cement and non-polymerstabilization amendments. This paper will provide acomparison between the new organic amender andpreviously used inorganic amenders, insight into theproperties of the material, laboratory analysis, the recipeused for preservation treatment, and the applicationprocess.Brennan, Ellen [20] see Hough, Ian S.Brenner, Mark (University of Florida) [119] DiscussantBreslawski, Ryan [177] see Jones, Emily LenaBridges, Elizabeth (University of Michigan)[189] Local Production and Imperial Culture: Situatingthe Keladi-Ikkeri Nayaka State in Relation to theVijayanagara Empire of Late Pre-Colonial South IndiaLocal rulers and residents of the Keladi-Ikkeri NayakaState enjoyed a high degree of political autonomy whilesubordinate to the Vijayanagara Empire, followed byindependence after imperial disintegration. Results ofrecent survey at two sequent capitals of this regionalstate will be presented and discussed with reference tothe development of interpretations and (re)creations ofregional and imperial ideologies, emphasizing the rolesof local production and social relationships in thisrecursive process.Bridges, Sarah (USDA Natural ResourcesConservation Service) [87] DiscussantBrock, Terry (Michigan State University)[214] Teaching Archaeology and CommunityEngagement through Blogging: A Public ArchaeologyField School Project at Michigan State UniversityBlogging has had an impact on both public engagementand college teaching. This paper will use a field schoolblogging project implemented by the MSU CampusArchaeology Program to discuss the importance of digitalcommunity engagement, and how blogging can be usedto not only share results, but also to teach the publicabout archaeological methods. Additionally, it will discusshow blogging for the public can teach students aboutarchaeological methods, while training them in importantpublic archaeology skills necessary for the future of botharchaeology and science.Brock, Terry [214] see Nohe, Sarah A.Brodbeck, Mark (HDR) and Micah Hale (ASMAffiliates)[168] Exploring Prehistoric Settlement and Land Use inthe McCain Valley Region, San Diego County, CaliforniaArchaeological surveys conducted for renewable energydevelopment and transmission have documented across-section of prehistoric settlement and land use inthe mountainous McCain Valley region, in eastern SanDiego County. Prior inventories in McCain Valleydocumented widespread Late Prehistoric occupation,particularly during the last 1,000 years. While severalimportant prehistoric sites and ethnohistoric villages areknown for the broader region, the character of settlementand subsistence shifts in the region remains a focus ofcurrent research. This paper discusses the results ofrecent surveys with emphases on human adaptation tothe geographical landscape and placement within aregional settlement context.Brody, Michael [113] see Fisher, JackBrokaw, Nick (University of Puerto Rico), SheilaWard (University of Puerto Rico), Stanley Walling(Community College of Philadelphia) and MarisolCortes Rincon (Humboldt State University)[148] Trees at ancient Maya sites in northwest BelizeTo understand how ancient Maya landuse has affectedthe modern forest, we correlated topography and ancientfeatures with tree species (stems = 10 cm diameter) atMaya sites in northwest Belize. Useful species accountedfor about 38% of the species and individuals, indicatingthat the forest is rich in useful trees but is not dominatedby them. Species composition varied with bothtopography and land use, making it difficult to determinethe extent to which environment versus ancientcultivation explain current distributions. We outline a planto resolve this conundrum at the landscape level.Brooks, Katherine (University of Arizona)[260] Investigating the Pre-Columbian Origins of YaquiCeremonial MasksAs a group living on the fringes of both Southwest andMesoamerican civilizations Yaqui cultural and ceremonialorigins have been difficult to pinpoint. By conducting adetailed investigation of ethnographic and archaeologicalrecords from Northern Mexico and the Southwest a newperspective on the introduction and development ofCahitan masked ceremonies is presented. Researchobjectives focused on ethnoarchaeology and sought toexamine masking traditions among Aztec, Pueblo andPrehistoric cultures chronologically beginning withsettlement in Sonora around A.D. 550 and continuinguntil Spanish contact.Brooks, William (Geologist)[267] Amalgamation and Small-Scale Gold Mining in theAncient AndesThe volume of gold provided by Atahualpa, the Inka king,as ransom in 1532 is hard evidence for the efficientsmall-scale gold mining that took place before Europeancontact and the number of gold occurrences in theAndes. At Huancavelica, Perú, mercury occurs as anative metal and as cinnabar. Similarly low levels ofmercury in ICP analyses of modern refogado gold (~15

60ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGppm) and pre-contact worked gold (~15 ppm) areconsistent with a comparable, ancient Andeantechnology that would have used mercury to amalgamatethe gold, and then, as now, burning the amalgam tovolatilize the mercury, beautify, and recover the gold.Brosseder, Ursula (University of Bonn)[54] Xiongnu and Elite. Toward an understanding ofnetworksDuring the Xiongnu period Elite burials form ahomogeneous group regarding their construction andfurnishing, including numerous foreign artifacts whichdocument far-reaching contacts. In this paper therelationship of the Elite to the local communities isexplored as well as the connections of the Elite along theEurasian Steppe Belt. The intensive communicationleads to similar models of self-representation in theWestern and Eastern Eurasian Steppe during thecenturies around the turn of the era. Models forexplaining the nature of the contacts, which are visible inthe archaeological record are discussed.Broughton, Jack (University of Utah), R. Kelly Beck(University of Utah), Dennis H. O‟Rourke (Universityof Utah) and Alan R. Rogers (University of Utah)[126] Did Aboriginal Hunters Cause a PopulationBottleneck In California Elk? A Test Using Ancient DNAand Implications for Prehistory and ResourceManagementRecent research has documented numerous cases ofprehistoric resource depression from standardzooarchaeological data. However, standard measures ofprey population trends may not reflect broad-scalepopulation declines, but rather the movement of preyaway from densely settled human populations. Morerefined methods capable of measuring population-leveltrends in prey populations are thus warranted. Wesummarize such a method here that is based ontemporal trends in genetic diversity derived from the DNAin archaeological faunas and provide preliminary data ongenetic diversity from a pilot study involving elk from theSan Francisco Bay areaBrouwer, Marieka (Michigan State University)[108] Simulating Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherer LandUse Strategies in the NetherlandsPredictive modeling is often used to generate hypothesesand expectations, and identify landscapes with highpotential for archaeological preservation. While useful forconservation and heritage management, the proceduresunderpinning predictive modeling also provide ahypothetical laboratory for experimenting with the knownarchaeological and ethnographic records, as they relateto current theories of human behavior. Such modeling isapplied here in an effort to harness data of disparatequality and detail on the Mesolithic period (c. 10,000-6000 years BP) in the central river valley of theNetherlands. Specifically, GIS techniques are paired withenvironmental modeling software to simulate human landuse.Brown, Batsulwin [172] see Parker, JohnBrown, Brooke M. [87] see Gebauer, Rachel SmithBrown, Claire [107] see McNeill, Casey M. [107] seeLettieri, Philip R.Brown, David (University of Texas at Austin), MarkWillis (Blanton & Associates, Inc., Austin, Texas)and Byron Camino (Instituto Nacional de PatrimonioCultural, Quito, Ecuador)[15] Standing at the edge of empire: the view from thetiniest Inka fort in EcuadorFortress sites are the dominant architectural feature ofthe Inka occupation of northern Ecuador. The small siteof Capillapamba in the Yumbo region in the forestedslopes of northwestern Pichincha province offers yetanother perspective on such sites, which show amazingvariability in size, configuration, and construction style.Capillapamba, which consists of a small residentialcompound and a tiny, stone-walled, terraced prominencethat guards a stream crossing, suggests the diversity ofInka military strategies in the conquest and stabilizationof Ecuador as well as the cost in infrastructure andpersonnel that conquest may have brought to the empire.Brown, Gary (Aztec Ruins Natl Monument)[117] The Transition Between Chacoan Colony andCenter of the Middle San Juan Region: A View fromAztec RuinsMiddle San Juan culture history began at Aztec Ruinswith Earl Morris‘s ideas about Chacoan colonization,abandonment, and reoccupation by non-Chacoanpeople. This history was extended by Morris from AztecRuins to other parts of the middle San Juan and adoptedby subsequent researchers at both Chacoan outliers andsmaller sites. Population declined in much of the areaafter collapse of the Chaco-based regional system, butmy study of architectural evolution shows that largeoutliers where reoccupations have commonly beenassumed are the very sites with long, continuoushistories. These occupations are not static, however;they are punctuated by reorganization.Brown, Gary [201] see Diederichs, Shanna R.Brown, James (Northwestern University) and JohnKelly (Washington University)[198] Agency, Event, and the Potential for Surplus in theMississippian PeriodThe production of agricultural surplus in the Pre-Columbian Southeast has been invoked rather casuallyto enable forms of social complexity associated withmajor mound-building efforts. Little attention has beendirected toward how surplus could potentially begenerated given the range of factors suppressing surplusgeneration in historically known southeastern societies.Crucial to overcoming these factors are differences in theways in which labor is organized and in the ritualobligations created in segmentary societies to unitefamilies with disparate interests. The context used in thispaper is Cahokia and the American Bottom in the 11thcentury.Brown, Jim (Tribal Administrator Elem IndianColony)[172] Tribal Administrator Fired for trying to get EPA toComply with Section 106In 2006, EPA's failure to comply with Section 106resulted in the destruction of 7,000 cubic meters ofcultural soils on the Elem Indian Reservation. While the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 61Tribal Council held closed meetings to consider filing suitagainst the EPA for damages, the EPA Field Managerhired the Tribal Chairman as a "Site Manager" and askedhim to write a letter approving of how the work wasconducted. When the Tribal Administrator exposed thisconflict of interest and EPA's non-compliance, he wasfired. This paper explores how the EPA uses blackmailand coercion to avoid their Section 106 obligations.Brown, Jim [172] see Parker, JohnBrown, Kelly (McMaster University) and TristanCarter (McMaster University)[63] Networking in the Neolithic: Obsidian Sourcing atAbu Hureyra (N. Syria)Situated on the Middle Euphrates (Syria), Abu Hureyra‘soccupation sequence spans the transition from huntergathererto early farming economies. Using EDXRF 166obsidian artefacts were characterised as a means ofclarifying the community‘s external relations over 4000years (Epi-Palaeolithic to Pottery Neolithic). At least threesources are represented, from central and easternAnatolia. When temporally and techno-typologicallycontextualised, significant distinctions are viewed inthese obsidians‘ consumption, indicative not only ofshifting socio-economic relations at the local and supraregionallevel, but also potentially changes in thenetworks through which flowed the idea and knowledgeof new practices, such as farming.Brown, Kristin M. [163] see Gibbs, TimBrown, Letricia [193] see Fertelmes, Craig M.Brown, Linda (The George Washington University)[250] DiscussantBrown, M. (The University of Texas at San Antonio),Leah McCurdy (UT-San Antonio) and JenniferCochran[51] Recent Investigations at the site of Xunantunich,BelizeRecent investigations at Xunantunich‘s Group Edocumented a long history of occupation beginning asearly as the Preceramic period and continuing throughthe Protoclassic. Group E was abandoned during theProtoclassic and reoccupied during the Late Classic.Postclassic ritual activity indicates the continuingimportance of this special location on the ancientlandscape. This paper describes this data and examinesthe development of political authority in the Mopan Valleyduring the Preclassic period. The layout and design ofthe Group E ceremonial complex reflects the strategiesused by elites to connect themselves to powerfulancestors and deities.[51] First ChairBrown, Sean (CSU Northridge) and Matthew DesLauriers (CSU Northridge)[132] The Persistence of the Commons: A View from IslaCedros, Baja CaliforniaA trans-Holocene record from shell midden excavationshas facilitated the reconstruction of prehistoric musselbed exploitation on Isla Cedros, Baja California.Cumulative proportional curves indicate that musselharvesting strategies alternated between plucking andstripping, yet shell size data exhibit no signs of markedperiods of population depression or long termdegradation of the resource. Furthermore, relativelystable mean shell sizes suggest that the prehistoricCedros Islanders were able to avoid the ―tragedy of thecommons‖ in spite of the relative accessibility of musselbeds.[132] First ChairBrown Vega, Margaret (Penn State University)[229] Beyond Battles: Interactions in Times of War on theNorthcentral coast of PerúWar comprises myriad social interactions: combat,resistance, alliance, exchange, ritual, and avoidance.Recent treatments of war emphasize the identificationand examination of physical violence and military spaces.Yet during war, interactions that are not explicitly violentalso contribute to the transformation of socialrelationships and identities. For example, rituals ofsolidarity may be as important as actual combat. Thus,the archaeology of war entails a complex mosaic ofseemingly contradictory evidence. Using regional datafrom late prehispanic fortifications along the northcentralcoast of Perú, and ritual contexts from one such fort, Iillustrate non-conflict interactions shaped by war.Browne Ribeiro, Anna (University of California,Berkeley), Mark McCoy (University of Otago), MichaelGraves (University of New Mexico), Oliver A.Chadwick (University of California, SantaBarbara) and Peter Vitousek (Stanford University)[261] The Sustainability of Irrigated Taro Farming inHawai‗i: Sedimentology and soil nutrients analysis of adeeply-stratified pondfieldHow sustainable was irrigated farming in Hawai‗i? Wedescribe the results of soil nutrient and sedimentaryanalyses of a deeply-stratified pondfield depositsrepresenting a 700 year long record of irrigated tarofarming in the North Kohala District, Hawai‗i Island.Samples from stratigraphic layers were sorted by particlesize, shape, roundness, and lithology to determine theorigin of sediments as well as modes of transport anddeposition. Concurrent soil nutrient analyses wereconducted to determine what changes are evident withthe onset of taro harvesting and how sustainable thissystem was in practice.Bruce, BranDee [83] see Perry, Laureen M.Bruchac, Margaret (University of Connecticut) [1]Discussant [252] DiscussantBruck, Joanna (University College Dublin)[226] Cremation, Gender and Concepts of the Self in theBritish Bronze AgeBoth cremation and inhumation were practiced in EarlyBronze Age Britain, but women were more frequentlycremated than men. This paper will challenge the notionthat cremation was reserved for individuals of lowerstatus. Instead, it will suggest that cremation was astrategy designed to facilitate the dispersal of the humanbody and the circulation of ancestral relics, ensuringsocial, material and biological reproduction through themaintenance of inter-group relationships. As such,cremation and inhumation reflected very differentconcepts of the self, indicating the different positions and

62ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGroles of women and men within Early Bronze Age kinshipstructures.Brueggeman, Alex [208] see Monroe, Shayla L.Brumfiel, Elizabeth (Northwestern University)[21] How and why the Aztecs invented Otomi ethnicityTaking the Otomí as an example, I argue that neitherlanguage groupings such as ―the Otomí‖ nor regionalgroups such as ―the Chalca‖ constituted ethnic identitiesprior to Aztec dominance. Aztec rulers imposed theseethnic identities upon Postclassic populations to promotetheir own historiographic and administrative purposes.Archaeologists should not expect to see such groupsmarked archaeologically by distinctive food, dress orother practices. Instead, such diacritica might observedat the local city-state and its calpulli and teccallisubdivisions, whose identities were rooted in sharedhistories of migration and settlement, and thus mightqualify as ethnic groups.[198] DiscussantBrunelle, Andrea (University of Utah), Larry Coats(University of Utah) and Stacy Morris (University ofUtah)[91] Figuring it out as we go: Paleoecology in RangeCreek CanyonIn order to provide environmental context for thesettlement, occupation, and abandonment of RangeCreek Canyon by the Fremont, paleoecological studieshave been underway for the last 5 years. Despite thechallenges of paleoecological reconstruction in aridenvironments, preliminary data indicate that utilizing amultiproxy approach will yield information about thevegetation, climate, disturbance regimes, and theinterrelationships among these and the Fremont. To datewe have a post-Fremont fire history, a clear pollenbenchmark for the arrival of historic populations, analluvial chronology that shows significant post-Fremontalluvial deposition and Fremont-age packrat middenswith maize pollen.Brunson, Tiffany (University of Idaho, Moscow)[175] What Boys and Girls Are Made Of: HistoricArchaeology at the Fort Spokane Indian Boarding SchoolThough well researched by historians, few Indianboarding schools have been excavated by archaeologistsdespite their importance in Indian history and what theyreveal about the federal policies of forced assimilation.Fort Spokane in Northeastern Washington served as afederal Indian boarding school from 1899 until 1910.Investigations there in 2010 focused on the dormitoriesfor the young girls and for the young boys. Differencesbetween the personal adornment artifacts found in thesestructures reveals how Indian children at boardingschools were indoctrinated in Euro-American genderroles and how they may have resisted those roles.Brunswig, Robert (University of No Colorado)[101] The Numic Expansion and Colorado‘s SouthernRockies:The view from North Park Valley and RockyMountain National ParkContemporary archaeological thought places the initialexpansion of Numic Ute peoples into central Colorado‘sSouthern Rocky Mountains no earlier than 400 yearsago. Since 2000, two University of Northern Colorado(UNC) projects, the Sacred Landscapes Project (RockyMountain National Park) and North Park CulturalLandscapes Project have produced substantiveevidence, in the form of hunting camp excavations, AMSdatedceramics, and lichen-dated ritual features thatprehistoric Ute occupation of what was historically knownas traditional Ute lands began no later than 800, andpossibly as early as 1000, years ago. This paperdocuments the research history and contexts of thatevidence.Bryan, Adrienne (Stanford University)[269] Exploring the significance of the spaces in theCeque System of the IncaFor years, archaeologists have productively studiedeither the ritualistic pathways (ceques) or the landmarksalong the paths (huacas) as a means to understand thereligious life of the Incas. However, few have focusedand the spaces in between the ritual nodes along theceque lines. This past summer, I followed three cequelines and paid particular attention to the spaces inbetween the previous documented ritual nodes in orderto provide a more robust picture of these ceremonialroutes that once played an integral role in the Incareligious system.Bryant, Jr, Vaughn M. [35] see Thoms, Alston V.Brzezinski, Jeffrey (University of Central Florida),Sarah Barber (University of Central Florida), ArthurJoyce (University of Colorado at Boulder) andAndrew Workinger (University of Tennessee -Chattanooga)[5] Ideology through Iconography: An Analysis of lateTerminal Formative Decorated Ceramics from the LowerRio Verde Valley, Oaxaca, MexicoThis study investigates worldview and ideology duringthe late Terminal Formative period in the lower Rio VerdeValley of Oaxaca, Mexico, through an analysis oficonography found on fine gray ware ceramic vessels.The sample includes 464 vessels and sherds from 17sites obtained through excavations and surfacecollections between 1988-2009. Drawing upon theoriesof semiotics and style, a suite of icons have beenidentified suggesting that ceramics were a medium forexpressing regionally shared beliefs. Evidence alsoindicates that a shared ideology may have beenpromulgated by elites at the regional political center ofRio Viejo.Buchanan, Briggs (Simon Fraser University), MarkCollard (Simon Fraser University), Marcus Hamilton(University of New Mexico/Santa Fe Institute) andMichael O'Brien (University of Missouri)[22] Investigating the relationship between earlyPaleoindian point form and prey body sizeIt has long been argued that prey size influenced the sizeand shape of early Paleoindian projectile points. Thishypothesis was tested with standard and geometricmorphometric data recorded on Clovis and Folsom pointsfrom the Southern Plains and Southwest that areassociated with mammoth or bison remains. Points usedto hunt mammoth were found to be larger and of adifferent shape than points used to hunt bison, whichsupports the hypothesis. However, when point type wastaken into account as well as prey size the results ran

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 63counter to the hypothesis' predictions. Explanations forthis discrepancy are discussed.Buchanan, Briggs [155] see Collard, MarkBuck, Paul (Nevada State College/Desert ResearchInstitute) and Donald Sabol (Desert ResearchInstitute)[163] Optimal Prehistoric Maize Field Location in MtTrumbull AZ AreaRemote sensing & field work in Mt Trumbull AZ wasconducted to determine optimal locations of prehistoricmaize fields. Imagery examined: 18 ASTER imagescollected 2000-2008; 1-m digital orthophoto quads; 10 mdigital elevation data for the same quads; and NRCS soilmaps. New ASTER images, ground based IR cameraimages, & soil moisture data were acquired May 2010. Acrop/habitation model shows optimal (& suboptimal)areas for prehistoric maize agriculture. Important factorsinclude high soil moisture to support germination &tasselling; specific soil associations; sufficientprecipitation during the summer; sufficiently long growingseason; & a plant community dominated by rabbit brush.Buckland, Philip (Environmental Archaeology Lab,Sweden), Erik Eriksson (Umeå University, Sweden)and Johan Linderholm (Umeå University, Sweden)[153] Mapping, querying and presenting multiproxyenvironmental archaeologyRecent developments in environmental archaeologydatabases and GIS implementations are opening up newavenues for quantitative landscape reconstruction atmultiple scales. Relational databases and access tomultiple datasets allow for more comprehensiveinformation retrieval, where multiple criteria can bespecified over multiple layers to help answer complexresearch questions. The returned data are often multidimensional(space, time, proxy source, accuracy...) innature and pose interesting challenges forcommunicating to different audiences. The StrategicEnvironmental Archaeology Database project( provides systems for the collation,querying, mapping, teaching and dissemination of suchdata, pushing the front line of palaeoenvironmentalresearch.Budhwa, Rick (Northwest Community College)[160] Toolstone Geographies and Indigenous Sense ofPlace in British Columbia, Canada: The Importance ofLocal KnowledgeA 'sense of place' may be defined as a perception heldby people to a certain place on the landscape whichpromotes a strong sense of identity. Thus, 'places' arenot just physical sites but also composed of culturalessences interwoven with Indigenous epistemologicalconcepts. In this paper, I examine the relationship ofobsidian sources to Indigenous peoples‘ concept ofbeing. Examples of locations where local traditionalknowledge has led to obsidian sources previouslyunknown to archaeologists will also be discussed. Lastly,I review the continuing support for the maintenance ofIndigenous peoples' culturally meaningful relationships totheir landscapes.Bueno, Lucas (LEEH - Universidade de São Paulo)and Adriana Dias (Universidade Federal do RioGrande do Sul)[213] Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene ArchaeologicalRecord in Brazil: a geo-referenced database.In recent years there has been an increase indevelopment of methods for calibrate and analyseradiocarbon dates from the archaeological record. At thesame time, new sites have been discovered producing amore detailed set of dates for different periods andregions. In Brazilian archaeology, this scenario has led tothe construction of new venues of enquiry, raisingquestions about routes of entry, paleoenvironmentalchanges and cultural diversification. In this paper we willdiscuss the construction of a geo-referenced databasefor sites dated by 13-7.000 BP in Brazil and itsimplications for the peopling of lowland South America.Bulger, Teresa (University of California Berkeley)[195] Family and Everyday Practices: Tracing IntimateRelationships at a 19th-century Free African AmericanHomesiteDespite the importance of ―the black family‖ in thedevelopment free black communities in the 19th century,this institution has only begun to receive the attention itdeserves in archaeological analyses. Family life was asocial space to continue cultural traditions, foster intimaterelationships, and reinforce values. This paper examinesarchaeological patterns from a 19th-century free blackhomesite and asks how everyday practices created andreiterated familial relationships and the black family as asocial institution. This paper will also show how anextended concept of relationality within black familiesbecame fundamental to the creation of interdependentAfrican American communities.Bullock Kreger, Meggan[72] Morbidity and Mortality in the Postclassic UrbanCenter of CholulaA paleodemographic and paleopathological study of 309Postclassic skeletons from Cholula was completed tocharacterize morbidity and mortality in thisMesoamerican city. Several new methodologicalapproaches, including transition analysis, a parametricmodel of mortality, and a multistate model of health wereincorporated into the analyses. Strontium and oxygenisotope studies were also carried out to identifyimmigrants in the population and determine how theyaffected the demography of the city. Results suggest thatthe cultural and epidemiological environments of Cholulacontributed to the formation of demographic patterns thatdifferered from those observed in preindustrial Old Worldcities.Buonasera, Tammy (University of Arizona[61] GC/MS analysis of Lipids from New and OldExperimental Grinding ToolsVery little is known about the preservation of ancient lipidresidues in ground stone artifacts. If techniques currentlyused for analyzing lipid residues in ceramics can beapplied to ground stone, they may provide a valuablenew means of probing artifact function and addressinglong-standing questions about changing patterns ofresource use. As an early step towards this end, lipidsextracted from new and old experimental grinding tools,each used to process a single, known substance werecompared via GC/MS. Old samples were last used

64ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGbetween 10 to 25 years ago. Implications for preservationand identification are discussed.Burant, Eric [104] see Schuetz, Eric J.Burchell, Meghan (McMaster University), AubreyCannon (McMaster University), Nadine Hallmann(University of Mainz) and Bernd Schöne (Universityof Mainz)[205] Linking High Precision Seasonal Inference withStructures of Site Use on the Central Coast of BritishColumbiaWe apply high-resolution sclerochronology and oxygenisotope analysis of butter clam shells from shell middensites to differentiate seasonally structured intensiveproduction and more casual supplemental use ofshellfish at different locations. Combined, these methodsallow for very precise identification of shellfish collectionby providing greater seasonal amplitude in isotopeprofiles. Beyond issues of accuracy and precision, wealso confront the problem of sample selection. We useour results to gauge the capacity of archaeology to infermillennia-long patterns of site use from limited samplesrepresenting particular shellfish collection events.Burgchardt, Lucy (University of Cambridge), DonnaNash (University of North Carolina - Greensboro)and Mark Golitko (Chicago Field Museum)[193] Obsidian sourcing points to inclusive exchange forthe people of Cerro MejíaPeru's Moquegua Valley was a popular locale during theMiddle Horizon, and became home to many travelers.The settlements Cerro Baúl and Cerro Mejía representthe southernmost extent of Wari expansion during theMiddle Horizon. However, the supply network these sitesused appears not to have been exclusive. In 2009,excavations of two households on Cerro Mejía produced140 obsidian artifacts which were sourced using p-XRFequipment. The presence of diverse obsidian sourceshas indicated that the inhabitants of Cerro Mejía had acomplex trade network shaped by migration, affiliationwith the Wari capital, and interaction with Tiwanakuneighbors.Burge, Thomas (Sequoia and Kings Canyon NationalParks)[57] Archeological Surveys in Sequoia and Kings CanyonNational Parks - The Higher Elevations of the SouthernSierra NevadaArcheological surveys were conducted in the higherelevations of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parksfrom 1997 to 2004. A total of 88 sites were recorded orrevisited. Seasonal occupation of alpine and sub-alpinezones is documented. Site types and artifacts aresummarized, with a prevalence of Late Prehistoricprojectile points being noted. Fifty-five obsidianspecimens were submitted for sourcing and hydrationanalysis. Ten obsidian specimens were submitted forprotein residue analysis. The results of these analysesare presented and summarized.Burger, Paul (California State University Long Beach)[105] Landscape Models for Early Human Occupation inOffshore Contexts of Southern CaliforniaThere is increasing evidence to support Fladmark's 1979hypothesis that the earliest occupation of North Americaincluded movement of populations down the west coast.With some of the earliest evidence of human occupationlocated in coastal and island contexts and a sea levelthat was as much as 100 meters lower than today, thereare ample reasons to believe that remains of humanoccupation will be found in offshore contexts of SouthernCalifornia. Using high-resolution bathymetric data andestimates of sea level change, we develop a model ofnow-underwater locations that potentially containevidence of prehistoric human activity.Burger, Richard (Yale University) [267] DiscussantBurgess, Robin [162] see Wescott, KonnieBurham, Melissa (University of Arizona)[225] The Preclassic Occupation in the East Court atCeibalRecent excavations of the East Court of Group A at theMaya lowland site of Ceibal, Guatemala, have revealedthat this area was occupied for an extended period oftime in the Middle Preclassic period. Several structuresthat form a patio may indicate a residential occupation.These data are similar to findings from excavations inother areas of Group A. They provide new insights intothe nature of the Middle Preclassic occupation at Ceibal.Burke, Ariane [205] see Julien, Marie-AnneBurke, Chrissina (University of Nevada - Reno)[30] Beyond the Puncture: Examining the Relationshipsbetween Carnivore Feeding Behaviors and ModificationMarks Present on Zooarchaeological Skeletal RemainsTo identify carnivore taxa responsible for modifyinganimal bones in archaeological assemblages, the feedingbehaviors of carnivores must be observed and recorded.This presentation describes a pilot study where captiveNorth American carnivores were fed articulated hind limbelements of Bos and Ovis. Videography, photography,and ethological recording methods were employed tocollect behavioral data. Subsequent to feedings, modifiedbones were cleaned then described following Binford(1981) and Lyman (2001), and degree of utilizationfollows Haynes (1982). Results are discussed in thecontext of human and carnivore paleoecology and theusefulness of carnivore behavior in decipheringtaphonomic events.[30] First ChairBurkholder, Jo (University of Wisconsin -Whitewater) and Erika Simborth Lozada (ProyectoArqueologico Pisanay/CIARQ)[33] Puting Interdisciplinary Work at Pisanay, Peru inContextHow has the Pisanay Archaeological Project helped tofoster interdisciplinary collaboration, undergraduateresearch, and advancement of women in science? Thisposter will examine several factors that contributed tothese areas of success and discuss the context for theundergraduate research the project has inspired.Burn, Michael [202] see Bain, AllisonBurnett, Katherine (Indiana University-Bloomington)[195] Preliminary Investigations at the Nostrum SpringsStage Station, Thermopolis, Wyoming

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 65Located on the Red Canyon Ranch southwest ofThermopolis, Wyoming, the Nostrum Springs StageStation is adjacent to the Wind River Indian Reservation.During the summer of 2010, I undertook preliminaryinvestigations on the stage station. Through thisresearch, I intended to investigate Shoshoneintersections with other travelers utilizing the area duringthe reservation area and into the 20th century. Idiscovered many additional areas of inquiry ranging fromthe presence of a potential blacksmith‘s shop in thestation to a cartridge found behind the building that mayindicate that someone at the station had connections tothe Russian Revolution.Burns, Inna [81] see Shah, Sudha A.Burstrom, Mats (Stockholm University, Sweden)[254] ―As Long as the World Lasts…‖ Time perspectiveswithin cultural heritage managementPreservation is an essential part of cultural heritagemanagement; sites and monuments are protected inorder to be kept intact for the future. Accordingly sitemanagers encounter difficulties dealing with sites whoseforemost qualities are the processes of change anddecay that they are undergoing. It would seem thatcultural heritage should be forever or not at all. The beliefin this kind of ‗eternal‘ perspective is in no way new, butthe present preoccupation with sustainability hasreinforced it and placed it in a new discourse.Burton, James H [116] see Sierra Sosa, ThelmaBurton, Margie (San Diego Archaeological Center)and Jenny Adams (Desert Archaeology, Inc.)[22] Ground Stone Tool Analysis: Contributions of a Use-Wear ApproachIn the world of lithic analysis, it is rare for use-weartechniques to be applied to the study of ground stonetools. Yet ground stone tools are used to make sweepinggeneralizations about subsistence strategies, notably inCalifornia where mortars and pestles are assumed tohave been used for processing acorns and viewed ashallmarks of a lifestyle distinct from coastal adaptations.Experimentation with processing tools and use-wearanalysis techniques have both broadened and refined thekinds of inferences made about prehistoric foraging andfarming activities. Tool designs and the nature ofprocessed substances are discussed.Busby, Colin (Basin Research Associates)[230] Alas, poor Billy, I wish I knew him well (withapologies to Shakespeare)Two graduate student generations removed from theheyday of Great Basin archaeology under Bob Heizer atUC Berkeley, I soon learned of the legacy and largerthan life legend of Billy Clewlow and assorted cohorts.The group had received their doctorates and had movedon but had left lingering memories among the faculty,hanger-on graduate students and admirers and museumstaff. Among other things, the laboratory and museumback rooms harbored the residues and detritus of hispast research which proved most helpful with my futureresearch.Bush, Jason (Colorado State University) andChristopher Fisher (Colorado State University)[58] Architectural Form and Space in the Lake PátzcuaroBasin, MexicoAncient architecture is an expression of past humansettlement, reflecting the manner in which the largersociety was organized. Despite its ubiquity, Prehispanicarchitecture is poorly understood in the Lake PátzcuaroBasin, Michoacán, Mexico. However, recent settlementpattern survey in the eastern Lake Pátzcuaro Basinprovides new insights into the relationship betweenarchitecture, social space, and the formation of thePurépecha (Tarascan) Empire. Here I examine the formand spatial organization of prehistoric architecture atSacapu Angamucu to gain new insights into thedevelopment of social complexity and the builtenvironment.Bustinza, Reynaldo Bustinza [269] see Rodriguez,David M.Butler, Don [159] see Hodgetts, LisaButler, Sarah [220] see Friedman, Elizabeth S. [158]see Dodd, Lynn S.Butler, Virginia (Portland State University) and J.Tait Elder (ICF)[126] Does the absence of evidence mean an evidenceof absence? Applying zooarchaeological records to fishconservation issues in the Upper Columbia RiverZooarchaeological records can greatly assistconservation efforts by providing base-line knowledge ofpre-development species distributions. As Lymandemonstrated over a decade ago, transferringarchaeological data to conservation biology introducesseveral interpretive challenges, including determiningwhether species scarcity in the archaeological recordreflects true absence or some other factor (e.g.,sampling, taphonomy, past cultural practices). Questionsof past salmon distribution in the Similkameen River ofcentral Washington/British Columbia have arisen inresponse to proposed dam construction. Our recentstudy of the faunal record from the river basin andsurrounding areas illustrates the analytical steps requiredto assess faunal data adequacy.[126] First ChairButler, Virginia [178] see Hofkamp, Anthony R. [178]see Stevenson, Alexander E. [210] see Sterling, Sarah L.[108] see Gilmour, Daniel M.Buttles, Palma (Carnegie Mellon University/SoftwareEngineering Institute) and Fred Valdez (TheUniversity of Texas at Austin)[119] Material Culture and the Maya of Tikal: Resultsfrom Recent ResearchVarious material culture (ceramics, lithics, etc.) from the2009 and 2010 field seasons of the Tikal Program wasanalyzed for morphological description as well aschronological assessment. Each artifact category studiedis reported in terms of a brief description as well asinterpretations for particular contexts and the collectionas a whole. Although many of the contexts are fromwithin reservoirs at Tikal, the range of the material culturerepresented is surprisingly broad and impressive.Buttles, Palma [191] see Valdez, Fred

66ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGBuzon, Michele [152] see Smith, Stuart T.Byrd, Brian (Far Western) and Adrian Whitaker (FarWestern)[263] Was Abalone a Low-Ranked Resource along theCentral California Coast?Prehistoric middens dominated by abalone shell occur ina variety of contexts along the Central and SouthernCoast of California. Typically, abalone is considered ahigh-ranked resource indicative of favorableenvironmental conditions and an absence of dietarystress. In the Monterey Peninsula area, abaloneexploitation explodes around 700 years ago,characterized by numerous abalone shell ―pavement‖sites. We examine potential causal factors for thissudden focus on abalone. Drawing on insights fromoptimal foraging theory, we suggest that abalonerepresent a low-ranked resource requiring intensifiedprocurement and should be considered, in this case, amarker of resource intensification.Byrd, Julie (Florida State University)[30] Florida‘s Middle Archaic Bone Tools: MicrowearAnalysis and Experimental ReplicationThis study examines Middle Archaic organictechnological organization through microwear patterns.Modified bone and antler artifacts from six sites inFlorida‘s St. Johns River Valley were analyzed toreconstruct the processes of tool production and use.Existing classification systems are inconsistent becausearchaeologists have assumed technofunction basedmerely on general tool shape. This study‘s correlationsbetween use-wear and tool morphology help tease apartpossible tool functions. Experimental replication provedespecially useful in understanding observed microwear.By incorporating data from sites with exceptionalpreservation, in-depth studies of organic tools contributeto a more realistic picture of prehistoric technologicalorganization.Byrne, Roger [222] see Cowart, AliciaByrnes, Allison (Mercyhurst College and DavidPedler (Mercyhurst College)[29] Technological Continuity and Site Use at41CV115A, A Rockshelter in Coryell County, TexasSite 41CV115A is a rockshelter located on the Fort Hoodmilitary installation in Coryell County, Texas. Withoccupations beginning in the Early Archaic andcontinuing through the Late Prehistoric/Protohistoricperiods, this multi-component site provides excellentavenues for examining the apparent continuity in site useand lithic technology between the Archaic and LatePrehistoric, as well as more subtle discontinuities.Analysis of the 41CV115A lithic artifact assemblage isemployed to illustrate temporal trends in technology andsite use. Comparisons with other sites identified on theFort also are made to place the 41CV115A in a broaderregional context.Cahiza, Pablo (INCIHUSA CONICET - UNCuyo),J.Roberto Bárcena (INCIHUSA-CONICET / FFyL-UNCuyo Argentina), María José Ots (INCIHUSA-CONICET / FFyL-UNCuyo Argentina) and JorgeGarcía Llorca (INCIHUSA-CONICET / FFyL-UNCuyoArgentina)[103] Territories, boundaries and communities in theCentral West of Argentina (XV and XVI centuries):Archaeological research on relations between localgroups and Incas en south-eastern CollasuyoThe expansion of the Inca state included vast areassouth of Cuzco integrating the current Argentineprovinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. Ourresearch focuses on the processes that formed andmaintained the border with the Inca state in Collasuyo,taking an approach that emphasizes settlement and landusepatterns to understand local communities, Incalandscapes, and their transformations. We also analyzedthe ceramic‘s production and distribution in state context.Our project takes a dual perspective that encompassesthat of the empire and its expansion, as well as thedynamics and responses to the empire within localcommunitiesCail, Hannah (University of Montana)[70] Feasting on Fido: Dogs as a Delicacy at BridgeRiverThe remains of dogs showing visible signs of traumawere recovered during the investigation of emergentstatus inequality at the Bridge River site, an aggregatedwinter housepit village in southern British Columbia. Theregion‘s ethnographic record indicates the utilization ofdogs as a resource for food, clothing, hunting, packing,and trade. Evidence suggests that the elements from thiswealthy house‘s cache pit resulted from a single event offeasting. The use of dogs as a delicacy is uniquecompared to the Keatley Creek site, where analysisconcludes many of the dogs died of natural causes.Cajigas, Rachel [10] see Blair, ElliotCaldwell, Megan (University of Alberta), DanaLepofsky (Simon Fraser University) and MichelleWashington (Sliammon First Nation)[263] A Regional Understanding of Northern CoastSalish Intertidal ManagementUnderstanding the advent and ongoing use of intertidalmanagement features (fish traps and clam gardens) iscentral to exploring Northwest Coast socioeconomicdevelopment. Our multi-sited research creates a regionaldataset from which to examine site specific changes andlarger regional fluctuations in intertidal resource use. Wepresent the results of faunal analyses, focusing onmarine resources, from a series of sites in two subregionsof Northern Coast Salish territory in southwesternBritish Columbia. We compare and contrast our resultsboth within and between the two sub-regions to create afuller understanding of Northern Coast Salish intertidalmanagement features.Caldwell, Megan [232] see Springer, Chris L. M.Call, Jeremy (AECOM)[50] Setting the scene: visual resources analyses ofNational Historic Trail scenic quality and scenic integrityHigh potential route segments of National Historic Trailsoffer visitors a high quality recreation experience wheregreater than average scenic values occur, or affordvisitors an opportunity to vicariously share the experienceof the original users of the route. As part of managingthese segments, agencies face the challenge of

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 67consistently identifying and documenting the scenicquality, and relative freedom from intrusion, of trailsettings. This paper discusses how the Bureau of LandManagement‘s Visual Resource Management and U.S.Forest Service Scenery Management Systemmethodologies are being applied to evaluate the scenicquality and scenic integrity of long-distance trails.Callaghan, Michael [9] see Kovacevich, BrigitteCambra, Rosemary [194] see Gardner, Karen S. [194]see Monroe, CaraCameron, Catherine (University of Colorado) andSteve Lekson (University of Colorado)[99] The Chronology of Political Interaction on theSouthern Colorado PlateauRegional and political centers on the southern ColoradoPlateau appear to have "cycled" at approximately 150-year intervals, beginning about A.D. 500 and endingabout A.D. 1280. We reconstruct this historical series,and illustrate one episode or ―cycle‖ using chronologicaland other data from Chaco Canyon and several northernChacoan great houses (Bluff, Farview, Chimney Rock).We explore the historical and processual implications ofthese developments.[46] DiscussantCameron, Catherine [117] see Hurst, WinstonCamino, Byron [15] see Brown, David O.Camp, Stacey (University of Idaho)[175] Masculinity and Material Culture at Idaho's KooskiaInternment Camp (1943-1945)Between May 1943 and 1945, 265 men called NorthernIdaho's Kooskia Internment Camp, a World War IIJapanese American internment camp, home. There,internees were charged with the dangerous and dauntingtask of completing U.S. Highway 12: an event that isconsidered to be the U.S. government's first attempt inusing internees as a labor force. As the first all-maleJapanese internment camp to be excavated, the KooskiaInternment Camp provides a unique glimpse into howmen coped with isolation and unjust imprisonment usingmaterial culture.[175] Second Organizer [175] Second ChairCampbell, Jennifer (University of Toronto)[146] Using Two-dimensional Data to Form ThreedimensionalWorlds: Moving from Survey to Structure ina Virtual RealmThis paper presents the process of, and results from,creating a three-dimensional architectural model usingpublished two-dimensional architectural surveys of theMughal Caravanserai Nur Mahal. This process, and theresulting model, is used to highlight the ability of threedimensionalmodels to further our interpretation ofpreviously collected two-dimensional data. These modelscan be used in the comparative analysis of structuresand as representations of structures now ruined. Theinterplay of model subjectivity and data dependency willbe considered as they (a/e)ffect the kinds ofarchaeological research questions that BIM‘s (BuildingInformation Models), constructed through reverseengineering, can address.[146] First ChairCampbell, Meadow [206] see Amadio, Ayla M.Campbell, Sarah K. [210] see Sterling, Sarah L.Camps, Marta (George Washington University)[218] The Past and Present of the Mid-Upper PaleolithicTransition in IberiaIn the past decades, Iberia has gone from a peripheralregion to a key area in modern human origins research.This paper explores the current debate on the Transitionto the Upper Paleolithic in northern Spain. It reviews thecontext in which the current state of affairs originated, byfocusing on the studies of key sites and regions, bothfrom Spanish and foreign perspectives. These studiesstill influence present day work, despite the existence ofmodern interpretations which try to highlight crucialcharacteristics of this area, unlike classical theories.Their effect and prevalence in front of classic studies isassessed.[218] First ChairCannon, Amanda (AECOM) and Janet Griffitts (SRI)[151] From Land to Sea: The Worked Shell and BoneCollections from the Ballona, West Los Angeles,CaliforniaMore than 100,000 pieces of worked shell and bonerecovered from ritual and domestic contexts from sites inthe Ballona wetlands in west Los Angeles. The diversecollections of locally available and exotic faunal workedmaterials attest to use of rich terrestrial, marine, andwetland resources, as well as trade interactions withneighboring groups in southern California and afar. Thespatial and temporal distributions of these tools and otherutilitarian and domestic items provide unprecedentedinsight into cultural continuity and change in the last 8000years.Cannon, Aubrey [205] see Burchell, MeghanCannon, Kenneth (Utah State University), ChrisMorgan (Utah State University) and Molly BoekaCannon (Utah State University)[57] Looking for a Long-Term Record in the GreaterYellowstone Ecosystem: Some Thoughts About theStinking Springs Rockshelter, Teton County, WyomingThe recovery of vertebrate remains is of particularinterest for the study of post-glacial biotic communitystructure and Native American economies in the GreaterYellowstone Area. However, despite intense work, therecovery of organic remains has been elusive.Preservation and site location are probably key factors;with shallow, acidic soils fostering chemical andmechanical breakdown. Sites in particular geologicsettings, such as rockshelters, provide researchopportunities for extracting organic remains that providedirect evidence of paleoenvironmental conditions andsubsistence patterns that are not typically preserved inopen mountain sites. The potential importance of theStinking Springs Rockshelter will be discussed.Cannon, Mike (SWCA Environmental Consultants)[126] Experimental Data on Relationships among BoneFragmentation, Quantification Measures, and VolumeDensity

68ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGExperimental data, derived from an incremental bonecrushing protocol, provide important insights into therelationship between NISP and specimen fragmentation.They also have practical implications regarding theeffectiveness of potential measures of the degree towhich an assemblage has been fragmented. In particular,they suggest that specimen size—which is a more directmeasure and which can be determined easily throughdigital image analysis—is a more useful gauge offragmentation than is the ratio of MNI (or MNE) to NISP.Finally, the experiments allow exploration of howassemblage-level bone volume density characteristicsrespond to the effects of mechanical crushing.Cannon, Molly Boeka [262] see Pitblado, Bonnie LynnCanouts, Veletta (Smithsonian Institution Research),Ronald Bishop (Smithsonian Institution) and M.James Blackman (Smithsonian Institution)[187] Compositional Complexity on the Colorado PlateauTwo decades of chemical analysis by instrumentalneutron activation have been carried out on ceramicsfrom the Colorado Plateau. Archaeological interpretationshave followed from patterns observed in the data matrix.At times, a surprising lack of expectable patterning hasbeen encountered. We have revisited the data sets andfind that patterning—and lack of patterning—may be dueas much to the geochemistry of the Plateau‘s resourcesas to human behavior. We present aspects of theunderlying causes for compositional complexity amongthe ceramic materials and describe the implications forarchaeological understanding.[187] First ChairCantarutti, Gabriel (University of Illinois at Chicago)[267] Inca Mining and Control in North-Central Chile: TheLos infieles Mining ComplexThis work discusses the preliminary results of anarchaeological survey designed to investigate the LosInfieles, an Inca Period mining complex located 35 kmnortheast of the coastal city of La Serena, in north-centralChile. The sites are grouped in three clusters that includedifferent types of buildings associated with dozens ofopen-cut trenches, as well as a hilltop shrine. The surveyprovides new information on technological aspects ofmining operations centered on the exploitation ofchrysocolla. The study also provides data on the level ofcontrol exercised by the Inca state over the local miningcommunities.Canto Carrillo, Rodolfo [221] see Clark, Dylan J.Canuto, Marcello A. [31] see Bell, Ellen E.Cap, Bernadette (University of Wisconsin-Madison)[190] A Marketplace System at the Classic Period MayaSite of Buenavista del Cayo, BelizeA small number of scholars have suggested that theClassic Maya used marketplaces as a means toexchange goods. Recent identification of the physicallocation of Maya marketplaces confirms this idea butwhat does the use of marketplaces mean for theorganization of Maya economic systems? Drawing ondata from the Late Classic Buenavista del Cayomarketplace, this paper addresses this question bylooking at the kinds of goods available at the marketplaceand the access to raw materials, organization ofproduction, and transport systems required to bring thesegoods to market.[190] First ChairCapawana, Jamie [175] see Allen, Josh M.Capone, Patricia [184] DiscussantCapriata Estrada, Camila and David Chicoine(Louisiana State University)[174] Building Sequence, Spatial Planning and MoundConstruction: Recent Excavations at a Formative RaisedPlatform Complex at CaylanPreliminary results on the excavations of the main moundat Caylan, a Final Formative site located in the NepeñaValley, north coast of Peru, reveals new evidence onconstruction techniques for that period of time. Althoughdifferences observed in the construction materialsindicate the existence of at least two constructionphases, focus seems to have shifted from an emphasisin vertical construction to the reorganization of horizontalspace. This paper will present results of the 2010 seasonand a tentative explanation for these changes.Capriles, José (Washington University in St. Louis)and Juan Albarracin-Jordan (Fundación Bartoloméde las Casas)[231] Late Pleistocene human occupation in highlandBolivia: Archaeological evidence from the Sora RivercavesIn this paper, we report unique findings from recentarchaeological research in the Sora River valley, locatedin southwest Bolivia. Excavations carried out in two highelevationdry caves produced radiocarbon dated (12,900cal BP) evidence of Late Pleistocene human occurrence.Early human evidence consists of deeply buriedoccupation surfaces situated underneath Early andMiddle Holocene naturally accumulated deposits.Contextual findings include hearths associated withscatters of chert, chalcedony, and obsidian tools anddebitage, along with camelid and rodent faunal remains.Taken together, these findings suggest extremely earlycolonization of the highland Andes, possibly incorrespondence with improved environmental conditions.Capriles, José [129] see Langlie, BrieAnna S.Cardillo, Marcelo [22] see Charlin, Judith E.Cardinal, J. Scott (New York State Museum)[115] Facilitation of site delineation and assessmentthrough GISGeographic Information System (GIS) software hasbecome a nearly ubiquitous and indispensable tool inmany fields of resource management includingarchaeology. It is applied most frequently, however, toregional data warehousing and management or regionalanalysis. Such applications under-utilize the scaleindependentnature of GIS, which is equally potent forintra-project data assessment. This paper describestechniques for the initial assessment of survey data in theidentification and delineation of site boundaries, tools forintra-site analysis of cultural material to facilitate theassessment of site integrity, and expedient visualizationsof these data through spatial correlation overlays.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 69Cardona, Augusto R. [129] see Hackner, Stacy L.Carlson, Eric [176] see Billy, NoraCarlson, Kristen (Northern Arizona University)[64] Bison Procurement: A Comparative Analysis ofJump Drive Lane TopographyBison jumps represent the oldest evidence for communalhunting in North America. Typically the focus of thearchaeologist centers on the bone bed beneath the jumpsite, overlooking the complex drive lane systems behindthe cliff. GIS spatial analysis can run simulations such asa least cost analysis of a landscape. I plan to present aposter outlining a comparison of least cost pathways tothe drive lanes of sites in Alberta Canada, and NorthernWyoming. Does it appear that the path of least resistancedrives bison or do other factors play a role in drive laneconstruction?Carlson, Risa (University of Cambridge) and JamesBaichtal (US Forest Service)[181] Raised Marine Beach Predictive Model results inNew Early Holocene Sites in Southeast AlaskaDuring the 2009/2010 field seasons Carlson and Baichtaltested a predictive model designed to locate 7,000 to9,200 YBP archaeological sites in the remote AlexanderArchipelago of Southeast Alaska. This model was basedon the elevation and age of Saxidomus giganteus shellsin the highest marine beach deposits from the maximumearly Holocene transgression of the sea, circa 8,200YBP. Not only were six 18 meter terrace sites discovereddating from 6,890 to 9,090 +/-40 YBP containingmicroblades and classic wedge-shaped microblade coresand a flaked argillite industry, but also a series ofprogressively younger sites on lower terraces.Carmody, Stephen (University of Tennessee,Knoville) and Kandace D. Hollenbach(Archaeological Research Laboratory, UT-Knoxville)[129] The Role of Gathering in Middle Archaic SocialComplexity in the Midsouth: A Diachronic Perspective.Archaic mound building and social exchange networksare argued to be related to risk-sharing strategies.―Risky‖ conditions are generally based on evidence forincreasing population density and decreasingenvironmental richness associated with the rise and fallof the Hypsithermal period. Plant data are seldombrought to bear on this discussion. Here we compareavailable data from Middle Archaic sites in the Midsouthto construct evidence for changes in storable foodstuffsprior to and during the Mid Holocene, and discuss therelevance of these changes for arguments regardingeconomic risk in the region.Carmody, Stephen [129] see Bissett, Thaddeus G.Carpenter, John (Centro INAH Sonora) andGuadalupe Sanchez (Museo de Sonora INAH)[147] Burial Practices in Viejo CinaloaThe colonial Spanish province of Cinaloa comprised thePacific coastal plain and adjacent foothills of the SierraMadre Occidental between the Río Sinaloa and the RíoMayo. This region encompasses the heartlands of boththe Huatabampo and Serrana archaeological traditions.In this paper we describe the various burial types thathave been documented in northern Sonora and southernSonora and offer some observations regarding sociopoliticalorganization and regional interaction betweenapproximately 700 and 1450 CE. Additionally, newinsights into the use of funerary mounds are alsopresented.[147] Second OrganizerCarpenter, John [120] see Sanchez Miranda,GuadalupeCarpenter, Kim [256] see Carpenter, Tim R.Carpenter, Tim (ArchaeoMetrics, Inc.) and KimCarpenter (Far Western Anthropological ResearchGroup, Inc.)[256] Prehistoric Faunal Resource Use along the LowerSacramento River, CaliforniaFaunal data from sites located along the lowerSacramento River provide fine-grained dietaryinformation for about the last 5000 years. These data areexamined in light of documented climatic changes andregional settlement shifts. We then compare the resultsof our analysis to previous studies which indicate a shiftfrom high ranked artiodactyls to lower ranked smallmammals and fish.Carpenter, Tim [256] see Darwent, JohnCarr, Christopher (University of Cincinnati), EricWeaver (University of Cincinnati), Nicholas Dunning(University of Cincinnati) and Vernon Scarborough(University of Cincinnati)[119] Bringing the Penn Tikal Project Maps into the Eraof Electronic GISFrom 1957 to 1960, the University of Pennsylvaniameasured and mapped the central sixteen squarekilometers of the archaeological site of Tikal, Guatemala.This paper reports on our effort to convert these papermaps, and the wealth of information they contain, intoelectronic format for use in Geographic InformationSystems. Our experience may provide methodologicallessons for other projects. We also checked the accuracyof the original maps with a Global Positioning System.One end product of this work, GIS layers of topography,will enable watershed modeling, which will assist inunderstanding how the ancient Maya managed criticalwater resources.Carr, Christopher (Arizona State University) andRobert McCord (Arizona Museum of Natural History)[53] Fantastic Creatures of Ohio Hopewell CosmosesHopewellian peoples in southwestern, south-central, andnortheastern Ohio sculpted, engraved, and cut outdepictions of fantastic creatures that combine the bodilyelements of ordinary animals. Zoological identification ofthe animals represented, contextual analysis of theplacement of the creature depictions within mounds,mound stratigraphy, and historic Woodland NativeAmerican narratives shed light on the nature of thecosmoses envisioned by Ohio Hopewellian peoples andsome of the creatures that inhabited those universes.The roles of certain creatures in journeys of thedeceased to land(s) of the dead are also addressed.Carr, Christopher [119] see Dunning, Nicholas P. [119]

70ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGsee Scarborough, Vernon [119] see Weaver, Eric M.Carr, Philip (University of South Alabama) andAndrew Bradbury (Cultural Resource Analysts Inc.)[22] An Organization of Technology Approach:Paradigm-Like or Jumble of Jargon?For 30+ years, some lithic analysts have takeninspiration from Lewis Binford‘s work involvingtechnological organization (TO). Twenty years ago,Margaret Nelson developed a too-little cited diagram ofresearch levels in a TO approach. Here, we assess thelithic literature to determine if a TO approach isparadigm-like and to identify exemplars of the approach.We work back and forth between these exemplars andNelson‘s diagram to aid in the exploration andmodification of a model of TO. This model serves todemonstrate the complexity of lithic assemblageformation, potential range of inferences possible, andbring focus to lithic analysis.Carr, Philip [257] see Price, Sarah ECarrasco, Michael (Florida State University) andJoshua Englehardt (Florida State University)[157] The Cascajal Block and the Olmec Origins ofMesoamerican WritingThe discovery of the Cascajal Block has pushed theevidence for Mesoamerican writing back to the MiddleFormative period. Despite intense scrutiny since itsdiscovery, its sign system resists interpretation. Thispaper suggests that the Cascajal Block and other Olmecwriting is best understood within the context ofcontemporary iconographic systems, since many signsfound on the Block cite objects depicted in iconography.Importantly, on the Block these objects are divorced fromthe larger compositional framework in which they areusually contextualized. This abstraction from ―normal‖contexts offers important insights into the origin anddevelopment of writing in Mesoamerica.Carrión, Yolanda [25] see Badal, ErnestinaCarroll, Ed (California Office of Historic Preservation)[112] DiscussantCarroll, Rebecca (University of Houston) andRebecca Storey (University of Houston)[237] The Posthumous Treatment of MultipleInhumations: Evidence of Companion Sacrifice?During the Formative period, the Maya village of K'axob,Belize, had primary inhumations and secondary ones.During the Late Formative/Protoclassic (400 BC to 250AD), a mortuary pattern of a primary inhumationaccompanied by one or several secondary ones ispresent. In the past, researchers have thought of thesesecondary individuals as sacrifices, in this case, ofcompanions. The skeletons have no evidence ofviolence, but are poorly preserved. The context andtaphonomy of these accompanying individuals reveal apattern more consistent with prolonged ritual gatheringsof deceased kin, rather than sacrifice. Age, sex, andskeletal inventory are the keys.Carter, Alison (University of Wisconsin-Madison)[100] Proveniencing Stone Beads: New Insights from LA-ICP-MS analysis of stone beads and geological sourcesfrom South and Southeast AsiaStone beads, especially those made from agate andcarnelian, are amongst the earliest indicators of contactwith South Asia found at Iron Age period (500 BC- AD500) sites in mainland Southeast Asia. However, theexact provienence of these beads is still under debate.Stone bead artifacts from Cambodia and Thailand andgeological sources from South and Southeast Asia wereexamined using LA-ICP-MS in order to determine fromwhere the beads came. Preliminary conclusionsregarding the origin of the beads, trade and interactionnetworks between the two regions, and the benefits andlimitations of this analytical technique will be discussed.[100] First ChairCarter, Brian [155] see Bement, LelandCarter, Tristan (McMaster University)[97] From characterisation to Neolithisation: Usingobsidian sourcing to reconstruct the dynamics of socioeconomicchange in Anatolia during the 10th-7thmillennia BCForty years of characterisation studies gave us a detailedimage as to which of Anatolia‘s many obsidian sourceswere used and where their products circulated. Such richdata now warrants more critical interrogation, a reengagementwith major social science questions. Thispaper briefly reviews the region‘s sources and thendiscusses how an integrated chaîne opératoire mode ofobsidian characterisation enables us to map populationinteraction (‗communities of practice‘). This data arguablyprovides us with the social networks through which newideas and practices were transmitted, focusing here onthe process of Neolithisation from the Near East to theAegean.[97] Discussant [97] see Anovitz, Lawrence M. [63] seeBrown, Kelly [63] see Grant, Sarah [63] see Freund, KyleP.Casana, Jesse (University of Arkansas)[10] Settlement Systems of the northern Fertile Crescent:Results from the Corona Imagery Atlas ProjectThis paper presents initial results of a NASA-fundedproject to analyze ancient settlement systems in thenorthern Fertile Crescent utilizing a new database oforthorectified Cold War-era satellite imagery known asCorona. Because most archaeological sites, particularlymounded tells, appear with great clarity on the imagery, itis now possible to map definitively the density anddistribution of sites, beyond the limits of archaeologicalsurveys and across national borders. Site distributionsare then compared to the region's highly variable climateregime, as revealed through a variety of space-bornesensors, to show their correspondence with zones ofsustainable agriculture.Cascella, Melissa [3] see Schneyder, Stacy L.Caseldine, Christopher (Arizona State University)[36] Social Irrigation: An Analysis of Irrigation Usage andManagement Characteristics.My research is concerned with the human response tosocio-environmental variation contained within irrigationpractices. This research culminates with the developmentof a general model, which demonstrates characteristicsthat dictate controlled hydrological resource usage and

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 71management. I survey a number of modern irrigationcommunities throughout the world to identify socialvariables, which commonly appear and contribute to thesuccess or failure of an irrigation system. Although thescope of this research is multi-environmental andworldwide, superimposition of these historically obtainedcharacteristics over the Hohokam sequence holdspromising areas of future research.Caspari, Rachel (Central Michigan University)[17] Demography and the Middle/Upper PaleolithicTransitionEcological and demographic influences on behavior havebeen dominant themes throughout John Speth‘s career,and his influence can be seen in the research presentedhere. This paper focuses on the Middle/Upper Paleolithictransition, one of the many topics of longstanding interestto John. Here I examine the implications of changingpatterns of adult mortality in the Paleolithic. In contrastwith earlier groups, humans of the Upper Paleolithicdemonstrate significantly lower levels of young adultmortality. Results of fertility estimates are reviewed.These results help explain the success of modern humanpopulations.Cassedy, Daniel (URS Corporation)[105] Three Hundred Years at the Great Carrying Place -Excavations in the Upper Hudson River ValleyFort Edward is located on the Hudson River in upstateNew York at a key portage point along theHudson/Champlain corridor. Research conducted hereas part of General Electric‘s PCB remediation project hasdocumented a range of archaeological resourcesassociated with the military and transportation themes ofthis strategic corridor. These include portions of the 18thcentury French and Indian War fort site, submergedwrecks from early wooden canal boats, the remains ofone of the largest private estates in upstate New York inthe early nineteenth century, and a shipyard that builtconcrete canal barges during World War I.Cassidy, Jim (Maritime Museum of San Diego)[123] A Technological Exploration of Prehistoric NativeAmerican SeafaringNative American occupation of the Southern CaliforniaChannel Islands during the Pliestocene/Holocenetransition is now widely accepted. However, systematictechnological approaches to identify watercraftconstruction in the prehistoric record have yet to beformally established. The application of a number ofexploratory methods targeting composite boat building inthe early Holocene occupation layer at Eel Point (CA-SCLI-43), on San Clemente Island, has provenproductive. The comparative application of thesemethods to archaeological research and extantcollections among the Channel Islands, and adjacentmainland, would reveal a more sophisticatedunderstanding of prehistoric seafaring than presentlyexists.Casson, Aksel (McGill University), James Feathers(University of Washington), Albert LIN (University ofCalifornia San Diego) and Fred Hiebert (NationalGeographic)[5] Luminescence Dating of Ceramic Roof Tiles fromCentral AsiaIn this poster we present chronological informationderived from luminescence dating of ceramic roof tilesfrom two archaeological sites in Central Asia.Luminescence was used to determine whether or notthese sites, thought to be a burials from within the lastmillennium, were multiple use sites.Casson, Sarah (Grinnell College)[6] Sinagua Point Lithics: a Comparison of Four Sites inthe Flagstaff RegionProjectile points from four Sinagua sites near Flagstaff,Arizona were analyzed to better understand variability inchronology, point attributes and functional types duringintermittent Sinagua occupation between A.D. 1064–1300. The Sinagua were making small arrow points fromflakes of mostly obsidian and collecting large Archaicatlatl dart points. Abundant points showing a high degreeof variability without much chronological changecharacterize Sinagua sites. We looked for overallcorrelations among the small point collection in notching,material, damage and other categories. Some materialsand types correlated in ways that probably indicate―cultural‖ affiliations.Castaneda, Quetzil (OSEA Open School ofEthnography & Anthropology) [197] DiscussantCastillo, Patricia [9] see Kovacevich, BrigitteCastillo, Victor (Universidad de San Carlos deGuatemala)[225] The Preclassic Architecture at Ceibal: A view fromthe excavations at the A-24 PlatformRecent investigations conducted by the Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project have revealedimportant data about the foundation and earlydevelopment of Ceibal during the Preclassic period. Inparticular, extensive excavations carried out at the A-24platform have discovered numerous Preclassic structuresand many associated features of critical importance forthe study of the early development of the site. Thesedata provide significant implications on the origins anddevelopment of complex societies in the Maya lowlands.Casto, Kara (University of South Florida), ScottM. Fitzpatrick (North Carolina State University)and Michiel Kappers (In-Terris Site Technics)[163] GIS-based Analyses of ArchaeologicalAssemblages from Two Prehistoric Caribbean SitesIn recent years the value of GIS and associated spatialand statistical analyses have helped archaeologistsbetter understand past cultural behaviors. Point patternand trend surface analyses are here used to locatedensities of various categories of archaeological materialand to extrapolate how these materials may have beendiscarded within and between plana at two prehistoricsites in the Lesser Antilles. By subjecting data to suchanalyses, spatial and temporal distribution patterns canbe examined and used to decipher site formationprocesses in conjunction with previous analyses ofrecovered cultural remains.Castro, Alicia (alicia castro), Manuel Cueto(Universidad Nacional De La Plata) and FrankAriel (Universidad Nacional De La Plata)[59] New approaches in Functional analysis for the

72ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGdiscussion of Lithic technological organization: casesfrom Patagonia Argentina.We understand the functional analysis of lithic material,not as a particularized analytic approximation of knowinghow and in which way a tool was used, but as amethodology inserted in a bigger context. To know how atool was used allows us to discuss the main factor thatdetermines the different ways of production, typologicalstructures, assemblage‘s variability and issues related tostyle. It will be proposed to include Functional analysis ina wide approach chained to a complex process ofknowledge of technological organization, whereEthnoarchaeology and Experimental Archaeology mustbe involved. Cases from Patagonia will be presented.Catella, Luciana [101] see Barrientos, GustavoCau Ontiveros, Miguel Ángel [92] see Pecci,AlessandraCavelier, Inés [25] see Archila Montanez, SoniaCazares, Irma [95] see Garcia, DanteCeballos Gallareta, Teresa (INAH), Thelma Sierra(Centro INAH Yucatán) and Agustín Peña (CentroINAH Yucatán)[14] Nuevas Aportaciones sobre Sitios Preclásicos delCono Sur, YucatánExcavaciones realizadas en sub-estructuras domésticasen diversos sitios del cono sur en el norte de Yucatán,tales como: San Diego Buenavista, Nohbec-ElEscondido y Tigre Grande, revelan que en el Preclásicomedio ya existía una comunidad que compartió rasgoscomunes tanto en la forma de sus estructuras y ladecoración de sus cerámicas. Asimismo, parece ser queel repertorio cerámico de dichos sitios forma parte de unhorizonte cerámico, distinto al horizonte Nabanchétemprano, aunque contemporáneo al mismo. Por lo queen este estudio propondremos preliminarmente unanueva comarca cerámica para esta parte de la penínsulade Yucatán.Cecil, Leslie (Stephen F. Austin State University)[190] Maya Blue in Central Peten: Further Evidence ofthe Exchange of Ideas and not ThingsMaya Blue traditionally has been thought to have beenmanufactured only in northern Yucatán and tradedthroughout the Maya region. Chemical analysis of a bluepigment excavated from a Postclassic temple at Ixlú,Petén, Guatemala demonstrates that Maya Blue wasmade in at least two regions. These new data show thatthe knowledge of Maya Blue manufacture wastransferred to central Petén. In support of the transfer ofknowledge hypothesis, chemical and petrographic datafrom other artifact categories that are commonly thoughtto have been traded, especially Postclassic incensarios,further indicate that ideas were being exchanged insteadof actual artifacts.Centra, Alexandria (San Juan College) and LindaWheelbarger (San Juan College)[219] The Point Site Great Kiva: Description andComparison of Architectural CharacteristicsThe Point Site is a great house situated near the centerof the Point Community, a group of puebloan sites builtalong the San Juan River near Farmington, NM. SanJuan College field school excavations from 2008-2010have concentrated on the great kiva. Testing hasrevealed the great kiva to have originated during theChacoan time period, possibly as early as A.D. 1000-1050, with evidence of later post A.D. 1200 remodeling.Architectural characteristics are described and comparedwith other great kivas of the same time period in theMiddle San Juan and Chaco regions.Cerezo Roman, Jessica [147] see Cruz Guzmán,CarlosCerezo Roman, Jessica (University of Arizona)and Barbara Mills (University of Arizona)[226] Pathways to Personhood: Cremation as a SocialPractice among the Tucson Basin HohokamMortuary practices among the Hohokam of the TucsonBasin varied depending on the individual and/ormourners intersecting identities (i.e., their personhood).This paper compares Hohokam variation in treatment ofcremated bodies (including fragmentation and spatialcontext) to examine ways in which personhood wasdifferentially expressed in the final disposition ofHohokam bodies. The variation is compared toethnographic and ethnohistoric records on Southwesternindigenous groups where similar social practices weredocumented. While contexts of final disposition varied,cremations and some objects of material culture appearto pass through similar pathways that suggest parallelperceptions of and intra-community differences inpersonhood.Cervantes, Gabriela (Catholic University of Peru),Izumi Shimada (Southern Illinois University)and Haagen Klaus (Utah Valley University)[260] Multiethnicity in Sicán World: Figurines and otherlines of evidenceSocieties with extensive territorial domains and intensiveinter-regional interaction often have a multiethniccomposition and complex interethnic relationships. Thelate prehispanic Middle Sicán (900-1100 CE) society ofthe Peruvian north coast is no exception. We discussinformation from a cache of figurines found together inthe cemetery associated with the Huaca Loro templemound displaying diverse hairdos and dress, as well asfrom other lines of evidence (e.g., funerary treatments,sacrificial and technological styles, ancient DNA andbiodistance) that together suggest that this society wascharacterized by at least two sympatric ethnic groupsthat had different social status.Cerveny, Niccole (Mesa Community College),Casey Allen (University of Colorado - Denver) andRonald Dorn (Arizona State University)[134] The Rock Art Stability Index: Contributing toResource Preservation while Engaging IntroductoryLevel College Students in Science Through CultureIntroducing cultural heritage preservation helps sciencestudents actively engage in learning. An NSF–CCLIproject uses Native American rock art in aninterdisciplinary study of Archaeology, Geosciences, andBiology through the Rock Art Stability Index (RASI). RASIis a triage assessment for rock art panels in danger ofnatural or human-induced decay. Community collegestudents participate in research at Petrified Forest NP,

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 73providing park management with data for resourceassessment and allocation. Analysis of studentassessment data since Fall 2008 reveals understandingof complex scientific concepts increase when studentsinteract within a scientific field-based setting centering onculturally relevant issues.Chacaltana, Sofia [227] see deFrance, Susan D.Chada, Bill [83] see Lincoln, Thomas R.Chadwick, Oliver A. [261] see Browne Ribeiro, Anna T.[261] see Vitousek, PeterChadwick, William (John Milner Associates, Inc.)and Peter Leach (John Milner Associates, Inc.)[265] Coring Methods to Locate Buried ArcheologicalSites and Assess Buried Landscapes during IntertidalArcheological SurveysThrough field research at numerous tidal-freshwater andsalt marshes in the Middle Atlantic and New Englandregions, methods have been developed for minimizingfield time and maximizing scientific data collection.Methodological considerations included samplinginstruments, spacing, and recordation of detailedsedimentologic and stratigraphic information. Fieldresearch on core spacing has shown that an 8m grid is acompromise between data collection and speed ofcoring. Core stratigraphic recordation emphasizes thechanges in facies and is focused on identifying buriedupland landscapes. This type of sampling strategyfacilitates high-resolution paleogeographic reconstructionof transgressed upland landscapes allowing anassessment of site integrity.Chaisuwan, Boonyarit [100] see Lankton, James WChamberlin, Matthew (James Madison University)and Julie Solometo (James Madison University)[136] Religious life in troubled times: ritual and conflict inthe early plaza pueblos, Salinas, New MexicoRecent excavations in the Salinas Pueblo Provincehighlight the negotiation of religious and defensiveconcerns in early plaza-oriented pueblo villages (1200-1400 A.D.). Patterns in architectural design, growth, andburning suggest that conflict shaped decisions about siteplacement and layout, admission of newcomers, and, insome cases, village abandonment. In this environment,neighboring villages differed sharply in their ability todevelop and maintain religious facilities. Some built,remodeled, and added new ritual spaces and featuresthroughout their occupations; others did not. The Salinasevidence increases our understanding of the variableexperience of conflict and religiosity in villagesconstructed around enclosed plazas.Chamberlin, Matthew [53] see Solometo, Julie P.Chan, Keith (University of Missouri-Columbia)[72] Life in a Prehistoric State at Armatambo, RímacValley, PerúThe Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1476) of theAndean Region bridged the time between two horizons ofempires. Results are presented from a study of a skeletalcollection associated with Armatambo, a LateIntermediate Ychma city located in the central Andeancoast. Measures of non-specific stress and degenerativejoint disease prevalence are compared betweenArmatambo and earlier sites in the region, showingchanges in health trends over time.Chang, Claudia (Sweet Briar College)[54] Revisiting Iron Age Landscapes in the SemirechyeRegion of southeastern KazakhstanIron Age sites of Semirechye are identified as burialmounds or habitations. The interrelationship between themortuary complex and the ‗lived-in‘ places of villages andhamlets remains poorly understood and thusdisarticulated. Clusters of circular living houses around acentral structure may reveal the nature of agro-pastoralvillage organization. These settlement data coupled withthe location of burial mounds provide the basis forinterpreting a unified symbolic and socio-political systemon the periphery of the Eurasian steppe. Whether theTalgar Valley represents a local center or not, and itsspheres of interaction within a regional context will bediscussed.Chang, Vanessa (Antiquus ArchaeologicalConsultants Ltd.)[96] Technoloygies of South Yale: an analysis of lithicuse to project sedentary lifestyleLocated alongside the Fraser River, the South Yale sitehas been subjected to numerous studies. CRM studieshave dated as early as the 1960s. It is estimated to be4,128 m in length and 1,696 m wide and spanning 5terraces. Through the analysis of lithic deposits mayreaffirm the cultural type of South Yale. Variant rawmaterials provide information upon the resources thesepeople had in the past. Striatiaions of these materials canuncover the vegetation and dietary habits of the people.The analysis of lithic use depict a longstanding –sedentary culture of the South Yale.Chapman, Richard (University of New Mexico) [37]DiscussantCharles, Douglas (Wesleyan University)[43] Two-timing ArchaeologistsTime is central to the practice of archaeology: When didan event occur? Over what period was a style produced?Is this form earlier or later than another? Archaeologistsare also interested change, a function of time: directions,rates, rhythms, patterns, mechanisms. Archaeologistshave consciously or unconsciously incorporated A-series(tensed) or B-series (fixed) time into their approaches tothe past (even contending the existence of a past). Ourconstructions and investigations of archaeologicalquestions or problems are structured and guided by ourprior commitment to A- or B-series time. A discussion ofHopewell will serve as an example.Charles, Mona (Fort Lewis College)[188] Ornaments and Bone Tools from the Falls CreekBurial CreviceReanalysis of the ornaments and bone tools from theFalls Creek Burial Crevice have contributed to the overallproject mission to reunite associated funerary objectswith individual human remains. The collection containeda few bone tools but numerous objects of ornamentationsuch as siltstone and lignite beads, Olivella dama andOlivella biplicata shell beads, juniper berry beads, deer

74ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGmandible bangles, a few bone beads and a tubularsiltstone pipe. These artifacts impart information aboutthe people and the culture of the Durango Basketmakersspecifically about social status, gender and possiblerelationships with other Basketmaker II populations.Charles, Mona [188] see Graham, Carole L.Charlin, Judith (CONICET), Karen Borrazzo(CONICET-IMHICIHU) and Marcelo Cardillo(CONICET-IMHICIHU)[22] Artifact and environmental related variations inFuego-Patagonia (Argentina)Diversity in environmental conditions has a variableeffect on technological strategies employed by huntergatherersworldwide. Here we assess this pattern withinFuego-Patagonia, which comprises several ecologicalareas including forest, steppe and maritime coast. Thestudy explores the relationship between environmentalvariables and lithic assemblages structure, richness andcomposition by applying multivariate statistical analysis(constrained ordination). Artifactual samples wererecovered from Late Holocene stratigraphic and surfacecontexts located between 50º and 53º S. This researchcontributes to regional and worldwide discussions aboutthe role of environmental factors and the spatial scale oftechnological diversity.Chase, Arlen (University of Central Florida) andDiane Chase (University of Central Florida)[90] An Ancient Maya Urban Landscape: IntegratedSettlement and Terracing in the Vaca PlateauThe ancient Maya city of Caracol, Belize provides anexcellent New World example of tropical low-densityurbanism. The center housed 100,000 people at A.D.650 and was sustained through the intensive use ofagricultural terraces. Combining excavation data and ongroundsurvey information with a 200 square kilometerLiDAR Digital Terrain Model makes it possible to modelhow Caracol developed into a huge metropolis by A.D.650 and to correlate this development with heightenedinfrastructural organization and intra-site integration.These data suggest that the ancient Caracol Mayamaintained a long-term, highly complex relationship withtheir anthropogenic landscape.Chase, Arlen [116] see Chase, Diane Zaino [6] seeMartindale Johnson, Lucas R.Chase, Brad (Albion College)[189] The production of Harappan Gujarat: materialityand identity in the borderlands of the Indus CivilizationDuring the second half of the third millennium BC, theresidents of Gujarat came to make and use articles ofmaterial culture characteristic of the major cities of theIndus Civilization such as Harappa and Mohenjodaro.Traditionally, sites with this so-called Harappan materialculture have been considered together as evidence for amigration into the region. Recent research, however,demonstrates considerable material diversity within thiscategory of settlement. Here, I present the results of thisongoing work and discuss how the production ofHarappan things in Gujarat was integral to the productionof Harappan people in this borderland region.Chase, Diane (University of Central Florida)and Arlen Chase (University of Central Florida)[116] An Ancient Maya Economic System:Archaeological Data and Caracol, BelizeBecause neither Maya art nor hieroglyphic texts containexplicit economic information, many archaeologists viewMaya economies as de-emphasized in the Classic Period(A.D. 550-900). Scholarly reconstructions vacillatebetween complex and simple systems. This paperpositions 26 years of archaeological data from Caracol,Belize in terms of current debates about ancientMesoamerican economy. Research at Caracol hasidentified venues for marketplaces and shown thatancient residential households were actively involved inspecialized production. Data suggest that Caracol‘s elitewere concerned with controlling distribution in aneconomic system far more complex than that implied viasimple models of feasting.Chase, Diane [6] see Martindale Johnson, Lucas R. [90]see Chase, Arlen F.Chase, Zachary (The University of Chicago)[24] Material and Spatial Performances of the Past inHuarochirí, Peru (ca. AD 1400-1700)To understand the social and political instrumentality ofactive, animated materials and living landscapes–longemphasizedin studies of the indigenous Americas–it iscrucial to investigate how the cogency of suchphenomena was produced and perpetuated throughparticular historical processes, cultural practices, andagentive exercises. Ethnohistorical and recentarchaeological data from Huarochirí, Peru, show that,before and through Inka and Spanish colonizations of thearea, numinous objects/places, ―the past,‖ and politicallegitimacy were inseparable, making their ―adoption‖and/or ―conversion‖ paramount foci in these localimperialencounters. A performance/performativityapproach to these processes facilitates comprehensionof their varying suasive efficacy through time.Chataigner, Christine [114] see Varoutsikos, BastienChatters, James (AMEC Earth & Environmental)and Jason Cooper (AMEC Earth & Environmental)[29] Understanding Olcott, an Early Holocene LithicIndustry in Western Washington.Olcott, an early to mid-Holocene manifestation of the OldCordilleran Culture, is one of the enduring mysteries ofNorthwest Archaeology. Despite being widelyrepresented and known for 50 years, this lithicassemblage of Cascade projectile points, large bifaces,and a variety of scraping tools remains undated. Thetechnology remains un-described; nothing is known ofsubsistence; and the overall adaptive strategy isunderstood only with reference to similar assemblagesfrom eastern Washington. Detailed analysis ofassemblages of lithics, FCR, and fauna excavated in2009 from sites 45SN28 and 45SN303 has taken stridestoward understanding this ancestor of Northwestcultures.[29] First ChairChatters, James [22] see Prentiss, Anna MarieChauhan, Parth (Stone Age Institute)[218] From Ramapithecus to Robert Bruce Foote:

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 75Paleolithic research histories in the center of the OldWorldThe impact of early discoveries in Africa and Europeheavily influenced the way some of the Indian evidencewas initially interpreted and also the way associatedstone tool classification frameworks were subsequentlypresented. Specific examples of changing concepts andinterpretations over the last century are presented atthematic, regional and site-specific research histories.Recent discoveries are briefly mentioned to illustrate thegrowing significance of the Indian Subcontinent forunderstanding Paleolithic transitions in Asia. Theintellectual direction in which South Asianpaleoanthropology is heading including new questionsand research issues that have emerged in recent years isalso presented.[218] Second Chair [218] Second OrganizerChavez, Sergio [233] see Juengst, SaraCheetham, David (ASU)[157] Cunil Horizon Pottery at Pulltrowser Swamp, BelizeCeramics from deeply buried deposits at PulltrowserSwamp, Belize, belong to the Cunil Horizon, datedelsewhere to ca. 950-800 bc (uncalibrated). I discuss theearly Pulltrowser pottery and the implications of itsdiscovery in this habitable environmental zone. Cunilmaterial dates cultural activity at Pulltrowser Swamp toan era when sedentary village life began in the centralMaya Lowlands and subsistence practices emphasizingmaize agriculture were heightened. The early Maya mayhave been using swampy lands to increase agriculturalproductivity. I discuss and compare the contexts of CunilHorizon material at other sites with that of PulltrowserSwamp.Chen, Pochan (National Taiwan University)[23] Exploring the spatial relationships of the Yangfutoucemetery, Yunnan, ChinaDian is an ancient state in Dian Lake area of Yunnanfrom the Warring States period (475-221 B.C.) toWestern Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 8 A.D.). Since 1950‘s,archaeologists discover many Dian cemeteries, includingShizhaishan, Lijiashan, Tianzimiao, Batatai andYangfutou. Each cemetery has several hundred burialswith abundant burial materials. Many scholars adoptmultivariate statistical techniques to analyze thesecomplex cemeteries; however, very few of thememphasize spatial variants. In this paper, I will use GIStechniques to analyze the spatial relationships among theburials in the Yangfutou cemetery and reconstruct theirsocial structures.Chenery, Simon [142] see Rockman, MarcyChenoweth, John (University of California, Berkeley)[195] Negotiating Race and Religion on an EighteenthCentury Caribbean PlantationThis paper considers a context where race and religion,two major structuring factors in social life, were both atthe forefront of social negotiation. The focus is aneighteenth-century plantation in the British Virgin Islands,operated ca. 1725-1770 by an active member of theReligious Society of Friends (―Quakers‖). Despitecommitments to equality and non-violence, Lettsom, likemost BVI Quakers, was a slave owner. This study takesthe contradictions between religious ideology and slaveryas a starting point, aiming to provide a window into howthe identities of religion and race came into conflict andwere negotiated.Cheong, Kong (Trent University), Terry Powis(Kennesaw State University) and Paul Healy (TrentUniversity)[75] Music and the Maya: Late Classic Ocarinas andFlutes from Pacbitun, Belize.Musical instruments occur among Pre-Columbiancultures across Mesoamerica. In the Maya subarea,specifically in the Belize River Valley, they are found atBaking Pot, Blackman Eddy, Cahal Pech, and Pacbitun.At the latter, in the 1980s, musical instruments werefound in three elite graves in the Epicenter and datingfrom the Late Classic period. During the 2010 season aLate Classic burial with more than a dozen ceramic, windinstruments was discovered. These are described, andcompared with those from elsewhere in the Valley, andacross the Maya Lowlands. Possible roles of music inClassic Maya culture are examined.Cherian, P. J. [100] see Abraham, Shinu A.Cherry, John F. [163] see Pecoraro, Luke J.Chesley, John [135] see Thibodeau, Alyson M.Chesson, Meredith (University of Notre Dame)and Morag Kersel (DePaul University)[236] Following the Pots: Groundtruthing a LootedCemetery, Assessing Loss, and Utilizing What RemainsFollow the Pots employs archaeological andethnographic research into first and second lives ofartifacts in Early Bronze Age (c.3600 – 2000 bce)cemeteries on the southeastern Dead Sea Plain, Jordan.In 2011 we mapped the extent and groundtruthed sampleareas of the extensively-looted site of Fifa. We conducteda systematic survey of the cemetery, groundtruthinglooters‘ pits to assess ―success rates‖ and recordingmaterials in spoil heaps to aid in comparing data fromlooted tombs to 60 previously excavated tombs. Ourresearch demonstrates the necessity for groundtruthingand multidisciplinary approaches in analyzing heritagedestruction and materials from looted sites.Chiarulli, Beverly (Indiana University ofPennsylvania) and Donna Smith (Indiana U of PA)[138] Geophysical Investigations of Two Locales NearHermosa, New MexicoDuring the 2010 field season of the GAP, two localesnear Hermosa, New Mexico were subject to geophysicalsurveys. Based on preliminary surface surveys, one wasthought to have been the location of a community school,while the other was thought to have been a blacksmithshop. For comparison, sample grids were established atthe locales and then each surveyed by groundpenetrating radar, conductivity, and magneticsusceptibility surveys, as well as systematic surface andmetal detector surveys. The results allow us to evaluatethe effectiveness of each instrument in thisenvironmental setting.[268] DiscussantChiarulli, Beverly [209] see Neusius, Sarah W.

76ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGChicoine, David (Louisiana State University)and Hugo Ikehara (University of Pittsburgh)[125] Cercaduras, Cuidadelas, and Early Urbanism onthe North Coast of Peru: A Reconsideration of the SalinarPhenomenonCarol Mackey‘s work contributed significantly to ourunderstanding of urbanism in ancient Peru. In Nepeña, acoastal valley in Ancash, our recent work has broughtinsights into early forms of enclosure compounds andlifestyles during the first millennium BC. Here, we reviewenclosure designs ascribed to the Salinar phenomenon.By considering and comparing variations at the regionallevel, we suggest that Salinar is best understood in termsof situated historical processes that included increasedintergroup conflicts, and differential political patterns ofintegration and fragmentation, both linked to the demiseof the Chavín sphere and the emergence of densesettlements.Chicoine, David [174] see Capriata Estrada, CamilaChilcote, Celise [183] see McCafferty, Sharisse D.Childs, S. (Department of the Interior) [118]DiscussantChilds-Johnson, Elizabeth (Old Dominion University)[258] Erligang bronze vessels and early ShanghegemonyTwo major events marked the beginning of the Shangdynasty: 1) the expansion of military and political powerto the south Yangtze river valleys, beyond the northerncapital in the Yellow river valley, and 2) the creation oflarge-scale tetrapod bronze ding as the most importantsymbol of divine kingship. This paper explores dynasticexpansion to the south due to the exploitation of valuableores and the pyramidal hierarchy that recognized divinityof the king as symbolized by the large-scale sacrificialtetrapod ding bronze vessel.Chilton, Elizabeth (UMass Amherst)[254] Museum as artifact: a case study from (colonial)New EnglandMuseums are often venues where historians,archaeologists, and curators seek to both study ―thepast‖ and educate ―the public.‖ But in what way aremuseums themselves an artifact of contemporary (andpast) heritage practice? My case study is HistoricDeerfield, Inc., an open-air museum of the history, art,and architecture of colonial New England. My goal is toexamine how changing approaches to research andinterpretation, as viewed through the museum‘slandscape-level public interpretation (e.g., the locationand re-construction of houses, narrative of interpretersand sign text, public presentations, and publications),reflect heritage discourse.[254] Second ChairChiou, Katherine (University of California, Berkeley)[250] Discussant [45] Second Organizer [45] SecondChairChiou-Peng, TzeHuey (Univ. Illinois UC)[23] Ancient Yunnan Metals in Current Studies ofBronze/Iron Age AsiaArchaeologically excavated metal materials from Yunnanhave assisted in studying cultural/technologicalinteractions between Bronze and Iron Age sites insouthwest China and surrounding regions. However,occasional misinterpretations of aspects in the materialculture in Yunnan have led to misleading conclusions aswell as controversial issues when viewed in thechronological, cultural, and technological frameworks ofAsian prehistory. In the light of recent metallurgicalstudies of Yunnan artifacts and new archaeological findsfrom 2nd millennium sites in western Yunnan, this workinvestigates the research strategies used to generatesuch debatable issues.Chisholm, Brian (University of British Columbia), R.Kyle Bocinsky (Washington State University)and Brian M. Kemp (Washington State University)[46] Basketmaker III Turkey Husbandry: Multiple Lines ofEvidenceA small site on Cedar Mesa from the late BM IIIMossbacks Phase (ca. AD 650-725) yielded partialskeletons of several turkeys of varying ages, clusters ofgizzard stones, and a few eggshell fragments. Stablecarbon and nitrogen isotope values of bones were usedto characterize diet. MtDNA analysis tested whether thebirds displayed the distinctive SW domestic turkeyhaplotype. Experimental analysis of DNA microsatelliteswas used to investigate possible parent-offspring orsibling relationships among the birds. Eggshell fragmentswere examined with a SEM to see if the eggs hadhatched at the site.Chiu, Scarlett (Academia Sinica, Taiwan)[228] Stylistic analysis using the online Lapita potterydatabase: A case study of a Lapita pottery assemblageexcavated from Kamgot, Anir Islands, Papua NewGuineaAttributes related to vessel forms, decoration motifs,potter-making techniques, as well as petrographic andchemical compositional data, have been employed byPacific archaeologists in various attempts to postulatethe rate and direction of stylistic and technical changesobserved in Lapita ceramic assemblages. Acomprehensive online database has been constructed toprovide an analytical tool for recording, sequencing, andcomparing various formal, decorative, and compositionalattributes of Lapita pottery assemblages. Using thepottery assemblage of Kamgot, Anir Islands, Papua NewGuinea, this paper illustrates the usefulness of such adatabase, and how may it contribute to the study ofLapita prehistory.Chiykowski, Tanya (SUNY Binghamton)[96] Domestic production in lithic analysis fromNorthwest MexicoAccess to raw material, procurement strategies, controlin distribution, sharing of technical knowledge andexchange of both raw and finished materials all relate tothe dynamics of production of lithics at a local level. Lithicanalysis from the Viejo Period in Chihuahua, Mexicoillustrates these points by examining connections at acommunity, inter-site and regional level. Research in theregion demonstrates a lack of specialized production oflithic tools, so variation in this non-discursive materialculture reflects the domestic production of materialculture in a transitional period between hunter-gathering

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 77and adoption of agriculture.Chovanec, Zuzana [19] see Rafferty, Sean M.Christie, Heather [100] see Abraham, Shinu A.Christie, Jessica (East Carolina University)[103] Exporting Inkaness: An Argument For Replicationin Architecture and Sculpture in the Ayacucho RegionThis paper discusses how certain aspects of Inkaadministration as well as ideology were materialized inarchitecture and sculpture at Vilcashuaman and theassociated site Intihuatana in the DepartamentoAyacucho. The center of Vilcashuaman clearly reflectsthe layout of Cusco and conceptual similarities extend tothe poorly known Intihuatana site. The latter exhibits apalace compound structured around several sequentialcourtyards, carved rocks, and visual orientation towardVilcashuaman. It is argued that not only the urban designof Cusco but also the materialization of ideologicalconcepts as well as cultural landscapes were exportedas markers of Inka identity.Chuipka, Jason (Woods Canyon ArchaeologicalConsultants)[117] The Legacy of Chaco in the Upper San JuanRegion, A.D. 900-1200The region north of the San Juan River and east of theAnimas River was sparsely settled immediately prior tothe Pueblo II period and almost entirely abandoned afterA.D. 1150. This paper will examine how involvement inthe Chacoan regional system acted as a catalyst to theentrenchment of traditional social practices rather thanspurring emulation or change. This contradictoryconsciousness appears to have tempered the influenceof Chaco in the region and likely influenced laterpopulations that also resisted social trends occurring tothe south and west in the post-Chacoan world of the A.D.1200s.Chung, Steven [59] see Stemp, William JamesChurnside, Robyne [259] see Smalldon, Sue S.Cinquino, Michael [60] see Hayward, Michele H.Ciolek-Torrello, Richard (Statistical Research, Inc.),Seetha Reddy (Statistical Research, Inc.), JohnDouglass (Statistical Research, Inc.) and DonnGrenda (Statistical Research, Inc.)[151] Contributions of Ballona Research toGabrielino/Tongva Prehistory and EthnohistoryOver 20 years of archaeological, geoarchaeological, andethnohistorical research by Statistical Research, Inc inthe Ballona region of west Los Angeles has produced arich and detailed record of over 8,000 years of humanadaptation to a dynamic coastal wetland and a diversecultural environment. This record provides a uniqueperspective on Gabrielino/Tongva culture from itsancestral origins in the Millingstone period, to itsdevelopment as a distinctive coastal culture in theIntermediate period, and finally its emergence as acomplex culture during the Protohistoric and Missionperiods. We discuss these developments using theconcepts of cultural continuity and ethnogenesis.Ciolek-Torrello, Richard [151] see Grenda, Donn [151]see Altschul, Jeffrey H. [151] see Van Galder, Sarah J.[151] see Douglass, John G.Clark, Dylan (Harvard University), Mauricio GermonRoche (Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán) andRodolfo Canto Carrillo (Universidad Autónoma deYucatán)[221] The Port-Keepers and Fisherfolk of Isla Cerritos:New Perspectives on Island Occupation Before, During,and After Chichén ItzáIsla Cerritos has long been interpreted as the principalcoastal port of Chichén Itzá. This paper will discussrecent excavations in two structures and a patio of aresidential group that demonstrate that a smallcommunity of people lived and worked on the island priorto and during the apogee of Chichén Itzá and thatsignificant changes took place with the rise of this inlandcenter. Household archaeology provides additionalinsights into the nature of the relationship betweenChichén Itzá and Isla Cerritos and enhances ourunderstanding of the dynamics of social organization anddaily life in Maya coastal port communities.Clark, Geoffrey (Arizona State University)[218] Research Advances in the Levantine Paleolithic,1990-2010With an archaeological record extending back 1.4 my,and paleolandscapes relatively accessible toinvestigation, the Levant is a prime example of an areawhere methodological advances since 1990 have had adramatic impact on perceptions of pattern and what itmight mean. In particular, advances in chronology haveaffected the duration and geographical extent of themajor analytical units, and by extension, theirimplications for biological and cultural evolution. Isummarize these changes and examine theirconsequences for human evolution. Although muchrecent controversy has centered on the MiddlePaleolithic, the Lower and Upper Paleolithic have alsobeen affected.[108] see Culley, Elisabeth V.Clark, Jamie (University of Utah)[91] Obsidian in Range Creek Canyon: A Sourcing andHydration Analysis for Lithic Debitage and Tools.Several archaeological sites in Range Creek Canyonhave yielded significant quantities of lithic debitage andstone tools. Material types observed include quartzite,chert, chalcedony and obsidian. In order to betterunderstand prehistoric land-use patterns and traderoutes, a sample of obsidian lithic debitage and toolswere sent for obsidian hydration and sourcing analysis. Adiscussion of the results will include elements of the fieldtransport and processing model, obsidian sourcelocations, and new implications for Fremont flintknapperson the western Colorado Plateau.[17] see Stutz, Aaron J.Clark, Jeffery (Center for Desert Archaeology),Steven Shackley (University of California atBerkeley), Robert Jones (Center for DesertArchaeology/University of Arizona) and StacyRyan (Desert Archaeology, Inc.)[52] Through Volcanic Glass: Measuring the Impact ofAncestral Puebloan Immigration on the Hohokam World

78ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGDramatic changes in the procurement and exchange ofobsidian occurred throughout the Hohokam World duringthe early 14th Century A.D. Some regions experiencedsubstantial increases in exotic obsidian while otherregions were suddenly cut off from sources that hadbeen exploited for centuries. Using more than 3000sourced obsidian samples from nearly 100 sites, weargue that small groups of ancestral Puebloanimmigrants both facilitated and disrupted the circulationof this valuable raw material within the Hohokam World.This represents another line of evidence for thedisproportionate power possessed by this minority group.[52] Second ChairClark, Jeffery [52] see Hill, Brett [201] see Dungan,Katherine A. [52] see Lyons, Patrick D.Clark, Joelle (Northern Arizona University)[139] Footprints of the Ancestors: Hopi IntergenerationalLearningHopi footprints are the archaeological landscapes andthe oral history that surrounds them. They connectpeople to place, to the environment, to the past, and tothe future. The Footprints of the Ancestors project is anintergenerational partnership that facilitates Hopi culturalpreservation. The primary goal is to bring together Hopiyouth and our established team of Hopi elders, culturalspecialists, and archaeologists in an experiential andcollaborative endeavor. This poster depicts the project,its accomplishments, and impact on Hopi youth.Clark, John (Brigham Young University)[157] Tracking the Origins of Agriculture in MiddleAmericaScholars have pursued the origins of domesticated plantsand agriculture the world over for at least two centuries,with no final resolution in sight. Provisional answersalong the way have depended on primary definitions ofphenomena, research agendas, excavation luck,academic politics, improved techniques for recoveringplant residua, and analytical methods for extractingchemical signatures from bones and artifacts. I review acentury of shifting evidence and narratives for the originsof agriculture in Middle America and the currentcontenders for a master narrative.[88] DiscussantClark, John E. [22] see Woods, JamesClark, Julia (University of Pittsburgh) and Jean-LucHoule (University of Pittsburgh)[54] Exploring Communities in Central Mongolia: AnEthnoarchaeological PerspectivePastoralist communities in the central Mongolian Steppemay provide unique insight into the ways we conceive ofcommunity organization in semi-mobile, dispersedpopulations. Ethnographic interviews, census recordsand detailed maps depicting modern day land-useprovide information about the social, economic, and ritualorganization of communities in Central Mongolia today.This information can then supplement some of the waysin which we approach the archaeological investigation ofcommunities in the area.Clark, Terence (University College London)[232] Archaeology of communities within the Salish Sea:grappling with issues of scale and identity.According to Redfield (1955), the community is theprincipal unit of biological and cultural reproduction. It isthe scale at which culture is replicated and innovationadopted. As such, communities may be the most relevantemic classification of culture therefore, understanding thenature of past communities is critical to understandingpast cultures. Building on the ―archaeology ofcommunities‖ (Canuto and Yaeger 2000) frameworkwhich has previously be employed to delineatecommunity-level groups in more complex societies, thispaper will attempt to identify and describe emicallymeaningful scales of interaction, communities, within theprehistoric hunter gatherer cultures of the Salish Sea.Cleghorn, Naomi [108] see Koetje, Todd A.Cleland, Jamie [50] see Wahoff, Tanya L.Cleland, Robin (Arizona State University) and BenA. Nelson (Arizona State University)[36] Resource Depletion and Food Supply at LaQuemada: A Zooarchaeological ApproachFaunal analysis is used to evaluate resource depletion inrelation to the growth of La Quemada, northwest Mexico.Scholars have offered differing interpretations of the sizeand permanence of the site‘s population. This Epiclassicsite provides a good case study to examine socioecologicalissues because of its large size, fragileenvironmental context, and position as the first majorcenter in the region. If resource depletion were occurringwe expect to see increasing reliance on lagomorphscompared to artiodactyls, increasing bone fragmentationfor nutrient extraction, and increasing abundance of lessdesirable species. Initial results are presented.Clewlow, C (Ancient Enterprises Inc) [230] DiscussantClifford, Walter (University of South Carolina)[148] The Distribution of Paleoethnobotanical Remainsfrom a Late Classic Maya Site in Northwestern BelizeMost studies of ancient Maya subsistence are based onethnohistorical accounts that model a reliance on maize,beans, and squash. Our investigations of botanicalremains recovered from an array of shovel tests atGuijarral, a Late Classic (AD 600-900) Maya farmstead,have shown an expanded botanical repertoire beyondthe aforementioned trinity. Some plant distributionssuggest the importance of wild plants, and allowconstruction of hypotheses regarding the locations ofactivities within the site and begin to reconstruct theagroecology associated with Late Classic provisioning.Data presented here demonstrate the importance ofconsidering the potential for local control of perennialfoodstuffs.Clinton, Jennifer (UC Santa Barbara), RobinLyle (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center)and Steve Wolverton (University of North Texas)[135] Changes in Turkey Exploitation by AncestralPuebloans: Remodeled Bone Breakage from the MesaVerde Region and BeyondTurkey was a valued resource among AncestralPuebloans in the American Southwest. Mature turkeyfrom several earlier occupations in Colorado exhibitdamage to skeletal elements, making survival in the wild

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 79improbable. Given the degree of bone remodeling, thesespecimens received post-injury care, no matter breakageintentionality. In earlier sites, turkey exploitation occurredfor various economic reasons and healed breakagefrequency is comparatively high. As other resourcesbecame scarce during later periods, exploitation shiftedto turkey as meat and healed breakage frequencydecreased. This poster demonstrates how turkey weretended until resource depression changed the role ofturkey in the diet.Coats, Jennifer (California State University, LosAngeles)[266] Caves and Burial: A Critical Examination of MayaIdeology Surrounding Cave IntermentDuring three years of survey, the Midnight Terror CaveProject recovered large quantities of human remains.This raised the question as to why the Maya utilizedcaves for interment. A frequently utilized model suggeststhat caves were viewed as being ―the land of the dead‖ orthe pathway to the ―land of the dead,‖ and, therefore, anappropriate place for interment. This model, however,has never been explicitly formulated or rigorously testedthough it continues to be a factor in interpretation. Theauthor analyzes the theoretical roots and inception of thecave-underworld model and cautions its use in caveinterpretation.[266] First ChairCoats, Larry (University of Utah)[91] The Distribution and Variety of High Elevation Sitesin Range Creek Canyon, UtahMost of the recorded sites in Range Creek Canyon, Utahare less than 50 meters in elevation above the alluvialfloodplain. But intuitive surveys since 2006, focused onmajor ridge lines, have revealed numerous high elevationsites far above the canyon floor. These sites are between1800 m and 2400 m in elevation, ranging between 120 mto 600 m above the nearest alluvial floodplain. Thesesites exhibit a variety of forms, from residential or campsites, to storage features, or rock art panels. Diverseartifacts have been recorded at these sites, includingceramics, lithics, and ground stone items.[91] see Brunelle, AndreaCobb, Allan and James Brady (California StateUniversity, Los Angeles)[266] The Implications of Ritual Pathways in MidnightTerror Cave BelizeIn the last two decades, archaeologists have begun tomap ritual pathways in Maya caves but these featuresare still poorly understood. Midnight Terror Cavescontains the longest and most elaborate ritual pathwayyet reported. This paper describes the construction andshows that it forms a documentable circuit that permitsarchaeologists to reconstruct movement through thecave. Finally, we offer possible reasons for theconstruction of such a feature in the cave and makecomparisons with other known examples.Cobb, Charles (South Carolina Inst of Archaeology &Anthropology) and Dawnie Steadman (BinghamtonUniversity)[198] The Class Process, Symbolic Capital, andMississippian Epidemiological TransitionsThe class process—the production and distribution ofsurplus labor—can undergo profound changes duringepidemiological transitions. Heightened morbidity in theMississippian Southeast (USA) is traditionally attributedto a growing reliance on maize agriculture and demandson surplus labor. However, evidence from the Illinois andCumberland Valleys demonstrates that an upsurge inregional conflict greatly impacted subsistence strategiesand patterns of adverse health. We argue that thesetrends are linked in part to historical alterations in theorganization of surplus labor and symbolic capital, wheresocial reproduction via moundbuilding and other largescaleceremonial enterprises diminished in importancerelative to rituals surrounding warfare and other activities.Cobos, Rafael (Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán)[90] Built Environment and Green Landscape: Settlementat the Ancient City of Chichén ItzáArchaeological data recovered at Chichén Itzá provide anexcellent opportunity to analyze the way in which elitemembers, food producers, and commoners got togetherand permanently occupied the same settlement throughseveral centuries. These individuals organized theirspace used for the construction of elaborate and nonelaboratearchitecture as well as zoning the land thatfunctioned for agricultural purposes. To understandChichén Itzá´s intrasite morphology can help us toexplain how a dispersed settlement sheltered populationcapable of managing the organization of their space andresources. This also mirrors social, political, andeconomic aspects of the internal.[221] DiscussantCochran, Jennifer [51] see Brown, M. KathrynCochrane, Brett [12] see Garvey, JillianCodding, Brian (Stanford University) and DouglasBird (Stanford University)[11] A Land of Work: Foraging Behavior and EcologyCalifornia‘s prehistoric record encompasses a broadarray of forager adaptations to environmental, social andhistorical variability. Active research in this areafrequently draws on models from behavioral ecology tounderstand how and why changes in subsistencepatterns occur across time and space. Synthesizingsome of this recent research, this paper explores how byfocusing on work, California archaeologists have come tounderstand a great deal about the colonization of theregion, the relationships between human foragingdecisions and environmental change and how thesedynamic interactions intertwine with historicalperturbations to produce the diversity of life-waysrepresented across the state.Codding, Brian [192] see Bird, Rebecca [74] seeZeanah, David W.Coffey, Grant (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center)[117] Transition and Continuity: Settlement Patterns andSocial Implications in the Goodman Point AreaUsing data compiled through the Village EcodynamicsProject, a GIS analysis of sites within and around theGoodman Point Unit of Hovenweep National Monumentsuggests changing settlement patterns and the spatialdistribution of special-use sites might point to continuedintercommunity organization spanning the collapse of the

80ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGChaco regional system.Coffey, Tonya [59] see Kimball, Larry R.Cogswell, Lucy (California State University,Northridge)[186] Jade as a Prestige Good at La Blanca, GuatemalaIn terms of clear cut social distinction being determinedby prestige goods, most archaeological focus gets putupon Classic sites. However, the Middle Preclassicshould not be fully ignored, and should instead bestressed upon as supporting the beginnings of thistradition. The site of La Blanca offers an interesting lookat different types of household assemblages andsuggests basic jade production at the site.Cohen, Anna (University of Washington) andChristopher T. Fisher (Colorado State University)[58] Constructing social space (part 1): multi-scalarorganization at Sacapu AngamucuIn early urban centers, social and political authority wereexerted through the production and manipulation ofspace. At the Postclassic site of Sacapu Angamucu,Michoacán, inhabitants carefully produced and managedspace through architectural forms and settlementpatterns. Here I consider the implications of open andrestricted settlement areas and make preliminaryobservations concerning the extension of socio-politicalauthority at the site.[58] Second ChairCohen, Anna [4] see Marwick, BenColaninno-Meeks, Carol (University of Georgia)[132] Comparing the Growth of Late Archaic and ModernHardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) Populations from theGeorgia Coast (USA)Throughout the Holocene, people seriously impactedsome animal populations. This may hold true for fishpopulations of the Georgia coast (USA), which wereheavily used. To examine whether humans impacted fishpopulations in the past, growth increments in LateArchaic and modern hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis)otoliths were analyzed. Growth curves and growth ratesindicate that modern catfish populations grow to largersizes at comparable ages compared to archaeologicalpopulations. Under the density-dependent model ofanimal growth, this suggests that modern populations areexperiencing environmental disturbances impactinggrowth which may be related to human activities.Cole, David [97] see Anovitz, Lawrence M.Cole, Sally (Utah Museum of Natural History)[188] Place, Color, and Image: Chronology and SocialIdentity in Basketmaker II–Associated Rock Art at theFalls Creek SheltersThe spatial distribution and organization of rock paintings(colors and imagery) and material culture at North andSouth Falls Creek Shelters and the site chronology,including a radiocarbon date from a typical San JuanBasketmaker II–style form, provide a context forexamining the social significance of the paintings overtime. Black appears to be the predominant color used byearly Basketmaker II occupants; later Basketmakerpaintings present a variety of colors. Along with colors,distinctive types of images and techniques were used tomark discrete spaces and clusters of archaeologicalfeatures within the two shelters.Coleman, Julie[188] ―The Worst and Best of Durango Archaeology:Falls Creek Rock Shelters Revisited‖The history of archaeological investigations at the FallsCreek Rockshelters over the past 70 years provides anexample of both the worst and best of Southwesternarchaeological endeavors. The site has long beenconsidered to be one of the best collections of ―Eastern‖Basketmaker II materials and is currently be re-analyzedas part of the cultural affiliation and NAGPRA process.Historical background and introduction to currentresearch on the artifacts, human remains, and rock artwill be presented.[188] First ChairColes, Melissa [107] see Gunter, MadeleineCollard, Mark (Simon Fraser University), BriggsBuchanan (University of Missouri), Marcus Hamilton(University of New Mexico) and Michael O'Brien(University of Missouri)[155] Testing hypotheses about the Early Paleoindianswith radiocarbon datesThis paper has two goals. One is to summarize theresults of an on-going program of research in which weare using large samples of radiocarbon dates to shedlight on important issues concerning the EarlyPaleoindians, including the speed of colonization of NorthAmerica, the timing and nature of the Clovis-Folsomtransition, and whether Clovis disappeared as a result ofan extraterrestrial comet impact in the Great Lakesregion. The other goal is to highlight several major flawsin a recent critique of the main methods we haveemployed in this research, diffusion analysis andsummed probability distribution analysis.Collard, Mark [22] see Buchanan, BriggsCollette, Jim[20] [My Definition of Shinarump Can Beat Up YourDefinition of Shinarump: Thoughts from the EasternGrand Canyon]During the MNA/GRCA River Corridor ArchaeologyProject in the Grand Canyon ceramic analysis confirmedthe introduction of three sequential ceramic traditions.Ceramics and architecture appear to reflect a growingreliance on local pottery production and permanentoccupation of river level sites in the Canyon. However,ceramic analysis also demonstrated considerablevariability within the late wares, such as the Shinarumpseries of gray, white and red wares. This papersummarizes temper and firing attributes that may (or maynot) be useful in defining the characteristics of ―classic‖Shinarump on the southeastern periphery of itsdistribution.[20] see Webber, Charlie C.Collins, Antoinette (University of Leicester)[154] Resting in the Shadow Of The Ruins: TheWeymouth Burial Grounds Mapping ProjectRapid growth in the utilization of technology in researchand education can link a small 18th century New Jersey

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 81cemetery with the history of the region and people whosettled there. Hyperlinks, audio tours, multilayered GISmaps for spatial analysis and digital video will allow for amore thorough understanding of the history of this region.Through technology this small cemetery can provideeducational and research opportunities to the communityand about the region as a whole. A mixed mediaapproach to data storage and dissemination will allow fora more individualized approach to information accessand utilization.Collins, Brian [259] see Fairley, HelenCollins, Joshua [222] DiscussantCollins, Laurel[222] Fluvial Geomorphology of Quiroste Valley andWhitehouse Creek during the last 200 YearsDuring Portola‘s 1769 exploration of costal California,Whitehouse Creek was already incised within QuirosteValley. Carbon dates from the uppermost terrace indicatethe valley was building upwards by 8000 BP. By 1769,the creek had developed an inner floodplain with severalinset terraces that supported groves of coast redwood.Archeological evidence indicates the valley flat and insetterraces were used contemporaneously. Based on treecoring and stream surveys, the creek bed has incised 5-7ft since Portola‘s visit, due mainly to twentieth centuryupstream dams and water diversions. Historical streamincision has probably dewatered the valley floor relativeto pre-contact conditions.Collins, Lori (University of South Florida), TravisDoering (University of South Florida, AIST) and MaryPohl (Florida State University)[157] The La Venta Stone Monument DocumentationProject: New Directions in Iconography and PreservationOpportunities for Carved Stone Monuments inMesoamericaThis paper reviews the procedures utilized in the 3Ddocumentation and analysis of more than 25 stone altars,stelae, monuments, and objects from La Venta, Tabasco,Mexico. Monument studies have relied primarily onphotographs and derived drawings. Because many ofthese Formative Period multi-ton sculptures are carved inthe round, traditional photos and drawings are oftenunable to depict these pieces adequately, with their faintand fragile carved surface details difficult to discern.Using close range 3D laser scanning, these data are nowbeing used for iconographic and epigraphic research andhave potential for preservation, restoration, and replicaproduction.Collins, Lori [82] see Mcleod, BartCollins, Ryan (Brandeis University)[28] The Raised-Heel and Ritual ProcessAmong scholars, the raised-heel pose in late ClassicMaya art has had a quarter century-spanning visual andhieroglyphic linkage to dance. However, this connectionis rendered problematic when comparing thecontextualized chronology and distribution of the raisedheelto that of the T516 sign, representative of the verbak ot, ―to dance.‖ This paper reexamines the raised-heelpose through a discussion of the associatedsemasiographic, epigraphic, and archaeological contexts.By focusing on continuities between ceramic andsculpted representations, this paper argues for a newinterpretation of the raised-heel, expressing a theme ofliminality in the process of death, internment, andresurrection.[28] First ChairColtrain, Joan (University of Utah)[91] Evidence for Fremont Maize Farming in the SoilOrganic Chemistry of Range Creek CanyonThe density of granaries and other structures in RangeCreek Canyon suggests that Fremont groups likelyfarmed the best-watered sections of the canyon bottom.However, shallow middens with relatively limitedassemblages of refuse raise questions about both theintensity and duration of Fremont occupation. Here Ipresent evidence for maize farming in the soil organicmatter of a meter deep core taken from a spring-wateredflat adjacent to the creek. The stable carbon isotopesignature of soils dating to the Fremont period clearlyindicates the presence of organic material consistent withthe isotope chemistry of maize.Comer, Douglas (Cultural Site Research andManagement (CSRM)) [110] Second ChairCommendador, Amy (Idaho Museum of NaturalHistory), Bruce Finney (Idaho State University/CAMAS) and John Dudgeon (Idaho StateUniversity/CAMAS)[180] Isotopic Analyses of Small Mammals from theWasden Site, Idaho as Indicators of Climate Change onthe Eastern Snake River PlainPrevious research on the small mammal populationrecovered from excavations at the Wasden Site,southeastern Idaho suggests that changing frequencydistributions through the Holocene represent a shift inclimate from a cooler, wetter regime to a warmer, drierone. This conclusion is re-evaluated using carbon andnitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen from the twoprimary species of small mammals from the previousstudies: pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) andpygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis). Isotopicevidence from the small mammal distribution over timemay help refine current models for climate change, byproviding alternate forms of evidence to test thesehypotheses.Coningham, Robin (University of Durham) [90]DiscussantConkey, Margaret (UC-Berkeley) [84] Discussant [196]see Sykes, Becky M. [218] see Lacombe, SebastienConnell, Samuel (Foothill College), ChadGifford (Columbia University) and Eric Fries (UCLA)[15] What Happens After You Resist the Inka Invadersfor a Decade and They Sacrifice Everybody? You GetColonized by the SpanishInvestigations at the Pambamarca Fortress Complexcontinue to piece together the culture history ofindigenous Cayambe-Carangue resistance alongTawantinsuyu's northern frontier during the early 1500s.New research seeks evidence of Inka-Cayambe postconquestrelationships to better understand aspects ofcontinued resistance in colonial contexts. Results from

82ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGrecent excavations provide supporting evidence for alocally vibrant Cayambe population living under Inkacontrol. Our paper details excavations at an Inka colcasite, a Cayambe fortress occupied by the Inka, and aCayambe pyramid in the shadows of a Cayambestronghold.[79] DiscussantConnell, Samuel [190] see Kindon, Andrew W.Connolly, Cara (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)[61] Groove and Cupule Rock Art Style in the MojaveDesert: An Experimental StudyThe groove and cupule rock art style is widely dispersedthroughout the Mojave Desert. This rock art style isdefined as boulder or rock slab covered with incisedgrooves, rarely more than a quarter inch in depth, andsmall rounded depressions (cupules), usually one or twoinches in diameter and half inch to inch in depth. Thisstudy examines a number of rock art sites in SouthernNevada with this style of petroglyph, and the finalanalysis of an experimental project conducted todetermine what tools were used to create groove marksand the purpose of this petroglyph.Connolly, Thomas [160] see Baxter, PaulConnolly, Tom, Craig Skinner (Northwest ResearchObsidian Studies Laboratory) and Paul Baxter(University of Oregon Museum of Natural & CulturalHistory)[160] Ancient Obsidian Trade Routes in the PacificNorthwestObsidian is important in tracing ancient traderelationships, as geochemical profiling permits both itsplace of origin and final destination to be identified withprecision. We review the previously reported evidence forthe role of Newberry Volcano obsidian in a PacificNorthwest trade network, then examine the distribution ofobsidian from the widely used Obsidian Cliffs source,located in Oregon‘s Cascade Range. Obsidian Cliffsmaterial exhibits similar geographic, and probablytemporal, distributions as the Newberry obsidian,suggesting that both sources were part of the sameeconomic network, primarily destined for consumers tothe north.Conrad, Geoffrey (Indiana University), CharlesBeeker (Indiana University), John Foster (IndianaUniversity), Jessica Keller (Indiana University) and K.Harley McDonald (Indiana University)[69] Cultural and Faunal Remains from Padre Nuestro,Dominican RepublicPadre Nuestro is a flooded cavern in the southeasternDominican Republic that is under investigation by a teamfrom Indiana and Duke Universities. The site containsceramics of the Taíno culture (800-500 BP) and muchearlier ―Casimiroid‖ stone tools (4000-6000 BP). It hasalso yielded remains of at least two genera of extinctsloths (Acratocnus, Parocnus) and one genus of extinctprimates (Antillothrix). At present this set of associationsis both unique in Caribbean archaeology and highlycomplicated. This paper presents a preliminary analysisof the chronological and cultural relationships among thedifferent classes of materials.[69] First ChairConrad, Geoffrey [260] see Foster, John W.Constantine, Angelo[231] Early Settlements in continental Ecuador: NewEvidences of Pre-Ceramic sitesNew research suggests that the settlement of Ecuadorwas initiated through the inter-Andean pathway,occupying the humid forest and continuing towards thecoastline. The existence of two pre-ceramic sites on thewestern Andean foothils, as well as another on theeastern side, clearly indicate the presence of humangroups.[103] see Damp, Jonathan E.Contreras, Daniel (Stanford University) and NicholasTripcevich (UC Berkeley)[97] Retrospect and Prospect for Obsidian Studies in theCentral AndesSince investigation of the sources and circulation ofobsidian in the Central Andes began in the 1970s, datagenerated by the geochemical characterization ofobsidian have been used to examine prehispanicmobility, exchange networks, and spheres of politicalinfluence. We here review the successes and failures of30+ years of obsidian sourcing studies in the region,discuss the research questions which remain foci ofattention, and consider the prospects for research intoprehispanic procurement, distribution, circulation, anduse of obsidian in the Central Andes.Contreras, Daniel [63] see Freund, Kyle P. [267] seeTripcevich, NicholasConway, Meagan (University of MassachusettsBoston), Casey McNeill (Cultural Landscapes of theIrish Coast Project), Ian Kuijt (University of NotreDame) and Katherine Shakour (Cultural Landscapesof the Irish Coast Project)[107] The Archaeology of an American Wake: 19th and20th Century Immigration, Inishark, Co. GalwayIrish immigration in the 19th and 20th centuriesrestructured communities in villages at home and in citiesabroad. Drawing upon historical records, oral histories,and archaeological survey, we track individualimmigrants from the island of Inishark, Co. Galway, to theUnited States. We explore the formation of transatlanticrelationships and consider the impact of substantialimmigration on social and economic life within coastalcommunities. Our research shows that significantpopulation decline from the 1850‘s to 1960 brought aboutmajor changes in the fishing and farming industries,which forced modifications to the lifestyles of theremaining islanders.[107] First Chair [107] Second OrganizerConway, Meagan [107] see McNeill, Casey M.Cook, Della [226] see Schurr, Mark R.Cook, Gordon [255] see Bonsall, CliveCook, Greg [89] see Horlings, Rachel L.Cook, Jackie [101] see Yu, Pei-Lin

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 83Cook, Katherine (McMaster University)[27] Placing History: Landscape, Memory and Heritage inArchaeologyThe tenuous, fluctuating and intangible nature of culturalconnections to history challenges any archaeologicalattempt to access concepts of heritage that are tied toplace. However, by deconstructing a temporal landscape,it is possible to separate and interpret the materialaccumulations of changing attitudes towards the pastthat have impacted historical spaces. Using landscapeanalysis and ethnoarchaeological research to establish avisual and experiential history of Hamilton Cemetery,from 1847 to present, this paper explores the transitionsbetween memory and a more distant, collective history tocontribute to our understanding of and approaches toheritage in the past and present.Cook, Reese (Northern Arizona University)[207] Raman Spectroscopy: Molecular SignaturesThrough TimeThe prehistoric Hohokam manufactured unique Red-onbuffpottery characteristic of their culture. This studysubjected samples of Red-on-buff pottery, recoveredfrom a Hohokam habitation site, to a molecular analysiscalled raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopyanalysis was applied to Hematite pigment used in theapplication of red paint on Red-on-buff pottery. Theanalysis identified pattern signatures unique to theHohokam chronological phases of Snaketown, GilaButte, and Santa Cruz. The analysis identified changes inhematite sources through time. Identifying the differencesand similarities of molecular signatures helped establishHematite sources used in the manufacture of potteryfrom this unique out-lying site.[135] see Ryan, Kimberley A.Cooke, Colin (Yale University)[267] Geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmentalarchives of ancient cinnabar mining in the AndesCinnabar mining has been occurring in Peru for overthree millennia. Cinnabar was used as a pigment(vermillion) throughout the pre-Colonial era and iscommonly found covering even the earliest gold artifacts.However, we still know very little about how thisvermillion was traded and who controlled the resource.Here, I will present the results of an interdisciplinarygeoarchaeological study that combines lake sedimentcores, archaeological remains, and isotopic analyses tobetter understand the spatial and temporal evolution ofcinnabar mining and trade throughout the pre-ColumbianAndes.Cooke, Richard (Smithsonian Tropical ResearchInstitute, Panama) and Anthony Ranere (TempleUniversity)[213] [Radiocarbon dates from Panama between 13,000and 7000 BP, a period of profound Climate,Environmental and Cultural ChangeThe 13,000-7,000 BP period in Panama relates tofundamental environmental and cultural changes.Evidence for human activities is not visible in thearchaeological and lake sediment records until 11,500-11,000 BP and the Clovis technological horizon. Surfaceartifacts suggest earlier occupation. Twenty-nine datescome from five stratified rock-shelters and two open sites(all on the Pacific). Eighteen dates were recovered insediments from two lakes (La Yeguada and El Valle),which record human impacts on the environment. Weassess radiocarbon chronology vis-à-vis climate andculture change during the transition from hunting andgathering to a mixed economy with intensifyingagriculture.Cooke, Richard [120] see Ranere, Anthony J. [228] seeIizuka, Fumie [193] see Beaubien, Harriet F.Cooney, Gabriel (UCD School of Archaeology)[226] Traditions and Transformations in the IrishNeolithicThere is a rich and varied record of mortuary practices inIreland during the Neolithic (4000-2500 BC). These aredocumented in the deposition of human remains inspecific settings in a series of burial traditions. Some ofthese traditions overlap geographically andchronologically, some are distinctive to particular periodsand regions. This paper will explore the complex andvaried role of cremation in these different contexts andhow it was employed to both transform bodies and tocreate distinctive expressions of personal and socialidentities.[226] Third OrganizerCooper, Jason [29] see Chatters, James C.Cooper, Karen [76] see Doran, Glen H.Cooper, Leslie [121] see Galle, Jillian E.Copeland, Steve (Crow Canyon ArchaeologicalCenter)[62] XRF Analysis on Ancient Copper from a Great Kivain the Central Mesa Verde RegionCrow Canyon Archaeological Center has beenconducting excavations for the past three years at TheHarlen Great Kiva site. As part of these excavations highinput items have been recovered including a fragment ofa copper bell. These copper items are rare in the CentralMesa Verde Region and when analyzed and comparedwith other copper in the Southwest could produceimportant data. This poster will explore the history ofancient copper in this region and present the results ofXRF analysis on the copper bell fragment from the GreatKiva Site.Corbett, Debbie [168] see Hanson, Diane K.Cordell, Linda (School for Advanced Research)[196] The R. S. Peabody Museum and Pecos: TheLegacy ContinuesIn 1915, sponsored by the R. S. Peabody Foundation, A.V Kidder began his legendary work at Pecos Pueblo todemonstrate the value of scientific excavationtechniques. Nearly a century later, Pecos remains anicon in American archaeology having inspired a systemof classification still in use today, a continuing forum inwhich to share research, a model for dialogue withdescendant communities, a venue for continuingresearch, and an inspiration for youth from every quarter.[18] DiscussantCordell, Linda [18] see Hays-Gilpin, Kelley A. [99] seeVan West, Carla R.

84ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGCordero, Maria-Auxiliadora (University of Pittsburgh)and Richard Scaglion (University of Pittsburgh)[73] Prehispanic Ritual Vessels from Northern HighlandEcuador: New Interpretations from Carnegie Museum ofNatural History's Henn CollectionIn the early 1910s Arthur Henn acquired more than 300ceramic artifacts in El Angel, Carchi Province, for theCarnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania. The provenance of the artifacts seems tobe deep-shaft tombs. This paper describes the collectionand analyzes the ritual use of ceramics, focusing onthose known as Piartal pottery. Overpainting of thesevessels—part of local elite paraphernalia—may representcuration of serving bowls in relation to funerary rituals.Implications for a broader understanding of ritual vesselsin the Northern Highlands are explored.[73] First ChairCordero, Robin (Univ. of New Mexico)[37] Tiguex Mortuary Practices: Continuity and Migrationin the Albuquerque Basin during the Northern RioGrande ClassicGeneral trends in Northern Rio Grande mortuarypractices during the Classic period (ca. AD 1325-1600)has resulted in the identification of a wide range of burialorientations, body positions, grave accoutrements, andage/sex variation. However, recent analysis of Classicperiod burial patterning in the southern area of theNorthern Rio Grande region indicates the presence of ahighly conservative set of burial practices throughout theClassic Period. In addition, this analysis reveals apotential disruption in the conservative nature of theburial practices after ca. AD 1450 suggesting an influx ofnon-Tiguex peoples into the area.[37] First ChairCordova, Hector (CSULA)[266] Jades and Items of Personal Adornment atMidnight Terror Cave: A Critical AssessmentItems of personal adornment, especially those madefrom exotic imported material such as jade, havetraditional been used in mortuary archaeology to inferstatus and develop ideas of social persona. In Maya cavearchaeology such artifacts occur frequently, often incontexts not associated with human osteologicalmaterial, suggesting that they were deposited asofferings because of their intrinsic value. The largenumbers of human skeletons at Midnight Terror Cavecomplicates the interpretation of the artifactual material.An analysis of the context of each item in theassemblage provides a better picture of the function ofjewelry at MTC.Cordova, Isabel (California State UniversityNorthridge)[186] Determining the Role of Anthropomorphic Figurinesin Social Complexity: Is there a Correlation?There have been many detailed analyses ofanthropomorphic figurines from the Mesoamericanregion, yet the meanings and uses of these figurinesremains uncertain. In this paper, I pose to analyzedifferent data sets from La Blanca to understand the rolefigurines may attribute to the social complexity of thearchaeological site. This paper builds upon previousresearch regarding the theoretical applications of figurineuse throughout Mesoamerica, directly relating thesetheories to La Blanca. This previous study will bebroadened to include complexity to gain a betterunderstanding of the role figurines may have played in aMiddle Preclassic society.Cordy-Collins, Alana (University of San Diego)[125] Professor Carol J. Mackey: HomenajeThe contributions to Andean anthropology made andongoing by Dr. Carol Mackey are impressive andsignificant. From the Peruvian southern sierra to thenorth coast, this UC Berkeley-trained scholar has for over40 years sought to enlarge our understanding of ancientAndean culture history by posing field-testable questions.Through Dr. Mackey‘s archaeological and iconographicresearch we now recognize both extensive patterns andcritical details about cultural development, interaction,and succession on the Peruvian north coast. Equallyimportant, however, Mackey has taught and mentored animpressive number of young scholars who have gone onachieve their own successes in Andean archaeology.[156] see Tyson, Rose A.Cornejo, Norfelinda Cornejo [269] see Rodriguez,David M.Coronel, Eric (Brigham Young University), DavidLentz (University of Cincinnati), Nicholas Dunning(University of Cincinnati), Vernon Scarborough(University of Cincinnati) and Richard Terry (BrighamYoung University)[119] Phosphate prospection for ancient middens atTikal, GuatemalaWe used phosphate prospection at four ancient patiogroups at the site of Tikal, Guatemala in search ofmiddens. The intense decomposition in the warm, moistsoils of the Tikal area precludes the identification of mostorganic remains but lithic, ceramics, and charcoal aregenerally preserved in middens. The results of Pprospection at household mound groups will bepresented.Cortes Rincon, Marisol [148] see Boudreaux, Sarah N.[148] see Brokaw, NickCortes-Rincon, Marisol (Humboldt State University),Sarah Boudreaux (University of Texas at Austin) andJaimie Baxter (Humboldt State University)[148] Dos Hombres to Gran Cacao Settlement SurveyProject: Preliminary FindingsThis paper provides an overview of recent investigationsof the settlement between two Maya sites: Dos Hombresand Gran Cacao located in northwestern Belize.Settlement studies require multiple lines of data andmultiple scales of analysis before sufficiently advancedsettlement patterns can be discerned. Archaeologicalresearch data within the project area has produced apreliminary dataset including: settlement configuration,land use, ecological data, and water management. Thispaper will discuss the socioeconomic conditions withinthe context of the surrounding community, and thesubsistence strategies practiced in this area will beexamined in relation to the chosen environment for siteplacement.[148] Second Organizer

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 85Cossich, Margarita [8] see Paredes-Umaña, FedericoA.Costamagno, Sandrine [17] see Rendu, WilliamCostello, Sarah (University of Houston)[47] Methodologies in the Study of Seals and SealingEarly Dynastic banquet seals from Mesopotamia offer acase study of how a multiplicity of approaches directed ata small corpus of seals can yield a rich picture of socialroles, in particular the roles of elite women. In this paper Icombine approaches, looking at the material from whichthe seals are made, the images they bear and themeaning of those scenes, the performativity of seals asjewelry, and the disposal of some of the seals in a lavishpublic funerary rite. Together, these various approachesdemonstrate how seals functioned to constitute poweramong elite Sumerian women.Costin, Cathy (California State University,Northridge)[198] The Cooption of ―Surplus‖: Social Costs andPolitical Benefits in the Inka EmpireA hallmark of socioeconomic complexity is that peopleproduce goods in excess of their individual or householdneeds (that is, a ―surplus‖) in order to participate inexchange networks, pay ―rent,‖ and/or meet tributedemands. Depending on sociopolitical circumstances,this intensification of production can develop gradually orcan be implemented abruptly. This intensification canhave myriad affects within and among households. In thispaper, I consider the various ways in which changes inthe control over the power to mandate intensification ofproduction (i.e., demands to produce or increase a―surplus‖) affected people with different social identities inthe Inka empire.[49] DiscussantCottica, Daniela [92] see Domínguez-Bella, SalvadorCoupland, Gary (University of Toronto) and GayFrederick (Vancouver Island University)[232] Diversity in the Salish Sea: The Case of theSechelt of the Northern Georgia StraitComplexity in Coast Salish culture has been argued asresulting directly from access to Fraser River resources,especially salmon. The Sechelt, a northern Coast SalishNation, did not have direct access to salmon. Weconsider how the Sechelt built a complex culture awayfrom the Fraser River by taking advantage of a largeterritory with diverse resources, opportunities for tradewith interior and coastal groups, and ease of accessthrough their land via waterways that penetrated to theupper reaches of the territory. We use the Sechelt caseto model an alternate path to complexity for the SalishSea.Covey, Ronald (Southern Methodist University) [227]DiscussantCowan, Andy [4] see Marwick, BenCowart, Alicia (University of California, Berkeley)and Roger Byrne (University of California, Berkeley)[222] Changes in Vegetation and Fire Frequency inCentral Coastal California as recorded in pollen andmicroscopic charcoalAnalysis of pollen and microscopic charcoal from twowetlands in central coastal California document changesin vegetation and fire frequency over long-term timescales. Ecological changes recorded in wetlandsediments can be attributed to human impact or climatechange, with the impacts of Native American burningbeing the focus of this study. The record from SkylarkPond (~3,000 years) covers the late Holocene, animportant time period for assessing the impacts of NativeAmerican burning and the changes brought about withEuropean settlement. The record from Laguna de lasTrancas (~60,000 years) includes the Last GlacialMaximum and the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Thislong-term record, much of which precedes the mostagreed upon time of human arrival in North America, willprovide a pre-human context with which to compare thelate Holocene record.Cox, Forrest [196] see Abe, Hillary RCox, Pamela [187] see Lack, AndrewCrabtree, Stefani (Washington State University), ZiadKobti (University of Windsor) and Timothy Kohler(Washington State University)[257] Archaeology Time Machine: Witnessing SocialInteractions on the Pueblo Landscape through AgentbasedSimulationPrevious work within the Village Ecodynamics Project(VEP) has successfully established a detailed, semirealistic,household-level model for Puebloanecodynamics. In this paper I build on the framework ofthe VEP‘s agent-based simulation and examine thesocial interactions of our agents through exchangenetworks. Through an understanding of both kin and nonkinrelated exchange, we can better understand thecomplexities of social interaction in the archaeologicalrecord, potentially helping us understand the populationshifts this area experienced.Craib, Donald (Cultural Heritage Partners, LLC) [184]DiscussantCraig, Douglas (Northland Research) and JohnMarshall (Northland Research, Inc.)[52] Architectural Visibility and Population Dynamics inLate Hohokam PrehistoryReconstructing population dynamics with archaeologicaldata is a challenging task under the best ofcircumstances. The task is especially challenging in thecase of the Hohokam of south-central Arizona, becauseroom counts—the method used to establish populationparameters in other parts of the Southwest—are difficultto obtain without large-scale excavations. Additionally,many Hohokam settlements were occupied for hundredsof years; hence, the various components need to beunraveled. This paper reviews lessons learned fromrecent excavations at several late Classic period sites toreexamine the sharp decline in population postulated bymany current interpretive models.[52] First Chair [52] Second OrganizerCraig, Oliver [42] see Shillito, Lisa-Marie S.Crandall, John (University of Nevada, Las Vegas),

86ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGDebra Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) andJennifer Thompson (University of Nevada, LasVegas)[237] Reconstructing Taphonomy at La Cueva de losMuertos ChiquitosThe La Cueva de los Meurtos Chiquitos site is located ina cliff face overlooking the Rio Zape just north ofDurango, Mexico. It was excavated in the 1950s and hasbeen in the UNLV repository since that time. This cavesite, between 600 and 1000 AD, contained the remainsof at least 9 children between the ages of birth and 3years as well as the remains of at least 2 adults. Thisproject is a reanalysis of the remains involving a detailedreconstruction of their taphonomic context. Thesechildren represent a unique collection in terms of thepaleodemography and paleopathology present.Crane, John [150] see Nelson, Shaun R.Crassard, Remy (CNRS) and Michael Petraglia(University of Oxford)[74] Fluted point technology from Arabia: Convergencewith American examplesFluting of projectile points in South Arabia has beendiscovered in the early 2000‘s in Yemen and theSultanate of Oman. The fluting technique appears instratigraphy at the site of Manayzah (Yemen) and isdated to the late 7th / beginning of the 6th millennium BCCal. This paper presents the chaîne opératoire of thefluting operations from the examination of fluted piecesand channel-flakes in stratigraphic contexts. This paperwill discuss the functionality of the tools and the technicalinvestment of the knappers, as well as some firstanalogies with the technological similarities anddifferences of American fluted points.[74] First ChairCrawford, Kristina (California State University, Chico)and Arran Bell (California State University, Chico)[77] A Tale of Inter-twined Identities: Ishi and NorthernCaliforniansIshi is perhaps the most written about Indian inanthropological and literary works; each published workpresents different ways of knowing Ishi. A renewedinterest in Ishi began with the publication of Ishi in TwoWorlds in 1961 and the commemoration of his discoverysite in Oroville in 1965. County historical societiespublished accounts of Ishi as told by locals, and Ishibecame part of the California History curriculum taught tofourth grade. This paper will examine local knowledge,children‘s literary canon, and local stories to illustrate theimportance of the idea of Ishi to Northern Californiaidentity.[77] Second OrganizerCrawford, Laura (University of Alaska, Fairbanks),Claire Alix (University of Paris (Sorbonne)) andNancy Bigelow (University of Alaska, Fairbanks)[25] Fuel Use in Thule Era Houses at Cape Espenberg,Northwest Alaska, AD 1200-1700The excavation of two Thule semi-subterranean housesat Cape Espenberg in 2010 revealed large hearths withthick layers of burnt soil containing abundant charcoaland burnt bones. They provide strong evidence that seamammal oil burnt in lamps was not the sole fuel source.This paper presents the analysis of plant macrofossilsand charcoal remains collected across occupation layersand fill to investigate the function of the hearths, and thenature and availability of local fuel supplies between AD1200-1700. One goal is to determine if, and how heavily,driftwood fuel was supplemented with bone or woodyshrubs.Crawford, Laura [159] see Alix, ClaireCreel, Andrea (University of California - Berkeley)[258] The Sense of Ritual in Votive Deposition atKuntillet 'Ajrûd and the Southern LevantVotive deposition is a particularly constructive ritual act inwhich to explore the relationships between belief, ritualand object as materiality is so inherent to the act that it issimply incoherent without the dedicated item. My casestudy focuses on an 8th century BCE site in the Sinaidesert. Its location in a liminal zone, fortress-likearchitecture and evocative art and inscriptions with thepreponderance of small vessels suggests that votivedeposition at Kuntillet 'Ajrûd was intentionally restrictedto vessels and their contents. This highlights thetendency to ritualize quotidian objects and demonstratesthe highly localized character of ritual.Creese, John (University of Toronto)[55] [Growing Pains: Spatial Dimensions of NorthernIroquoian Community (Re)Production]Analysis of Ontario Iroquoian village spatial order at threescales (hearth areas, longhouses, complete settlements)illustrates coordinated dimensions of social practiceacross a period of increasing settlement nucleation (A.D.900 – 1500). Village growth is treated as a problem ofcommunity constitution that involved the emergence ofsystemic tensions associated with the scalar extension ofcollective social groups. A ―local-to-global‖ spatial order,first established with the paired family hearth area,served as a precedent that was progressively exported towider spatial scales so as to maintain a balance betweensub-group or factional group formation, and the globalintegration of village communities.Creger, Cliff (Nevada Department of Transportation)and Beth Smith (Nevada Department ofTransportation)[163] Terrestrial LiDAR in Site Analysis: PracticalApplications on a Prehistoric Antelope Trap inNortheastern NevadaThe Nevada Department of Transportation ArchaeologySection reanalyzed the Liza Jane Antelope Trap innortheastern Nevada using a terrestrial LiDAR survey ofthe topography and a Global Positioning System surveyof the artifact point and feature polygon data. This studyintegrates terrestrial LiDAR data, digital photography,and artifact data collected using GPS to convey the threedimensional spatial relationships within the trap. The finalrepresentation demonstrates the importance of the viewshed in gathering and containing antelope, while thespatial analysis of the lithic artifacts, features andtopography suggests possible strategies used to harvestthem.Cremonte, Maria B. (Conicet-Idgym)[27] Social Landscape During Inca Dominion InNorthwest ArgentinaAmong the ways that the Inca Empire adopted to rule its

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 87territory included actions into ideological, economic, andpolitical sphere which explain in part the diversity anddisparity that the state presence reached. Constructionslike roads, tampus, pukaras, administrative centers,storage buildings, agricultural works, among others, werecommon in the entire annexed areas, but it is evident thatits architecture, dimensions, monumentality and spatialdensity show contrasting regional differences. Newevidence regarding Inca occupation in NorthwestArgentina shows different situations along the period ofInca conquest and domination itself. According to theevaluation of data from a couple of archaeological sites,all of them characterized by Inca features, variedchronologies, and archaeological contexts like burialsites, production or agricultural sites, administrative, andfortified sites are examples of the complex process ofpopulation assimilation in Northwest Argentina.[68] see Williams, Veronica I.Crider, Destiny (Arizona State University)[36] Ceramic Pastes, Past Connections, and SocialReorganization: Epiclassic and Early PostclassicInteraction in the Basin of MexicoPottery styles, technology, and chemical characterizationprovide evidence to assess shifting relationships in theBasin of Mexico during the Epiclassic and EarlyPostclassic periods. By taking a multi-scalar perspective,the patterns for the adoption and distribution of newpottery styles and traditions reflect changing boundariesof sociopolitical and economic interaction for this fivehundred year span. Technological and stylistic attributeswithin pottery types reveals instances of both emulationand direct knowledge of production. Differing identitiesare identified locally and at the regional level in particularpottery complexes and symbol sets, contributing to newunderstanding of this period of dynamic reorganization.Crisci, Gino, Donatella Barca (Università dellaCalabria) and Domenico Miriello (Università dellaCalabria)[92] Mortars and plasters characterization and limestoneprovenance. A methodological approachCharacterization of plasters and mortars, related to thearchitectural study, allows identifying the presence ofdifferent construction phases, which can be related totechnological aspects and/or to the presence of differentproducers. This research identifies a new methodology todetermine the provenance of raw materials employed inthe making of mortars and plasters. The innovativemethod is based on the use of LA-ICP-MS on lime lumpspreserved in the plasters and mortars. This study showsdifferent examples of the application of this methodologyto archaeological sites from both the ―Classical World‖and Mesoamerica.Croatt, Stephanie (Trinity University)[208] Social Strands: Dyadic Relationships as Means ofIntegration for Lebanese Immigrant Entrepreneurs inearly 20th Century Yucatán, MexicoIn the late 1800s and early 1900s, the Yucatán peninsulasaw an increase in the number of immigrants coming toMexico to seek economic gain. The diverse immigrantgroups, and their entrepreneurs, faced the problem ofbuilding a support network in an unfamiliar environment.In order to have the means to integrate into, andnegotiate corruption in Yucatecan society immigrantentrepreneurs in Yucatán, Mexico had to forgeinterpersonal relationships outside of their immigrantnetwork. I seek to describe how early 20th centuryLebanese immigrant entrepreneurs used dyadicrelationships to become an influential part of Yucatán‘ssocial and political scene.Crook, Robyn [35] see Taylor, Anthony W.Cross, Guy [176] see Villeneuve, SuzanneCrothers, George (University of Kentucky)[82] William S. Webb's Archaeological Legacy inKentucky: From Adena to Indian KnollWebb's administration of federal relief programs toconduct archaeology had a major influence onprofessionalization of the discipline in the southeasternU.S. In Kentucky, two of the most significant projectstargeted excavation of Adena mounds and Archaic shellmiddens. Both topics remain a major focus ofanthropological research today. Adena continues to be atopic of considerable debate on agricultural origins,ceremonialism, regional interaction, and socialcomplexity. Osteological collections, best known from theIndian Knoll site, continue to have international impact onstudies of paleopathology, growth and development,functional morphology, and hunter-gatherer populationinteraction.Crow, Consuelo [124] see De Leon, Jason P.Crowley, Erin (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)and Brian Nicholls (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[104] A Comparative Perspective on the Schlage SiteOneota Lithic AssemblageSchlage site excavations recovered a modest lithicassemblage of approximately 200 artifacts includingchipped stone and groundstone items. Raw materials arepredominantly local but some exotic chert is present inthe collection. This poster presents the results of ananalysis of the Schlage site lithics and compares theassemblage to other reported Eastern Oneotaassemblages.Cruz Guzmán, Carlos, Silvia Nava (Centro INAHSonora), Jessica Cerezo Roman (University ofArizona), James Watson (University of Arizona)and Elisa Villalpando (INAH Sonora)[147] Cremaciones de Tradición TrincherasEl conocimiento de las prácticas funerarias de los gruposprehispánicos de la Tradición Trincheras se haenriquecido recientemente de manera notable con lasintervenciones derivadas de dos rescates: el primero enun cementerio de cremaciones secundarias y el segundoen un predio urbano del pueblo actual. La informaciónobtenida nos permite ahondar en el conocimiento de lascondiciones de salud de las comunidades agricultorasdel Desierto de Sonora, así como proponer algunosrituales asociados con el tratamiento mortuorio.Cucina, Andrea (Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan)and Vera Tiesler (Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan)[56] Mortuary Paths and Ritual Meanings Related toMaya Human Disposals in Caves and CenotesThe ancient Maya conceived dry caves and cenotes as

88ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGsacred spaces and entrances to the Xibalba, thresholdsthat communicated the living with the underworld. Here,we reconstruct population profiles, vestiges ofposthumous body manipulation and mortuary pathwaysin 21 human assemblages from Maya caves, shelters,and cenotes, putting emphasis on the Sacred Cenote ofChichen Itzá. Combining anthropological, taphonomicand contextual data sets, we highlight different ritualconducts, target populations for wet and dry cavedeposits, pose new questions regarding the role of cavesas human depositories and propose some ideas forfuture recovery techniques and analysis of humanremains.Cucina, Andrea [116] see Sierra Sosa, ThelmaCullen Cobb, Kim [193] see Beaubien, Harriet F.Culleton, Brendan (University of Oregon), DouglasKennett (University of Oregon), Barbara Voorhies(University of California, Santa Barbara) and JohnSouthon (University of California, Irvine)[88] Bayesian Analysis of AMS Radiocarbon Dates froma Prehistoric Mexican ShellmoundWe establish a high precision AMS radiocarbonchronology for the Tlacuachero shellmound (Mexico)within a Bayesian statistical framework. Carbonized twigswere sequentially selected from well-defined stratigraphiccontexts based on iterative improvements to aprobabilistic chronological model. Analytical error forthese measurements is ±15-20 14C years. This greaterprecision and the absence of stratigraphic reversalseclipses previous radiocarbon work at Tlacuachero. Wedevelop a chronological framework for a sequence ofthree clay floors (4960-4270 cal BP) and determine thatthe bedded shell that dominates these depositsaccumulated rapidly during two episodes from 5050-4840cal BP (2m) and 4380-4230 cal BP (3.5m).Culleton, Brendan [108] see Gilmour, Daniel M. [88]see Kennett, Douglas J.Culley, Elisabeth (Arizona State University), GabrielGabriel Popescu (Arizona State University) andGeoffrey Clark (Arizona State University)[108] The Compositional Integrity of the Tabun Facies &the Nature of Pattern in the Levantine Middle PaleolithicThe Levantine Middle Paleolithic lasted approximately200 kyr (c. 260-50 kya), extending from OIS 7 throughthe early part of OIS 3. Regional systematics areprimarily based on three facies that were first defined byGarrod for the ‗type site‘ of Tabun Cave, and yet thesefacies may not capture variation found in other Levantineassemblages. Here we examine the compositionalintegrity of the Tabun facies using a series of quantitativeanalyses on collections from 56 levels and 19 differentsites to show that variability is often inconsistent with andcan be masked by the classification system.Culley, Theresa [119] see Thompson, Kim M.Culver, Emily (University of Cincinnati) and KenTankersley (University of Cincinnati)[124] Chronology and Paleoenvironmental Record ofNewark‘s Great CircleNewark is the largest complex of geometric earthworks inthe world. Despite their size and international recognition,its precise age and paleoenvironmental context hasnever been determined. Recent AMS radiocarbon dating,X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility,and particle size analysis of sediments from theanthropogenic ditch of the Great Circle, a ceremonialcenter approximately 365.76 meters in diameter, provideimportant new insights into the paleoenvironmental andtemporal records associated with the construction of theNewark Earthworks.Cummings, Linda Scott (PaleoResearch Institute,Inc.) and Melissa K Logan (Paleoresearch Institute,Inc.)[66] From the Table to the Grave: Artifact Uselife andFTIRApplication of infrared spectroscopy for examiningorganic residues on a variety of artifacts recovered fromarchaeological contexts can address questions regardingartifact function, such as for daily, special, andceremonial activities. Information obtained can shed lighton ceremonial use and/or reuse of artifacts, as well asthe role of specific organic materials in the domestic andreligious practices of past populations. Understandingartifact utilization in conjunction with artifact uselife aidsarchaeologists in understanding activities and processesfor ritual and non-ritual settings.[84] DiscussantCummings, Linda Scott [66] see Niessner, Janet C.[66] see Varney, R. A. [66] see Gear, W. MichaelCunnar, Geoffrey (WCRM), Bill Schindler(Washington College), Ed Stoner (Western CulturalResource Management), Charles Wheeler (WesternCultural Resource Management) and Mark Estes(Western Cultural Resource Management)[61] Replication of a Paleoarchaic, Levallois-likereduction technique in the Great Basin, trying to betterunderstand one of America‘s earliest reduction strategiesWe employed experimental archaeology to understand aLevallois-like (Cascade Technique) reduction strategy inthe Central Great Basin. Our experiments focused on theremoval of a Levallois flake from local basalt and weredesigned to elucidate the relationship between nodulemorphology and Levallois flake. We also addressedissues of skill, intent and use to improve the recognitionof residues from and overall understanding of this distinctearly New World technology. The experimentsdemonstrated that local basalt is of sufficient size toproduce Levallois flakes. They also have provided keysto recognizing and differentiating this technology from abifacial trajectory.Cunnar, Geoffrey [262] see Stoner, Edward J. [262] seeEstes, Mark B.Curet, L. Antonio [204] see Pestle, William J.Curry, Ben (University of Arizona)[30] Butchery Patterns of Alta CaliforniaStarting with the work of Sherry Gust on the OnterverosAdobe butchery patterns have been focused on inCalifornia Spanish Colonial Zooarchaeology. Analysis ofelement and cut distribution, and burning have beencommon since this work, however attempts to

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 89reconstruct specific cuts and the butchery process itselfhave been rare. Studying these aspects of butchery forman important part of understanding the sociopoliticaldimensions of food distribution in a multi-ethnic colonialsetting and provide a means of examining the dynamicsbetween colonially introduced and maintained aboriginalbutchery practices.Curtis, Jason H. [203] see LeBlanc, Steven A.Cuthrell, Rob (UC Berkeley)[222] Archaeological Research on IndigenousLandscape Management in Quiroste Valley, CaliforniaAs part of a broader research project on indigenouslandscape management in central California, our teamconducted three field seasons of excavation at LatePeriod village site CA-SMA-113 in Quiroste Valley, CA.Excavation methods employed an intensive soil samplingstrategy for the recovery of macrobotanical, faunal, andmicrobotanical remains, which will be use to test ourindigenous pyrodiversity model. An overview andpreliminary results of excavations will be presented.[222] First Chair [222] see Evett, Rand R. [250] FirstChairCutler, Joanne [167] see Fitzsimons, Rodney D.Cutright, Robyn (Centre College)[125] Comparing Chimú and Inka Strategies at Farfánand in the Jequetepeque CountrysideIn her comparison of Chimú and Inka occupations atFarfán, Mackey (2006) posits that, while the Chimúimposed their architectural canons and administrativerule on the site, the Inka invented a new, conciliatorystyle that incorporated local architectural elements andfocused on ideological as well as economic control. Thispaper draws on public and domestic architecture atPedregal, a small agricultural village near Farfán, in orderto compare the impact of Chimú and Inka conquests onthe Jequetepeque countryside in the context of thestrategies adopted by these empires at Farfán.[125] First ChairCyphers, Ann (IIA-UNAM)[182] Early Olmec communal spacesIt is well-known that Middle Preclassic La Venta‘s greatplaza with its impressive stone monuments and moundsserved as a communal space where messages about thecosmos were transmitted to large congregations ofpeople attending special events and ceremonies.However, since Early Preclassic San Lorenzo does notshow a similar design, the question arises whether publicplazas were present there. This paper will explorearchaeological evidence regarding the changing blueprintof the site, including possible pre-apogee communalspaces, trends in plateau construction and spatialorganization, as well as complementary strategies forpublic experiences.Czaplicki, Jon (Bureau of Reclamation) [251]Discussant [118] Discussant [251] Second Organizerda Silva, Graziela [265] see Evans, Amanda M.Daehnke, Jon (Stanford University)[197] Using the Master‘s Tools: Activism in the Midst ofColonial LegacyAudre Lorde wrote that ―The master‘s tools will neverdismantle the master‘s house,‖ and as Les Field notesthis presents a challenge to those anthropologistsinterested in restorative justice. In North America (andelsewhere) the discipline of archaeology historically wastied to the colonial project and played a central role inappropriating the pasts of descendant communities.Archaeology helped to create the very reasons why―restorative justice‖ is now needed in the present. Thispaper will explore whether archaeology -- after a ratherquestionable history as a discipline -- can now serve as atool for ―restorative justice.‖Dahlin, Bruce [225] see Bair, Daniel A.Dahlstrom, Kristy (University of Connecticut),Veronica Waweru (Reseach Affiliate, NationalMuseums of Kenya) and Cynthia Peterson(University of Connecticut)[133] Thermoluminescence dates from the PastoralNeolithic GvJm Lukenya Hill site, KenyaEastern Africa Holocene herders exploiting seasonablyavailable resources provide data useful for models offood production among stateless mobile societies. Theunderstanding of these parameters is however impededby poor chronological resolution. Lukenya Hill GvJm 47documents full-fledged pastoralism, a wide variety ofcultural remains and activity areas. Thermoluminescencedates on pottery sherds have been reached using theadditive dose method. The dates presented here fromdifferent depths show that the site was used seasonallyfor extended periods in the late Holocene. The age of thesite and seasonal occupation suggest adaptation to ITZCweather patterns of the Later Holocene.Dahlstrom, Kristy [208] see Waweru, VeronicaDale, Emily (University of Nevada-Reno)[208] Ordinance 32 and the Creation of Aurora‘sChinatownAurora, one of Nevada‘s first mining boomtowns,contained one of the state‘s earliest Chinese populations.Ordinance 32, an 1864 by-law, relegated the Chinese tothe northwest side of Aurora, ostensibly creating aChinatown. The implementation of Ordinance 32,however, is questionable. The author will examine platmaps of Aurora, the 1864 tax assessment for EsmeraldaCounty, reports from local contemporary newspapers,and the results of a 2010 survey of the town to test theamount of effort put forth to enforce and maintainOrdinance 32 and to interpret the ways in which theChinese population reacted to the law.D'Alpoim Guedes, Jade (Harvard University) andRobert Spengler (Washington University in St. Louis)[111] Sampling Strategies in PaleoethnobotanicalAnalysisA well developed sampling strategy is essential to anyarchaeological investigation. It provides the basis onwhich archaeobotanists can answer questions aboutpatterning of plant remains across sites, within sites andto document change in ancient landscapes. This paperreviews current methods of sampling in archaeobotanyfor macrobotanical remains as well as phytoliths, starchand pollen. On site and off site sampling in commonly

90ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGencountered contexts are discussed along with theintegration of archaeobotanical sampling into the scopeof regional analysis and survey.Damp, Jonathan, Amelia Sánchez Mosquera (Museodel Banco Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil), AngeloConstantine Castro (Amelia Sánchez, Inc.), NicholasDamp (University of Colorado) and Patricia VargasSánchez (URQO)[103] The Chorrera House: Los Samanes and the LateFormative of EcuadorThe late Formative Chorrera culture of coastal Ecuador isknown for its ceramic technology and speculatedrelationships with Olmec and Chavín. The excavation ofa Chorrera house at the site of Los Samanes in the lowerGuayas Basin (Guayaquil) provides the first example ofvernacular house morphology. Multivariate analysis ofthe Chorrera house assemblage is applied to generate aview of daily practice in the late Formative. Results fromthe household analysis and a GIS based settlementpattern analysis indicate that the development of socioeconomictransformations in the Ecuadorian Formative isrooted in domestic practice and economic pursuits.Damp, Nicholas [103] see Damp, Jonathan E.Daniel, Randy (East Carolina University) and AlbertGoodyear (South Carolina Institute of Archaeologyand Anthropology)[120] North Carolina ClovisThe recognition of Clovis in North Carolina has largelycome from a statewide fluted point survey. Studies havefocused on style, raw materials, and geographicdistributions. One important outcome has been therecognition of the Redstone type that likely just postdatesClovis. Raw material patterns suggest a singlemacroband centered on the fine-grained metavolcanicstone of the Uwharrie Mountains in the Piedmont. To thesouth, good tool stone is lacking until reaching theAllendale cherts along the Central Savannah River.Presumably, metavolcanic Clovis points observed inSouth Carolina represent the southern extent ofmovement away from the Uwharries.Daniel, Tootsie [259] see Smalldon, Sue S.Darling, J Andrew (Gila River Indian Community)and B. Sunday Eiselt (Southern Methodist University)[18] More Uses of the Past: Archaeology in the Serviceof the Tribe―[I]nterpretations, or uses, of the past are seldom valueneutral.‖ Don Fowler‘s oft-cited 1987 article, Uses of thePast: Archaeology in the Service of the State, deservesthe status of seminal work. Fowler illustrates the mannerin which nation-states control their past. Advances intribal archaeology in the U.S. and Mexico illustrate hispoint, but not simply as exemplars of the usurpation ofindigenous history. Archaeological futures reside in the―…critical awareness of all factors in the doing ofarchaeology…‖ including the explication of ―real‖ Nativehistories and the roles that Tribes have come to play.Darling, J. Andrew [139] see Wright, David K.Darnell, John (Department of NELC, Yale University)[12] The Ostrich in Egyptian and Nubian ImageryA solar symbol in Egyptian iconography, by the earlyfourth millennium BCE the hunt of the ostrich is an eliteactivity in which human hunters realized the concept ofthe imposition of order over chaos. Ostrich hunting bydesert dwellers, and delivery of ostrich feathers into theNile Valley, mirrored the pacification of the solar eyegoddess, who returns from the southern deserts into theNile Valley at the time of the longest day and the comingof the Nile Inundation. Archaeological and epigraphicevidence for such rituals reveal interaction betweenNilotic Egyptians and desert populations during a liminalperiod.Darwent, Christyann (U of California, Davis)[126] Evolution of Pinniped Hunting: A View from the TopDetailed zooarchaeological analyses of pinniped remainswere hit and miss prior to the late 1980s, and for thosewho undertook such studies, they consisted of singleassemblages/sites at best. Lyman‘s ―Prehistory of theOregon Coast‖ (1991), and his various articlessurrounding this publication influenced a generation ofzooarchaeologists to tackle such issues as density/utilityindices, patterns of butchery, prey demography,biogeography, and pinniped conservation. Following hispioneering research, I present an evolution of pinnipedhunting in the circumpolar region and specifically focuson how the shift to walrus hunting signaled a majorchange in social organization across the Arctic.[126] Second Chair [126] Third Organizer[181] see Bencze, Jennifer M. [159] see Foin, Jeremy C.[159] see Hoffecker, John F. [159] see LeMoine,GenevieveDarwent, John, Tim Carpenter (ArchaeoMetrics Inc.)and Richard Deis (AECOM)[256] Prehistoric lithic recycling in the lower SacramentoValley, CaliforniaThere is a notable lack of stone resources in the lowerSacramento Valley, and with the exception of gravelsfrom a few Pleistocene terrace remnants, all stone—whether for tools or hearths—needed to be imported.The prehistoric response to this deficit was partly to useless stone, as quantities of stone artifacts were low, butalso to engage in extensive reuse and recycling of stonematerials. Here we explore these solutions enacted bythe occupants of components from early, middle, and lateprehistoric periods from three sites excavated byAECOM in Sacramento County, California.Darwent, John [159] see LeMoine, GenevieveDaughtrey, Cannon [80] see Natoli, Amelia M.Davenport, Bryce (Brandeis University)[51] Caves, courts, and countrysides: spatial rhetoric inWest Mexican colonial manuscriptsThe imposition of Spanish legal authority over the myriadpolities of Postclassic Mesoamerica underscored the vastdifferences in their understandings of territoriality. One ofthe best examples of these fractures comes from theTarascan or Purépecha kingdom of Michoacán, thepeaceful surrender of which initially preserved theindigenous political structure and led to a brief period ofparallel governing bodies. In this paper, I explore graphicand phonetic techniques used to negotiate the space ofand for historical narratives, land claims, and political

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 91legitimacy in West Mexican colonial documents such asthe Lienzo de Jicalán and the Relación de Michoacán.Davenport, James (Tulane University) and KitNelson (Tulane University)[142] Compositional Analysis Using pXRF of CeramicPastes and Pigments from the Late Intermediate Periodof the North Central Coast of PerúThe Late Intermediate Period was a time of socialchange in the North Central Coast of Peru, indicated bythe presence of material artifacts from three cultures, theChancay culture, the Chimú empire from the north, andthe Inca empire from the south. Using the relatively newtechnology of portable X-Ray Fluorescence, we aim toadd clarity to the complex political upheavalsexperienced by this region during this time period byexamining ceramic pastes and pigments found at fivedifferent sites as well as determine the effectiveness ofpXRF for this application.Davenport, James [63] see Nelson, KitDaverman, Blair M. [152] see Torres-Rouff, ChristinaDavid, Robert (University of California, Berkeley)[158] The Archaeology of Myth: Rock Art, Ritual Objects,and Sacred Landscapes of the Klamath BasinRecent research in the Klamath Basin has shown thatrock art and landscape are intimately connected,mutually informed by indigenous notions of sacredplaces. Modeling this landscape has been possiblethrough an understanding of Klamath–Modoc myth,leading some researchers to interpretations of the rockart that are largely in agreement with Klamath–Modocspiritual beliefs. I take this approach a step further andpropose interpretations for specific rock art images andritual objects, arguing that myth harbors the fundamentallogic that underpinned shamanic rituals that led to thecreation of Klamath Basin rock art symbols and ritualobjects.Davies, Gavin (University of Kentucky), WillemVanEssendelft (Harvard University) and Scott Hutson(University of Kentucky)[38] Migrants or Misers? Investigating function, durationand prosperity at mound groups along the Uci toKansahcab sacbe in Northern YucatanThe construction of an 18 km long sacbe linking the sitesof Uci and Kansacab in Northern Yucatan ishypothesized to have had a range of social, political andeconomic impacts on communities within its vicinity. Inattempting to discern the nature of these impacts,intensive archaeological testing was conducted atseveral mound groups, including a ballcourt, within Uci‘shinterland. A dearth of ceramics reoriented field methodsand suggested unanticipated hypotheses regarding sitefunction, duration, and prosperity. In this paper theauthors present spatial patterns in artifact and soilchemistry data and discuss methodology, interpretationsand future directions.Davila Cabrera, Patricio (INAH)[21] Los xi‘oi de Guadalcázar, S. L. P., y su relación conlos grupos de la región HuastecaEn esta ocasión comentaré, desde el punto de vista de laarqueología, sobre algunos datos relativos a lainterrelación entre los grupos teenek y nahua, quienesen el siglo XVI integraban los principales gruposhuastecos, y los xi‘oi (pames), sus vecinos al oeste.Entre los grupos nómadas del semidesierto potosino y laregión Huasteca se encuentra la parte norte del territoriopame, esta fracción de las culturas otopames alcanzo unimportante desarrollo antes del primer milenio, avanceque parcialmente conservaba al momento de laconquista europea, entonces gradualmente desaparecentrabajando en las minas.Davis, Edward Byrd [108] see Gilmour, Daniel M.Davis, Loren [262] see Jenkins, Dennis L.Davis, Michael (University of Kansas), ThomasWake (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA)and Tomás Mendizabal (Patronato Panamá Viejo)[67] Towards a settlement chronology for Bocas delToro, PanamaRecent survey and excavation in Bocas del ToroProvince, Panama, has provided a great deal of newdata concerning settlement patterns and chronology.Approximately 60 ostensibly portable basaltic bouldermortars have been recorded at various localities on IslaColon, an island with an entirely karstic geology. Many ofthese artifacts are associated with archaeologicaldeposits of carbon and ceramics. Survey, radiocarbon,and stylistic data are used to refine a settlementchronology for Isla Colon and the surrounding coastalregion of Bocas del Toro.Davis, Sara (Archaeological InvestigationsNorthwest, Inc.)[160] Reduction Technologies at the Stockhoff BasaltQuarry in Northeastern OregonThe Stockhoff Basalt Quarry (35UN52) is located onCraig Mountain in northeastern Oregon. Archaeologicalwork conducted in limited portions of the site since the1950s has documented the quarry‘s use as a toolstoneresource since the early Holocene. Three excavations inparticular have explored the reduction technologiesdiscernible in the artifact assemblages. Recentinvestigations in 2009 and 2010 provide an extensivelook at new data from site 35UN52 and from over 230newly recorded archaeological sites nearby. These dataare analyzed with respect to past studies regarding lithicreduction technologies at this extensive quarry site.Davis-King, Shelly (Davis-King & Associates)[230] Somewhere Under the Rainbow: Trails From theGreat Basin to the WestThis paper explores ethnic boundaries in the Tuolumnewatershed (Yosemite region) and how these are relatedto seasonal movements and ranges of wildlife, plantpopulations, and ethnohistoric access to thoseresources. Resources influenced range and movement ofpeople and their geopolitical boundaries were (are)crossed and serviced by trails. Some idea of trail functionthrough time can be gained by characterizing theboundaries within which the trails occur. Forty-four Indiantrails were documented that connect places betweenYosemite and the Great Basin, provide a non-static lookat mountain transportation networks, and for Billy,describe How to Get There From Here.

92ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGDawson, Peter (Archaeology Dept. University ofCalgary), Elizabeth Dixon (University of Calgary),Natasha Lyons (University of Calgary) and LisaHodgetts (University of Calgary)[159] Using GIS and social media to explore therelationships between archaeology and Inuit oral historyin the Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada.With the cooperation of Paatlermiut Elders from thecommunity of Arviat, Nunavut, a large GIS database ofInuit Qaujimajatuqangit' has been constructed, whichuses social media sites such as Facebook to provideopportunities for interactivity and user feedback. Thispaper explores how oral histories, place names, andtraditional land use information contained in thisGIS/social networking system are currently beingintegrated with archaeological data from the KivalliqRegion for the purposes of research and education.Dawson, Peter [159] see Pickering, Sean J. [159] seeHodgetts, Lisa [146] see Levy, Richard M.Day, Cynthia [5] see Day, Zachary R.Day, Zachary (University of Kansas), Paul Thacker(Wake Forest University), Cynthia Day (Wake ForestUniversity) and Carlos Pereira (SMPHAC –Archaeology Department, Camara Municipal de RioMaior)[5] Clay Sourcing and Ceramic Production at Iron AgeCastro de São Martinho, PortugalIron Age archaeological deposits at the Portuguesehillfort of São Martinho reflect an increase in subsistenceand secondary goods production as exchange andredistribution networks intensified during the firstmillennium BCE. X-ray diffraction, visual microscopy, andmagnetic studies detail the mineralogies of twelve locallyavailableclays from six major geologic surfaceformations. Methodological protocols were designed tocontrol for particle inclusions and changes in mineralogyresulting from firing and burial environments. Slipped fineware and mass-produced thick ware sherds wereanalyzed with the aim of understanding the changing roleof Castro de São Martinho in Iron Age Alarcon, Tessa (UCLA/Getty Master‟s Program inConservation)[220] Improvements in the histological analysis ofarchaeological and cultural materials usingphotoluminescent semiconductor nanocrystals: a casestudyThis study explores the potential of biochemical assaysusing quantum dots (Qdots nanocrystals) as biomarkersfor the identification and mapping of proteinaceousbinding media in paint cross sections. Specimens fromselected wall paintings and experimentally preparedsamples of known composition based on historic wallpainting stratigraphy were tested. The performance of theQdot nanocrystals was compared to traditionalfluorescent dyes through analysis and examination usingpolarized light microscopy as well as variable pressurescanning electron microscopy.De Anda Alaniz, Guillermo (Universidad AutonomaDe Yucatan)[266] Life And Death in the Archaeological Record ofCaves In Yucatan.During the last six years, the research project ―The Cultof Caves and Cenotes of Yucatán‖, has recorded over 30dry and flooded caves. The archaeological recordexhibits a big variety of ritual expressions related with themost significant form of complementary opposites: lifeand death. Through this work we present archaeologicalevidence of ritual activity in the form of human skeletalremains, rock art, cave shrines, and cave modificationsand ceramics not previously reported for Kerckhove, Diane [167] see MacDonald, Brandi LeeDe la Rosa, Lucio [269] see Rodriguez, David M.De Leon, Jason (University of Michigan), RobynDennis (CAST University of Arkansas), AaronNaumann (University of Washington), ConsueloCrow (University of Washington) and Michael Wells(MWells Photography)[124] ―By the Time I get to Arivaca‖: A PhenomenologicalApproach to Modern Undocumented Migration inSouthern Arizona.Each day hundreds of undocumented migrants fromLatin American attempt to cross into the U.S. on footthrough the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. Despite greatpublic and academic interest in this process, littleempirical data on the physical act of desert crossingexist. Here we present data from the UndocumentedMigration Project, a long-term anthropological study ofthis clandestine behavior. Using a combination ofarchaeology, ethnography, GIS, and digital media weemploy a phenomenological approach to provide insightinto the ways in which migrants experience crossings inSouthern Arizona, as well as the archaeologicalfingerprint that this behavior leaves behind.De Leon, Jason [154] see French, Kirk D.De Lucia, Kristin (Northwestern University)[198] Why households choose to produce surpluses: AnEarly Postclassic perspective on household strategy andsurplus production in Xaltocan, MexicoWhile archaeologists have traditionally studied surplus tounderstand the emergence of sociopolitical complexityand social inequality, we must also look at surplus from a―bottom up‖ perspective and consider the role of surplusproduction in ordinary households. This paper looks atsmall-scale production of craft and food products in EarlyPostclassic households to understand how commonerhouseholds distribute economic resources. Does surplusproduction result in greater economic or political successfor individual households? How does the decision toproduce a surplus influence social organization (includinggender and age roles) as well as broader economicsystems?[198] Second OrganizerDeal, Michael (Memorial University of Newfoundland)[10] The Direct Historical Approach in North AmericanEthnoarchaeologyThe direct historical approach has a longstanding andsometimes controversial history in archaeologicalinterpretation. Evidence from this and relatedapproaches, such as ethnohistorical reconstruction,historical linguistics, and native folklore is widely

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 93employed today by North American archaeologists. It isalso commonly held that ethnoarchaeological models aremost valuable when they can be linked through historicaldocumentation to past cultures in the same region. Thedirect historical approach, where applicable, can providea reliable form of analogical reasoning inethnoarchaeological studies. This paper uses recentNorth American case studies to revisit the role of thedirect historical approach in ethnoarchaeologicalresearch.[10] First ChairDean, Emily (Katzie Development Corporation)[29] Delineation Of Site Chronology And SpatialComponents Using Macroscopic Lithic Analysis At Dhrp-52This presentation summarizes results of a stone toolanalysis from site DhRp-52 to determine differences andsimilarities between its spatial and temporal components.DhRp-52 was an inland/riverine settlement that spannedapproximately 2,500 years of occupational historycontemporaneous with the Old Cordilleran Culture to theLocarno Beach Phase. My research analyzed tools todistinguish site components and structural featuresthrough time and in space, assessed similarities anddifferences between structures and non-structural areas,evaluated the presence of three temporal components atthe site, interpreted site use through assemblagestructure variation, and attempted to understand howDhRp-52 fit within the regional chronology.Dean, Emily (Southern Utah University) and BarbaraFrank (Southern Utah University)[166] A Public Private Partnership: CommunityArchaeology at the Little Rabbit Site in Kanab, UtahIn 2008 a developer in Kanab, UT contacted us aboutstudying and protecting the Ancestral Pueblo sites on hisland. We subsequently collaborated with the landownerand an array of other parties, including the chamber ofcommerce, local schools, a nonprofit archaeologyfoundation, the Southern Paiute, and federal and stateagencies in order to run an archaeological field school.The resulting project contributed to our understanding ofthe Virgin Anasazi as well as fostering friendlycooperation between public and private agencies in aregion where local distrust of ‗government‘ is notuncommon.[166] First ChairDean, Jeffrey (University of Arizona)[199] Environment, Human Behavior, and Demographyin the Prehistoric SouthwestArchaeological investigation of human ecology involvesassessing changing relationships among environment,culture, and demography. To better understand the roleof agriculture in these interactions, weaknesses in thestudy of these processes must be rectified. Among theseare problems in reconstructing past environmentalvariations and relating reconstructions to one anotherand to past human behavior and demography. Differentpaleoenvironmental techniques reconstruct differentaspects and periodicities of environmental variation thatmust be reconciled to produce a more complete pictureof past environment-agriculture interactions.Furthermore, modern Native populations‘ apparentlyanomalous agricultural success must be understood tofully appreciate prehistoric farming in the region.[99] DiscussantDean, Rebecca[53] Sheep Kills and Shell Counts: The HistoricalEcology of Contemporaneous Foragers and Farmers inNeolithic PortugalThe Mesolithic to Neolithic transition in Portugal (8,000-4,500 cal BC) was protracted and complex, asshellfishing/hunting/gathering societies continued inestuary environments long after farming economiesdominated most of the coastal regions of the Iberianpeninsula. As seen through the lens of zooarchaeology,the landscape use of foragers in estuaries was radicallydifferent from that of farmers farther inland and on rockycoasts. Nonetheless, both farming and foraging societiesshow similar adaptations, including reliance on wild foodsand decreasing foraging efficiency relative to earlierperiods. Landscape change – possibly anthropogenic –led to the eventual abandonment of foraging economiesin Portugal.[180] see Lexvold, AngelaDeely, A.E [218] see Blackwell, Bonnie A. B.deFrance, Susan (University of Florida) and SofiaChacaltana (University of Illinois-Chicago)[227] The Inca Empire and Local Culture in Far SouthernPeru: Settlement at Tambo TacahuayInca settlement of southern coastal Peru at TamboTacahuay documents empire expansion and thesubjugation of the local Chiribaya and/or Gentilarpopulations. Approximately two kilometers inland theInca constructed a small stone-masonry tambo in theindigenous community. Our research demonstrates Incasuccess in co-opting and amplifying the local agriculturalsystem. Additionally, the Inca appropriated localancestors through the introduction of highland chulpasfor burial. However, our work also demonstrates thedifficulty in discerning how Inca activities altered nonagriculturalsystems of production and the local politicalstructure. We discuss our preliminary findings from Incastructures, domestic terraces, and tombs.DeFrancisco, Nicole (University of CaliforniaRiverside)[148] Water, Blood and Life: An analysis of Late Classiclowland Maya water management at the local levelWhile a fair amount of literature documents how the eliteMaya at large cities such as Tikal or Copan dealt withissues of water management, little is understood aboutthe way these practices were managed at smaller, rural,farmstead sites. This paper will investigate and analyzethe water management practices exhibited by the rural,common ancient Maya during the Late Classic period inthe Lowlands when and where land and water resourceavailability were the scarcest. This paper will also discussthe possible implications of these practices on social andpolitical organization at the local level based onarchaeological evidence.DeGayner, Jake [248] see Hubbard, Duane CDegryse, Patrick [100] see Lankton, James WDeis, Richard (AECOM)

94ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING[256] Occupation and Settlement Patterns Along theSacramento RiverNumerous sources of data have been gathered from wellstratified sites that represent approximately 5000 years ofoccupation along the Sacramento River. A model ofoccupational seasonality will be developed using multipleclasses of data and compared with previous researchwithin a regional context. Finally, this model will examinethe degree of sedentism and implied changes in socialstructure and complexity through time.Deis, Richard [256] see Darwent, JohnDeJongh, Jennifer [137] see O'Brien, Helen L.Dekle, Victoria (University of Kentucky)[82] New Considerations of Old Distribution: SiteOccupations at the Deptford Site (9CH2), ChathamCounty, GeorgiaDeptford (9CH2) is a large multicomponent prehistoricsite located near Savannah, Georgia that was excavatedby Catherine McCann, Joseph Caldwell, Antonio Waringand Preston Holder between 1939 and 1942. Althoughthe site is often cited as an important Woodland site onthe southern Atlantic coast, specific information about thesite and the W.P.A. excavations is limited. The entireDeptford collection was analyzed in the 1990s,significantly expanding our understanding of the site andcreating opportunities for further investigation. Thisposter will present the results of a site-wide spatialanalysis that demonstrated the need for more finegrainedanalysis.Delaney-Rivera, Ph.D., RPA, Colleen [64] see Hanes,Erin SaarD'Elia, Ashley [137] see Tackett, Stephanie T.DeMaio, Justin (Desert Research Institute/UNLV)[163] Site Type Variation and Prehistoric Landscape Useacross the Nevada Test SiteThe Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a 1,360 mi2 plot of land insouthern Nevada most widely known for being the site ofatomic testing throughout the latter half of the 20thcentury. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) hasmanaged the cultural resources on this land since the1970‘s and has recorded evidence of a long history ofinhabitants extending back to Paleoindian occupations.Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a usefultool when exploring the relationship between site locationand landscape features such as hydrology, elevation,vegetation and geology.Demarest, Arthur (Vanderbilt University)[116] International Exchange, State Controlled CraftProduction and Political Hegemony at Cancuen:Changing Classic Maya Political Economy on the Eve ofCollapseIn the late eighth century there was a transformation ofCancuen, the great Pasion river port city andhighland/lowland gateway. Earlier, more typical, ClassicMaya economy, political structure, and residentialpatterns shifted to internationalism in material culture andlong distance exchange, complex political hegemony, ahuge administrative/ritual, largely non-residential palace,―hyper-segmented‖ lithic production, and direct state ornoble supervision of a jade workshop and of the ports ofCancuen, the latter being the economic engine of thishead-of-navigation transport center. New evidence ispresented on this eighth century change and itsimplications for theories of Maya economy and politicalcollapse.[116] First Chair [191] see Suasnavar, JoseDemoulin, Thibault [162] see Wagner, UrselDempsey, Patrick (avocationalist)[240] Shoshonean Votive Objects Along the SouthernCalifornia BightWhile surveying dry lake shores, I stumbled upon a 1900era Death Valley mix of both historic and prehistoricreligious vessel fragments leading to a different DeathValley site exhibiting only prehistoric fragments. An InyoMountains site played out today with modern vesselfragments. 1850 mission era dinnerware sherds from anoffertory floor pit in the Indian barracks of la PurisimaMission discovered unstudied in a mission display case.A mission era glass sherd from a house floor offertory piton San Clemente Island. Then, soapstone vesselfragments dated 1800 BP from the Landing Hill, SealBeach, California.Dennett, Carrie (University of Calgary) and GeoffreyMcCafferty (University of Calgary)[183] Pottery and People: Reassessing Social Identity InPacific NicaraguaArchaeological reconstruction of social identity in pre-Columbian Pacific Nicaragua has traditionally beenbased on ethnohistoric sources that suggest Choroteganspeakinggroups replaced local indigenous culture withnew people, language and material culture ca. A.D. 800.Support for this reconstruction is typically based on theintroduction of a white-slipped polychrome tradition thatappeared around this time. However, recent researchdemonstrates that these ―new styles‖ were likely not theresult of aggressive population replacement and far-flungexternal influences. Instead, these changes seem to bethe result of incremental internal development influencedby increased contact and exchange with southeasternMesoamerican groups, particularly from Honduras.Dennett, Carrie [183] see McCafferty, Sharisse D.Dennis, Robyn [124] see De Leon, Jason P.DeOliveira, Lauren [105] see Kuiken, GarrettDerr, Kelly (Washington State University)[192] Intensifying with Fire: Pre-Contact AnthropogenicFire and Landscape Management in the Gulf Islands,British ColumbiaFire, both natural and anthropogenic, has played a role inshaping vegetation communities in the Pacific Northwestof North America. Determining the role of human-set fireshas been difficult in part because the ecological footprintof human-environmental interaction is smaller than theregional fire record. Methods and data presented heredemonstrate the importance of multi-scalar approachesto identifying anthropogenic fire events. On and off-sitefire history reconstructions, considering both fireoccurrence and charcoal morphology, from GalianoIsland in the southern Gulf Islands, elucidate human

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 95involvement in shaping local pre-contact landscapes.[192] First ChairDes Lauriers, Matthew (Cal State Univ Northridge)[11] The Deep Waters of Fishing Technology: TerminalPleistocene Shell Fishhooks from Isla Cedros, MexicoThe emergence of new forms of fishing tackle (hooks,nets, etc.) employed by ancient indigenous populationsof the Pacific Coast of North America has been ofarchaeological interest for decades. It has been assumedthat the sequential appearance of these technologiesobserved in Alta California represented a process ofinvention and innovation encouraged by demographicallydriven intensification of fishing. New evidence fromexcavations in Baja California suggest that thesetechnologies have a deeper history along the Californiacoasts and provide alternative models to explain theiruse at different times and places in the history ofmaritime adapted populations.Des Lauriers, Matthew [132] see Brown, Sean H.Desentis, Cristina [224] see Alvarez, DamianDeskaj, Sylvia (Michigan State University)[255] In Search of Origins: The application of Strontiumisotope analysis along the eastern AdriaticAlong the Adriatic coast during the Early Bronze Age―indigenous‖ and ―foreign‖ cultural practices merged. Theregion can thus serve as a testing ground for the study ofBalkan migration and ―ethnogenesis‖. As part of thesummer 2010 field season of the Shkodra ArchaeologicalProject, land snail shells (n=10) were collected inShkodra, Kosova, and Dalmatia, then analyzed at MIT‘sLaboratory of Earth, Atmospheric and PlanetarySciences. This analysis will lay the groundwork for futurestudy of human bone. This paper presents the results ofthe Strontium isotope analysis, as well as theimplications for further research in the region.Desrosiers, Pierre [159] see Gendron, DanielDevault, Alison (McMaster University), Hendrik N.Poinar (McMaster University), Joseph H. Tien (TheOhio State University), David J.D. Earn (McMasterUniversity) and David N. Fisman (University ofToronto)[72] Ancient DNA analysis of 19th century NorthAmerican choleraMultiple pandemics of cholera reached North Americaduring the 1800s, with devastating results. While much isknown about the epidemiology of modern strains, thegenetics of early pandemics remain a mystery. Wepresent the first successful sequencing of Vibrio choleraeancient DNA from the 1800s, from alcohol-preservedhuman medical specimens from mid-19th-centuryPhiladelphia. Our findings reveal the identity of this earlypandemic strain. With the advent of new ancient DNAtechnology, coupled with high-throughput sequencing,genomes of past pandemics are within reach. Weanalyze our sequences in a phylogenetic framework,offering insights into the evolutionary history of thissignificant pathogen.DeWitte, Sharon (University at Albany, SUNY)[16] Sex and Frailty: Patterns from Catastrophic andAttritional AssemblagesIn most modern populations, sex differentials in morbidityand mortality favor women. Recent research suggeststhat such differentials existed in the past, as priorexposure to physiological stress increased the risk ofdeath for men more than for women during the BlackDeath (c. 1347-1351). This paper compares the sexpatterns of stress and mortality in a catastrophic BlackDeath cemetery from London to those in an attritionalassemblage wherein individuals died from numerouscauses. The results, which reveal similarities betweenthe two assemblages, are examined in light of what isknown about gendered access to resources in medievalEurope.Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco, Paola [10] see Galeazzi,FabrizioDias, Adriana [213] see Bueno, LucasDiaz, Alejandra [176] see Richards, Michael P.Dibble, H.L. [2] see Zhou, Cathy XYDick, Lyle [146] see Levy, Richard M.Dickson, Michael [237] see Littleton, Judith H.Diederichs, Shanna (Aztec Ruins NationalMonument), Gary Brown (Aztec Ruins NationalMonument) and Kay Barnett (Mesa Verde NationalPark)[201] Thirteenth-Century Social Identities in the MiddleSan Juan Region: A Comparison with Mesa VerdeLocal populations occupied great houses and other largesites in the Middle San Juan region during the 13thcentury, long after the demise of the Chacoan regionalsystem. These people appear to share aspects of socialidentity with the Mesa Verde region to the north. Ourpaper attempts to better understand the nature of thisidentity through a comparison of high-visibilityarchitectural features at Aztec Ruins, Salmon Ruin, andalcove sites at Mesa Verde. We conclude that 13thcenturysocial identity was complex and multi-faceted,although many highly visible identity markers wereshared broadly across the Four Corners area.Diehl, Michael [139] see Herr, Sarah A.Dierker, Jennifer [20] see Balsom, Janet R.Dietler, Michael (University of Chicago) [24]DiscussantDiez, Maria Luz (Arte Accion Copan Ruinas -Honduras)[128] Arqueología Infantil en una Comunidad Maya-Ch'orti'El Proyecto Arqueológico ―Casa de los Sapos‖ surgecomo iniciativa de la Asociación Cultural Arte Acción(, bajo el patrocinio de MACHI( y la participación de los niños de LaPintada, comunidad Maya-Ch‘orti‘ de Copán Ruinas.Aprendiendo las practicas básicas de arqueología decampo, los niños descubren un mundo fascinante queles facilita la comprensión sobre los grandes hallazgos

96ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGexistentes en su entorno, a la vez que les acerca a supropio y desconocido patrimonio histórico, abriéndolesun posible futuro a participar en la investigaciónarqueológica del Valle de Copan.DiGangi, Elizabeth A. [121] see McKeown, Ashley H.Dillian, Carolyn (Coastal Carolina University),Emmanuel Ndiema (Rutgers University) and DavidBraun (University of Cape Town)[97] Archaeological Obsidian Studies in Africa‘s RiftValleyThe study of archaeological obsidian in Africa is still verymuch in its infancy. The Rift Valley, with a long antiquityof human occupation offers a unique laboratory forexamining changing patterns of lithic materialprocurement and use through time. Though there remainmany undocumented and uncharacterized sources ofobsidian, preliminary studies have already demonstratedunusual procurement strategies – including the use ofboats during the Holocene. This paper will review thehistory of obsidian studies in the Rift Valley andsurrounding region and will discuss how lithic sourcinghas been used to address questions about cognition andmobility in prehistory.[97] First ChairDinkelaker, Jacob (College of Wooster)[3] Historic Preservation versus Development: A CaseStudy at the College of Wooster, OhioIn the past decade, the College of Wooster, hasundertaken its largest campus improvement project todate, building three new structures and renovatingseveral more on its suburban 240-acre college grounds.The historic structures have seen much of this change,many of them being updated with a mixture of modernand historic features. I discuss whether during thisunprecedented construction, the College has beenguided by a comprehensive historic preservation plan, orhas operated without one, using heritage only whenconvenient. I explore how these decisions affect theintegrity of the College of Wooster‘s National RegisterHistoric District status.Dixon, Christine (University of Colorado, Boulder)[8] Rethinking Southeast Maya Agriculture: A view fromthe manioc fields of Cerén, El SalvadorThe Loma Caldera volcanic eruption allowed for detailedpreservation of Classic Maya commoner life at Cerén,including agricultural production. The discovery ofextensive manioc cultivation has challenged ourunderstanding of Cerén agriculture. This paper discussesthe evidence for manioc as a staple crop at the site. TheCerén manioc fields were organized by various land-uselines and show evidence of apparently differentcultivators. All of the excavated fields had beenharvested just prior to the eruption, with a few areaspartially replanted. Given such extraordinarypreservation, this evidence has the potential to greatlycontribute to Maya agricultural studies.[250] Discussant [8] First Chair [8] see Gonlin, NanDixon, E. James [89] see Monteleone, Kelly R.Dixon, Elizabeth [159] see Dawson, Peter C.Dixon, Helen (University of Michigan)[152] Commemoration at Khaldeh: Reconstructing BurialPractices in the Phoenician HomelandOur knowledge of Phoenician mortuary practice is mainlyextrapolated from cemetery landscapes in Phoenician /Punic settlements throughout the Mediterranean, despiteover 100 years of archaeologically obtained burialevidence from the Phoenician Levantine homeland. Theproblem is not a dearth of evidence, but obstacles likeearly record-keeping, political divisiveness, and wardamagedarchives. The Khaldeh cemetery, uncoveredduring the 1960s Beirut airport expansion, contained 422Iron I-II burials. Though never fully published, anddespite data lost to the Lebanese civil war, aninvestigative analysis of its contents, layout, andevolution can aid in understanding Levantine PhoeniciancommemorationDobney, Keith (University of Aberdeen, UK)[126] Big questions and new techniques: The role ofzooarchaeology in 21st century research agendasZooarchaeology is still considered one of the newerdisciplines within the multidisciplinarity that isarchaeology. A recent revolution in biomolecular andmorphometric techniques is providing new opportunitiesand directions for zooarchaeological research in a waynot imagined a decade ago and is challenging traditionalviews and approaches. There is, however, a growingschism between the so-called "traditional" and the "new"approaches that is in danger of isolating this importantdiscipline from many broader research agendas. Thispaper aims to discuss this problem, and presents someexamples of research which highlights the continuingcontribution of zooarchaeology to the "bigger picture".Dodd, Lynn (USC), Sarah Butler (University ofSouthern California), Ashley Sands (University ofSouthern California) and Lucy Harrington (Universityof Southern California)[158] Visualizing the Native American CulturalLandscape: Significant Advances in Imaging andDisseminationA non-invasive method of site documentation, known asreflectance transmission imaging, is linked to GISdatabase to capture superior data and createpreservation advocacy tools. This imaging techniquecreates research-quality images that often enable elusivefeatures to be seen. Where appropriate, these imagescan be made available worldwide through the internetaccessibleInscriptiFact image database in support ofcultural heritage interests, research, or preservationgoals.[220] DiscussantDodd, Walter (CSU-Fresno)[10] Ethnoarchaeological Study of Trash Deposited onCity StreetsOver a 3-year period, I collected a large sample of refusealong roadways in one California suburbanneighborhood. I first present interesting quantitative dataabout the composition of the discarded items. They areshown to be diverse, repetitive, and nonrandom innature. Second, I give evidence for a shared mindset oforganized behaviors and symbolic meanings thatgenerate street-litter assemblages of this kind. Finally, Iargue that a significant fraction of modern road trash is

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 97still in systemic context and plays a central role inpromoting the sale of illicit drugs.Dodge, Robyn (The University of Texas at Austin)[40] Preliminary Analysis of Maya Household andCommoner Ritual Activities at Hun Tun, BelizeThis paper examines data collected at the Mayasettlement, Hun Tun in northwestern Belize. AncientMaya household archaeology, commoner rituals andsettlement patterns are ongoing research topics at HunTun. Excavations during the 2010 field season focusedon structures A1, B4, and two limestone megalithfeatures. Construction chronology and informationrelated to changing household dynamics will bediscussed as well. Previous research at Hun Tun hasyielded information pertaining to socioeconomic statusand construction chronologies. Potential hypothesesrelated to these topics will be presented based onmaterial culture assemblages. Preliminary ceramicanalysis suggests primarily a Late Classic occupation.Doelle, William (Desert Archaeology, Inc.)[18] Anthropology ―Off the Grid‖Historically, anthropology developed and has beenpracticed within the museum and academic worlds.These traditional networks and funding sources foranthropology are taken here as a rough analog to theenergy grid that is the underpinning of our modern world.The American Southwest, in particular, has been a placewhere anthropology has flourished in multiple private,nonprofit institutions, outside the traditional settings forsupport and employment for anthropologists—that is, ―offthe grid.‖ The history of this private, nonprofit setting foranthropology is traced and evaluated.[52] see Hill, Brett [79] DiscussantDoering, Travis (University of South Florida - AIST)[157] Formative Period Obsidian AnalysisThis paper reviews the methods and results from theanalysis of the obsidian assemblage recovered fromexcavations at San Andrés, near La Venta, Mexico. Theoutcome suggests the consistent, long-term importationof material from three specific sources that entered thearea from two distinctive routes. As a consequence ofthis initial examination, analysis of three other Formativeperiod obsidian collections were conducted; two from theSouthern Gulf Coast lowlands, and one from theSoconusco Coast. These results will also be brieflydiscussed.[82] see Mcleod, Bart [157] see Collins, Lori D.Dogiama, Triantafyllia (McMaster University)[205] Moving on: evidence for seasonality in EarlyNeolithic Northern Greece- the case of Mikri VolviThis paper will argue for intermittent site occupation atthe settlement of Mikri Volvi, the only Early Neolithic sitefound in Greek Central Macedonia. The absence ofpermanent architecture, the differences between curatedand expedient chipped stone tools, and the use of largelynon-local raw materials suggest that this flat-extendedsite was not permanently occupied, unlike the long-livedtell sites considered characteristic of this period. If moreevidence corroborates this interpretation, then the EarlyNeolithic must be largely reconceptualized toaccommodate the diversity with which the Neolithicpeople built their lifeworld.Doheny, Marcelle (Phillips Academy, Andover),Malinda Blustain (Phillips Academy), JeremiahHagler (Phillips Academy), Claire Gallou (PhillipsAcademy) and Becky Sykes (Phillips Academy)[196] The Peabody gets Out of Trouble: Trial andRedemptionLike many museums, the Peabody has had ups anddowns that were a consequence of both internal andexternal factors. When times were tough the museumwas forced to clarify its mission and role at PhillipsAcademy. Twice in recent years, the museum confronteddifficult financial issues while simultaneously trying todevelop its educational program. These difficult timeshelped lay the foundation for the success that theinstitution enjoys today. In an environment within whichfrank discussion and innovative ideas can be voiced, themuseum is now integrated into the academic program atPhillips.Dojack, Lisa [232] see Graesch, Anthony P.Dolan, Patrick (Washington State University)[232] Rules and Roles: The Scale of EconomicProduction at Dionisio Point, a Marpole phase VillageThe degree to which Marpole phase household economicstrategies were integrated at the village–level remainsunclear; were household labor and resourcesindependent, or were there patterns of resourceallocation and labor organization at the village-level? Thescale of village-level organization raises the potential forthe formation of new social roles based upon increasingmaterial inequality. If such structures are present, thereproduction of social roles that distinguished householdleadership is only part of the process of increasing socialstratification. I examine these issues via analyses ofvillage economics at the Dionisio Point site.[232] Second Chair [232] Third OrganizerDolan, Sean (New Mexico State University)[62] Evidence for obsidian source variation through timeat Kipp Ruin (LA 153465)XRF analysis was performed on obsidian artifacts fromKipp Ruin (LA 153465), a multi-component site insouthwestern New Mexico to assess temporal andspatial changes of obsidian sources during the pithouseand pueblo periods. Results show two interestingpatterns about the site. 1) Obsidian sourcing variesthrough time with more sources being utilized during thepueblo period and 2) the occupant‘s utilized southernsources less than sources to the north during the puebloperiod. This can be attributed to wider kinship tiesthroughout the Mogollon territory starting around A.D.1000 when they switched to living in pueblos.Dollar, Nathanael[36] Possible Alternatives to Agricultural Intensification inTexasThe archeological record of Texas includes a great rangeof variation in the presence, timing, and extent of wildplant resources and maize horticulture. This project testsa proposition made by Johnson and Hard (2008) thathunter-gatherers should intensify on wild plant resourceswhere economically important species are moreabundant. Analysis using Binford‘s (2002) environmentalframes of reference, geographic distribution maps for

98ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGeconomically important plants, and archaeological dataproduces an equation which can be used to predict thepresence of maize agriculture in Texas. This researchhas implications for expectations of intensification onplant based subsistence resources resulting inagriculture.Dolphin, Alexis (The University of Western Ontario),Katharina Lorvik (Norwegian Institute for CulturalHeritage Research) and Anna Karin Hufthammer(Bergen Museum)[236] Dental Indicators of Children‘s Responses toUrbanisation in Early Medieval Bergen, NorwayBy the 12th and 13th centuries Bergen, Norway, haddeveloped into the first truly international trading centreof Scandinavia and, as such, experienced a relativelyrapid period of urbanisation. The effects of such a shift insocial organisation may have been felt especially bymothers and children as Norway‘s king levied heavy taxand fee burdens on households. An examination of themicrostructure of teeth excavated from the St. Mary‘schurchyard at Bryggen allows us to draw conclusionsregarding the frequency and timing of stressful periodscommon to children living in Bergen at this time.Domenici, Davide (University of Bologna (Italy))[56] Children Sacrifice or Special Burial Place?Discussion and Interpretation of a Late ClassicArchaeological Context from Cueva del Lazo (Chiapas,Mexico)Cueva del Lazo (Chiapas, Mexico) yielded a group of tenchildren buried in the cave during the Late Classicperiod. Despite the fact that the context suggestsrepeated episodes of child sacrifice, no direct evidence ofsacrifice was detected neither during excavations nor bythe osteological analysis. The paper describes thearchaeological context, the associated artefacts(including textiles and other perishable materials) and theresults of paleobotanical and bioantropologicalresearches carried by various colleagues in order toreconstruct the ancient ritual event and to propose apossible interpretation of its meaning.Domínguez, Silvia and Alejandro Pastrana (DEA-INAH)[116] Teotihuacan: Explotación, Talla Y Uso De LaObsidiana VerdeCon base en las investigaciones en el yacimiento de LaSierra de Las Navajas (Pachuca), se presentan losaspectos organizativos de la explotación, de losprocesos de talla y de la utilización de la obsidiana verdeen el yacimiento. Se discute sobre los sistemas desuministro, la distribución y el control del estadoteotihuacano.Domínguez Carrasco, Maria del Rosario [67] seeFolan, William J.Domínguez-Bella, Salvador (S. Domínguez-BellaEarth Sciences Dept. UCA. SPAIN), AlessandraPecci (Universidat de Barcelona), Darío Bernal(University of Cadiz) and Daniela Cottica (UniversitaCa Foscary)[92] Residues analyses of Roman floors at the GarumWorkshop at Pompeii (Italy)We present the preliminary results of the analyses ofplastered and beaten floors with plaster traces of theGarum workshop at Pompeii, as part of a Project of theCadiz and Venice Universities. In the first time this kindof analyses (spot-tests developed by Barba et al., 1991)are applied at Pompeii. The aim was to understand if theresidues were altered by the Vesuvian eruption and tounderstand the use of space in the site, being some ofthe already known activities carried out: i.e. theconservation of garum (fish sauce) and cooking activities.Dominique, Marguerie [25] see Steelandt, Stéphanie S.Donahue, Randolph (University of Bradford) andAdrian Evans (University of Bradford)[59] Laser scanning confocal microscopy: a quantitativeapproach towards improving lithic microwear researchPrevious research by Evans and Donahue has shownthat use of the laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCM) combined with metrological analyses canexquisitely differentiate experimental specimens used towork a variety of raw materials. Here, the authorexamines the strengths and weaknesses of theapplication of LSCM to archaeological assemblages. Keyissues are the impact of post-depositional surfacemodification and differences in raw material surfaces.Mathematical manipulation of the resulting metrologicaldata can resolve some of the problems oftenencountered by microwear analysts.Donaldson, Marcia [83] see Green, MargerieDonaldson, Milford Wayne (Advisory Council onHistoric Preservation)[242] Countdown to Disaster: The Preservation of ColdWar Era Aerospace Resources and BeyondCultural resources relating to Cold War Era aerospacehistory present a relatively unique collection of structuresseldom seen by the public. Rocket test stands,accelerated gravitational sleds, world wide control andtracking facilities, space vacuum chambers, andenormous wind tunnels, where incredible eventsoccurred, have been decommissioned and demolished.When the National Historic Preservation Act became lawin 1966, the cultural heritage of these resources was offthe radar. With the close of the Space Shuttle Program,federal agencies are now being challenged to developprograms to interpret their space legacy. Case studieswill present the challenges of preserving our aerospaceheritage.Donis, Alicia (University of Western Ontario),Christine White (University of Western Ontario),Linda Howie (University of Western Ontario),Elizabeth Graham (University College London)and Fred Longstaffe (University of Western Ontario)[56] Diving into the Afterlife: Exploring a Distinct BurialPosition at Postclassic LamanaiIn this paper we examine reasons for the suddenappearance of an unusual face down burial positionduring the Postclassic period at Lamanai, Belize. Aprevious speculation that this position was a marker ofgeographic and/or ethnic difference is currently notsupported by preliminary isotopic data on residence ordiet, petrographic data on ceramic origins, skeletalmarkers of identity (cranial and dental modification), orany other mortuary data. Alternate explanations for this

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 99distinct burial pattern are explored within the frameworkof the shifting ideology that accompanied the transitionfrom the Terminal Classic to Postclassic periods.Doran, Glen (Florida State University) and KarenCooper (Florida Department of Law Enforcement)[76] [Forensic Anthropology/Archaeology training – a 34year historyIn 1977 FSU faculty began offering a Forensicanthropology/archaeology class. By 1980 the classmorphed into a 1 week lecture, field and lab coursetargeting law enforcement staff. Since the mid-1980s ithas been offered through the Institute of Police Trainingand Management. 2.5 days of lecture are coupled withfield work including a surface body recovery and a burialexcavation. Since 1980 over 600 law enforcement staffhave taken the class and it may be the longest runningforensic archaeology training program in the UnitedStates.Dorn, Ronald [134] see Cerveny, Niccole V.Doucette, Dianna (Public Archaeology Lab)[6] Style versus Occupation: Narrow Stemmed Pointsfrom the Tower Hill SiteNarrow stemmed projectile points are ubiquitous in NewEngland and can rarely be attributed to a singlecomponentNative American archaeological site. Thestyle is typically placed within the Late Archaic period,but also the early Woodland period depending onassociated material culture. Excavations at the Tower HillRoad site yielded one of the largest collections of narrowstemmed points in association with radiocarbon datedfeatures, permitting a unique opportunity to reassess theartifact typologies, cultural chronologies, and models ofsocial organization that have been applied to thearchaeological record of southeastern Connecticutbetween 5,000 and 2,500 years ago.Dougherty, Jessica [150] see Fruhlinger, Jake C.Douglas, Diane (SRI Foundation) and JeffreyHomburg (Statistical Research, Inc.)[151] Paleoenvironmental and LandscapeReconstruction of the Ballona in West Los AngelesLong term research in the Ballona has provided theopportunity to reconstruct paleoenvironmental andlandscape change in these coastal wetlands in west LosAngeles spanning the last 7,500 years. This research isbased on analysis of the stratigraphy, radiocarbon dates,and paleoecological indicators (foraminifera, ostracodes,mollusks, diatoms, silicoflagellates, and pollen) of severalcore samples. Results indicate that sea level rise causedthe Ballona to shift from a bay at the mouth of the LosAngeles River to a lagoon by about 6600 B.P. As theBallona Lagoon filled with sediment, the ecologicallandscape also changed, providing a variety of resourcesfor human exploitation through the middle- and late-Holocene.Douglass, John (Statistical Research, Inc.), StevenHackel (University of California, Riverside), AnneStoll and Richard Ciolek-Torrello (StatisticalResearch, Inc.)[151] Early Historical Period Gabrielino/Tongva-HispanicInteraction in the Los Angeles BasinThe early historical period in the Los Angeles Basin wasa challenging time for Native Californians. New Hispanicinstitutions, including missions, pueblos, and ranchos,intruded onto traditional Native lifeways. Native groupslike the Gabrielino/Tongva responded to these Hispanicintrusions in a variety of fashions, including becomingincorporated into these new, introduced economies andreligious institutions. Our paper discusses theseinteractions, focusing in part on archaeological data andMission records associated with the Ballona area,located in west Los Angeles. By doing so, we offerunique clues into these interactions and economic andreligious relationships.[151] First Chair [151] Second OrganizerDouglass, John [151] see Ciolek-Torrello, Richard [151]see Grenda, Donn [151] see Reddy, Seetha N.Douglass, Matthew [22] see Holdaway, Simon J. [3]see Lin, Sam CDowd, Anne (ArchæoLOGIC USA, LLC) and DavidVleck (Pinedale Field Office, BLM)[224] Lithic Sources in Wyoming's Upper GreenLithic source areas in the Upper Green River drainage ofnorth-central Wyoming, include cherts, othercryptocrystalline materials (porcelanite, or quartzite,obsidian), and steatite. Local versus non-local materials,and the characterization methods used to identify lithicraw materials in the region, are summarized. Riparianprocesses and glacial action have transported materialsand modified the distributions of secondary deposits. Arange of source areas and material types were popular atdifferent times. Indications of the relative frequency ofsource use is discussed for workshop examples in theUpper Green.[224] First Chair [224] Second OrganizerDowns, Robert T. [5] see Rosenstein, Dana DrakeDoyel, David (Barry M. Goldwater Range, USAF,Arizona) [52] DiscussantDoyle, Shane [113] see Alegria, Crystal B.Dragosani, Gaia [263] see Bond, Kristina JDrake, Douglas (Washington State University) andJohn G. Jones (Washington State University)[88] Spatial Analysis of Phytoliths at the Tlacuachero SiteA detailed spatial analysis of phytoliths fromTlacuachero, a shell midden in southern Chiapasoriginally excavated by Barbara Voorhies in 1973, isrevealing information on prehistoric plant use and humanactivity. Samples were collected from a prepared floor ina gridded pattern of 1m increments and are revealingdistribution patterns of past plant use. These patternsappear to document the presence of short-lived dryingracks or other structures on the floor. The presence ofpotentially economic types including grasses, palms, andHeliconia are particularly important. Phytolith datarepresenting background forest taxa are also beingexplored.Drake, Lee (University of New Mexico)[255] Isotopic Chemistry & You: New Ways to Detect

100ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGDroughtNew advances in carbon stable isotope research arehelping to create a new type of drought index that can beapplicable in archaeological sites wheredendrochonrology or pollen analysis are not available orfeasible. The method can either give researchers an ideaof the environmental variability in an area (tree data) orget direct data on the drought conditions by using plantsthat grow annually in the spring, summer, or fall.Draut, Amy [259] see Fairley, HelenDrew, Natalie [80] see Maeyama, KimberlyDrigo, Marina [12] see Ambrose, Stanley H.Driver, Jonathan C. [126] see Schollmeyer, Karen GustDrolet, Elizabeth (UCLA/Getty)[220] Differential burial environments: Effects on lowfiredceramics and implications for archaeologicalresearchThis paper will investigate effects of heavy shell depositson the condition of low-fired ceramics, using the LateArchaic fiber-tempered assemblage from St. CatherinesIsland, GA. Through combined non-destructive analyticaltechniques, including VPSEM, FTIR, and pXRF, thestructural, chemical, and physical deterioration will beexamined. The condition of ceramics recovered fromdense shell deposits will be compared with those fromshell-free areas of the site. The paper will discuss theeffect that the burial environment has on changes incondition, and the consequences that these changeshave on the excavation, storage, and analysis of thesematerials.Dudgeon, John [236] see Tromp, Monica [63] seeRauh, Whitnie D. [63] see Meredith, Clayton R. [180] seeCommendador, Amy S.Dueppen, Stephen (University of Oregon) andDaphne Gallagher (University of Oregon)[17] Seasonal Exploitation of Riverine and AquaticResources in the Iron Age West African SavannaThe adoption of agriculture is often described as agradual process in which low-level food production withdomesticates precedes a full commitment todomesticated resources. In this paper, we explore theeffects of this transition on the exploitation of wild foods,particularly the increasing localization of resourcecollection zones as villagers began to focus more on foodproduction. Taking the Gobnangou escarpment insoutheastern Burkina Faso (West Africa) during the late1st millennium AD as a case study, we examine the shifttowards utilization of aquatic resources from localfloodplains and seasonal drainages rather than distantpermanent river courses.Duff, Andrew [135] see Wichlacz, Caitlin A.Duffy, Paul (University of Pittsburgh)[226] Mortuary Practice and Diverging Social Trajectoriesin Bronze Age HungaryDuring the Bronze Age on the Great Hungarian Plain,both cremation and inhumation are associated with thedevelopment of wealth inequality and complex societies.The association between cremation and inequality,however, did not hold along the Körös river tributaries,the area of the Ottomány/Otomani culture (2150-1650BC). This paper traces how cremation may have come tobe associated with a de-emphasis on competitivedisplay, differing from the norms of neighboring areas.Dugas, Lisa (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)[209] Searching for Social Identity in Monongahela Boneand Shell ArtifactsArchaeologists currently debate the social and ethnicidentity of Late Prehistoric Monongahela people.Traditional scholarship divides the Monongahelatemporally rather than ethnically, based on regionalanalyses of lithics and ceramics. Ethnicity is assumed,but seldom explored, and Monongahela bone and shelltools have largely been ignored in these traditionalapproaches. This study investigates social identitythrough the analysis of bone and shell implements. Inaddition to being functional tools, bone and shell artifactscommunicate important clues to the group identity of theMonongahela, which contributes to a richerunderstanding of these people and their traditions.[209] First ChairDugmore, Jonathan [150] see Guthrie, Brady H.Duke, Daron (Far Western), Jay King (Far WesternAnthropological Research Group) and Craig Young(Far Western Anthropological Research Group)[262] A Chronological GIS Model for Paleoindian LandUse in the Great BasinArchaeologists working on the earliest Great Basinoccupations are hampered by a lack of dated sites. As aconsequence, the Paleoindian period is often discussedas a static cultural unit. Yet, early inhabitants reliedheavily on wetland systems that underwent greatchange. In this paper, we discuss our first attempt toderive expectations for regional land use by modeling thedistribution of wetland systems. Lake levelgeochronology, paleoenvironmental data, and basingeomorphology are used to predict change through timein the locations of areas that would support wetlands.These data are then compared against thearchaeological record.Duke, Guy (University of Toronto)[73] San Andrés: A town and its canal systemThe San Andrés canal system is a complex system ofchannels constructed from a variety of materials over itslong history, dating back to at least the early Spanishcolonial era and likely much earlier. The system is still inuse today and is an important part of community identity.This presentation will follow the path of the canalpictorially and descriptively in order to represent its formand function as it is seen and used today, discussinghow these perceptions and functions are embedded inthe historical and archaeological position of the canalsystem in the region.Dulanto, Jalh (DePauw University / UniversidadCatólica del Perú)[228] Pampa Chica: An Early Horizon Style from theCentral Coast of PeruThe site of Pampa Chica in the Lurin valley is one of thefew sites with Early Horizon occupations that were

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 101excavated in the Central Coast of Peru. Some of themost important findings at this site are several specimensof a previously unknown pottery style distinct for itsnegative decoration. In this paper I discuss thechronology of the Early Horizon in the Central Coast ofPeru; the similarities and differences between the PampaChica style and previously known styles to the north andto the south; and the probable interregional connectionsresponsible for these stylistic similarities and differences.[228] First ChairDumas, Ashley (University of West Alabama)[208] New Research at an Eighteenth-Century FrenchColonial FortLocated on the Tombigbee River in present-dayAlabama, Fort Tombecbe was established by the Frenchin 1736 as a listening post amongst their Choctaw alliesand as a mustering ground for attacks against theEnglish-allied Chickasaws. Because of wider politicalevents, the fort eventually was occupied by otherEuropean powers, but recent research has focused onthe discovery of French structural features, including thepalisade wall and a midden associated with a breadoven, thus enabling an overlay of historic maps with anew topographic survey, the detection of otherarchaeological features, and accurate comparison ofsuccessive fortifications.Duncan, Neil (University of Missouri-Columbia)[129] Early Tropical Forest Cultigens or InterregionalExchange? Exogenous Plants at Late Preceramic BuenaVista, Central Coast of PeruCommon cultigens arrived on the central coast of Peruduring the Late Preceramic as domesticates from thenorthern or eastern lowlands, such as cotton, chilies,manioc, and sweet potato. Newly discovered plantsHeliconia sp., arrowroot, leren, and palms frommacroremains, phytoliths, and starch grains in materialsexcavated in a ritual context at Buena Vista, an inlandsite in the Chillón Valley reveal additional lowland plantsrare or unknown in contemporary contexts. This paperexplores the role of lowland plants in agriculture andlong-distance interaction or exchange connectingemergent complex societies in coastal Peru with lowlandpopulations.Duncan, Neil [93] see Hayashida, Frances M.Duncan, William (East Tennessee State University)[56] Three mortuary violence events among thePostclassic MayaIdentifying violation of enemies in the material record is acontemporary problem in bioarchaeology. Maurice Blochremains the only theorist to propose a ritual model thatexplains mortuary violence cross culturally. Althoughuseful in many contexts, Bloch‘s categories of positiveand negative predation are not always easily applied tocultural contexts lacking a permanent, unchangingafterlife, such as the Postclassic Maya. This paperconsiders the applicability of Bloch‘s categories inMesoamerica, arguing that positive and negativepredation likely subsume at least three different events ofmortuary violence seen among the Postclassic Maya.[217] DiscussantDunford, Ashley [104] see Richards, Patricia B.Dungan, Katherine (University of Arizona), RobertJones (University of Arizona, Center for DesertArchaeology), Jeffery Clark (Center for DesertArchaeology) and Deborah Huntley (Center forDesert Archaeology)[201] Southern Living: A Tularosa Phase Settlement inMule Creek, New MexicoThe Fornholt site in southwestern New Mexico is a newlyrecorded 50 room masonry settlement dating to the 13thcentury. The site includes two roomblocks, one of whichis associated with two-story rooms that enclose a largekiva. The architecture and ceramic assemblage suggesta strong affiliation with the Tularosa tradition to the north.The Fornholt site, located far away from the Tularosaheartland, is discussed in light of the Mimbres, BlackMountain, and Salado traditions that temporally bracketand overlap with the site occupation.[201] First ChairDunn, Stacy (Tulane University)[103] Chancay Political Strategies and Economy: AStudy of Rural Elite Residences at Quipico, PeruThis paper discusses rural elite residences at Quipico inthe Huaura Valley, Peru during the Late IntermediatePeriod (A.D. 1100-1435). Quipico was part of theChancay culture, a coastal polity that developed in thespace created after the collapse of Huari and Tiwanakuempires, and prior to Inca expansion. Excavation of eliteresidential adobe compounds examined potentialfunction of specialized administrative activity areas.Architectural, botanical, and lithic analyses, along withpart of a recently revised ceramic chronology, will bepresented in relation to site‘s overall role within the largerChancay political economy.Dunning, Nicholas (University of Cincinnati), RobertGriffin (Penn State University), John G. Jones(Washington State University), Christopher Carr(University of Cincinnati) and Kevin Magee(University of Cincinnati)[119] Life on the Edge: Tikal and the Bajo de Santa FeThe ancient Maya city of Tikal lies near the southwesternmargin of the sprawling Bajo de Santa Fe. Ancientresidential settlement is relatively dense along the flanksof the bajo and on islands of higher ground within it.Archaeological and palynological evidence suggest thatthe residents in this area were engaged in agriculturefocused on deep, cumulic soils along the bajo margins.The nature of Maya activities within the central portionsof the bajo system, where hydrologic variations are moreextreme, is more problematic.[119] Second OrganizerDunning, Nicholas [119] see Jones, John G. [119] seeTankersley, Kenneth B. [266] see Smyth, Michael P.[119] see Coronel, Eric G [119] see Carr, Christopher[119] see Weaver, Eric M.Durand, Kathy [219] see Waller, KyleDurant, Michelle A. [87] see Gebauer, Rachel SmithDussault, Frederic [159] see Foin, Jeremy C.Dussubieux, Laure (Field Museum of Natural

102ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGHistory), Maryse Blet-Lemarquand (Institut deRecherche sur les Archéomatériaux, Centre Ernest-Babelon) and Bernard Gratuze (Institut de Recherchesur les Archéomatériaux, Centre Ernest-Babelon)[100] Coloring technologies in ancient South Asian glass:transferred technologies or innovation?The study of glass ornaments (mostly beads) found inSouth Asia using different analytical methods to identifiedglass coloring technologies was used to attempt todetermine whether glass technology was transferredfrom Mesopotamia to this region or if it developedindependently in these two areas. Identification of verydistinctive coloring technologies in South Asia, supportsthe first hypothesis We argue that the very differentnatures of the glass material produced in South Asia(exclusively glass ornaments) and in the Middle-East(mainly glass vessels) created the need for differentglass technologies.Dussubieux, Laure [100] see Lankton, James WDutschke, Dwight (Dwight A. Dutschke) and SusanStratton (California Office of Historic Preservation)[166] By the Numbers: Trying to Develop aProgrammatic AgreementOne toxic waste site, one public utility, two federalagencies, three different federal departments, two statehistoric preservation officers, one state agency, ninefederally recognized indian tribes, six properties listed onor determined eligible for the National Register of HistoricPlaces, at least two traditional cultural properties, 165archaeological sites assumed eligible for the NationalRegister of Historic Places, on at least 1600 acres ofland, trying to execute one agreement document withnine different appendices. Do the math, check youraddition and see if it all adds up.[112] DiscussantDuwe, Sam (University of Arizona)[136] A History of Immigration and Settlement in the'New World' of the Rio Chama Valley, New MexicoThousands of immigrants moved from the Mesa Verderegion to the northern Rio Grande in the thirteenth andearly-fourteenth centuries. New research suggests thatthese migrants were not a homogenous lot but ratherexpressed subtle, and sometimes striking, variabilityacross both time and space. I explore threecontemporaneous early-fourteenth century sites locatedin the Rio Chama valley on the northwestern frontier ofthe Tewa traditional homeland. Ceramic, architectural,and tree-ring data are interpreted to understand howdisparate people (both immigrants and ‗indigenous‘occupants) negotiated settlement in the ‗new world‘ ofthe Rio Grande and eventually became the historic Tewapeople.Dwyer, Rachel (SUNY-University At Buffalo)[169] Toward a paleoethnomedicineEthnomedicine is a well-established subfield integratingmedical anthropology and ethnobotany, providing richstudies into the healing and body concepts of variouscultures and the social, political, and religious roles ofhealers within different societies. Research surveys showthat currently around 80% of the world‘s population usessome form of traditional medicine. However, archaeologyand paleoethnobotany has remained relatively silent onthe issue of healers and healing in the past. This paperaddresses the importance and utility of a new sub-study,paleoethnomedicine.[169] First ChairDye, Thomas (T. S. Dye & Colleagues) andMaurice Major[153] Mapping the Dynamic Traditional Hawaiian BuiltEnvironmentArchaeologists are beginning to appreciate thedynamism of the traditional Hawaiian built environment,where religious sites provided fixed points of referencefor more transient habitations. Mapping the dynamicsettlement pattern poses several practical challenges.Here we employ stratigraphic principles of the Harrismatrix to develop analytic symbology for use on largescalearchitectural plans and sections. This approach isillustrated with a detailed example from Kaiholena,Hawai`i Island.[261] DiscussantDyke, Arthur [126] see Savelle, James M. [159] seeJohnson, Donald S.Dyrdahl, Eric (The Pennsylvania State University)[73] Resistance in Northern Ecuador: Settlement Surveyin the Pais CaranquiHow the Inka established and maintained their empire isa perennial issue in Andean scholarship. ThePambamarca Archaeological Project (PAP) hascontributed to this literature by studying the Inka‘s conflictwith indigenous populations in northern Ecuador. MostPAP research has focused on mountaintop fortificationsthat likely played a role in this conflict. My paper insteadpresents the results of a survey of the buffer zonebetween and around these fortifications. I discuss notonly the characteristics of potential indigenous sites inthis area, but also whether or not domestic settlementscan provide any insight into the indigenous resistanceeffort.Earn, David J.D. [72] see Devault, Alison M.Eastaugh, Edward [159] see Hodgetts, LisaEaston, Norman [124] see Yesner, David R.Ebert, Claire (University of Oregon), Keith Prufer(University of New Mexico) and Douglas Kennett(University of Oregon)[145] Terminal Long Count Dates & the Disintegration ofClassic Period Maya PolitiesTerminal long count dates on carved stone monumentshave long been used to examine the spatial distributionsand dynamics of the Classic Period Maya "collapse"(~AD 730-910). Previous studies have pointed to asystematic disintegration of Classic Period Maya politiesfrom west to east. We retest this hypothesis by analyzing91 terminal dates from the Maya Hieroglyphic Database.We analyze the spatial patterning in the data usingNearest Neighbor and Inverse Distance Weightedanalyses while considering site rank and ecologicalzones. Spatial patterning is not consistent with theprevious hypothesis, but suggests a contraction inmultiple core areas throughout the region.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 103Ebert, Ginny (University of Pennsylvania)[49] Acllawasi: Structuring Chosen Women in the InkaStateState development entails the establishment of abureaucratic and physical infrastructure linked withtransformation of existing social groups and formation ofnew institutions. In the Inka state, these processes wereexemplified by the acllawasi, described by chroniclers asan elite institution of women, the acllas, chosen toperform both religious and secular tasks. Acllawasi alsorefers to the physical structure housing these women. Iintegrate a critical reading of the chronicles with spatialand architectural analysis of acllawasi to assess how thescope and variety of tasks the acllas performedadvanced ideological, political, and economic goals ofthe Inka.Echeverria, Jose and Tamara Bray (Wayne StateUniversity)[15] At the End of Empire: The Late Imperial Site of Inca-CaranquiLocated at the northernmost edge of Tawantinsuyu, thesite of Inca-Caranqui likely represents the last imperialbuilding event prior to the Spanish Conquest.Ethnohistoric accounts regarding who ordered theconstruction of this site and why are conflicting with someattributing it to Huayna Capac for commemorativepurposes, and others to Atahualpa in preparation for hiscoronation. Recent investigations at the site havefocused on documenting the different constructionepisodes, determining site function, and ascertaining thenature of Inca-local relations via architectural,geochemical, distributional, compositional, and stylisticanalyses. In this paper we present some of our recentfindings and preliminary interpretations.Eckert, Suzanne (Texas A&M University)[264] When is a polychrome? Slips, self-slips, andsurfaces during the Pueblo IV period.Slip color is one of the defining characteristics of ceramictypes across the Pueblo IV landscape. Over the past fewdecades many researchers have interpreted slip color asindicating ethnicity, kinship, religious practice or othersocial groupings. Few researchers, however, havequestioned how slip color is used as an archaeologicalattribute. This paper considers whether or not slip color ischaracterized similarly across decorated types, andattempts to address whether or not the number of slipcolors defined by archaeologists on decorated potteryare the same number of colors recognized by theproducers and users of those pots.[264] First ChairEckhardt, William (ASM Affiliates), Antonio Porcayo(Centro INAH Baja California) and Martin Rojas(Museo Nacional de Antropologia INAH)[224] Around the 28th to the 32nd Parallel: PrehistoricQuarries of Baja CaliforniaAnnual archaeological program efforts undertaken byCentro INAH Baja California from 2006 to present haverevealed prehistoric quarries representing different lithicindustries and periods. Examination of the extractivemethods, the types of tool stone technology and thedistribution of raw material and artifacts allow us topropose that a diversity of rock types were quarried forlocal use within particular, specific periods, whereasanother raw material, in this case obsidian, maintains anample distribution over time.Edwards, Matt (HDR and UCSB), Katharina Schreiber(UCSB) and Craig Smith (UCSB)[229] Wari Enclaves, Local Emulation, and InterregionalExchange: The Dynamics of Culture Contact in theCentral Andes during the Middle HorizonAs the other contributions to this symposium suggest,culture contact occurs under a wide variety of processesthat, in turn, shape how people from different culturaltraditions interact with one another as well as how suchcontact changes the internal dynamics of the societiesinvolved. Culture contact that results from imperialexpansion, as occurred during the Andean MiddleHorizon (AD 750 - 1000) and the expansion of the Waripolity, can create an ethnic mosaic that results from theadministrative needs of the dominant polity as well as theresulting interregional interaction that is caused and/ormediated by imperial expansion.Edwards, Richard (UW-Milwaukee)[104] Pits, Open Spaces, and Artifact Distributions: ASpatial Analysis of the Schlage SiteExcavation of the Schlage site Oneota component failedto produce evidence of associated house floors, structurebasins, or postmolds. A GIS-based analysis of featuredistribution and pit fill contents was undertaken toinvestigate the possibility that the site may once haveharbored structure remnants. Results of the analysissuggest that the arc-like arrangement of some of thefeature groupings may reference the former location ofdomestic structures destroyed by earlier episodes ofhighway construction.Eerkens, Jelmer (University of California, Davis)[11] California: A Land of StyleCulture historians used style, and changes in style overtime, to impose chronological structure on thearchaeological record. Style is used here to build on thatstructure, to examine rates, and changes in the rate, ofevolution. Why is stylistic change more rapid duringsome periods than others? California is the geographicbase for this analysis.[181] see Bencze, Jennifer M. [194] Second Organizer[194] see Jorgenson, Gina [194] see Bartelink, Eric J.[267] see Vaughn, Kevin J.Efferson, Charles [43] see Richerson, Peter JEgan-Bruhy, Kathryn (Commonwealth CulturalResources Group)[104] Oneota Subsistence Adaptation: A View from theSchlage SiteThe subsistence adaptation of Oneota populations inWisconsin is commonly described as horticulturaladaptation based on an emphasis on wetland resources.Increasing evidence from eastern Wisconsin reflectsconsiderable variation in the subsistence adaptation ofthese late prehistoric populations. This variability isreviewed from the perspective of the Schlage Site floralanalysis.Egeland, Charles (UNC-Greensboro), BorisGasparian (Institute of Archaeology andEthnography, National Academy of Sciences of the

104ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGRepublic of Armenia), Dmitri Arakelyan (Institute ofGeological Sciences, National Academy of Sciencesof the Republic of Armenia), Robert Ghukasyan(Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, NationalAcademy of Sciences of the Republic ofArmenia) and Christopher Nicholson (WaterResources Data System, University of Wyoming)[114] Excavations at new open-air Middle Paleolithicsites in the Debed River Valley, ArmeniaThis study outlines new excavations at two open-airMiddle Paleolithic sites in Armenia‘s Debed River Valley.Both sites are located in terrace sediments of the Debedand appear to have suffered little post-depositionaldisturbance. At Bagratashen 1, test excavations haverevealed a dense (126 finds/cubic meter) and wellpreservedlithic collection from a discrete horizon.Typologically, the lithics signal a late Middle Paleolithicoccupation. A handaxe discovered during surface surveymay indicate a Late Acheulean component as well. AtPtghavan 4, a dense, in situ Middle Paleolithicassemblage that likely predates the occupation atBagratashen 1 has been recovered.Ehrich, Richard (German Archaeological InstituteEurasia Department)[23] The Neolithic Age in SichuanWhen two huge Bronze Age hoards where discovered atSanxingdui in 1986, it lead to what could be called a‗boom‘ in prehistoric archaeology, mainly in Sichuan butalso in other parts of Southwest China. However, onlywhen it became clear in 1995 that the walled enclosuresstill visible in the Chengdu Basin are in fact Neolithic, didresearch into these earlier periods increased drastically.Today new phenomena are uncovered at a staggeringrate, though many questions remain unresolved. Thispaper thus summarily presents the current state ofresearch into the Neolithic Age in Sichuan.Eidsness, Janet (THPO Blue Lake Rancheria,California)[239] Context of Place: Behind the Redwood Curtain,North Coastal CaliforniaCalifornia‘s North Coast Region may appear to begeographically isolated due to its rugged terrain and lackof major highways. Its prehistoric archaeology infers along record of habitation, climatic shifts, immigrations andshifts in exchange networks, changes in settlement/subsistence strategies, growth of large semi-sedentaryhunter-gather populations, and development of complexIndian cultures. This paper will introduce its geographicsetting, historic and contemporary tribes, give a briefhistory of past research, and identify a few challenges, toprovide a contextual framework for recent researchpresented in this symposium and to offer ideas for futurefocused research.Eiselt, B. Sunday (Southern Methodist University)and John Ives (University of Alberta)[17] Kinship--The Unattended Dimension of PaleoindianStudiesPaleoindian colonization is typically modeled asbiological population fissioning or with unwarrantedassumptions about social organization and demographicparameters. Yet meaningful inferences can be madeabout Paleoindian kinship, with profound settlementimplications. Paleoindian peoples were undoubtedlyaware of critical, kin-structured options for managing thesociogeographic boundary at which marriages couldoccur in small group sizes and extremely low populationdensities. By adopting this perspective, we providealternative explanations to better apprehend enigmaticaspects of the Paleoindian record, including differentialdemographic success for colonization episodes, shiftingstyles of colonization, and social dimensions signaled bythe spread of fluted point technology.Eiselt, B. Sunday [18] see Darling, J Andrew [207] seeO'Brien, LaurenEk, Jerald (SUNY Albany)[51] Political Intrigue in the Realm of Chakanputun:Warfare and Political Centralization during thePostclassic Period in Champotón, CampecheDuring the ill-fated entrada into the Yucatán Peninsulaled the conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in1517, Spanish troops in search of water near the city ofChakanputun encountered fierce resistance from localwarriors, leading to the death of Córdoba andcancellation of the expedition. Recent archaeologicalresearch in the Río Champotón drainage suggests thatmilitary success may have played a central role in theearlier history of Chakanputun. This paper reviews newevidence for military conflict in the consolidation of powerand rise to regional prominence by the ancient city ofChakanputun during the Postclassic Period.Elder, J. Tait [3] see Schneyder, Stacy L. [126] seeButler, Virginia L.Ellick, Carol (Archaeological and Cultural EducationConsultants) [268] DiscussantElliott, Michelle (CNRS, UMR 8096) and ClaireAlix (CNRS and University of Paris I)[25] What wood can tell us about past societiesWhatever its preserved state (charred or not), wood orthe traces of its presence are often omnipresent inarchaeological sites even if regularly overlooked. Woodremains tend to be under-analyzed and their importantrole in human ecology and economies is minimized. Yet,detailed analysis of wood's anatomical features, itsannual growth-rings, and the cut marks left on its surface,among others, can provide rich bodies of data about pastenvironment and societies. In this paper, we review thediverse range of methods and problem orientations thathave developed in wood studies and how they improveour understandings of ancient societies.[25] Second ChairElliott, Michelle [25] see Turkon, PaulaEllison, John [150] see Farquhar, Jennifer M.Ellison, Leigh Anne (Arizona State University)[31] An Intrasite Analysis of Household Clusters at LasCanoas, HondurasThis project takes a statistical approach to examininghousehold clusters at the Late Classic (600-800 AD)polity of Las Canoas, Honduras. Residential structures,spatially clustered in patio groups, are comparedstatistically using k-means cluster analysis on the basisof artifacts recovered therein. These results reveal a

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 105more nuanced picture of household organization at thesite based on wealth, domestic ritual, externalconnections, and involvement in crafting activitiesconsidered in the context of spatially clustered patiogroups.Ellwood, Brooks [265] see Evans, Amanda M.Elson, Mark (Desert Archaeology), Michael Ort(Northern Arizona University), Kirk Anderson(Museum of Northern Arizona), Paul Sheppard(University of Arizona) and Elizabeth May (Universityof Arizona)[99] A.D. 1064 No More? A Multidisciplinary Reevaluationof the Date of the Eruption of Sunset CraterVolcano, Northern ArizonaIn 1958, Terah Smiley suggested that Sunset CraterVolcano erupted in A.D. 1064, a date now entrenched inthe literature and important in reconstructing prehistorichuman response to the eruption. The 1064 date wasbased on the initiation of suppressed and complacenttree rings from several beams used in the construction ofthe 100-room Wupatki Pueblo, ~20 km northeast ofSunset Crater. Recent multidisciplinary studies usingchemical assays and tree-ring morphology indicate thatthis date may not be accurate. In this paper we presentevidence suggesting that it is more probable that SunsetCrater erupted in the A.D. 1080s.[99] First ChairElston, Robert (University of Nevada)[230] Washoe Archaeology ReduxIn the mid to late 1960s I was first a graduate student ofWilbur (Buck) Davis at University of Nevada, Renoworking on his Washoe Archaeology project investigatingthe prehistory of the Washoe Indians of the easternSierra Nevada, and later, Robert Stephenson‘s assistantin the newly formed Nevada Archeological Survey. TheNevada-Berkeley archaeology axis was very strong then.The Washoe archaeology project was stimulated byprevious research of UC Berkeley archaeologists RobertHeizer and Albert Elsasser who offered interest andencouragement to Buck and me. Robert Stephensonprovided support to Billy Clewlow and Richard Cowanduring their initial Black Rock Desert sojourn. I wasfortunate to meet, interact with, and be influenced by allof the Berkeley graduate students working in the GreatBasin at the time, including Billy with whom I have sinceshared overlapping research areas and interests (BlackRock Desert, Grass Valley, China Lake/Coso). Thissymposium is an opportunity revisit the Berkeleyinfluence on my initial Great Basin research and comparewhat we thought we knew then about Washoe prehistorywith current understanding[12] Discussant [12] Second OrganizerEly, Nancy (AUSD, Wood Middle School) [268]DiscussantEmery, Kitty [206] see Olson, Elizabeth JoyEncinas, Joe [138] see Adams, ChristopherEndacott, Neal (Central Washington University) andSteven Hackenberger (Central WashingtonUniversity)[178] Late Holocene Increases in Artiodactyl Populationsin the Columbia Basin: A Case Study from the SandersSite, Southcentral WAThe Sanders site faunal assemblage provides a test ofdata patterns noted by other researchers in the westernUnited States suggesting climate change promotedimproved artiodactyl habitat and population increasesafter about 4500 BP. This increased prey availability mayhave played an important role in the transition frommobile foragers to logistically oriented collectors in theColumbia Basin. The assemblage has the potential toprovide significant paleoenvironmental, taphonomic, andsubsistence data on the late Holocene inhabitants of theColumbia Basin during a time of increasing culturalcomplexity.Endo, Naoko, Rebecca Wigen (Pacific IdentificationsInc.), Louise Williams (Simon Fraser University),Suzanne Villeneuve (Simon Fraser University) andBrian Hayden (Simon Fraser University)[176] Examining Shifts in Subsistence Patternsthroughout the Evolution of Keatley CreekResource intensification and diversification have beenkey issues in understanding the conditions surroundingthe emergence and collapse of aggregated villages in theMid-Fraser Region. Recent research at Keatley Creekhas resulted in large datasets of faunal and botanicaldata from varied contexts spanning all major occupationperiods, from early village formation to the protohistoricperiod. These data, combined with new radiocarbondates, provide an ideal dataset for addressing questionsof shifts in subsistence due to environmental changes aswell as intensification and diversification.Endo, Naoko [176] see Billy, NoraEng, Jacqueline (Western Michigan University) andVanchigdash Mergen (National University ofMongolia)[236] Health of Xiongnu and Mongol Period populations:a bioarchaeological analysis of pastoral populations fromtwo ancient Mongolian empiresMongolia has been the home of many pastoral cultures,including several nomadic confederacies that developedinto powerful empires. Two of the most well known arethe Xiongnu, who clashed often with China‘s earlydynasties, and the Mongol Empire, who over a millennialater conquered throughout Eurasia. Bioarchaeologicalcomparisons of skeletal collections deriving from thesetwo different periods of empire suggest that despite thehundreds of years separating them, and the probableattendant changes in the types of stresses, people fromthese pastoral populations nevertheless grew to similarstatures and experienced similar susceptibility to healthproblems including fractures and dental disease.Engelbrecht, William [55] see Hart, John P. [164] seeKatz, SandraEnglehardt, Joshua (Florida State University) andDavid Lentz (University of Cincinnati)[157] Early Precolumbian Agriculture and the Evolutionof Anthropogenic Mesoamerican LandscapesArchaeological research combined withpaleoethnobotanical approaches have provided a wealthof data regarding agricultural practices of the past as well

106ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGas landscape modifications caused by human occupants.This paper will present recent evidence for agriculturalorigins and landscape modifications that accompaniedthe emergence of complex societies in Mesoamerica. Notonly were plants brought into domesticated cultivationsystems over an approximately 10,000 year period, butalso forests were restructured to provide optimumproductivity to meet human needs. Paleoethnobotanicaldata will be presented from archaeological sites acrossthe region including Cob, Pulltrowser, San Andres,Ceren, Chan, Aguateca and Tikal.[157] First ChairEnglehardt, Joshua [157] see Carrasco, Michael D.Ensor, Bradley (Eastern Michigan University)[51] The Crafting of Maya KinshipPast studies of prehispanic Maya Kinship includeproblematic assumptions: that a pan-Maya systemexisted, that naming and term systems predict socialorganization, that kinship is static, that different classeshave the same system, and that archaeological data aretoo "limited". Political economic theory views kinship asdynamic, malleable, and variable by class. Three classesat the Late Classic period Islas de Los Cerrosdemonstrate distinct kinship behavior explained by theircontext in the political economy. Rather than fittingproblematic ethnohistoric models to archaeological data,archaeology is actually better equipped to developmodels for prehispanic Maya kinship.Erb-Satullo, Nathaniel (Harvard University), AndrewShortland (Cranfield University) and KatherineEremin (Harvard University Art Museum)[5] Local Wares, Imperial Styles: Identifying Nuzi WareProduction Sites in the Near East through Petrographyand Chemical AnalysisThe production and consumption of elite material culturein the Near Eastern Late Bronze Age (c. 1600-1200 BC)has long been an area of scholarly interest. Nuzi ware, awhite-on-dark painted ceramic associated with theMitanni Empire, appeared at this time. Stylistic analysis isambiguous about whether these ceramics were importedfrom the empire‘s core, or whether production occurredlocally among imperial vassals. Optical petrographyprovides a new perspective on this question, comparingmineralogy of the ceramics with local geology. Coupledwith chemical analysis, this technique furnishes a meansof distinguishing between production centers.Eremin, Katherine [5] see Erb-Satullo, Nathaniel L.Eren, Metin (Southern Methodist University)[120] Clovis Technology in the North American LowerGreat Lakes regionThis paper reviews the processes and technology of theClovis colonization pulse into the Lower Great Lakesregion approximately 11,000 B.P. Mobility and land-usestrategies of these early colonizers will be reviewed, andtechnological patterning will be assessed. Evidence ofClovis blades and overshot flaking in the region indicatethat the earliest archaeological manifestation shouldindeed be called ―Clovis.‖[7] see Morgan, Brooke M.Eriksson, Erik [153] see Buckland, Philip I.Erlandson, Jon (University of Oregon)[11] California Archaeology: A View from the SeaLess than 50 years ago, California archaeology was seenthrough a terrestrial lens, with Paleoindian or MillingStone peoples migrating from interior regions to thecoast, where they gradually adapted to life by the sea.Today a growing body of data suggest just the opposite,with sophisticated maritime peoples colonizing the coastand Channel Islands very early, then migrating up rivervalleys into the interior. A new view proposes that thePaleocoastal and Western Pluvial Lakes traditions areclosely linked to a coastal migration from northeast Asiato the Americas. What followed is reviewed through anaquatic lens.[263] see Bond, Kristina J [263] see Willis, Lauren M.[123] see Braje, Todd J.Ermigiotti, Paul [99] see Varien, Mark DErnenwein, Eileen [64] see Hargrave, Michael L.Eronat, Kristina (UCLA & The University of Kansas)[235] Marine Subsistence as Probable Cause for DentalHealth Variations in Prehistoric Panamanians of theCaribbean Coast : Quantitative and Non-Metric DentalAnalysis from Sitio Drago, Isla Colón, Bocas del Toro,PanamaBy focusing on bioarchaeological research, such asdental pathology analysis, a better model of howsubsistence patterns affected humans on an individual aswell as group level can be established. Due to a numberof unique geological features, Sitio Drago, NorthernPanama, offers excellent preservation for human andfaunal remains, thus allowing for strongbioarchaeological analysis to be performed in the goal ofascertaining past subsistence patterns and their effectson health status. In this poster, the use of dentalpathology analysis and comparison at Sitio Drago will bethe focus of my research presentation.Eschbach, Krista (Arizona State University) andAlanna Ossa (Arizona State University)[216] Archaeological Data Curation and the Use ofLegacy DatabasesA common problem for legacy research is that data areoften organized by artifact storage location rather thanarchaeological provenience, making future researchdifficult. Undocumented changes in data and loss oforiginal organizational strategies can further compromiseaccessibility and integrity. Based on our experiences incuration and research analyses, we propose specificmethods to make archaeological data curation andlegacy use as flexible and useful as possible. This paperwill deal with overcoming difficulties associated with theuse of legacy databases and curation procedures thatcan increase the accessibility of archaeological andhistorical data for future research.Estes, Mark (WCRM, Inc.), Ed Stoner (WesternCultural Resource Management, Inc.) andGeoffrey Cunnar (Western Cultural ResourceManagement, Inc.)[262] Preliminary Use-Wear Results from aConcentration of Western Stemmed Points in the FireCreek Archaeological District, Central Great Basin

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 107Locus A/R is an open-air, single-component WesternStemmed Tradition site within the Fire Creek NationalRegister Archaeological District in the Central GreatBasin. Twelve fragmented basalt stemmed points wererecovered from surface and subsurface contexts, mostwithin a discrete concentration. Low power microscopy isemployed to identify post-break use-wear and examineburin scars and breakage patterns to help determine tooland overall concentration function. Geochemicalcharacterization provides the locations of toolstonesources, enhancing our understanding of the Prearchaiclithic terrane for this area. Preliminary results suggest thisconcentration may have served as more than just adiscard and rehafting/retooling location.Estes, Mark [61] see Cunnar, Geoffrey E.Ethridge, Robbie (University of Mississippi)[86] The Colonial Indian Slave Trade and theCoalescences of Eighteenth-Century SoutheasternIndian NationsScholars understand that the Mississippian worldunderwent a fundamental transformation with theEuropean invasion. The chiefdoms fell and peoplereorganized into what we now call coalescent societies.This paper examines the role that the colonial Indianslave trade played in the transformation of theMississippian world during the first 150 years ofEuropean contact. The paper tracks the intensification ofslave raiding for Indian slaves to sell to Europeanmerchants by Indian slavers, the subsequent dissolutionof chiefdoms and dislocation of the people, and it beginsto sketch the early coalescence of the Indian nations ofthe colonial American South.[86] First OrganizerEtnier, Mike [210] see Sterling, Sarah L.Eubanks, Mary[196] Origins of American Agriculture: A RetrospectiveReinterpretationSince its founding in 1901, the Robert S. PeabodyMuseum of Archaeology has been at the vanguard ofarchaeological research to better understand humanenvironmentalinteractions. Following the pioneeringpaleoecological work of his predecessors Douglas Byersand Fred Johnson, Richard S. (―Scotty‖) MacNeishassembled an interdisciplinary team to bring togethermultiple lines of scientific evidence to investigate theorigins of agriculture and settled life in the Americas. Thispresentation will take a retrospective look at thelandmark Prehistory of the Tehuacan Valley project andreview its findings in light of 21st century evidence for theorigins of American agriculture.Evans, Adrian (University of Bradford)[59] Learning from Blind Tests: Advancing the TechniqueStep by StepA technique developed over 30 years ago is still beingconfidently used today, mostly without any significantmodification. However, since its inception there havebeen many criticisms, originating from differentperspectives, which have questioned the validity of theresults it is used to produce. As part of the proofingseveral blind tests have been conducted, showingvariable results. This paper presents these studies from adifferent angle and suggests that these, and future testslike them, should be used constructively to advance thetechnique. Examples are given of how this mightprogress and the potential benefit that this may have.[59] Second OrganizerEvans, Adrian [59] see Donahue, Randolph E.Evans, Amanda (Louisiana State University), PatrickHesp (Louisiana State University), Brooks Ellwood(Louisiana State University), Graziela da Silva(Louisiana State University) and Sophie Warny(Louisiana State University)[265] Potential Prehistoric Sites in the Gulf of MexicoResults are presented for two cores extracted from theGulf of Mexico, in water depths of 50 and 100 feet BSL,which both contained charcoal. Charcoal was not presentin cores taken from the surrounding areas, suggestingtwo discrete occurrences of fire. Preliminary 14Canalyses indicate that the inshore charcoal unit dates to~9,500 years BP; the charcoal unit from the deeper coreis awaiting results. Geophysical data and laboratoryanalyses suggest an environment favorable for possiblehabitation by prehistoric groups.Evans, Jennifer (Missouri State University)[219] Burials of the Point Community: A Comparison toChaco CanyonThe Totah Region of northwestern New Mexico containsmany Ancestral Puebloan sites which are believed tohave had cultural ties with the communities of ChacoCanyon. This paper focuses on the Point Community, apotential Chacoan outlier located on the banks of the SanJuan River south of Farmington, New Mexico. The PointCommunity sites contain numerous human burials andassociated grave goods. In this study, I will compare theburials of the Point Community sites to those of AztecRuins, Salmon Ruin, and Chaco Canyon, illustrating theoutlier status of the Point Community.Evans, Susan (Penn State University) and RaúlValadez Azúa (Universidad Nacional Autónoma deMéxico)[200] Very Sad Sounds: An Omichicahuastli fromCihuatecpanThe notched bone, or omichicahuastli, was part of therepertoire of musical instruments for Aztec and othernative American cultures, and was used in mourning andother ceremonies. An omichicahuastli found in the Aztecvillage of Cihuatecpan, near Otumba (Postclassic andEarly Colonial periods) is analyzed in terms of culturaland locational contexts, which reveal its sacredassociations. Buried deep in a midden, it was well hiddenfrom the vigilance of Colonial period authorities intent oneradicating traditional practices. Unlike manyomichicahuastlis that were made of human femurs, theCihuatecpan example is tapir bone, documentinginteraction with the tropical lowlands.Evershed, Richard [126] see Outram, Alan KeithEverson, Gloria (Lyon College), Michelle Henley(Lyon College) and Christine Font[82] Edward Kennard, the Federal Writers‘ Project andthe Birth of Public ArchaeologyArchaeology captured the attention of a larger audience

108ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGduring the 1930s via the WPA state guides produced bythe Federal Writers‘ Project. While these guides coverednumerous topics, archaeology found its place. EdwardKennard, a former student of Boas, supervised andedited the ―Indians and Archeology‖ section of eachguide, and additionally created a series of driving tourshighlighting significant archaeological attractions in eachstate. By establishing a rigorous standard of accuracyand skillfully dealing with the various writing styles andpersonalities types, Kennard brought each state‘s pastinto the present, paving the way for today‘s publicarchaeology.Evett, Rand (University of California, Berkeley) andRob Cuthrell (University of California, Berkeley)[222] Phytolith Evidence for the Extent and Nature ofPaleo-Grasslands in Quiroste Valley, central California,USAOver the past decade, phyolith analysis has been usedeffectively to investigate the extent and nature of paleograsslandsin California. As part of an interdisciplinaryresearch project on indigenous landscape management,our research team collected ~150 soil column samplesfrom Quiroste Valley on California‘s central coast,including a Late Period archaeological site and transectson the valley floor. Data analysis combined morphologybasedphytolith classification with computer-assisted 3-Dimage analysis techniques to improve phytolithdiscrimination of plant taxa. In this paper we presentpreliminary phytolith data from Quiroste Valley anddiscuss the potential for expanding archaeologicalphytolith research in California.Ewing, Thomas [148] see Trachman, Rissa M.Fairley, Helen (US Geological Survey), Brian Collins(US. Geological Survey) and Amy Draut (U.S.Geological Survey)[259] Use of terrestrial lidar to monitor archaeological sitecondition in Grand Canyon, ArizonaTerrestrial lidar offers a highly accurate, low impact, andrelatively cost efficient means of quantifying surficialchanges at archaeological sites. This presentationreports on results of a pilot study which employedterrestrial lidar, in conjunction with high resolutionweather monitoring, to quantify the amount of erosionand deposition occurring seasonally at archaeologicalsites in the Colorado River corridor. We then discuss howthese data can be used to elucidate the relativecontributions of weather, human visitation, and theeffects of Glen Canyon Dam on archaeological sitecondition along the Colorado River in Grand CanyonNational Park.[20] DiscussantFajardo Bernal, Sebastian (Sebastian Fajardo Bernal)[68] Political Process of Centralization of a Community inthe Leiva Valley, Colombia: Hierarchy and NegotiationBetween Centuries XI-XVIIThe study evaluated if the construction of the socialhierarchy between households of a community in theMuisca Area of Colombia was negotiated and if thatpossible negotiation allowed changes to the politicalstructure between the centuries XI-XVII. Thearchaeological evidences suggest that in the socialhierarchy of the community of Suta had minimaldifferences between commoners and elite, however thesocial hierarchy it was not negotiated between elite andcommoners. But elite didn't controlled the activities ofhouseholds of the community, allowing actions orstrategies defined by the environmental, economic andsociocultural context in which they were immersed.Fakra, Sirine [220] see Kakoulli, IoannaFang, Hui [3] see Li, MinFarah, Kirby[148] Archaeology of Maya Water and LandManagement: Past, Present and FutureManipulation of water and land by the Maya was carriedout to improve the function and efficiency of resourcemanagement across the immense andgeomorphologically diverse region. While constructedwith practicality in mind, water management was notindependent from local politics, economy, religion, andother societal factors. Untangling the vast and nuancedfactors that contributed to the development andsustainability of these systems has necessitated uniquearchaeological approaches. A grasp of the history andtheoretical background of Maya water and landscapemanagement is essential to understanding the trajectoryof archaeology in the eastern Petén.Farah, Kirby [148] see Trachman, Rissa M.Farahani, Alan (University of California, Berkeley)and Benjamin Porter (University of California,Berkeley)[26] Resource Exploitation of Fresh-water CrustaceanResources in a Semi-arid Environment: A case studyfrom early Iron Age JordanKhirbet al-Mudayna al-‗Aliya lies at the southern-mosttributary of the Wadi Mujib, approximately 40 kilometerseast of the Dead Sea in an area that is challenging forhuman subsistence. Excavations at the site haverevealed architecture from a single-period occupationdating to the early Iron Age (ca. 1000BC) alongsidenumerous artifacts and ecofacts. Archaeofaunal remainsof Levantine freshwater crabs (Potamon potamios)discovered at the site pose intriguing questions regardingthe resource extraction techniques of the localcommunity. Regression analyses of selectedmorphometric parameters alongside isotopic analysesprovide information on harvesting, as well as seasonality,local environment, and cultural significance.[250] Second Chair [45] Third OrganizerFariss, Barker (University of North Carolina at ChapelHill)[229] Using GIS and Settlement Pattern Archaeology toBetter Understand the Nature of Highland/CoastalInteraction during the EIP in the Moche Valley, PeruSince 2002, my research on the North Coast of Peru hasfocused on combining traditional settlement patternarchaeology with advanced spatial technologies. Toillustrate variation between ethnically diversesettlements, I analyzed explanatory variables derivedfrom spatial analysis and survey of architecture andsettlement organization at over one hundred highlandsites located on the coast in the Moche Valley. Myconclusions illustrate corollaries of volatile demographic

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 109fluctuation during nascent Moche hegemony in theregion. This research complements a growing corpus ofarchaeological theory and methodological practicetoward a better understanding of contact and interactionamong culturally diverse prehistoric settlements.Farnsworth, Paul (WSA)[229] Comparative Perspectives on Culture Contact inCalifornia and the CaribbeanThe proposal of new theoretical frameworks over the lasttwo decades has resulted in a critical reassessment ofculture contact studies of both California and theCaribbean in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.This paper will review the approaches used since theearly 1990s in the study of culture contact between theSpanish and Native Americans in California and betweenEuropeans and enslaved Africans in the Caribbean. Thepaper will compare and contrast the approaches usedand the way that they have been applied inarchaeological research in these two areas to evaluatetheir effectiveness in different contexts.[121] DiscussantFarquhar, Jennifer (Albion Environmental, Inc.),Ryan Brady (Albion Environmental, Inc.) and JohnEllison (Albion Environmental, Inc.)[150] Flaked stone studies at Camp Roberts CaliforniaArmy National Guard Training Installation: Theoreticalunderpinnings and contributions to California CentralCoast PrehistoryResearch on California‘s central coast has illustratedevolutionary trends in settlement and subsistenceorganization. Studies are often based on vertebrate andinvertebrate faunal data, primarily from coastalenvironments. One often overlooked line of evidence isthe role of lithic technology within these cultural systems.Recent research at Camp Roberts, located 40 km inland,has brought to light new data that provides insightsregarding changing patterns of land use and socialorganization. These data are interpreted usingTechnological Organization theory, within a framework ofBehavioral Ecology. Insights gained have implications forinterpreting settlement organization on California‘s‘central coast.Farquharson, Michael [167] see MacDonald, BrandiLeeFarrand, William (University of MIchigan) [249]DiscussantFarris, Glenn (Farris, West & Schulz)[194] With a View to the Afterlife: A Reconsideration ofPeter Schulz‘s Windmiller burial orientation data in lightof the Marsh Site ExcavationsIn 1970 Peter Schulz published a study of the burialorientations found on Windmiller Period sites in theCentral Valley of California. This orientation appeared tocoincide with the setting sun and led to an hypothesisthat this reflected the times of the year that these burialsoccurred. Schulz was able to elicit patterns of incidenceof deaths at certain times of the year. Recentexcavations at the Marsh Creek site have providedadditional data on Windmiller period burials. This paperwill evaluate Schulz‘s data and conclusions in light of thisnew burial sample from this period in Californiaarchaeology.Fast, Natalie (Washington State University)[46] How Great Were the Cedar Mesa Great HouseCommunities?We currently know little about the residential settlementsassociated with two late Pueblo II period ―Chaco-esque‖great houses identified on Cedar Mesa. This paperexamines the social implications of differing patterns ofsettlement through a review of PII great housecommunities across the Northern San Juan region. Withthis data in mind, expectations are developed forrecognizing and interpreting great house communitypatterns on Cedar Mesa. This work will contribute todesigning surveys to be conducted around the twoaforementioned great houses.Faucher, Anne-Marie (Universite Laval, Quebec)[25] Evolution wood procurement: a Middle Iron Age toLate Norse case study, Everley Broch, CaithnessEverley Broch is composed of a Middle Iron Age brochand a Late Norse house. Local gathering of roundwood,short-distance timber trade within the mainland andcollection of driftwood are the main wood procurementstrategies attested. It is proposed that a long-distancetrade network was established during the Norse periodas a fourth wood supply strategy. Within a wider AtlanticScotland framework, as the site is located on the Scottishmainland where more timber is available, driftwood doesnot seem to have been as important as for the otherAtlantic Scotland regions.Faucher, Anne-Marie [202] see Bain, AllisonFaugere, Brigitte (University Paris 1)[98] Anthropomorphic figures in the rock paintings ofnorth of Michoacan, Mexico, and the ―gift of seeing‖.The rockshelter paintings located in northern Michoacánillustrate complex scenes that frequently includeanthropomorphic figures with their heads covered byconcentric circles, and holding weapons and shields.Stylistic and recent radiocarbon dating assign thesepaintings to the ―semi-arid tradition‖ of northwest Mexico.By the end of the Epiclassic period, the region wasoccupied by semi-nomadic groups who made thepaintings. In this presentation, I analyze three new sitesand I interpret the scenes as the celebration of the ―gift ofseeing‖ by analogy with current Huichol ritual practices.Faught, Michael (Panamerican Consultants, Inc)[265] Remote Sensing, Target Identification, and TestingFor Submerged Prehistoric Sites For Dredging Projectsin Florida: Theory, Methods, and LessonsRecent CRM projects conducted by Panamerican inTampa Bay, St Johns River, and Indian River, Florida,have had as part of their focus attention to potentials forsubmerged prehistoric sites as well as submergedhistoric shipwrecks. Methods to be discussed includeremote sensing, target identification using locally basedsite probability models, remote sensing, and testing bycoring, probing, and excavations using hydraulic and airlift dredges. This paper discusses some advances andchallenges to conducting prehistoric CRM in underwatersettings.[265] Discussant

110ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGFaulks, Nathan [59] see Kimball, Larry R.Faulseit, Ronald (Tulane University)[32] An Early Postclassic Domestic Terrace at Dainzú-Macuilxóchitl, Oaxaca, MexicoThis poster presents the results of a two-year project ofsurvey, surface collection, and excavation at the site ofDainzú-Macuilxóchitl in Oaxaca, Mexico. The researchwas focused on identifying and characterizing the LateClassic (A.D. 500-900) and Early Postclassic (A.D. 900 -1300) components of the site, which coincide with thedevolution and regeneration of complex society within theValley of Oaxaca. The data from the excavation of anEarly Postclassic domestic terrace, including severalradiocarbon dates, are incorporated into a discussion ofthe reorganization of the site after the decline of theMonte Albán state.Fauvelle, Mikael (University of California, San Diego)[186] Economic Complexity at La Blanca: Feasting, CraftSpecialization, and Domestic ProductionAs we expand our understanding of the evolution of earlycomplex society it is important to maintain a focus notonly on political inequality, but also on the developmentof intermediate economic systems. At La Blanca,uniformity in ceramic vessel distributions betweenhouseholds suggests that commoners and elites sharedaccess to the same sources of ceramic production. Thispattern is at odds with redistributional economic modelscommonly associated with ―chiefdoms‖ inneoevolutionary theory. This paper will examine theseceramic distributions and suggest that economicexchange at La Blanca may have been more complexthan commonly assumed for the Middle Preclassic.[67] see Boxt, Matthew A.Fayek, Mostafa [136] see Hull, Sharon K. [97] seeAnovitz, Lawrence M.Feathers, James (University of Washington)[3] Luminescence Dating of Prehistoric Rock AlignmentsPrehistoric rock alignments are ubiquitous throughout thenorthern Rockies and adjacent High Plains, but arepoorly dated. Luminescence dating is used to date thesediments under the rocks. Dates are provided forseveral sites in Montana and Wyoming, with particularemphasis on the Kutoyis buffalo jump locality on theBlackfeet Reservation. Results show the Kutoyis locationwas used over several hundred years, postdatingAD1100. Rock alignments from sites in northeasternMontana and northwestern Wyoming yield dates ofaround BC 500.[5] see Casson, Aksel [180] see Rhode, DavidFedje, Daryl [168] see Orchard, Trevor J.Feeley, Frank [202] see Hambrecht, GeorgeFehrenbach, Shawn (University of Hawai„i at Manoa)and Michael Glascock (University of MissouriResearch Reactor Archaeometry Laboratory)[228] Chemical Compositional Analysis of LatePrehistoric to Early Historic Earthenwares from Five Sitesin CambodiaThis paper presents results of chemical analyses ofceramics from five sites in Cambodia, using InstrumentalNeutron Activation Analysis (INAA). 95 samples from thesite of Angkor Borei, an important center of early statedevelopment in Southeast Asia, and 35 more samplesfrom four contemporaneous sites across Cambodiatargeted ware groups that are chronologically diagnosticand found across broad areas of Southeast Asia. Resultsinform on how these ware groups reflect social andeconomic processes related to state development andincreasing sociopolitical complexity in this regionbetween approximately 500 BCE and CE 500.Feinman, Gary [142] see Arnold, Dean E.Fennell, Christopher (University of Illinois) [118]DiscussantFenner, Jack [219] see Waller, KyleFenner, Lindsay (University of Nevada Reno)[262] Pluvial Lakes and Great Basin Environments:Recent Investigations of the Earliest Inhabitants of MudLake, Nye County, NevadaArchaeological investigations along Pleistocenelakeshores is a longstanding approach in the GreatBasin. Continuing this tradition, recent examinations ofremnant beach shores around pluvial Mud Lake, NyeCounty, Nevada have revealed new information aboutthe early inhabitants of this region. Rich in Paleoindianresources and well-known locally, until recently MudLake has received little academic attention. Utilizing newdata from pedestrian survey and existing environmentalreconstructions, I consider how, when, and why groupsvisited Mud Lake during the late Pleistocene-earlyHolocene and place these occupations within the broadercontext of Paleoindian research in the Great Basin.Fenner, Lindsay [262] see Fenner, LindsayFerguson, Jeffrey (University of Missouri) andMyles Miller (GeoMarine, Inc.)[207] A Return to Brownwares, Textured Wares, andRedwares from Southern New Mexico and WesternTexas: A Reinterpretation of the NAA DataNearly 2000 samples of brownware, textured, andredware ceramics, clay, and temper from the Mimbres,Jornada, Trans-Pecos, and southern Plains regions ofNew Mexico and Texas have been chemicallycharacterized through NAA. All major prehistoricbrownware and redware traditions of these regions, aswell as several textured wares, are represented in thesample. Over 170 sites have been sampled betweenGrant and Luna counties, New Mexico and PresidioCounty, Texas. We present a preliminary reclassificationof this massive NAA dataset into compositional groups atmacro and local scales of production. Preliminaryinsights into production and exchange patterns arereviewed.Ferguson, Jeffrey [97] see Glascock, Michael D. [121]see Ahlman, ToddFerguson, Josalyn (University at Albany/New YorkState Museum)[190] In the Shadow of Colha? The Lithic Assemblage ofa Terminal Classic Migrant Maya Community in NorthernBelize.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 111Recent analysis of the lithic assemblage from the site ofStrath Bogue in Northern Belize has revealed interestingpatterns of production, consumption, curation, andrecycling. These data reveal significant informationconcerning the re-settlement and regeneration of thisTerminal Classic migrant community as they contendedwith the collapse of large states in the central MayaLowlands. The results of this analysis have implicationsfor understanding the draw of the Progresso Lagoonregion during this period of societal change, as well itsplace within changing inter and intra-regional economicsystems in the aftermath of the collapse.Ferguson, T (University of Arizona) [130] Discussant[1] Discussant [197] DiscussantFerring, Reid (University of North Texas)[114] Archaeological Evidence from Dmanisi, GeorgianCaucasus, for the Earliest Occupations of EurasiaRecent excavations in the M5 sector of Dmanisi showthat the site was first occupied ca. 1.85 Ma, and that itwas visited repeatedly for over 80 Kyr prior toaccumulation of the early Homo erectus fossils, dated toca. 1.77 Ma. Artifact analyses reveal apparent changesin occupational intensity, raw material procurement andartifact function. Dmanisi's archaeological record thusreveals the presence of a well-established population,not transitory colonists. Moreover, Dmanisi's longformation history of serial occupations is comparable tothose of much younger Paleolithic sites, provokingspeculations on the subsistence strategies of early Homoin temperate Eurasia.Ferris, Jennifer (Washington State University) andWilliam Andrefsky, Jr. (Washington State University)[160] Chert Toolstone Provenance, Availability, andSocial Geographic Systems in the Owyhee UplandsToolstone sources, distribution, and quarry locations areextremely important for understanding prehistoric landusestrategies. While igneous rocks are routinelyassayed geochemically, chert and other silicified rocks ofsedimentary origin are seldom evaluated, and if they are,generally produce nondiagnostic chemical results.However, in the Owyhee Uplands, chert genesis isdiverse and variable due to unique formation contexts. Inthis paper, we show first that it is possible to obtainlocationally diagnostic geochemical signatures in suchcontexts. Second, we investigate how these results caninform about the social geographic system existing withinthis landscape.Ferris, Neal (University of Western Ontario)[55] Viewed From The Edge: An ArchaeologicalBorderland During Early Ancestral Northern IroquoianArchaeologyNorthern Iroquoian archaeology is often read linearly:ancient communities progressing inevitably towardshistoric agriculturalist entities. But life lived can be lesscertain of ultimate outcomes. Insight into how contingentsocial innovation experienced in this region was arisesfrom patterns seen on the periphery of ―harder‖archaeological traditions. One such borderland adjacentto northern Iroquoian archaeology was a landscape oftradition and innovation, where communities of a distinctarchaeological tradition materially negotiated internal andexternal social forces. Contingency, experimentation,unintended consequences and agency all shaped life in aborderland and at the periphery during the rise ofnorthern Iroquoian cultural patterns.Ferris, Neal [197] see Welch, John R.Fertelmes, Craig (Gila River Indian Community),Chris Loendorf (Gila River Indian Community) andLetricia Brown (Gila River Indian Community)[193] Geochemical Characterization of Vesicular BasaltOutcroppings in the Gila River Indian Community,ArizonaRecent EDXRF analyses have successfully determinedsource locations for basalt artifacts, which traditionallywere perceived to be too heterogeneous for provenancecharacterization. This study assesses whether it ispossible to reliably characterize and distinguish materialfrom two prehistorically quarried vesicular basalt sourcesalong the middle Gila River in central Arizona.Compositional data for source samples andarchaeological specimens are gathered using a BrukerTracer III-V portable spectrometer. Statistical analysesare employed to assess geochemical variation amongthe material sources. The results of the study haveimplications for Hohokam material provisioningstrategies, currently predominated by ceramic andobsidian studies.Fertelmes, Craig [193] see Kelly, Sophia E. [139] seeWright, David K.Fibiger, Linda [255] see Whittle, AlasdairFiedel, Stuart (Louis Berger Group)[155] The Clovis-Era Radiocarbon PlateauRadiocarbon dates do not change appreciably during aca. 250-year period preceding the onset of the YoungerDryas (now dated as either ca. 12,850 or 12,650 cal BP).These Clovis-era dates range between 10,900 and11,050 rcbp. This plateau effect has obvious implicationsfor the rate and direction of Paleoindian migration, theostensible synchrony of earliest occupations of North andSouth America, and megafaunal extinction.Field, David (English Heritage)[224] The Emergence of Stone Extraction Sites at theBeginning of the Neolithic in the UK.Recent dating programmes have indicated that formalextraction of rock for use as tools occurred before thewidespread appearance of many of the monuments thatare usually considered markers of the Neolithic in theUK. This paper will attempt to chart the origins of suchextraction alongside the environmental impact of risingsea levels and cultural developments.Field, Judith (University of Sydney) [12] see Garvey,Jillian [45] DiscussantField, Julie (Ohio State University)[261] Subsistence Economy and Settlement ca. AD 1500in Leeward KohalaRecent excavations and survey of the ahupua'a ofKaiholena, Makeanehu, Makiloa, and Kalala havedocumented several residential complexes that date toAD 1400-1500, which has been established as theearliest period of expansive construction of the Leeward

112ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGKohala Field System. This paper reports on the diversityof residences within the field system and also along thecoast, and examines the early development ofsubsistence economies that contributed to populationgrowth and the expansion of the field system.[261] First Chair [261] see Ladefoged, Thegn [261] seeMills, Peter R.Field Murray, Wendi (University of Arizona) andJason Theuer (Petrified Forest National Park)[134] Where Archaeology Meets Paleontology: Fossilsas Cultural Resources in Petrified Forest National ParkThe Late Triassic fossils for which Petrified ForestNational Park is famous figure prominently in the culturalhistory of Ancestral Puebloans in the region.Archaeological research in the park has yielded fossilizedteeth, shell, and wood in archaeological assemblages,and recent consultation with Native American tribesindicates that fossils continue to have culturalsignificance to descendant communities. This researchintegrates archaeological and ethnographic data in orderto elucidate the role of paleontological resources in thecultural history and material worlds of Puebloan groups,and to explore management strategies thataccommodate the dual identity of fossils as natural andcultural resources.Fields, Misty (UNLV), James Watson (Arizona StateMuseum and School of Anthropology, University ofArizona) and Marijke Stoll (Arizona State Museumand School of Anthropology, University of Arizona)[237] An Expanded Taphonomic Approach to Violenceand Postmortem Signaling in Early Farming Communitiesof the Sonoran DesertBioarchaeological analyses of violence often narrowlyfocus on specific evidence and presenting potentialexplanations. These studies fail to consider thebiocultural complexity contributing to patterns of violence.Here, we utilize an expanded definition of burialtaphonomy, considering body decomposition, to test ifindividuals exhibiting trauma differ in identifiable ways inan early farming community from the Sonoran Desert(circa 2,000-4,000 ybp). A variable matrix is constructedto examine demography, decomposition, postdepositionaltaphonomic processes, health status, andmortuary treatment. Although numerous communitymembers experienced violence, we suggest specificindividuals were selected for differential mortuarytreatment as a form of postmortem signaling.Fields, Shawn and Eleanor King (Howard University)[138] Unearthing the History of a Ghost Town: A Reporton Recent Excavations at HermosaIn the 2010 field season the Gila Archaeological Projectconducted a GPR survey followed by excavations in thenorthwest part of the site of Hermosa, a former miningtown now abandoned. These excavations painted verydifferent pictures of how that part of the site was used.While the northernmost excavation yielded manydomestic remains, the second one, located east of a firefeature—a possible hearth, contains what appears to bethe edge of a charcoal pit. This poster will compare andcontrast the two excavations and explore the function ofthe features and open spaces they are associated with.Fierer-Donaldson, Molly (Harvard University)[128] Teotihuacan Warrior Costumes in Classic MayaTombsUnderstanding the nature of interaction between theMaya and Teotihuacan has engaged scholars fordecades. At the Maya site of Copan, Honduras, royal andelite burials from the Early Classic period have beenfound containing items described as part of a―Teotihuacan Warrior Costume‖. Previous analysisfocused on the objects as evidence of a relationship withTeotihuacan. Now, however, multiple tombs, includingone in 2008, have been excavated containing pieces ofthis regalia. Taken together these contexts can begin toexplain why there are individuals buried at a Maya sitewith the military dress of a foreign city.Figol, Timothy [19] see Malainey, MaryFigueroa, Alejandro (University of South Florida)[31] Examination of Site and Settlement Patterns in theBay Islands of Honduras through GIS AnalysisBasic questions regarding the political organization andcultural affiliations of the prehispanic Bay Islanders ofHonduras have long remained unanswered due to a lackof sustained archaeological research in the area.However, even though additional research is needed,spatial informatics tools, such as GIS, can help usintegrate and analyze available data in order to begin toanswer questions regarding settlement patterns, siteplanning, and trade routes. This poster presents some ofthese applications in an effort to suggest future directionsfor research in northern Honduras.Figueroa, Antonia, Sarah M. Wigley (UTSA/) andLaura J. Levi (UTSA/)[165] Household Production Strategies and ResourceManagement at San Estevan, BelizeThis paper discusses the results of an analysis ofchipped stone from the Prehispanic site of San Estevan,Belize. Variation in residential architecture at SanEstevan has been attributed to differences in householdagrarian practices and associated organizationalstrategies. The result of the chipped stone analysis isused to determine if such variation is emulated inchipped stone production and use at the household level.Nuances in lithics industry might shed light ondiscontinuities in the occupational histories of differenthousehold groups at this Maya Lowland site.Figueroa, Valentina [224] see Salinas, Hernan P.Figueroa Flores, Alejandra (Northern ArizonaUniversity)[154] Increasing the impact of museums: educationprograms as tools for developmentThis paper focus on the potential of education programsfor increasing and complementing the impacts museumshave in their social context. The very definition ofmuseum as set forth by the International Council ofMuseums includes an educational obligation for theseinstitutions, and over time the concept of what constitutesan educational experience has changed. The diversity ofPeruvian cultural heritage offers many opportunities toexplore how educational programs have potential toincrease the impact of museums, approaching culturalheritage to a larger number of people and contributing tothe formation of local, regional, and national processes of

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 113identification.Filini, Agapi (El Colegio de Michoacan)[98] Transformations of the human social body inNorthern Michoacán: from the Preclassic to the ClassicDrawing on physical and ritual representations of thehuman form such as figurines, design motifs, andmortuary rituals, individual and assembly activities areidentified in order to explore their content and differentialfunction. It is suggested that the creation of sharedimages of the body and specific ―social skins‖ allowed forthe reproduction of political hierarchies. A certain corpusof motifs is clearly related to the local ideational spherewhereas the incorporation of foreign forms and differentstyles was used as a means of power accretion.Inferences about identity and agentive practices aremade.Findlay, Jeff [225] see Terry, Richard E.Finley, Judson Byrd [57] see Scheiber, Laura L.Finney, Bruce [180] see Commendador, Amy S.Fischer, Christian (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology,UCLA)[220] Ancient Stone Sculptures: Materials Identificationand Weathering Studies using a Multi-scale and MultianalyticalApproachStone sculptures represent an important corpus ofartifacts that have often survived the effects of time andtheir technical study provides the means for a betterunderstanding of the social organization, religious beliefsand level of craftsmanship of ancient cultures. Besidestyle and iconography, the scientific analysis of theconstitutive materials and their alterations is essential forthe sourcing of raw materials and the conservation of thesculptures. This approach will be exemplified with thestudy of ancient stone sculptures from Cambodia and theEaster Island using various analytical techniques such asoptical and electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescencespectrometry.[220] Discussant [220] Third OrganizerFischer, Christian [220] see Kakoulli, IoannaFish, Paul (Arizona) and Suzanne Fish (University ofArizona)[52] Convergence, Continuity, and Change: A View fromthe Tucson Basin―Collapse‖ is a holistic concept with unequivocalimplications that necessarily incorporates a highlyvariable mosaic of change when applied to culturalphenomena as far-flung as Hohokam occupations. Whatare the essential qualities and characteristics thatregister collapse? How do notions of chronology affectthese perceptions? We use the Tucson Basin as acentral case study to examine Classic period continuitiesand realignments both in terms of contemporarydynamics and as a lead-in to contact-period transitions.We focus on cross-cutting influences and take a broadview of regional context that considers the MexicanNorthwest as well as the U.S. Southwest.Fish, Paul [199] see Fish, Suzanne K.Fish, Suzanne (Univ. of Arizona) and Paul Fish(University of Arizona)[199] Alternative Models for the Organization of Laborand ProductionBeginning at the level of households, how did ancientfarmers of the southern U.S. Southwest organize laborand the disposition of harvests? Archaeological evidenceoffers a variety of potential answers, as does theethnographic record of later indigenous cultivators in thisregion and beyond. Can archaeologists effectivelyevaluate these alternatives? How might these agriculturalmodes relate to other societal configurations andmotivations?Fish, Suzanne [52] see Fish, Paul R.Fisher, Chelsea (College of Wooster)[34] Landscapes of Ambition: Understanding ClassicMaya Ceremonial Centers as Political HistoryClassic Maya elites attained and sustained powerthrough diverse strategies, including the deliberatemanipulation of iconography in public ceremonialcenters. In this presentation I examine how regional andtemporal variations of this distinct type of elite strategyreflect a particular community‘s position within theClassic Maya sociopolitical network. Through anintegration of iconographic analysis, ethnography, andsocial theory, the built environment of Maya ceremonialcenters is deciphered as political history. The focus ofthis research is on the southern Maya region.Fisher, Christopher T. (Colorado State University)[58] Beyond Thresholds and Tipping Points: Newinsights into the Origins of the Purépecha (Tarascan)EmpireHere I present preliminary results from the Legacies ofResilience: The Lake Pátzcuaro Basin ArchaeologicalProject, that yield new insights into the origins of the LatePostclassic (AD 1350-1520) Purépecha (Tarascan)Empire. Specifically this paper will explore theimplications of dramatic demographic shifts,environmental change, and massive agro-engineeringthat took place just prior to State/Empire formation.[58] see Pezzutti, Florencia L. [58] see Bush, Jason [58]see Ahrens, Corrie L. [58] see Torvinen, Andrea L. [58]see Uriarte Torres, Alejandro J. [58] see Cohen, AnnaFisher, Jack (Montana State University), HelenKeremedjiev (University of Montana), Michael Brody(Montana State University) and Jeanne Moe (Bureauof Land Management)[113] Archaeological Science for All: Archaeology andScience LiteracyScience literacy in the U.S. is a topic of national concern.This project seeks to ascertain the learning efficacy ofculturally relevant archaeological programming foraudiences in informal science learning settings. Weadministered a national, three-round, online Delphisurvey to 121 experts in archaeological science, informalscience education, and archaeology education todetermine essential scientific archaeology knowledge,skills, and dispositions for effective archaeologyeducation and science learning. This survey alsoincluded questions on ecology and culture, and theirrelationship to archaeology. Results of this research willbe presented, along with future directions for this project.

114ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGFisher, Jacob (CSU-Sacramento)[255] Climate Change, Isotopes, and Mountain SheepHunting at Five Finger Ridge, UtahAt Five Finger Ridge, a Fremont site in central Utah, therelative abundance of mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis)decreased during a period of increased summertemperatures. I use stable isotopes (strontium, oxygen,and carbon) to test whether this reduction resulted fromincreased opportunity costs relating to maize horticultureor shifting geographic ranges of sheep populations. Thedata show that sheep were acquired from new locationsand consumed a larger quantity of C4 grasses during thisperiod. The implications of these findings are significantboth for our understanding of Fremont foraging and forunderstanding mountain sheep responses to climatechange.Fisher, Philip (Washington State University) andKathryn Harris (Washington State University)[257] A New Measure of Curation for North AmericanHafted BifacesDetermining the amount of curation stone tools haveundergone is essential to understanding a tools use-life.A number of indices have been developed to measurecuration and retouch of stone tools. However, theapplication of these measures to North American haftedbifaces is problematic. The Thickness Index of Reductionwas developed and tested by analyzing three haftedbifaces after identical stages of use and retouch toassess its applicability on hafted bifaces from thearchaeological record. Early results indicate strongpotential for this index to measure the amount of curationon North American hafted bifaces.Fisher, Philip [257] see Harris, Kathryn A.Fisher, Victor (Towson University)[154] Images of Environmental Archaeology100 undergraduate students were asked to indicate whatthey thought was meant by the expression"environmental archaeology." Their varied andinformative responses are summarized. Of specialinterest is how this information relates to last year'snationwide survey of the actual content of this course asit is taught at American universities.Fisman, David N. [72] see Devault, Alison M.Fitzgerald, Richard (California State Parks) [194] FirstChairFitzhugh, Ben (University of Washington) andDebra Gold (St. Cloud State University)[53] On Delayed Social-political Responses toSubsistence Intensification: Comparisons from the NorthPacific and Mid-AtlanticInspired by John Speth's work on the forager-farmertransition in the U.S. Southwest and his broad interest inAnthropological Archaeology, we examine the social andpolitical implications of subsistence intensification in twodistinct regions of North America: Kodiak, Alaska andinterior Virginia. In both regions intensification precedesthe emergence of some marked social complexities bysignificant intervals. Because many models predict socialcompetition and complexity to emerge rapidly fromresource intensification, delays of 500-1000 years insocial response indicate the need for betterunderstanding of the processes involved. This issue isexplored by means of case comparison.Fitzpatrick, Scott M. [115] see Kappers, Michiel [163]see Casto, Kara I.Fitzsimons, Rodney (Trent University), EviGorogianni (University of Akron) and Joanne Cutler(University College, London)[167] Something Borrowed, Something New: PossibleArchaeological Evidence for Foreign Brides as Catalystsfor Acculturation at Ayia Irini, KeaThough such scenarios were no doubt commonplace inantiquity, and indeed are still widespread in manycultures today, mobility in the guise of maritalarrangements is a topic that is seldom broached in thecontext of the Bronze Age Aegean. The present paperattempts to address this lacuna in the scholarly literatureand explore the possibility of intra-Aegean bridalalliances by examining the archaeological andiconographic evidence, as well as historical andethnographic parallels, for foreign brides at the site ofAyia Irini on Kea and elsewhere in the Bronze AgeAegean.Flad, Rowan (Harvard University)[23] Historiography and the Topography ofArchaeological Research in the Upper and Middle YangziRegionThe history of archaeology in China has manybeginnings. This history can be divided into four stages:a period of antiquarianism through the early 20th century;the emergence of scientific archaeology following theQing Dynasty; a shift to socialist-inspired archaeology in1949; and an opening up starting in the 1980s. Due tospecific histories of fieldwork, and relationships totraditional histories, it is instructive to examine howarchaeology emerged and developed in specific regions.This paper examines the manifestations of these stagesalong the Middle and Upper Yangzi and shows apersistent peripheralization of the Sichuan Basin untilrecent years.Fladd, Samantha (University of Arizona)[136] The Social Power of Jaws: A Case Study ofIsolated Mandibles and Maxillae in Chaco Canyon, NewMexico.This poster surveys the archaeological record to highlightthe occurrence of mandibles and maxillae in isolatedcontexts in the Americas. Theories about the significanceof human remains to societies are used to interpret theprevalence of these occurrences cross-culturally. Thepotential for the appropriation of social power by certainindividuals or groups through knowledge of and accessto these objects is analyzed given their unexpectedlocations. This social potential is then used to explain theappearance of isolated mandibles and maxillae in ChacoCanyon, New Mexico. Lastly, some general trends in theanalysis of human remains archaeologically arereconsidered.Flanigan, Kelli, Colin Grier (Washington StateUniversity), Sarah Runnells (Washington StateUniversity), Susan Lukowski (Washington State

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 115University) and Brian M. Kemp (Washington StateUniversity)[178] Molecular Species Identification of SalmonidVertebrae: Reconstructing Salmon Fisheries in the SalishSea of the Northwest CoastThe species structure of pre-contact salmon fisheries onthe Northwest Coast has been inadequatelycharacterized due to our inability to speciate salmonbased on bone morphology. We used ancient DNA(aDNA) techniques to obtain species identifications for azooarcheological assemblage from an 1800-year oldplankhouse in coastal southwestern British Columbia. Ofthe 153 elements analyzed, 72 were sequenced. Threespecies known to inhabit the Salish Sea weresubstantially represented, including chum, sockeye andpink, with chinook and coho only nominally present.These results are discussed in relation to alternativemodels for species representation in intensive salmonfishing economies.Flaws, Andrew [261] see Ladefoged, ThegnFlensborg, Gustavo, Gustavo Martinez (CONICET-INCUAPA. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, UNCPBA),Pablo Bayala (ANPCyT-INCUAPA. Facultad deCiencias Sociales, UNCPBA) and Mariela González(CONICET-INCUAPA. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales,UNCPBA)[71] Secondary burials and body treatment in the easternPampa-Patagonian transition of ArgentinaAn outstanding characteristic of the lower basin of theColorado River is the abundant record of human burials.These are usually found in different contexts, such asformal inhumation areas or are part of domestic, multipleactivity sites. Particularly, human remains that make upsecondary burials have been subject to intensivetreatment (e.g.; sorting different skeletal parts, cut anddefleshing marks, red-ocher painted bones, etc.). In thispaper, the significance of body manipulation is discussedin order to deal with site function, chronology, andreoccupation of places through time as part of a complexsocial practice.Fletcher, Roland (University of Sydney)[90] Angkor: Infrastructure, Sacred Management and theAbsent StateGreater Angkor is notable for the hundreds of smallshrines which appear to be randomly distributed acrossits suburbs. They are related to clusters of housemoundsand water tanks and their adjacent rice fields not to thevast network of canals and reservoirs. Though the statebuilt the network no central administration of water isevident yet rice was collected as tax and tithe. How thenwas water managed locally, what is the relationshipbetween small shrines and rice, and how was ricesupplied to the state and the major temples?[90] First Chair [90] Second OrganizerFlexner, James (Washington and Lee University)[153] Top-Down Maps, Bottom-Up Histories: The PlanView and Archaeological Ways of SeeingThe plan view is a staple representation ofarchaeological places at many scales. It is a cartesianmapping of space looking down on the remains of humanactivity, which some might deem a "dominating" point ofview. Yet a populist turn in archaeological thought,emphasizing the everyday experience of non-elites, hasnot caused us to cease using such a view point from thetop to understand the lives of the masses. The questionthat remains then, is how and why can we use these"top-down" views of archaeological remains tounderstand societies from a "bottom-up" perspective (orcan we)?[153] First ChairFlores-Fernandez, Carola (UCSB)[263] Human Impact on Ancient Coastal Ecosystemsaround Santa Cruz Island, California: A Methodology toCombine Ecological, Archaeological, and PaleoclimaticrecordsI present a novel methodology that integrates ecological,archaeological and paleoclimatic data in the study of pastmarine ecosystems and the role of human harvesting inresource variation through time around Santa CruzIsland, California. Preliminary data from Willowsanchorage‘s shell midden is used to reconstructecological conditions of intertidal communities around theIsland during prehistoric human occupation, and tocharacterize human shellfish harvesting and its impact onintertidal communities. This methodology reconstructspast marine ecosystems based on local and regionalconditions, crucial for biological modeling of futureclimate change scenarios and for marine resourcemanagement initiatives regarding shellfish speciesFlorey, Lynda [67] see Folan, William J.Fogelin, Lars (Univ. of Arizona)[189] Fattening the Buddha: Embodied Icons in SouthAsian BuddhismBeginning in roughly the second century CE, Buddhistsin South Asia began creating Buddha images. Ratherthan mute recipients of Buddhist veneration, SouthAsians viewed Buddha images as active agents in thespecific socio-historical contexts in which they lived. Theearliest images were thin or muscular. Over the nextmillennium the Buddha became progressively morecorpulent. At the same time, new forms of Buddhism(Mahayana and Vajrayana) emerged and becameestablished in South Asia. This paper explores how thegrowing heft of the Buddha images was recursivelyentangled with changes in South Asian Buddhisttheology in the first millennium CE.Foias, Antonia [85] see Moriarty, Ellen SpensleyFoin, Jeremy (University of California, Davis),Christyann Darwent (University of California, Davis)and Frederic Dussault (Université Laval)[159] Archaeological Investigation of the Thule Sequenceat Cape Espenberg, AlaskaThe Cape Espenberg Project undertook excavation ofthree large houses on ridges four, five and six of thebeach ridge sequence. These houses range from earlyThule (ca. AD 800) to late, pre-contact Thule (ca. AD1400). The most interesting change in house design isthe orientation and length of the tunnel, with early houseshaving longer, deeper tunnels oriented toward KotzebueSound and later houses having shorter, shallowertunnels oriented toward the Chukchi Sea. Significantfinds from these houses include an eyed copper needle,various styles of ceramic pots and lamps, and temporally

116ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGdistinct harpoon heads and arrow points.Folan, William (Univ. Autónoma de Campeche), Mariadel Rosario Domínguez Carrasco (UniversidadAutónoma de Campeche), Raymundo GonzálezHeredia (Universidad Autónoma de Campeche), AbelMorales López (Universidad Autónoma deCampeche) and Lynda Florey (UniversidadAutónoma de Campeche)[67] Oxpemul, Campeche, Mexico: From Tributary City toCity StateThis paper covers advances on the sociopoliticalorganization and settlement pattern of Oxpemul, itsceramic, hydrology and paleoclimate to the 9th CenturyAD including its relations with the Kan (Chan) dynasty ofCalakmul. A 1250 meter chibal be (lineage) roadconnects its two major civic-ceremonial-defensivecenters sharing a royal court and 23 stelae with theStone Throne Emblem Glyph dating from the 5th CenturyAD as well as a canal and camellones combined with aninterpretation of Oxpemul's dynastic texts. Ceramic datafrom the Middle Preclassic onward indicates continuedoccupation for over 1500 years.Foley Winkler, Kathleen (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[141] Oneota and Langford Mortuary Practices fromEastern Wisconsin and Northeast IllinoisTwo archaeologically identified mortuary programs forDevelopmental Horizon Oneota in southeast Wisconsinsuggest different underlying social and/or politicalstructures. Three key issues are addressed. First, a caseis made for the ways that burial data are expected toinform about social, political and economic structures inthe late prehistoric Midwest United States. Second,eastern Wisconsin Oneota burial programs are comparedwith contemporaneous Langford and Oneota sites ofnorthern Illinois. Last, data collected provide a regionaldiscussion of culture contact and diversity and are usedto examine whether or not violence was present amongthe Wisconsin Oneota sites.[141] First ChairFont, Christine [82] see Everson, Gloria E.Fontes, Lisa (University of New Mexico)[2] Thinking and Things: A Review and Evaluation ofCognitive Interpretations of the Middle PaleolithicArchaeological RecordSome recent archaeological literature concerning thelifeways of Neanderthals leading to the Middle to UpperPaleolithic transition has suggested that a cognitivedistinction is at least partially responsible for thereplacement of Neanderthals by modern humans. Thispaper will review arguments made by archaeologists,psychologists, and neuroscientists about cognitivedevelopments among hominins during the MiddlePaleolithic and their reflections in the archaeologicalrecord. These ideas will be evaluated using examplesfound in Middle Paleolithic lithic technology. Further, thispaper will evaluate the relevancy of cognitive argumentsto our archaeological understanding of Neanderthalbehavior and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition.[2] First ChairFord, Anabel (UCSB)[153] Maya Population and the Traditional Maya Milpa-Forest GardenIt is received wisdom that the Maya destroyed theirenvironment to produce sufficient maize for theirpopulation. No one has shown land use patterns of theLate Classic Maya nor demonstrated that maizeproduction resulted in the devastation of the Maya forestand the fall of the civilization. Using the GIS to develop apredictive model of Maya residential settlement andpropagating patterns across a 1300 sq km El Pilar area,we show that traditional milpa and the Maya forestgarden cycle can indeed support the Maya populationand that environmental destruction is not theconsequence of traditional maize production.[85] Discussant [238] see Jones, Deanna L.Ford, Ben (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)and Peter Leach (John Milner Associates, Inc.)[105] Through-Ice Ground Penetrating Radar forShipwreck IdentificationIt is theoretically possible to record buried andsubmerged shipwrecks using a ground penetrating radarunit towed on the surface of a frozen water body. Thispossibility is explored by discussing a survey to detectand map a 75-foot long, War of 1812 gunboat wreckburied in a sandbar and submerged under 5 feet of waterin Lake Ontario. The methods employed, survey results,interpretations, and applications to maritime archaeologywill be discussed.[127] DiscussantFord, Richard [53] DiscussantForest, Marion (University of Paris 1 PantheonSorbonne)[58] Constructing social space (part 2): multi-scalarorganization on the Zacapu MalpaísThis paper questions the interaction between built andnatural spaces, and the construction of a sociallandscape. Recent research on the Zacapu Malpaís,Northern Michoacán, has identified multiple scales ofsettlement, from domestic areas to the entire pre-Tarascan urban complex at the site. Using a multi-scalarapproach, I examine the role of spatial structure in thesocial organization of the extended urban settlements.[58] First Chair [58] Second OrganizerForman, Steven [139] see Wright, David K.Formosa, Sue [232] see Schaepe, David M.Forrest, Crystal (University of Toronto)[55] Cross-border Interaction in IroquoianBioarchaeological InvestigationsThe study of Iroquoian bioarchaeology is valuable as itsheds light on community health in the past; however,attaining adequate sample sizes can be challenging. Thispaper suggests two ways in which to improve thissituation: treating Ontario and New York Iroquoiangroups as a single biological entity; and making use ofdata previously gathered from repatriated collections.Communication and sharing of information acrossborders is vital to ensuring the ability to study thebioarchaeological characteristics of past populations, andit is argued that this cross-border sharing acts toaugment sample size without compromising the validity

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 117of the results.Forsman, Leonard A. [178] see Trudel, Stephanie E.Forte, Maurizio (University of California, MERCED)[146] 3D-Digging at ÇatalhöyükCala Huyuk is one of the most famous archaeologicalsites in the world and across years of research andexcavations it has become an open air laboratory whereresearch teams from the entire world can experimentdifferent methodologies, test theories and comparingscientific results in a multidisciplinary environment. Thisproject is aimed to document, analyze and interpret thearchaeological excavation in 3 dimensions, recording allthe phases of digging 3D by laser scanners, visualizingthe models in stereo during the fieldwork and finallyreconstructing the entire process for virtual collaborativeenvironments.[110] DiscussantFortin, Louis (Washington State Univ.)[257] Lithic Investigations and Spatial Patterning in theMoquegua Valley, PeruThe preliminary study looks to discern the spatialvariability in lithic material procured and utilized within theMoquegua Valley during the Middle Horizon (A.D. 600 –1000). During the Middle Horizon both Wari andTiwanaku state-level societies occupied the valley. Thisstudy addresses site locations and their relation to lithicsby incorporating a number of spatial statistical analyses.The significance of site clustering can be identifiedthrough methods such as spatial autocorrelaton (Moran‘sI) and multi-distance analysis (Ripley‘s K). In addition, theintegration of a least-cost path model will aid inidentifying potential routes utilized to acquire lithicresources.Foster, John (California State Parks/ IndianaUniversity), K. Harley McDonald (Indiana University),Charles Beeker (Indiana University) and GeoffreyConrad (Indiana University)[260] Let There Be Light in the Dark Zone: Insights intoTaíno Cave Paintings in the Eastern Dominican RepublicThe Taíno culture area features some of the mostnumerous Dark Zone paintings in North America, yetmajor questions remain about their origin, chronologyand purpose. This paper examines characteristics of theJose-Maria style pictographs from several majorlimestone cavern sites in eastern Hispanola and presentsthe first radiocarbon dates from pigments in Cueva delPuente in the East National Park. Initial dates imply theelaborate rock art style may precede development ofClassic Taíno culture in the area. Implications for futureresearch are presented.Foster, John [69] see Conrad, Geoffrey W.Foster, Joshua[244] Mimbres Mortar Holes, what were there purpose?Bedrock grinding features are commonly associated withmulti-component sites in the Mimbres Valley ofsouthwest New Mexico. Most known clusters areassociated with hard bedrock substrates andarchaeologists assume they were used to grind seedssuch as mesquite beans. Recent excavations at the KippRuin on the lower Mimbres River, however, haverevealed dozens of these features excavated into softerbedrock caliche suggesting alternative functions. Werethese features all used for processing food? Or were theypostholes for as yet unrecognized structures (ramadas,raised granaries, shallow pit houses or stockades)? Thispaper presents a functional analysis of these features.Foster, Thomas (Univ. of West Georgia) and MatthewBoehm (University of Tennessee)[240] An analysis of Native American trade from factoryrecords of the early nineteenth century in GeorgiaWe conducted an analysis of economic transactionrecords from the Fort Wilkinson Factory Stores in centralGeorgia in an attempt to understand trade behaviors bythe Native Americans of the southeastern United States.Between February 4, 1804 and November 29, 1806,Factory personnel recorded 2,168 trade transactions.During this period, 38,226.5 deerskins and skins, 482hides and rawhides, and 569 furs entered Fort Wilkinson.We analyze the month by month trends in exchange andcompare the trade good assemblages to archaeologicalsites that represent Creek occupations that date to thesame time period in Georgia and Alabama.Fournier, Patricia (Escuela Nacional de Antropologiae Historia) and M. James Blackman (SmithsonianInstitution)[200] Indigenous Post-conquest Ceramics from Mexico-Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco: Technological and StylisticSyncretismAs Thomas H. Charlton emphasized is his research, thepersistence of indigenous material culture is evident inthe Basin of Mexico during the Early Colonial period,both in the capital of the viceroyalty where most of theEuropean settlers lived and in the neighboring Indiantown of Tlatelolco. Based on the study of ceramiccollections, this paper shows that in the case of orange,red and glazed wares dating to the Early Colonial period,Late Aztec traditions took on new technological andstylistic forms with innovative and hybridized values tosuit the needs of the moment in Colonial society.[200] Discussant [200] Second OrganizerFournier, Patricia [21] see Spence, Michael W. [21] seeMondragon, LourdesFowler, Adriane (AECOM)[50] Evaluating Historic Setting Integrity of NationalHistoric TrailsEvaluating the historic settings of long linear historic sitessuch as trails presents many challenges and requires acareful balanced approach taking into account both thefine-grained artifacts of the trail as well as its relationshipto the broad context and surroundings. This paperdiscusses the development of a methodology fordocumenting and evaluating historic setting integrity forNational Historic Trails that can be applied to other linearhistoric sites. A National Park Service culturallandscapes approach was customized and coordinatedwith both visual resource and cultural resourceinventories to evaluate the trail setting‘s integrity from anhistorical perspective.Fowler, Benjamin [262] see Pitblado, Bonnie LynnFowler, Catherine (University of Nevada) [18]

118ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGDiscussantFowler, William (Vanderbilt University)[200] Archaeological Approaches to Indigenous CultureChange in Colonial El SalvadorResults of two major historical archaeological projectsdirected by the author in El Salvador are presented, andthe influence of Thomas Charlton's work in centralMexico on the research design of these projects isdiscussed. The Izalcos Archaeological Project wasregional in scope and studied indigenous culture changein the long term during the Colonial period and especiallyin the sixteenth century. The Ciudad Vieja ArchaeologicalProject focused on a single site, the Conquest town ofSan Salvador, and project members have studied theimpact of conquest and indigenous responses in theregion within a relatively short span.Fowles, Severin (Barnard College, ColumbiaUniversity)[53] The Art of War in Eighteenth Century TaosAgainst the popular image of Native Americans as coldsocieties slavishly following tradition, the adoption of thehorse by indigenous communities on the Plains and inthe eastern Great Basin presents us with one of the mostprofound examples of self-authored culturaltransformation. In the decades following the horse‘sintroduction, tribes such as the Ute, Apache, andComanche refashioned themselves as equestrian warriorsocieties with remarkable geopolitical influence acrosscentral North America. Here, I report on a newlydiscovered rock art tradition in northern New Mexico thatserves as an elaborate archive of these dynamic andmilitarily potent societies.[211] see Wilkinson, Darryl A.Frachetti, Michael (Washington University)[54] Expanding worlds and local Bronze Agecommunities along the Inner Asian Mt. CorridorThe second millennium BC has been defined as a periodof unprecedented expansion in communication andinteraction across Central Eurasia. By comparison, thethird millennium BC has remained relatively unknown,largely due to limited archaeological evidence. For thisreason, communities have been conceived as isolated inthis time period. This paper presents new archaeologicalevidence and recent discoveries from the formative thirdmillennium in Inner Asia, to illustrate the incipient stagesof interaction that extended widely across Eurasia linkingdomestic economies from China to SW Asia.Franco, Teresa (Vanderbilt University)[233] Chinchorro Maritime Foragers in the CoastalCamarones Valley of Northern Chile: Seasonality andPaleocologyThe Chinchorro culture of the north coast of Chile (7000-3500 BP) is best known for its maritime economy andmummification of the dead. Not known is how theChinchorro people articulated with and managed both themaritime and desert coast of the region to develop theircomplex culture. This poster presents growth-ring andisotope analyses of marine shells (Concholepasconcholepas) from the coastal site of Camarones-14 todocument occupational seasonality. Identifying theseasonality of shellfish contributes to our understandingof Chinchorro mobility/sedentism and early culturalcomplexityFrank, Barbara [166] see Dean, Emily M.Franklin, Elaine (Western Carolina University) [268]DiscussantFranklin, Kathryn (University of Chicago)[140] Making a Space of Trade in the Medieval ArmenianHighlands: An Integrated Approach to Political Economyand LandscapeThis paper presents the results of archeological andhistorical research on the political economy of theArmenian highlands in the context of long distance tradeduring the medieval period (600- 1400 AD). Systematicsurvey in the Kasakh valley of northern Armenia hasprovided singular insights into the spatiality of longdistancetrade relationships and local sovereignty.Historical discourses from the period suggest that socialactors in the highlands participated in and produced aparticular conceptual world through interaction andexchange. This paper examines the archaeologicallandscape as the intersection both between historicaldiscourses about place and past material practice, aswell as between the local and large-scale.Franklin, Reno (Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation) [1]DiscussantFranz, Ingmar [26] see Biehl, Peter F.Frederick, Gay [232] see Coupland, GaryFreeburg, Adam (University of Washington) andShelby Anderson (University of Washington)[159] Cape Krusenstern RevisitedThe collection of high resolution spatial data at CapeKrusenstern allows precise and efficient mapping ofarchaeological features and collection locations acrossthe beach ridge complex. By establishing spatial andchronological relationships between new data and thosepublished by Giddings and Anderson (1986) we are ableto build on previous work, broadening understanding ofArctic culture evolution of the late Holocene. Here, weconsider new findings –including faunal data and featurelocations–from well known settlements at the Cape anddiscuss their contribution toward our understanding ofhuman-environmental dynamics in the Arctic.Freeburg, Adam [263] see Anderson, Shelby L. R.Freeman, Jacob (Arizona State University)[36] Patterns of Crop Species Richness in AgriculturalSystems: Implications for the intensification of farmingThis poster presents patterns of crop species richness insubsistence level agricultural systems at a global scale. Itis argued that commitment to farming primarily restrictscrop species richness. However, once a threshold incommitment to farming is crossed, crop species richnessis primarily constrained by the Holocene climate andevolutionary history of domesticated plant lineages. Theimplications of this argument for patterns of change inagricultural societies is discussed, and trade offsbetween resource diversity in foraging and farmingsystems are explored.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 119Freeman, Jacob [199] see Hard, Robert J.Freidel, David (Washington University in St. Louis)[191] Discussant [221] DiscussantFreidel, David [157] see Fridberg, Diana N.Freiwald, Carolyn (University of Wisconsin), JasonYaeger (University of Texas at San Antonio), JaimeJ. Awe (Belize Institute of Archaeology), ChristopheHelmke (University of Copenhagen) and JamesGarber (Texas State University)[56] Local Nobility, Imported Ceramics: Isotopic Insightsinto Mortuary Treatment and Political Authority in theUBRVAn isotopic analysis of 13 individuals in nine burialsrecovered from Xunantunich, Cahal Pech, and BakingPot show a complex relationship between foreign gravegoods, burial context, and origin. Late and TerminalClassic nobles interred with non-local artifacts each hadlocal strontium values. Local values also are present fora revered ancestor at Cahal Pech, who received unusualburial treatment. Other atypical burial patterns,suggestive of sacrifice, were linked to five individuals atXunantunich with non-local Central Peten-like strontiumvalues. Burial treatment and grave goods serve ascomplex statements of political relationships rather thansimple indicators of origin.French, Kirk (Pennsylvania State University) andJason De Leon (University of Michigan)[154] Sleeping with the Enemy: A Lesson inArchaeological Ethics and Television ProductionThis paper provides an overview of the encounterbetween two academic archaeologists and a mediaproduction company interested in creating a non-fiction,reality based, television show. The intent was to producea fast-paced, entertaining, and educational program withthe goals of altering the public perception of archaeologyand highlighting the importance of archaeologicalconservation. The authors‘ found themselves unpreparedfor a persistent battle of balancing entertainment andarchaeological ethics in the world of corporate television.Here we share our learning experiences as a cautionarytale to those who may find themselves in similarsituations.[154] First ChairFreund, Kyle (McMaster University), Tristan Carter(McMaster University) and Daniel Contreras(Stanford University)[63] Ancient Obsidian Exploitation in the Mediterranean:Giali ReexaminedThe archaeological importance of obsidian from theGreek island of Giali during the Mesolithic throughBronze Ages is relatively minimal when compared withother eastern Mediterranean sources. Through the use ofx-ray fluorescence technology (EDXRF) and GeographicInformation Systems (GIS), this project chemicallycharacterizes geological samples from Giali obtainedduring the summer 2010 field season, explores thegeological history of the island, and situates it within alarger spatial and cultural framework. This allows for amore comprehensive understanding of the variouscontexts under which ancient obsidian exploitationoccurred, both on Giali and throughout the easternMediterranean.Friberg, Christina (American Museum of NaturalHistory)[193] Shell Sourcing with pXRF: Elemental analysis ofarchaeological shellShell sourcing projects demonstrate that no matter wherea shell artifact is found—whether a trade good or anobject of local manufacture—its chemical compositionwill be a clue to its original source within a regionalcontext. This preliminary study takes a closer look at thedifference in shell chemistry between estuarine and saltwatermarsh bivalves as well as how shell chemistrychanges temporally. This paper presents the chemicalanalysis of archaeological and modern shells, whichevaluates X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a nondestructivemethod for shell sourcing and the implicationsfor future studies on shell artifact trade.Fridberg, Diana (Washington University in St.Louis) and David Freidel (Washington University inSt. Louis)[157] Thinking about Turtles at El Perú-Waka‘, PeténMary Pohl‘s melding of zooarchaeology and iconographyto interpret animal meanings is one of her enduringcontributions to Maya archaeology. In this spirit, weinvestigate the roles of Testudines. The site of El Perú-Waka‘ is located in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, aregion home to numerous species of symbolic andeconomic importance to the ancient Maya. We discussthe importance of turtles to the ancient residents of ElPerú as revealed by zooarchaeological and iconographicanalyses. These lines of evidence sustain the argumentthat at El Perú turtles were not only good to eat, but goodto think.Friedman, Elizabeth (Illinois Institute of Technology),Lynn Swartz Dodd (University of SouthernCalifornia), Carlo Segre (Illinois Institute ofTechnology), Sarah Butler (University of SouthernCalifornia) and Jon Almer (Argonne NationalLaboratory)[220] Arrowheads and Projectile Points from the AncientMiddle East: Indicators of Regional MetalworkingTradition and Imposed Imperial Demand.Copper alloy projectile points from five ancient sites(Ta‗yinat, Judaidah, Çatal Höyük, Megiddo andPersepolis) are examined to provide information ontechnological organization and provisioning systems ofthe Assyrian and Persian empires. Synchrotron-radiationx-rays facilitate non-destructive bulk elemental analysisand phase characterization. This permits comparison ofmetal industries during periods of local hegemony andimperial socio-political control, providing crucial empiricaldata that enable us to address questions for which onlypartial and largely unreliable data are available. Theinterdisciplinary team of scientists relies on collaborationwith archaeologists Heather Snow [Tayinat], MarinaPucci [Çatal Höyük], and epigrapher Matthew Stolper[Persepolis].[220] Second ChairFries, Eric [15] see Connell, Samuel V. [123] seeArnold, Jeanne E.Friesen, Max (University of Toronto) and Lauren

120ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGNorman (University of Toronto)[159] Migration and privation: a short-term Thule Inuitoccupation at the Pembroke site, Victoria IslandThe Pembroke site, on Victoria Island in arctic Canada, isthe earliest Thule site yet identified in its region. Severallines of evidence indicate a very brief occupation, and assuch the site appears to have been occupied by Thulepeople in the process of migrating. In this paper, faunal,architectural, and artifactual data are assembled toprovide insight into the nature of a migrating Thule group.The picture is one of a tightly organized community offive families centred on a communal structure (karigi),which may have faced a difficult winter while atPembroke.[159] First ChairFrink, Liam (University of Nevada Las Vegas)[241] The Political Economy of Native Alaskan Childrenand Religious ColonialismAlthough Native children were one of the primarycomponents of colonial change, they have been fairlyneglected by researchers. Alaskan children were aprimary source of labor for the early to mid 20th centuryJesuits. Children processed enormous amounts of foodssuch as fish for subsistence and commercial use. Childlabor was the backbone of the religious arm of thecolonial project and yet these practices have not beenexamined—relegating this complex history to Fogelsons‘silenced ―non-event‖. I explore the experience of thesechildren with archival records and interviews with Yup‘ikadults who lived and worked at the missions.Fritz, Crystal (Independent Scholar)[13] The economic role of elites in pre-Islamicsoutheastern ArabiaThere is solid evidence for the existence of elites insoutheastern Arabia during the first millennium BCE,including specialized buildings, luxury goods and ritualceramics. Their economic role, however, is unclear.Status divisions are conspicuously absent in burials andthere is evidence that they did not control the productionand exchange of major commodities. In this paper, I willexplore the archaeological evidence for the economicrole of elites in Iron Age II southeastern Arabia.[13] First Chair [13] Second OrganizerFroehle, Andrew [255] see Schoeninger, Margaret J.Frohlich, Bruno [237] see Littleton, Judith H.Fruhlinger, Jake (Idaho Army National Guard) andJessica Dougherty (Idaho Army National Guard)[150] Techniques for Site Management within NationalGuard Training AreasArchaeological resources documentation in the OrchardTraining Area (OTA) has yielded large quantities ofvaluable data. The construction of a database, allows theIDARNG to easily utilize and store information. Thedatabase allows for greater collaboration with outsideagencies. This database is vital to the archaeologicalcommunity of the Snake River Plain as it informs on anarea that has seen little archaeological research.Maintaining an organized database aids the militarybecause it allows for more informed decisions pertainingto site mitigation. This serves to preserve culturalresources for future generations and also allows forresponsible training within the OTA.[150] Second OrganizerFryer, Brian J [49] see Hewitt, Barbara R.Fuld, Kristen (Portland State University)[30] Bone and Antler Tools on the Lower Columbia: Acomparison of two contact period sites.Studies of technological organization and changes intechnology over time revolve around stone tools. Boneand antler tools are often overlooked or simply described.This is likely due to preservation problems or smallassemblage size. Northwest Coast archaeologicalassemblages are dominated by bone and antler toolsproviding the opportunity for research. The Cathlapotle(45CL1) and Meier (35CO5) sites, located along theColumbia River, are large contact period village sites thatwere occupied simultaneously. This research examinesand compares the role of bone and antler technology atthe two sites both pre and post contact.Fuller, Dorian (University College London), AlisonWeisskopf (University College London), EleanorKingwell-Banham (University College London) andLing Qin (Peking University/ University CollegeLondon)[111] Reconstructing arable rice systems in prehistoryCultivation of rice may include a wide range of practicesand ecologies, from upland/rainfed to intensively irrigatedor deeply flooded. The distinctions between thesesystems have major implications for human landusepractices in the past, arable productivity, as for theproduction of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Inorder to reconstruct how rice was cultivated, and indeedto reconstruct when rice cultivation first emerged fromwild gathering, the evidence of rice itself is lessinformative than the associated weed flora. We presentprogress of weed flora indicators of cultivation practicerecovered from both phytolith and macro-remainsassemblages.[45] DiscussantFunes, Jorge [142] see Pintar, Elizabeth L.Funk, Caroline [4] see Haws, Jonathan A.Gabbard, Aubree (Bryn Mawr College) and DanielleKurin (Vanderbilt University)[233] A bioarchaeological comparison of cranialmodification and health in ancient highland and coastalPeruThis poster reports on the bioarchaeological evidence forcranial modification and compromised health amongpopulations in highland and coastal Peru. Human craniaaffiliated with the highland Chanka (AD 1000-1400) andcoastal Pachacamac (AD ca. 800-1450) societies wereexamined to see if cranial modification is associated withsigns of diminished health, including PoroticHyperostosis, Cribra Orbitalia, and dental pathologies. 30Crania recovered as part of the ProyectoBioarqueologico Andahuaylas were compared with 30cranial from the Morton-Pachacamac collection housedat the University of Pennsylvania. Initial results suggestsignificant health differences between modified andunmodified individuals in both regions.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 121Gabler, Brandon (William Self Associates, Inc.),David Yoder (William Self Associates, Inc.), JohnRavesloot (William Self Associates, Inc.), MichaelBoley (William Self Associates, Inc.) and MelanieMedeiros (William Self Associates, Inc.)[179] Small Sites, Big Questions: Seasonality, Foraging,and Fremont Horticulture in the Eastern Great BasinThe discovery of substantial buried prehistoriccomponents at two Holly UNEV Pipeline Project sites inUtah‘s west desert is a relatively rare occurrence.Wickiup features and the artifact, floral, and faunalassemblages suggest that these sites were used asseasonal short-term habitations whose primary functionwas for resource procurement. Using these data, weinvestigate small scale, localized Fremont behavioroutside of the traditional village environment. We addresssubsistence and technology practices that, whencombined with existing research at other small Fremontsites, add to our picture of Great Basin settlementpattern, horticulture, and broad-scale landscape use.Gabriel Popescu, Gabriel [108] see Culley, Elisabeth V.Gaff, Donald [115] see Brashler, Janet G.Gagliano, Sherwood [265] see Weinstein, Richard A.Gaines, Edmund, James Kunesh (St. Cloud State),Kate Yeske (Colorado State University, CEMML),William Johnson (University of Kansas) and ScottShirar (University of Alaska, Museum of the North)[181] FAI-02043: A Recently Identified Multi-ComponentPleistocene Archaeological Site in the Tanana Valley,Interior AlaskaRecent surveys in the Tanana Valley, Alaska, identifiedsite FAI-02043 on the edge of a glacial outwash terrace.There are at least three components in a stratifiedcontext, with the oldest dated to the late Pleistocene, andthe youngest dated to the late Holocene. Stratigraphyconsists of basal gravels, overlain by 3m of aeolian sand,which is, in turn, capped by 1m of loess. Limited testexcavations have recovered hundreds of flakes, stonetools, and large mammal remains, with the majority of theremains coming from the late Pleistocene component inthe upper portions of the sand.Gaines, Edmund [181] see Yeske, Kate S.Gaither, Catherine (Metropolitan State College ofDenver), Jonathan Bethard (University ofTennessee), Jonathan Kent (Metropolitan StateCollege of Denver), Teresa Rosales Tham(ARQUEOBIOS) and Victor Vásquez Sánchez(ARQUEOBIOS)[156] Traditions of Mortuary Patterns and HumanSacrifice at Santa Rita B in the Middle Chao Valley, PeruThis paper presents mortuary patterns seen at the nonhuacasite of Santa Rita B in the Chao Valley of Peru,and discusses their broader implications. The LateIntermediate Period discoveries include principal burials,human sacrifices, and re-interred parts. The sacrifices,including sub-adults, are retainer sacrifices intended toaccompany principal personages through the afterlife.The inclusion of sub-adult sacrifices with a sub-adultprincipal burial exemplifies the ―like with like‖ patternseen at numerous Andean sites. These mortuarypatterns, seen at both ceremonial centers and non-huacasites, appear to represent a fundamental Andeancomplex of ritual behavior, which persists through time.Gajewski, Konrad [72] see Peros, Matthew C.Galaty, Michael (Millsaps College), Lorenc Bejko(University of Tirana, Albania), Maria Grazia Amore(International Centre for Albanian Archaeology),Stanley Galicki (Millsaps College) and ZamirTafilica (Shkodra Historical Museum)[27] The Shkodër Archaeological Project, 2010The Shkodër Archaeological Project is a collaborationbetween Millsaps College and the University of Tirana,Albania. In 2010 the project intensively surveyed severalsquare kilometers in the region of Postrribë near the cityof Shkodër in northern Albania. Geomorphological workfocused on Shkodër Lake and the Plain of Shtoj, where70+ prehistoric burial mounds were mapped. 500+ lithicartifacts document use of the region during the Middleand Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic. Finally, prehistoricand historic pottery chart increasing urbanization,culminating in the construction of hill forts, and eventualconquest by the Romans.Galeazzi, Fabrizio (University of California Merced)and Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco (Universityof California Merced)[10] 3D digital stratigraphy at Çatalhöyük: a newmethodology enhancing research and learningprocesses.In the summer of 2010, the Virtual Heritage Lab atUniversity of California Merced took part in theÇatalhöyük fieldwork, thanks to an agreement withStanford University. The aim of this research is thecreation of a new methodology for the 3D data collectionof archeological strata. All the archaeological units werescanned using the Minolta Vivid 910 laser scanner. Thegoal of this research is to create a 3D digital reproductionof the layers with an accuracy of microns that couldencourage scientific debates and the understanding ofthe excavation process for future generation students.Galentine, Jordan (Indiana University ofPennsylvania)[209] Analysis of Ceramic Temper and Vessel LipCharacteristics From the Crooked Creek WatershedIn this study, I investigate the cultural links between theinhabitants of the Crooked Creek watershed in Indianaand Armstrong counties, Pennsylvania and the nearbyFishbasket and Monongahela cultures through ananalysis of ceramic stylistic elements and temper.Stylistic elements are thought to be indicative of culturalrelationships during the Late Prehistoric period. Tempertype also has been used in previous studies in WesternPennsylvania to identify cultural traditions. Anexamination of these ceramic attributes clarifies therelationships between groups.Galicki, Stanley [27] see Galaty, Michael L.Galinier, Jacques[21] Esplendor otomí - Un acercamiento transhistórico asu cosmovisiónLa etnografía de las últimas décadas revela el alto gradode elaboración de la representación de la persona otomí

122ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGen el aspecto táctil, acústico, visual y su proyección enun espacio físico saturado de cuerpos animadosvegetales, animales y minerales, en íntima conexión conlos ancestros, mediante metamorfosis transespecíficas ytransgenéricas. A nivel sincrónico y diacrónico, lasespecificidades de cosmovisiones locales, de una regióna otra, plantea el problema de la presencia de una matrizcultural común desde época colonial, cuyos fundamentosprehispánicos deberían ser discutidos a la luz deaportaciones de la arqueología reciente de pueblos dehabla otomí.Gallaga, Emiliano (Director Del Centro INAH,ChiapasMuseo Regional De Chiapas)[41] The way to make a mirror, an experimentalarchaeology projectAmong all items created by prehispanic crafters, mirrorsor objects with reflecting surfaces- commonly made ofobsidian, hematite, or pyrite- have frequently caught theeye of researchers (Blainey 2007; Gallaga 2001; Pereira2008; Salinas 1995). Yet, little research has addressedthe difficulty of the manufacture of these objects, theirimportance in the archaeological record, and their role(s)as markers of social status and/or prestige and/orceremonial good explicitly. An experimental project ofpyrite mirror production was conducted to arrive at someanswers on these still elusive topics. This paper willpresent its preliminary results.[41] see Melgar, Emiliano R.Gallagher, Daphne [17] see Dueppen, StephenGalle, Jillian (Monticello), Fraser Neiman(Monticello) and Leslie Cooper (Monticello)[121] Market participation and adaptive advantageamong enslaved households in the Caribbean andChesapeakeScholars have long recognized the crucial role of internalmarkets in the slave societies of the New World. Thispaper uses archaeological evidence from Jamaica, Nevisand the Chesapeake to assess local patterns of changeand variation in the roles that markets played in enslavedpeoples‘ lives. Drawing on models of market dynamics,we suggest how enslaved market participants enjoyedimportant adaptive advantages over non-participants. Weexamine the abundance of locally manufacturedceramics, Chinese and European ceramics and otherimported goods to measure change in marketparticipation and uptake of costly consumer goods ineach region.Galle, Jillian [121] see Neiman, Fraser D.Gallou, Claire [196] see Hagler, Jeremiah C [196] seeDoheny, Marcelle AGalop, Didier [192] see Rius, DamienGamble, Lynn (University of California, SantaBarbara)[48] A Land of Power: The Materiality of Wealth,Knowledge, Authority, and the SupernaturalPower was manifested in a variety of realms amongCalifornia Indian societies, with some individuals havinggreater access to wealth, knowledge, and objects thatsignified their positions of authority. Chiefs weredistinguished from other people by their special apparel,including fancy feathered headdresses, belts, cloaks, andshell bead ornamentation. Only the elite were membersof the most restricted secret societies that had esotericknowledge and access to certain supernatural powers.The riverine groups of central California and the moremaritime oriented societies of southern California serveas examples of pathways to power and its materiality.Gamboa Velasquez, Jorge [125] see Trever, LisaGamito, Zumilra [77] see Riffe, JedGann, Douglas (Center For Desert Archaeology)[139] Chuk Son to Tucson - Exploring 4000 Years ofHuman Experience in the Tucson Basin through theDigital HumanitiesThe past ten years of archaeological research in theTucson Basin has revealed unexpected levels of detailabout the nature of human habitation in the region, fromthe early agricultural period through the era of globalcross-cultural contacts. The Center for DesertArchaeology has been utilizing a wide range of newmedia technologies to explore and share how ideas ofcultural continuity, technological change, and persistentplaces factor into the development of the currentcommunity in time and space.Gann, Douglas [139] see Young, Lisa C.Ganz, David [192] see Krawchuk, MegGao, Xing (IVPP Chinese Academy of Sciences),Chen Shan (Royal Ontario Museum) and XiaolingZhang (IVPP Chinese Academy of Sciences)[218] Zhoukoudian Peking Man site: research historiesand its influences on transformation of ChinesePalaeolithic archaeologyZhoukoudian Locality 1, where Peking Man Homoerectus fossils were found in 1920s, is the mostimportant Palaeolithic sites in China. After 80 years of thediscovery, the site is investigated again with newarchaeological applications. This paper reviews researchhistories of the site and its influences on shaping ourunderstanding of Chinese paleolithic archaeology. Thepaper presents the results from a study of Zhoukoudianlithic assemblage collected from the site early the lastcentury, now housed in Field Museum of Natural History,in order for us to gain new insights into the MiddlePleistocene lithic technology in China.Gao, Xing [22] see Shen, ChenGarber, James [56] see Freiwald, Carolyn R.Garcia, Dante (Zona Arqueologica de Monte Albán)and Irma Cazares (Zona Arqueológica de MonteAlbán)[95] Hallazgos arqueológicos y gestión en la poligonal deprotección del sitio arqueológico de Atzompa.El sitio arqueológico de Atzompa como parte del área deMonumentos Arqueológicos de Monte Albán, ha tenidocomo principal factor de riesgo las acciones derivadasdel crecimiento poblacional de la Ciudad de Oaxacahacia esta área. Con la implementación del Plan deManejo 2005-2015, el conocimiento de los actores

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 123sociales del área y el control sobre diferentes accionesque realizan, se implementó el Programa deSalvamentos y Rescates Arqueológicos para lainvestigación y salvaguarda de los vestigios culturalesdel cerro de Atzompa. Se presentarán hallazgos queatestiguan la actividad humana de las fases: MonteAlbán II a Monte Albán V.García Llorca, Jorge [103] see Cahiza, Pablo A.García Lozano, Rubén [95] see Martínez Tuñón,AntonioGarcia Valencia, Enrique[21] Tejido en curva, la conexión otomíEn 1946 Bodil Christensen describió una técnica textilllamada Técnica en curva, después la señora Johnsondescribió una técnica parecida en un lienzo de Oaxaca.Hace un par de años describí una técnica similar en laelaboración de morrales huastecos. Actualmente seconocen unos diez lienzos coloniales y varios lugaresmodernos en que se emplea. No parecen existirrelaciones de proximidad geográfica, culturales, políticas,religiosas, rituales entre los diversos grupos en que seconoce: zapotecos y mixtecos coloniales y nahuas,totonacos, tepehuas, otomíes y huastecos actuales. Elvínculo, al observar en un mapa los lugares deproducción, son los otomíes.García-Moreno, Cristina (Universidad De Sonora/Centro INAH Sonora)[147] Tratamiento mortuorio en el sitio BatacosaBatacosa es uno de los pocos sitios prehispánicoslocalizados hasta el momento en la parte sur del estadode Sonora, el cual además muestra una ocupaciónprobablemente continua desde el 200 a.C. hasta por lomenos el siglo XIX. El tratamiento mortuorio identificadohasta el momento en el sitio, es variado; sin embargouna característica predominante en los entierrosexcavados hasta el momento, es la presencia de objetosmanufacturados en concha procedente del Golfo deCalifornia, mostrándonos una clara conexión entregrupos costeros y grupos humanos de tierra adentro.Además, hemos identificado algunos fragmentos dehueso humano con evidencia de haber sido hervidos,muy probablemente para consumo. Con la informaciónque hemos obtenido hasta el momento, podremos hablarde distintos tratamientos mortuorios a través del tiempoen esta área de Sonora.Gard, Rowan [261] see McCoy, Mark D.Gardner, Gavin [248] see Hubbard, Duane CGardner, Karen (California State University, Chico),Alan Leventhal (San Jose State University),Rosemary Cambra (Chairwoman of the MuwekmaOhlone), Eric J. Bartelink (California State University,Chico) and Antoinette Martinez (California StateUniversity, Chico)[194] Food and Identity in the Prehistoric Santa ClaraValley: Using Stable Isotope Analysis to UnderstandSocial Organization at CA-SCL-38Social identities operate at multiple levels, even affectingthe choice of foods consumed by individual members ofa group. This presentation explores the socialimplications of dietary patterns of individuals buried in theYukisma Mound (CA-SCl-38), an ancestral MuwekmaOhlone mortuary mound in Santa Clara County,California. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis ofbone collagen and bioapatite is used to assess dietarypatterns of 126 individuals, interred between 1700 BPand 180 BP. Correlation with age, sex, associatedmortuary regalia, and temporal placement suggests astrong relationship between ascribed social status andthe foods people consumed during their lifetimes.Gardner, Karen [194] see Bartelink, Eric J.Garfinkel, Alan P. [231] see Binning, Jeanne DayGarraty, Christopher (Statistical Research, Inc.)[151] The Post-Conquest Origins of Pottery among theTongva-Gabrielino: Indigenous Brown Wares from theBallonaThis paper focuses on the circumstances under whichthe Tongva-Gabrielino adopted practical potterytechnology during the Mission period. Roughly 110undecorated indigenous-style ceramic sherds wererecovered from a Protohistoric-Mission period livingsurface in the Ballona, most of which are small fragmentsfrom undecorated brown or gray vessels likely used forcooking. Some inhabitants of the Ballona appear to havebeen incorporated into nearby missions and the Puebloof Los Angeles. Thus, it is crucial to consider the extentto which this investment in pottery technology wasattributable to Hispanic influences versus indigenousresponses to changing social and economic conditions.Garraty, Christopher [80] see Hall, John D.Garrison, Thomas [148] see Luzzadder-Beach, SherylGarvey, Jillian (La Trobe University, Australia),Judith Field (Australian Centre for Microscopy andMicroanalysis, The University of Sydney), BrettCochrane (Brewarrina Local Aboriginal LandCouncil, Brewarrina) and Chris Boney (BrewarrinaLocal Aboriginal Land Council, Brewarrina)[12] The role of the emu in Australian archaeology:modern butchery, ethnography, economic utility andnutritional qualityThis study uses a multidisciplinary approach tounderstand the Australian emu (Dromaiusnovaehollandiae) in archaeology via: (1) ethnographyand modern Indigenous subsistence practices; (2)economic utility experiments to quantify meat, fat andmarrow; and (3) evaluating fatty acid content of themeat/fat/marrow to determine the nutritional benefits ofparticular elements. Whilst economic utility studies havebeen completed on numerous ungulates from elsewhere,only two Australian studies have attempted to evaluatethe economic utility and/or fatty acids analysis of selectkangaroo and wallaby species. The data for a thirdimportant target prey – the emu - is the subject of thisstudy.Garvey, Raven (UC Davis)[74] Preliminary OHD results applied to the mid-Holocene record of western ArgentinaRelative to other periods, there are few recorded middleHolocene sites in west-central Argentina. This

124ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGphenomenon is often attributed to abandonment in theface of prolonged droughts, but the extent to which thelack of sites owes to sampling biases versus humanbehaviors remains unclear. Preliminary OHD rimmeasurements and calibration curves suggest thatwestern Argentine obsidians hydrate at a knowable rate,offering a new means of dating surface finds anddistinguishing between alternative explanations for theapparent gap, a crucial initiative for understandinghuman adaptive responses to mid-Holocene climatechanges.Gasco, Janine (CSU-Dominguez Hills)[200] Four Decades of Tom Charlton's Research onPost-Conquest Archaeology in MesoamericaAs early as the mid 1960s Tom Charlton had begun toconduct research on the Post-Conquest history of theValley of Mexico, a research interest that eventuallyexpanded to include other regions of Mesoamerica.Tom‘s pioneering work inspired subsequent generationsof Mesoamerican archaeologists to look beyond theartificial line that separated Pre-Conquest and Post-Conquest historical trends and instead to considerlonger-term processes of change and continuity. In thispaper I review some of Tom‘s most significantcontributions to the archaeology of Post-ConquestMesoamerica, and I discuss how his work has influencedarchaeological research for over forty years.Gasco, Janine [62] see Bigney, Scott T.Gaskell, Sandra (Tribal Archaeologist SouthernSierra Miwuk Nation), Danette Johnson (SouthernSierra Miwuk Nation GIS Analyst) and RichardHogan (Director at Large, Southern Sierra MiwukNation)[158] Family Routes and Yosemite American IndianPictographsThis study began in 2001 through a volunteer in the parkarchaeological field work session in collaboration withYosemite Archaeology and the Southern Sierra MiwukNation. Since the pictographs were re-recorded in 2001,research into the original condition and degradation wascompiled in order to create a preservation plan. Thispresentation will show the progression of the archivalreconstruction of the pictographs, will show the linguisticrelationships to the family use routes, and will describethe village region environment of the images. The imagesthat will be examined are listed as the Valley Images.Gaspar, Maria (Museu Nacional) and DanielaKlokler (Museu Nacional/UFRJ)[253] Amourins: same site, different perspectives.Sambaqui archaeology 30 years laterRevisit to Amourins site with reanalysis of materials andprofile studies provided elements for a reinterpretation ofthe site's function and the area's occupation. At thebeginning of its occupation the site was located inwetlands and accumulation of shell valves formed a drysurface/platform. We believe that oysters and thick lucinewere probably chosen and used as raw material forplatform construction for symbolic reasons and were notlargely consumed. The construction of this shell site, asother larger sites in southern Brazil are directlyassociated with funerary ritual, with strong evidence ofperformance of feasting.[253] Third OrganizerGaspar, Maria Dulce [253] see Bianchini, Gina F.Gasparian, Boris [114] see Egeland, Charles P. [114]see Areshian, Gregory E. [114] see Adler, Daniel S.Gassaway, Linn (Sequoia National Forest), AlexVerdugo (Sequoia National Forest) and ErnestWingate (Sequoia National Forest)[57] Living Among the Giants: New Research from theGiant Sequoia National MonumentThe Southern Sierra Nevada has been over looked bymost researchers but its unique geography andvegetation along with it potentially long and diversecultural history makes it an ideal place to answer amultitude of questions about past lifeways, adaptations,and culture change that can't be studied in other parts ofthe Sierra Nevada. This paper provides an overview ofrecent research in the Giant Sequoia National Monumentincluding early occupation at mid-elevation sites, basinsites, and Native American use of fire.Gataveckas, Katrina (The University of Toronto)[227] Domestic Spatial Organization: An Articulation ofElite Political Strategies and Religious Ideologies at theMoche Site of Huaca ColoradaPreliminary archaeological investigations of thedifferential construction, renovation, and function ofresidential, ceremonial and production sectors at the LateMoche site of Huaca Colorada in the JequetepequeValley allow investigation into the impact of largeradministrative structures at the domestic level, and localreactions to these structures. I argue that Moche elitepolitical strategies and religious ideologies shaped theorganization, representation, and use of quotidian spaceat Huaca Colorada. Study of the spatial aspects of lowstatusproduction and dwelling structures in the lowerzone of the settlement will illuminate the complexassociation between domestic and administrativespheres at the site.Gates St-Pierre, Christian (Université Laval, QuebecCity)[29] A Microwear Study of Late Woodland St.LawrenceIroquoian EndscrapersThis paper will present the results of a microwear studyof endscrapers from various Late Woodland St.LawrenceIroquoian sites located in the Province of Quebec. Thegoal of this research is to verify and understand thepossible variation in the use of endscrapers in relation tothe main function of the sites where they were recovered.Thus, endscrapers from a village site, a fishing station, ahunting camp and an intertribal gathering site wereselected and submitted to use wear analysis. The resultsare compared and interpreted using a regional approachinstead of a site-oriented perspective only.Gatewood, Jeff [22] see Marshall, David A.Gear, W. (Timescribes) and Linda ScottCummings (Paleoresearch Institute, INC.)[66] Global Warming and Prehistory: What‘s the Story?This is not the first interval of global warming since thelate Pleistocene. It‘s ―our‖ global warming. What hashappened in the past and what are the most likely

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 125causes? Climate drives paleoenvironmental conditions.Causal conditions and feedback loops – those conditionsresulting from a causal event that provide impetus formore change – have both been important. What role hasagriculture (clearing land, increased quantities ofanimals, and increased human populations) played inglobal climate change? When were the most dramaticclimatic events? What do we see in the archaeologicalrecord as the result of that change?[84] Discussant [84] First Chair [84] First ModeratorGebauer, Rachel (Natural Resources ConservationService), Michelle A. Durant (Fremont-WinemaNational Forests), Brooke M. Brown (Bureau of LandManagement) and Sara Hescock (Bureau of LandManagement)[87] The Road Well-Travelled Yet Nearly Forgotten:Investigations on the Bonanza to Lakeview Wagon Roadin South Central OregonThe Bonanza- Lakeview Wagon Road was established inthe late 19th century as a mail route and now, as a cattledriveway, no longer appears on current maps. Thecontinuous use of the road reflects the ―path of leastresistance‖ rule in a demanding landscape. Limitationssuch as rocky terrain, access to water and a high desertclimate dictate its path. 21st century limitations such ascheckerboard land ownership, restrictive budgets andgenerational passages threaten to forget it. Acollaborative project, between the USFS, BLM andNRCS involves survey, historical maps and oral history torecord segments of the road.Gebhard, Rupert [162] see Wagner, UrselGebhart, Dick [162] see Baxter, Carey L.Geib, Phil (University of New Mexico)[94] Basketmaker II Warfare and the Role of "FendingSticks"Intergroup conflict on the Colorado Plateau of the NorthAmerican Southwest during the Basketmaker II period(ca. 1000 BC to AD 500) is demonstrated by skeletalassemblages attributable to massacres (Cave 7 andBattle Cave). Warfare might also be inferred fromdistinctive wooden artifacts commonly referred to asfending sticks because of a suspected defensive use inbatting away atlatl darts. Found throughout the greatersouthwest, detailed study was recently undertaken todetermine their function and temporal distribution as partof a larger inquiry into the cause(s) of Basketmakerconflict. The results of use-wear analysis andexperimental research are presented.Geib, Phil [70] see Newbold, BradleyGeller, Pamela (University of Miami)[16] Brave Old World: The Bioethics of Genetic Testingfor Sex in BioarchaeologyAncient DNA research has certainly innovatedbioarchaeology. While technical fine-tuning continues,studies about diet, migration, disease, and domesticationhave proved informative. Yet, new ways of doing do notnecessitate new ways of thinking. Further deliberationabout bioethical parameters is required. Scholars haverecently broached scientific racism and repatriation. HereI consider the bioethics of using aDNA to sex bodies,specifically those of children. I argue that giventheoretically deficient understandings many researchers‘subsequent inferences characterize gender as essencerather than process or performance.[217] DiscussantGelvin-Reymiller, Carol (University of Alaska,Fairbanks) and Joshua Reuther (University ofArizona, Tucson)[179] Quartz Lake, Interior Alaska: Human Presencethroughout the HoloceneFour lakeshore sites at Quartz Lake, mid-Tanana Riverregion, were examined to explore relationships oflacustrine ecology to regional human land-use.Taphonomic variables encourage faunal preservation attwo dry sites, and alkaline lake waters encouragepreservation at two submerged sites; recent low waterlevels augment site discovery. Erosional/depositionalepisodes are evident in sediments, with accompanyingshifts in occupations and site selections between 13,000years cal BP and AD 1850. Analysis indicates QuartzLake is one of a series of lakes and lowland sitesconnected to other regions via trade/transport networks,with optimal local resources and topography repeatedlyattractive to humans.Gencay Ustun, Ozge (Assistant ConservatorSouthwest Museum) and Dennis Harbach (SouthwestMuseum of the American Indian, The Autry NationalCenter of the American West)[193] Heavy metal analysis using a pXRF analyzer onorganic artifactsHeavy metal containing biocides applied on organicmuseum artifacts have created problems since the pastcouple decades. These toxic heavy metals persistent onartifacts may be repatriated to native communities allaround the world. At the Southwest Museum, a NITONportable XRF analyzer is used to detect the componentsof possible biocides which may include lead, arsenic,mercury, and bromide found on artifacts. In addition theMuseum is compiling its past biocide inventory byresearching old files, publications, and consulting formeremployees. We hope the analyzer findings with theresearch contribute to a future database of museumbiocide use.Gendron, Daniel (Avataq Cultural Institute), PierreDesrosiers (Avataq Cultural Institute), Najat Bhiry(Laval University), Stéphanie Steelandt (LavalUniversity) and Hervé Monchot (Avataq CulturalInstitute)[159] IbGk-3 : A Glimpse into Inuit Past Lifeways inHudson Bay.A collaborative project was undertaken between thenorthern village of Inukjuak and an interdisciplinary teamof researchers from university and communityinstitutions. Excavations were conducted in 2007-2008,plus supplementary geoarchaeological work (2009-2010)at the IbGk-3 site in eastern Hudson Bay. The presentpaper presents a synthesis of the work carried out with aspecial focus on the heavy use of wood in thearchitecture of the qarmaq, an unlikely feature for thispart of the Eastern Arctic.Gerard-Little, Perri [55] see Rogers, Michael

126ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGGermon Roche, Mauricio [221] see Clark, Dylan J.Geurds, Alexander (Leiden University)[183] Materials and materiality of megalithics inNicaraguaMegalithic stones are a global prehistoric phenomenon.From unworked to entirely shaped, they are an artifactcategory retaining a strong natural character. CentralNicaraguan megalithics are examined here with thisbroad perspective in mind. In moving away fromtraditional categorizations of typology and class,contextual data are used to gain insights into theassemblages in which these stones occurred. It is arguedthat megalithics in Nicaragua were not isolated butusually grouped, thereby creating an internal structure forsites of ceremony. The choices involved in creating theseassemblages in turn suggest communally shared efforts,technology and memories.[183] First ChairGhisleni, Lara (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[164] Gender, Domestic Space and Temporality in LateIron Age and Early Roman Dorset, EnglandThis research investigates the role of domestic space asa social context for gendered construction during theLate Iron Age and Early Roman periods in Dorset,southwest England. Gender affects the use andexperience of cultural spaces. Decisions thatundoubtedly involve gendered relationships contribute toideas about how to build houses and for how longhouses should be occupied. The Roman conquest ofBritain in AD 43 has frequently been viewed as having asignificant impact on such Iron Age practices. Examiningtransformations in everyday household space andgendered identity sheds light on the varying experiencesthat contributed to Romanization.Ghukasyan, Robert [114] see Egeland, Charles P.Giardina, Miguel [12] see Neme, Gustavo A.Gibb, Heather (University of Missouri-Columbia)[180] Anatomical Refitting Using Visual Comparison onDeer (Odocoileus spp.)Linear measurements have been used to identifybilaterally paired skeletal elements fromzooarchaeological assemblages. Visual comparison hasbeen used to detect incorrect pairs identified with metriccomparison under the assumption that visual comparisonof non-metric traits correctly identify bilateral pairs. Thisassumption was tested using a collection of deer(Odocoileus spp.) skeletons composed of known bilateralpairs. In blind tests, bilateral pairs suggested by linearmeasurements, both incorrect and correct, weredocumented. Researchers then identified bilateral pairsusing visual comparison. Visual comparison does notcorrect most errors resulting from metric comparison,indicating the key assumption is unwarranted.Gibb, James (Independent Scholar)[122] Up from Flatland: Discovering Three-DimensionalCharacters through Alternative Narrative FormsLanguage is linear, but not so the ideas it expresses.Dialogue draws on the past—recent and distant—in theservice of the present and envisioned futures, reworkingthe past and replacing old contradictions andinconsistencies with new ones. Theatrical productionscan lay bare to public view the process and products ofhistorical interpretation. When the persons variouslyportrayed are themselves historical, the audienceexperiences the complexities of their characters andviews, and the unexpected outcomes of theirinteractions. A brief fictitious dialogue between twoprominent Americans illustrates the non-linearity of pastpresent-future.Gibbs, Tim (Museum of Northern Arizona), KristinM. Brown (Museum of Northern Arizona), DonaldKeller (Museum of Northern Arizona) and Ted Neff(Museum of Northern Arizona)[163] Digital Mapping of Architectural Remains at WalnutCanyon National MonumentIn 2010, archaeologists from the Museum of NorthernArizona conducted a detailed architectural inventory offour sites in the Second Fort region of Walnut CanyonNational Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona. Using ahybrid method involving GPS, aerial photogrammetry,electronic total station, and traditional hand mappingtechniques, a total of nineteen masonry rooms dating tothe Sinagua occupation of the canyon were mapped toan absolute accuracy of only a few centimeters. Thesubsequent digital product combines a high resolutionsurface model with planimetric and vertical profile vectordata incorporating the National Park Service's ArcDocarchitectural documentation database.Gibson, David [267] see Rademaker, Kurt M.Gibson, Heather (AECOM) and Rebecca Apple(AECOM)[50] The Search for a Historic TrailThe Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trailcorridor, established in 1990, commemorates the Anzaparty‘s 1775-76 expedition from Sonora to SanFrancisco, which established an overland route betweenNew Spain and Alta California. The trail extends over1,200 miles in the U.S. and includes developed zones, aswell as areas through open desert. Managing thisresource in conjunction with green energy developmentnecessitated defining archaeological traces of theexpedition. Pedestrian survey, archival analysis, andimagery analysis were used to investigate likely locationsof campsites and the route. Results are discussed withlessons learned regarding the preservation of historictrails.Gifford, Chad [15] see Connell, Samuel V.Gifford-Gonzalez, Diane (U of California - Santa Cruz)[126] Zooarchaeology as Historical Ecology: A Casefrom the Northeastern PacificLee Lyman is among the pioneers in the application ofzooarchaeological evidence to issues in conservationbiology and historical ecology. His research on mountaingoats, marine mammals, and other taxa has providedinvaluable information on precolonial distributions ofvarious presently protected species that is relevant totheir management today. Lyman also has had andreported upon the experience of the occasional lessthan-warmwelcome of such evidence by wildlifemanagers. This presentation reports on a parallel studyof the historical ecology of northern fur seals in California

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 127and the Pacific Northwest.Gifford-Gonzalez, Diane [222] see Boone, CristieGil, Adolfo (CONICET-Museo De Historia Natural DeSan Rafael), Laura Salgán (ICES; Museo de HistoriaNatural de San Rafael) and Gustavo Neme (CONICET-Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael)[62] Obsidian sources exploitation in La PayuniaVolcanic Field (Mendoza, Argentina)The study of lithic raw procurement and usage strategiesin the La Payunia Volcanic Field (Mendoza, Argentina)allows us to discuss the biogeographical models in aridenvironments of central-western Argentina. Recentresults in geochemical obsidian analysis is presented inorder to discuss these strategies. We present preliminaryresults from the study of 130 archaeological obsidianartifacts analyzed with X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). Theresults show the exploitation of five obsidian sources withan procurement range of 30kmts to 200kmts.Gil, Adolfo [12] see Neme, Gustavo A.Gilbert, Rebecca [57] see Andolina, Darren J.Gilead, Isaac (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Israel)[122] Limits of Archaeological Emplotment: The Case ofNazi Extermination CentersThe ―Final Solution‖ involved three groups of participants:perpetrators, victims and bystanders. Currently it attractsalso the public, scholars and Judeocide deniers. Such aplethora of voices implies numerous narratives anddifferent emplotment. This multivocality and its potentiallimits are nowadays heatedly debated among historiansand philosophers, and its relevance to issues ofarchaeological writing will be discussed. Theextermination centers of Chelmno, Belzec and Sobibóryielded archaeological remains that set the backgroundof the paper.Giles, Bretton (Binghamton University)[260] Extraordinary Beasts and Birds: A Comparison ofParticular Ohio and Illinois Hopewell SymbolsIn this paper, I reexamine the similarities between theimagery portrayed on an engraved femur from HopewellMound 25 and the Bedford copper cutout. I begin byillustrating several points of similarity, including thedouble-headed birds embedded in these iconographiccompositions. I then discuss whether and how these tworepresentations portray caymans or crocodilian-likevisages. I conclude by discussing the meanings that mayhave been invested in these representations of doubleheadedbirds and caymans, as well as how the closeiconographic connections between these symbols holdimplications for the nature of Hopewellian interregionalrelations.[260] First ChairGiligny, François (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne) [110] DiscussantGill, Amanda (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)[65] Ground Penetrating Radar at Pyla-Koutsopetria,CyprusGeophysical techniques are becoming an invaluableaddition to archaeological investigation. GPR data canassist in locating high probability areas for excavationand allow for non-destructive avenues for archaeologicalresearch. This study focuses on Ground PenetratingRadar data collection and results from Late Roman sitePyla-Koutsopetria in Larnaca, Cyprus. This site has beenunder archaeological investigation for six seasons,however, geophysical data collection has been limited.The Koutsopetria site has yielded both surface scattersof material culture and architectural foundations. Thisposter will display research and results from the GPRcollection at the site.Gill, Kristina (UC Santa Barbara)[123] Plant Exploitation in Island Interiors -Paleoethnobotanical Investigations at an Interior BedrockMortar SiteMany archaeological sites on Santa Cruz Islandinhabited between 4500 and 3000 BC are located nearthe coast, and contain abundant red abalone shells. Theemergence of mortars and pestles on the adjacentmainland beginning around 4000 BC may indicate anexpansion of the diet to include new plant foods. Abedrock mortar site (SCRI-814) located in the interior ofSanta Cruz Island radiocarbon dated to between 4190BC and 2890 BC was recently identified. Floral andfaunal analyses at this site provide a basis forunderstanding the role of terrestrial resources in interiorisland settings on the Channel Islands.[150] see Pitts, KarinGilleon, Kristi[196] Just Down the Road: The Robert S. PeabodyMuseum and its Approach to Secondary EducationThe Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology isunique in that it is the only archaeological museum to befound on a high school campus in the United States. It isalso unusual in its breadth and quality of educationalactivities it provides for the students of Phillips AcademyAndover. This paper will discuss the museum‘s range ofeducational opportunities from a former student‘s point ofview, and why they have been so effective. It will alsoprovide a model for other archaeological museumshoping to establish a close educational relationship withstudents anywhere from elementary school to graduateprograms.Gillette, Donna (University of California, Berkeley)[158] First ChairGillis, Nichole (Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc.)[210] A Tale of Two Sites: An Analysis of FeatureAssemblages from Puffer Pond, Assabet River NationalWildlife Refuge, Eastern MassachusettsRecent data recovery excavations revealed two multicomponentsites on Puffer Pond, with evidence ofoccupation spanning the Middle Archaic to WoodlandPeriods (8000–500 BP). Analysis of the diverse featureassemblages (e.g., pits, rock features, post molds, andlithic workshops) is used to explore questions about onsiteactivities, group size, length and intensity ofoccupation, and the role of the sites within the largersettlement system. As few known upland pond basecamps have survived post-contact agricultural land useand modern development, the feature assemblages are asignificant source of new information about settlement on

128ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGinterior ponds in eastern Massachusetts.Gilman, Patricia (University of Oklahoma) and AlisonK. Livesay (University of Oklahoma)[143] Mortuary Data from the Mimbres Region ofSouthwestern New MexicoThe burials in the Mimbres region of southwestern NewMexico are well known because they usually containbeautiful black-on-white bowls with representationaldesigns of people and animals. Although archaeologistshave studied the bowls and burials for almost 100 years,we are far from any consistent understanding of Mimbresburial patterns – who was buried in which ways, where,and with what? Our paper focuses on the issuessurrounding the Mimbres mortuary database assembly.We will present Pithouse (A.D. 200-1000) and Classic(A.D. 1000-1130) period data from one large and severalsmaller sites in the Mimbres Valley, the heartland ofthings Mimbres.Gilmore, Grant [121] see Ahlman, ToddGilmore, Richard (St. Eustatius Center forArchaeological Research)[121] A Cradle of Capitalism: St. Eustatius in the AtlanticWorldThis paper will contextualize research on St. Eustatiusover the past forty-five years within an Atlantic Worldframework. Religious, Free Black, commercial, military,enslaved and plantation sites will be examined as anorganic whole--with each contributing uniquely to thedevelopment of Capitalism as an economic force.Although ignored by most modern economic historians,Adam Smith recognized the primacy of St. Eustatius inthe colonial economic machine, as St. Eustatius was thefirst modern "free port". The results of the vast tradethrough the island are clearly reflected in thearchaeological record reported in this paper.Gilmour, Daniel (Portland State Univ.), VirginiaButler (Portland State University), DouglasKennett (University of Oregon), Brendan Culleton(University of Oregon) and Edward Byrd Davis(University of Oregon)[108] Chronology and Ecology of Late PleistoceneMegafauna in the Northern Willamette Valley, OregonNumerous megafaunal remains from Late Pleistocenedeposits in Oregon‘s northern Willamette Valley havebeen noted and collected over the past century, thoughmost have not been described or dated. We undertook aproject to synthesize these faunal records to reconstructpaleoenvironments and consider the causes of LateQuaternary extinctions. We have obtained AMS ages on15 individuals from five genera (Bison, Mammut,Mammuthus, Equus, Paramylodon) dating between~15,000-11,000 cal yrs BP. Results suggest a mixedgrazer/browser community persisted from the ClovisHorizon until the Younger Dryas boundary. Implicationsfor the extinction debate and Late Pleistocene forageradaptations are considered.Gilreath, Amy (Far Western)[158] [Stuart Ranch and Pahranagat Rock Art, Nevada]Two high-profile concentrations of petroglyphs barely 30miles apart in southern Nevada are profoundly differentand equally engaging. The concentration in lowerPahranagat Valley is easily recognized, and stylisticallydistinct from other styles in the region. It is reasonablyconsidered Middle Archaic in age. The concentrationalong the lower Meadow Valley Wash at Stuart Ranch isdominated by Contact-period petroglyphs made withtraditional techniques and pictographs. Their ―place‖ inthe local archaeological record is considered, andreflections on the relevance of the ethnographic recordand contemporary Native American perspectives arepresented.Gingerich, Joseph (University of Wyoming) andNathaniel Kitchel (University of Wyoming)[155] Early Paleoindian Subsistence Strategies inEastern North America: A continuation of the Clovistradition? Or evidence of regional adaptations?On a continental scale, Clovis subsistence strategieshave often been characterized by the hunting of largegame. Unlike the early archaeological record of thewestern United States, subsistence residues and theoccurrence of kill sites are rare in the east. Discoveries ofabundant plant remains in Clovis-age sites like Shawnee-Minisink, however, suggest diversity in early Paleoindianlifeways. This paper will review the subsistence data fromfluted point sites in eastern North America and discusssimilarities in subsistence patterns that begin in theClovis era and continue throughout the duration of theeastern fluted point tradition.Girard, Jeff [64] see Hargrave, Michael L.Giraudo, Rachel (University of California, Berkeley)[153] Mapping Intangible Heritage at the Tsodilo HillsThis paper addresses the theoretical and methodologicalissues of using GIS to map cultural attributes increasinglyreferred to as ―intangible heritage.‖ The intangibleheritage related to material culture and sociallandscapes, such as stories about places, religiouspractices, and knowledge about plant products, isessential to record in order to understand the context ofarchaeological remains within the human environmentand to assist in developing more sustainableconservation strategies with an enhanced knowledge oflocal beliefs and practices. The author illustrates thesepoints through the case study of the Tsodilo Hills inBotswana.Giron, Mario (CalState-LA)[266] Ritualized Gladiatorial Contests in Classic MayaCeramic ArtAn interesting aspect of the Midnight Terror Caveceramic assemblage is the relatively large number ofpolychrome sherds. A particularly interesting example isan almost completely restored Late Classic vesseldepicting a fighter or gladiator. This paper discusses thevessel and then analyzes the wider social context of suchactivities. Finally, suggestions will be made aboutpossible architectural features that may have housed thissport.Glaab, Rigden (Washington State University)[168] Avoiding the Omega: Human Adaptation andSocial Resilience on the Tavaputs Plateau ofNortheastern UtahThis paper will explore the idiosyncratic andenvironmentally responsive behavior associated with

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 129forager land use on the Northern Colorado Plateau underthe guiding methods of a model called Resilience Theory.The matter to be discussed are the distinct transitionsthat occurred during the Pleistocene/Holocene interface(9000 B.P.) with a fresh outlook to be focused on the―exploitation‖ (r phase) and ―conservation‖ (K phase)aspects of the model. These data to be presented willinclude information from the last two seasons in 2008and 2010 of the Tavaputs Archaeological ResearchProject.[168] First ChairGladwell, Randi [70] see Roland, Jennifer M.Glascock, Michael (University of Missouri) andJeffrey Ferguson (University of Missouri-Columbia)[97] Obsidian Characterization by Elemental Analysis:The State-of-PlayElemental analysis of obsidian has benefited manyarchaeological projects by yielding highly accurateidentifications for geologic sources. Sourcing resultshave been used to identify trade routes, territorialboundaries, migration patterns, and develop models forprocurement and exchange. Large geochemicaldatabases exist and portable instruments offering rapid,non-destructive capabilities are readily available. As aconsequence, obsidian sourcing has become a highlyroutine and successful practice. In spite of all we havelearned when employing elemental analysis, there arestill some potential pitfalls which occur due to inadequatesource characterization and failure to understand therequirements and limitations of individual analyticalmethods.Glascock, Michael D. [267] see Rademaker, Kurt M.[228] see Fehrenbach, Shawn S. [142] see Pintar,Elizabeth L.Glasgow, Hillary (University of Colorado at Boulder),Matt Sponheimer (University of Colorado at Boulder)and Andrew Wilson (University of Bradford)[236] Stable Isotope Analysis of Ancient Nubian Hair: AComparison of Two Medieval Skeletal Populations fromKulubnarti, SudanThe remains of over 400 naturally mummified individualswere excavated from two cemeteries at the site ofKulubnarti, Sudan in 1979. It has been suggested from arecent textile analysis that the burials from bothcemeteries, 21-S-46 and 21-R-2, date to the EarlyChristian Period (A.D. 600-850). However, markeddifferences in population mortality and overall rates ofstress as exhibited osteologically are seeminglyindicative of diachronic populations. Carbon, nitrogen,oxygen, and hydrogen stable isotope analysis ofpreserved hair allows for a new approach to evaluatingdifferences between the two cemetery populations.Glassow, Michael (Univ of Cal-Santa Barbara)[123] Settlement Systems on Santa Cruz Island and theOther Channel Islands at 6000 BPCoastal sites on western Santa Cruz Island datingbetween 6300 and 5300 BP are characterized byunusual quantities of red abalone shells. These sites varyin size, most being very small but two having substantialmidden deposits. Kennett proposed that the largest siteswere villages and the small sites were logisticalencampments. Other models of settlement systems ofthis period posit more complicated types of settlementsystems and take into consideration new informationabout site characteristics. Attempts to understandsettlement systems on Santa Cruz Island haveimplications for those on the other Channel Islandsdating to the same time period.Glidden, Catherine (Surface Transportation Board)and Ben Rodd (Rosebud Sioux Tribe)[154] Rethinking the National Register Criteria for TribalSitesThe criteria for determining significance are defined bythe National Register established in 1966. Since 1992,however, sites of religious or cultural importance to tribeshave been added to the National Register as a propertytype. However, in evaluating such sites, Federalagencies must use the same criteria developed to assessthe significance of historic buildings etc. - an imperfect fitat best. We discuss the need to create an alternativeprocess that equally considers the distinctive perspectiveof tribes within the context of the Dakota, Minnesota andEastern Railroad Project.Gloux, Sabrina (ArchaeoTek) and Andre Gonciar(ArchaeoTek Director)[204] Insights into the investigation of Late Bronze Agepopulations in TransylvaniaThe ArchaeoTek osteology workshop program is part ofa wider project focusing on the study of Late Bronze Agepopulations from the Noua-Sabatinovka-CoslogeniComplex (NSCC). The osteological material beingstudied (135 individuals) is stored at the NationalMuseum of History of Transylvania (MNIT) in Cluj-Napoca. The purpose of this paper is to presentpreliminary results from a 2 months investigation of 40individuals. In regards to the first set of analysis, thepreliminary conclusions are encouraging and highlypromising for the future of this project.Glover, Jeffrey (Georgia State University) andDominique Rissolo (Waitt Institute)[221] Vista Alegre and Chichén Itzá: Evidence of aNortheastern Outpost?While the relationship between Chichén Itzá and IslaCerritos has been well documented, the nature ofChichén‘s relations with other coastal sites remainsunclear. This paper explores Chichén‘s interaction withVista Alegre, an island site located along Quintana Roo‘snorth coast. After a hiatus of around 200 years, a groupof people resettled the island during the Terminal Classicperiod. Who were these people, where did they comefrom, how did they engage in burgeoning circumpeninsulartrade networks, and how do we address thesequestions archaeologically? Our preliminary data providesome clues to these questions, but raise many more.Glowacki, Donna (University of Notre Dame)[117] An Intraregional Assessment of the Post-ChacoTransition in Central Mesa VerdeThe A.D. 1130-1180 interval was a defining moment inthe occupation history of the Central Mesa Verde region;one that demanded social and settlement changes andcreated contingencies that forever altered the nature ofthe regional occupation. Recent analyses show thatdespite the low frequency of tree-ring dates for this

130ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGinterval, population remained stable. However, the periodof severe drought and presumably related violenceprompted various coping strategies including increasedaggregation and changes in settlement location, layout,and village-level organization. Using recent settlementand tree-ring data, this paper compares how thesechanges were expressed in different parts of the region.[46] see Lipe, William D.Godos, Fernando [221] see Ardren, TraciGoebel, Ted (Texas A&M University) and JoshuaKeene (Texas A&M University)[94] A Critical Review of the "Long Chronology" forStemmed Points in the Intermountain West of NorthAmericaAre the intermountain west‘s stemmed points as old as orolder than Clovis (13 ka), and do they represent adistinct, early dispersal of humans? Radiocarbon datesfrom sites like Hatwai, Coopers Ferry, and Smith CreekCave suggest so, leading to the proposition of a ―longchronology‖ for stemmed points. Here we review thegeochronological evidence from these and otherstemmed-point sites with dates >12 ka, and counter thatmost of the evidence for such early stemmed points isequivocal, many of the sites need to be redated, and fornow a ―short chronology‖ better explains the evidence athand.[155] DiscussantGoebel, Ted [181] see Younie, Angela M.Gold, Alan (AECOM)[158] Reproductive Symbolism in Great Basin Rock ArtPromotion of the generative powers of animals andhumans is a concern of major religions and small-scalesocieties the world over. Conventionalized symbolsprovide a window into ceremonial life. Coso rockdrawings include imagery linking hunting with gameanimal fertility and human sexuality. This perspective isexplored through a review of the form and content ofCoso animal depictions and an examination of relatedmaterial in Great Basin ethnology, oral tradition, andhunting terminology. One prominent theme in Coso rockart appears to be the fostering of animal and humanfertility or increase and a means of affirming life.Gold, Debra [53] see Fitzhugh, BenGoldberg, Paul [176] see Villeneuve, SuzanneGoldstein, David [148] see Hageman, Jon [93] seeHayashida, Frances M.Goldstein, Lynne (Michigan State University)[226] Cremation in the Pre-Contact Eastern UnitedStates: Some Thoughts and PatternsCursory examination of presence of pre-contactcremation throughout the eastern United States suggeststhat cremation occurs, but sporadically through time andspace. I will attempt to review cremation practices in theEastern U.S., focusing on when and where cremationoccurs, patterns within the practice, and possibleexplanations for what cremation means in what context.In a number of cases, for example, cremation co-occurswith primary inhumation. Analysis will focus on contextand possible social meanings, and will attempt to teaseapart differences in cremation practices, along with howthese practices may be linked, distinguished, or differentfrom secondary disposal practices.[184] DiscussantGoldstein, Paul [233] see Somerville, Andrew D. [233]see Johnson, Kent M.Goldstein, Steven (Washington University in St.Louis)[7] The role of vein quartz as a raw material in theprehistoric lithic industries of Long Island, New YorkDespite the predominance of vein quartz tools in manycoastal regions throughout the New and Old World,relatively little consideration has been given to the waysthe use of this particular raw material actually shapescoastal and island lithic industries. In an attempt toaddress this issue, a metric approximating ―repaircapacity‖ was formulated and applied to quartz projectilepoint assemblages from both coastal and inlandarchaeological sites on Long Island, New York. Acomparison of these data suggests that toolmorphometrics upon deposition were highly patterned,with curation pressures intensifying at sites farther fromquartz sources.Golitko, Mark [193] see Burgchardt, Lucy A. [193] seeMeierhoff, James W.Gomez, Josue (University of Oregon), DouglasKennett (University of Oregon) and BarbaraVoorhies (University of California-Santa Barbara)[5] Reconsidering ―Pox‖ pottery: Early Ceramics fromCoastal Guerrero―Pox‖ pottery has been considered one of the earliestceramic assemblages in Mesoamerica, dated to ~2440BCE (uncalibrated). We reevaluate its age and characterbased on excavations at the sites of Puerto Marques andLa Zanja. Radiocarbon dates indicate that "Pox" potteryis no older than 1800 BCE (calibrated). This iscomparable in age to other early pottery assemblagesalong the Pacific coast (Barra, coastal Chiapas). We alsoprovide a type-variety description of the pottery originallycharacterized as "Pox", which was defined based on asingle characteristic that appears to be a product of userather than a stylistic element.Gomez Choque, D. Enmanuel [245] see Kurin, DanielleS.Gómez-Valdés, Jorge [237] see Tiesler, Vera G.Gonciar, Andre (S.U.N.Y. at Buffalo)[258] Practices of change, change of practices: theMiddle Bronze Age to Late Bronze Age transition inTransylvania (Romania)The dynamics of the transition Classical Bronze – LateBronze Age in Transylvania (Romania), the fall of theWietenberg and development of the Noua Culture, dwarfin complexity the Eneolithic-Bronze Age and Bronze-IronAge transition processes. Not only these changes arevery extensive and rapid, but they are not triggered northe result of any aggressive practices as shown by thegreat majority of MBA sites. Settlement behavior,cognitive actualization, economic practices, funeral

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 131rituals, symbology and iconography are replaced almostentirely throughout the Wietenberg territory in less than ahundred years, reflecting fundamental restructuration ofsocio-cultural and perceptual parameters.[204] see Gloux, SabrinaGonlin, Nan (Bellevue College) and Christine Dixon(University of Colorado-Boulder)[8] A Twist on the Tortilla: Manioc at Ceren and ItsImplications for MesoamericaThe role of maize in ancient Mesoamerican subsistenceand ideology is well documented and substantiatedthrough abundant archaeological and iconographic data.Reconstructions of sociopolitical characteristics, such aspopulation estimates and complexity, are based onmaize subsistence. Given the recent finds of maniocfields at Ceren, El Salvador, the implications of maniocsubsistence must be considered for lowland (or ‗tropical‘)Mesoamerica. This paper presents a comparison ofCeren with Copan, Honduras. The detailed data recoveryat Ceren provides extraordinary information of a singleClassic Maya site which provides insights to theextensive picture of a Classic Maya polity at Copan.Gonzalez, Albert (Southern Methodist University)[135] Timber Exploitation, Charcoal Production, andHispanic Anxiety in Nineteenth-Century Northern NewMexicoThough archaeologists have directed attention atcharcoal production sites in the general Southwest, thoseof nineteenth-century New Mexico have largely beenignored. Furthermore, prior archaeological studies havemade no attempt to connect associated timberexploitation by agents of Manifest Destiny with thedevelopment of indigenous discontent. This study aims toaddress both deficiencies by linking charcoal production,timber resources, and indigenous rebellion against thebackdrop of nineteenth-century Taos, New Mexico. Morespecifically, it will ask whether the production of charcoalby Taos distiller Simeon Turley led in some way to hisoperation‘s demise at the hands of a local mob.Gonzalez, Jason J. [9] see Andres, Christopher R.Gonzalez, Sara (Vassar College) [1] First ModeratorGonzalez, Sara [48] see Schneider, Tsim DGonzález, Mariela [71] see Flensborg, GustavoGonzález Heredia, Raymundo [67] see Folan, WilliamJ.González Lauck, Rebecca B. [67] see Boxt, Matthew A.Gonzalez-Licon, Ernesto (INAH-ENAH, Mexico)[131] Archaeology and etnohistory of Mexicapan: Amarginal barrio at Monte Albán, Oaxaca, Mexico.In this paper I describe and analyze the politicalorganization and internal composition of Monte Albán asthe Zapotec capital from Late Formative to Late Classic.The possible organization of the city in Barrios, theirdefinition, quantity, and the formal and functionalcharacteristics of them are considered using thearchaeological and etnohistorical information available.From a household perspective I compare thearchaeological data from Mexicapan, a marginal barrio inthe northern part of the city, with other barrios locatednearby the Central Plaza.[131] First ChairGood, Irene (Peabody Museum, Harvard U) and A.M.Pollard (University of Oxford)[203] Late Achaemenid Textiles from the Chehr AbadSalt Mine, IranChehr Abad, Iran has provided some unique evidence forthe mining of salt from at least c. 400 BC. At least fivebodies have been recovered, one of which was very wellpreserved, being fully clothed and carrying items ofpersonal equipment. Isotopic data on body tissue andhair suggests that two of these individuals may havecome from long distance, posing interesting questionsabout how the mine was utilized in antiquity. Theexcellent organic preservation provides a uniqueopportunity to understand the cultural and geographicorigins of the salt mine mummies. Some preliminaryresults are outlined in this paper.Goodale, Nathan (Hamilton College), George Jones(Hamilton College) and Dave Bailey (HamiltonCollege)[22] pXRF: A study of inter-instrument accuracy andprecisionIntegrating portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF)instrumentation into archaeological investigations hasgenerated as much interest as skepticism becauseseveral characteristics of the technique limit analyticalaccuracy and precision. Recent pXRF engineeringadvances have significantly reduced these problems. Toestablish inter-instrument performance, two pXRFinstruments, an Innov-X Delta and Omega, were utilizedto obtain the trace element signatures of 10 volcanicsources in the Great Basin. To establish the accuracyand precision of the pXRF, chemical data were obtainedwith a Diano automated XRF wavelength spectrometer.Results suggest that these particular pXRF instrumentsproduce data comparable to this wavelength system.Goodale, Nathan [107] see Gunter, Madeleine [162]see Kowsz, Erica E. [107] see Nauman, Alissa [59] seeVardi, JacobGoodman-Elgar, Melissa (Washington State U.)[223] Social and ecological resilience in agrarianlandscapes of the AndesArchaeological studies of agro-ecosystemspredominantly address the longue-durée by setting foodproduction trends within their ecological and culturalcontexts. This commonly provides a palimpsest ofevents, diminishing emphasis on human agency and thesocial uses of farm products (e.g., feast foods). UsingAndean case studies, I present an approach thataccommodates short-term events, both social andagricultural, and their cumulative impacts. I suggest thatan emphasis on agrarian architecture, and landscapemodification as a process, enables stronger models ofsocio-natural resilience in ancient farming landscapes.[3] see Schneyder, Stacy L. [249] First ChairGoodsell, Joanne [83] see Overly, Stephen A.Goodwin, Whitney (University of South Florida)

132ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGand E. Christian Wells (University of South Florida)[31] Administered, Non-market Trade in PostclassicMesoamerica: Observations from Roatan Island,HondurasIn greater Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, islands oftenprovided ports of trade and commerce, embodying abroad range of economic and social interactions. Theisland of Roatan, off the north coast of Honduras, servedas a strategic node in a complex exchange networkconnecting residents of the Maya lowlands with groups inupper Central America. Drawing on Karl Polanyi‘s ideasregarding administered, non-market trade, thispresentation compares ceramic assemblages fromrecent excavations on the island to identify the majorparticipants in the network as well as the organizationalstrategies they deployed during the Postclassic period.Goodyear, Albert [120] see Daniel, RandyGordon, Bryan (Can. Museum Civilization)[158] Dating an old problem – petroglyphs: An extensionof my past method of dating pictographsPetroglyphs are much more common worldwide thanpictographs, with scientific dating very rare. Using thesame procedure as in my website but usinghammerstone fragments instead of pigment paintsplatters, I explore results from Gabriola (Petroglyph)Island in British Columbia and Coso National Monumentin California., Ishan[138] The Hidden Life of Ojo CalienteThe Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th Cavalry participated incampaigns against many Native American groups. Theywere stationed around many parts of the U.S.,predominantly New Mexico. Fort Selden, a fort whereGAP has done mapping and GPR exploration, and otherforts in the Southwest hold clues to what life was like atOjo Caliente. By examining what archaeologists havefound at these forts, as well as by looking at how theseforts are documented in the archaeological record, thisposter will seek to improve our understanding of theactivities that took place at Ojo Caliente.Gore, Angela (CSFA Texas A&M) and Kelly Graf(CSFA, Texas A&M)[181] Re-evaluation of the Denali Complex ―CobbleFeature‖ at the Owl Ridge Site, Teklanika River, CentralAlaskaDuring initial investigations of the terminal PleistoceneagedOwl Ridge site, researchers reported a cobblefeature associated with a probable Denali-complexoccupation; however, little had been excavated in thevicinity of this feature to determine its significance.Nevertheless, several interpretations of its function havebeen proposed, including dwelling, hunting blind, andwind break. While reinvestigating the site in 2010 weopened a block excavation around the feature to betterunderstand its nature. In this poster we present ourresults, discuss the nature and function of the cobblefeature, and place its use within the greater context of thesite.Goring-Morris, Nigel (Hebrew University) and AnnaBelfer-Cohen (Institute of Archaeology, The HebrewUniversity of Jerusalem)[86] Where There's a Will, There's a Way: Changes inScale and Intensity in the Shift to Sedentism in the EarlyHolocene Near EastMarked differences are documented in the timing,intensity and scale of Terminal Pleistocene-EarlyHolocene settlement patterns within the Levant, andespecially between areas east and west of the RiftValley. Our paper investigates the nature of suchvariability, from the first appearance of seasonal megasitesduring the Late Glacial Maximum through sedentaryvillages of the PPNB. We argue that initial aggregationhad little to do with changed economic modes, as oftenhas been assumed. We examine the nature of social andritual mechanisms that facilitated aggregation, whethershort term or permanent.Gorogianni, Evi [167] see Fitzsimons, Rodney D.Gould, Richard [76] see Moran, Kimberlee S.Graesch, Anthony (Connecticut College), DavidSchaepe (Sto:lo Research and ResourceManagement Centre) and Lisa Dojack (University ofBritish Columbia)[232] Built Space and the Instantiation of PoliticalAuthority in the Pacific Northwest: The Relationship of In-Ground to Above-Ground Residential Architecture on theCentral CoastArchaeological and ethnographic data addressing thephysical attributes and spatial organization of substantial,above-ground residential architecture have been usedextensively to address intra-regional variation inaboriginal expressions of political authority in the PacificNorthwest. Recent investigations in the Fraser Valleyhave demonstrated that large in-ground and abovegroundhouses were occupied at the same time indistinctly Coast Salish settlements. Challengingconventional models of political organization on theCentral Coast, this paper critically examines therelationship of in-ground to above-ground houses,focusing on data from Welqámex, a large settlement thatfluoresced as a regional center of economic and politicalactivity.Graesch, Anthony [232] see Schaepe, David M.Graf, Kelly (CSFA, Texas A&M University)[120] Was Clovis in Beringia? Current Status on FlutedPoint Archaeology in AlaskaArchaeologists have traditionally searched Beringia forClovis origins. Alaskan fluted point sites, however, arerelatively rare and questions remain regarding howAlaskan forms relate to Clovis in the contiguous UnitedStates. What is the age of fluted points in Alaska? Is itthe same as or older than Clovis? Are Alaskan andClovis fluted point technologies the same? Did Alaskanand Clovis fluted point makers share basic adaptivestrategies? This paper draws upon new data fromSerpentine Hot Springs and other fluted point sitesacross Alaska to inform on the chronology, technologyand adaptations surrounding fluted point use in Beringia.[181] see Gore, Angela K. [181] see Younie, Angela M.Graham, Carole (BLM - Anasazi Heritage Center)and Mona Charles (Fort Lewis College)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 133[188] Reconstructing the Archaeology of the BurialCrevice, Falls Creek North ShelterZeke Flora's 1937 discovery of well-preservedBasketmaker II human remains and associatedperishable items prompted Earl Morris and RobertBurgh's 1938 excavations at the Falls Creek Rocksheltersite. Unfortunately, the 1937 excavations were conductedwith little regard for and no documentation of context.Recent investigations for the Falls Creek RocksheltersReevaluation Project have revealed the presence ofpreviously undocumented sediment remnants adheringto the walls of the Burial Crevice. Sediment profile andAutoCAD mapping, digital photography, extantradiocarbon dates, and archaeological documentation byMorris and Burgh are used in an attempt to reconstructthe depositional history of the Burial Crevice.Graham, Elizabeth [56] see Donis, Alicia E.Graham, Shawn (Carleton University)[214] Signal versus Noise, or, why blogging mattersThe single greatest reason for blogging, for creating aprofessional on-line profile and for creating a sustainedpresence for our research can be summed up in oneword: Google. Academic blogs are content-rich, and tendto focus on very specific areas. Academic bloggerscreate an enormous signal in the chaos of the internet.Google controls how we find information; but often,academic blogging tells Google what‘s important. Thus,academic blogging can set the larger research agenda.Grant, Dave (San Jose State University)[194] Patterns in Ancient Teeth: Palimpsests of BehaviorIn analyzing burial populations from the Santa ClaraValley patterns on teeth were found that did not conformto the normative wear explanation. The purpose of thisstudy is to propose a definational refinement of wearpatterns found on teeth from Central California. Fourdistinct wear patterns were found. Major patterns includeslants and rounding. Minor patterns were scoops andgrooves. Statistically significant differences wereidentified. Analysis of the Southern population suggeststhese individuals had an elite class. The percentage ofslants, rounding and scoops all increased through timefrom the older, Northern population to the youngersouthern population.[194] see Griffin, MarkGrant, Marcus (HDR|e2M)[241] Recognizing Late Nineteenth and Early TwentiethCentury Native American Refuge Sites in the DesertWestAs conflict between Native Americans and Euro-American settlers in the western U.S. subsided in theearly 1880s, the federal government adopted a policy offorced assimilation toward American Indians. During thistime, which did not end entirely until 1978, NativeAmerican religions, clothing, and languages wereoutlawed. In parts of the desert west, Native Americanscontinued traditional lifeways in remote areas far fromAnglo settlements. This paper, based on results of aDepartment of Defense Legacy project conducted inWyoming and Nevada, examines the material culture andgeographic locations of such Native American refugesites between roughly 1850 and 1942.Grant, Sarah (McMaster University), Tristan Carter(McMaster University), Metin Kartal (AnkaraUniversity) and Vecihi Özkaya (Dicle University)[63] Of Permanence and Procurement: ObsidianSourcing at Körtik Tepe (SE Turkey)Located on the Upper Tigris, Körtik Tepe represents oneof the earliest permanent farming settlements in theAnatolian part of the Fertile Crescent (early 10thmillennium BC), comprising a six-phase occupation witha richly furnished intraumral burial record. While the sitehas a strongly local character, there is also clearevidence for interaction with communities at the largerregional level. Using EDXRF 100 obsidian artefacts werecharacterised as a means of not only clarifying thecommunity‘s external relations, but also to contrast thebehaviour (procurement / consumption) of early farmersin the eastern and western wings of the Fertile Crescent.Gratuze, Bernard [100] see Dussubieux, Laure [100]see Lankton, James W [167] see Khalidi, LamyaGrave, Alfonso (INAH)[158] Petroglyphs Associated with Fertility in SouthernSinaloaAmong the more than 200 petroglyphs recorded in thebottom of the mountains of southern Sinaloa, the mostcommonly used designs are of course the spirals andsoles but also a relative abundance of vulvas, penisesand St. Andrew's crosses or vanes framed and evenrepresentations of Tlaloc, the god of rain. It is thereforefertility, or deities, that are the main theme of thepetroglyphs in southern Sinaloa. The fertility of the earthis cyclical. Prolific during the rainy season, it is depletedin the dry, like the climate of the area.Graversen, Poul (The Louis Berger Group)[96] A Modern Analysis of Petalas Blade Caches in NewJersey and Eastern PennsylvaniaCaches of argillite blades, which are often referred to asPetalas blades, have been discovered all over NewJersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and other Middle Atlanticstates. Some of these discoveries are recent, howevermany date to the end of the nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries. Some of these caches have beenpreviously analyzed, many have not. Artifact and cacheanalysis has undergone major changes in the last half acentury. With the invention of new technologies andrecent discoveries new patterns have emerged in thearchaeological record. Petalas blades have long beenthought to be used for the processing of migratory fish.Through research, analysis, experimentation, and theproduction of a number of GIS maps this hypothesis hasfallen into question. Some of these argillite caches wereundoubtedly used for the processing of fish; howeverothers were definitely not used to this end and wereperhaps instead instruments of trade.Graves, Michael (Univ of New Mexico) and MarkMcCoy (University of Otago)[261] The Timing of Agricultural Development in Leewardand Windward North Kohala, Hawaii Island.By AD 1700 Kohala represented a single political unit innorth Hawaii Island. Archaeological investigations in theleeward (western, dry) and windward (eastern, wet)sections of Kohala have generated a large suite of 14C

134ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGdates from agricultural features. While the dates arereported from the leeward Kohala field system, there are30 14C dates from a variety of agricultural contexts in thewindward section of Kohala. These provide the basis forassessing the timing of agricultural colonization,innovative practices, expansion, and intensificationacross the district. We also discuss the potential socialand economic implications of agricultural integration inKohala.[130] DiscussantGraves, Michael [261] see Ladefoged, Thegn [261] seeBrowne Ribeiro, Anna T.Graves, William (Statistical Research, Inc.)[43] Michel Foucault, Antonio Gramsci, and theHohokamAt first glance, one may see little common groundbetween the writings of Michel Foucault and the work ofAntonio Gramsci. Likewise, what could be the relevanceof these two 20th century social theorists to the study ofthe Hohokam archaeological culture of Arizona? In mypresentation, I discuss how these two scholars‘ notionsof structural power relations can provide insight intosocial and political relations in Hohokam society. Inparticular, Foucault‘s ideas of disciplinary power andGramsci‘s thoughts on culture and hegemony help usunderstand power relations among the Hohokam andhow they may have changed throughout Hohokamhistory.Gray, Amie (HDR/e2M) and Christy Smith (HDR/e2M)[150] Ruts, Bullets, and Beads: The Archaeology ofContested LandscapesThe early years of Anglo incursion in the West weremarked by armed conflict in many areas. AmericanIndian warriors and U.S. soldiers fought battles asenemies and as comrades. Wyoming Army NationalGuard lands provide ideal locations for focused researchon the material content and ecological settings ofarchaeological sites associated with a period of historicalconflict. The Powder River Basin north of CampGuernsey, was used by various plains tribes duringintensive episodes of Anglo emigration and persistentclashes between Indian tribes and the U.S. military until1890.Grazioso, Liwy [119] see Scarborough, VernonGreen, Adam (New York University)[47] Operational Sequences, Style, and Seals:Approaching Communities of Practice in the IndusCivilizationIndus seal carving encompassed technologicalperformances that underpinned an ancient administrativesystem that extended from the Eastern Mediterranean toSouth Asia. This paper draws upon technologicalconcepts, including operational sequences and style, tooutline a new methodology for identifying thecommunities of practice involved in producing Indusadministrative technologies. With the resulting theoreticalframework in place, I describe new microtopographictechniques for reconstructing the technological practicesuse to produce individual Indus stamp seals, includingpreliminary results from a pilot study. This newperspective emphasizes how individual objects wereproduced, establishing a less normative framework forunderstanding technologies in early states.Green, Debra (Metcalf Archaeological Consultants,Inc.)[23] Environmental Change and Landscape Modificationin the Pre-Colonial Visayan Islands of the PhilippinesThe history of island formation in the Philippines ischaracterized by the interaction between an array ofenvironmental parameters including tectonic,geomorphologic, and climatic events that have shapedthe variability and resiliency of pre-colonial agriculturalstrategies. Decisions that groups made about the naturalenvironment were conditioned by their ability to negotiatesocial relations. Rapid sea level changes, tectonic uplift,and climate change combined with deforestationactivities have contributed to coastal progradation in theBais-Tanjay region that presented variable, but favorablephysiographic environments for the intensification ofagriculture. This research confirms the importance of amultidisciplinary approach to studying complex societies.Green, Jenna (Trent University)[103] Sounds of Ritual: Music Archaeology of the AncientAndes from the Early Horizon to the Middle Horizon (900B.C.-A.D. 1000)In order to understand the significance of music inprehispanic times, it is essential to examine the contextsin which musical instruments are found. This paper usesmusic archaeology and ethnographic analogy to examinecentral Andean music, from the Early Horizon to theMiddle Horizon, with particular focus on the use ofmusical instruments by highland peoples. This workshows that music was part of an Andean tradition inwhich several prehispanic societies used musicalinstruments in rituals and ceremonies related to warfare,agricultural fertility, dedications, and burials.[103] First ChairGreen, Margerie (Archaeological ConsultingServices), Robert Stokes (Archaeological ConsultingServices, Ltd.) and Marcia Donaldson (U.S. Bureau ofReclamation)[83] U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Farm RehabilitationProject Collaborations with the Navajo and TohonoO'odham Tribes in Arizona, as implemented byArchaeological Consulting Services, Ltd.Recent Reclamation projects involved collaborativeefforts with two of Arizona‘s largest Native Americangroups, the Navajo Nation and the Tohono O‘odhamNation. Both involved construction of infrastructure tosupport traditional and cooperative farming as part of thenational Water Settlement Rights act. The Navajo Nationproject involved the creation of an award-winning DVD ofNavajo elders discussing traditional irrigation farming atGanado, and the Tohono O‘odham Nation projectinvolved extensive testing prior to construction of newirrigation pipelines for their farm cooperative. This posterpresents the benefits of working closely with NativeAmerican tribal members to ensure mutually beneficialoutcomes.Green, Margerie [83] see Stokes, Robert J.Green, Paul (USAF) [185] Discussant [118] Discussant

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 135Green, Rachelle (Uinta-Wasatch-Cache NationalForest)[91] Application of Ethnographic Foraging CatchmentData to Investigate Fremont Settlement Patterns inRange Creek Canyon, Utah.Ethnographic research shows that central place foragers,in relatively unvaried terrains, exploit resourcecatchments measuring up to 10 km from centrallocations, any further becomes energetically inefficient.These constraints can be used to predict the catchmentsfor archaeologically known central places located withinRange Creek Canyon. Prehistoric residential sites in thiscanyon are widely distributed, and have extremechanges in elevation within a 10 km radius that alterscatchment size and shape. Here, catchments areestimated using a model built with GIS technology andan energy expenditure algorithm, to gain anunderstanding about Fremont settlement patterns withinRange Creek Canyon.Green, Scott (California State Parks)[259] Preserving the Past for the Future: Eight NewCultural Preserves in California State ParksCalifornia State Parks will be classifying eight newCultural Preserve in Anza-Borrego Desert and TopangaState Parks. Cooperative planning was critical in creatinga consensus between resource managers in the StateParks, the Native American community, neighboring landagencies and the public. These new extensive preserveswill allow for the focused management of the culturalresources present while providing appropriate recreationopportunities and new interpretation. The recognition ofthese outstanding cultural areas and landscapes ensuresState Parks Mission goals and provides a new approachto the management of broad culturally sensitive areas inCalifornia State Parks.Green, Ulrike (University of California San Diego)[229] Meeting in the Middle: Rethinking Culture Contactin the Moquegua Valley, PeruScholars investigating cross-cultural contacts have longabandoned the simplicity of acculturation studies etc.,and more recent models have begun to address theincredibly complex nature inherent in any cross-culturalencounter. This paper explores how the multidimensionalityof these new frameworks helps to moreaccurately examine the complexity of cross-culturalencounters. A case study from the Moquegua valley inSouthern Peru will serve to illustrate the usefulness ofsuch a multi-directional approach in fleshing out thepractices and motivations in cross-cultural interaction in acolonial frontier setting.Green, William (Logan Museum of Anthropology,Beloit College)[240] Greenshield Revisited: Alfred W. Bowers'Excavations at a Contact-Era Arikara and Mandan Site inOliver County, North DakotaThe Greenshield site was the location of thenorthernmost known 18th-century Arikara village alongthe Missouri River. An earlier Mandan component also ispresent. Of the various excavations at the site, the mostextensive was conducted by Alfred W. Bowers in 1929.Bowers recovered a wide variety of objects of Nativemanufacture along with European trade-derived objects,as well as Native-modified trade goods, from bothhabitation and burial contexts. Analysis of Bowers‘ andother excavators‘ collections, including determination ofactivity sets represented in the assemblages, allowsGreenshield to fill a temporal gap in previous studies ofArikara contact-era cultural change.[240] First ChairGreene, Michelle[219] Using Craniometric Measurements to ExplorePossible Gene Flow in Local Populations in the MiddleSan Juan Region of New MexicoThe population in the Middle San Juan region iscomposed of local peoples and possibly migrants fromthe nearby cultural centers of Chaco Canyon from thesouth, and Mesa Verde from the north. One way ofestimating genetic relationships is through craniometricmeasurements, which prior research has shown to havea genetic basis. This study examines nine craniofacialmeasurements taken from six sites in the Middle SanJuan region, two sites from Chaco Canyon, and varioussites in the Mesa Verde region, to ascertain their geneticaffinity.Greenway, Greg (US Forest Service) [112] DiscussantGreer, John [60] see Greer, MavisGreer, Mavis (Greer Services) and John Greer (GreerServices, Archeological Consulting)[60] Horses in Northern Plains Rock Art in a GlobalPerspectiveHorses can be some of the most well executed rock artanimals, such as Paleolithic representations in SouthernFrance, or they can be some of the most quicklysketched abbreviated forms, as some historic depictionsin western North America. Their presence and style arechronological and cultural indicators in the New World,and style can additionally relate information on panelfunction, ethnicity, social behavior, and interculturalrelations. The motif has great variation but is readilyrecognizable. Reviewing one motif type from local toglobal levels demonstrates the importance of researchdesigns in recording projects.Gregg, Michael (University of Pennsylvania Museum)[19] A pilot study and experimental program to improvethe efficacy of stable carbon isotopes in categorizingorganic residues from early pottery vesselsRecent studies have demonstrated that difficulties inidentifying organic residues surviving in early potteryvessels from the Middle East result not only from poorpreservation of animal fats and plant oils, but also frommisconceptions about the adequacy of the previouslyreportedanalytical criteria when applied to ceramics fromdifferent regions of the world. This paper summarizes thephysiological, environmental and anthropogenic factorsaffecting the fractionation of stable carbon isotopes, andoutlines an experimental program for accurateinterpretation of isotopic values of residues in the earliestpottery from a narrow geographic corridor linking theMiddle East with Central Asia.[19] DiscussantGregoricka, Lesley (The Ohio State University)[152] Mobility and tomb membership in Bronze AgeArabia using strontium isotope analysis

136ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGWhile archaeological evidence points to growinginterregional trade networks during the Bronze Age(3100-1200 BC) in the Near East, little is actually knownabout the movements of people that made thesecommerce-driven relations possible. Strontium(87Sr/86Sr) isotopes from human and faunal toothenamel are utilized in reconstructing the childhoodgeographic residence of individuals interred across theOman Peninsula in monumental tombs, visible markersof commemoration and territoriality that dominate thelandscape. Major mortuary transformations from theUmm an-Nar (2500-2000 BC) to Wadi Suq (2000-1200BC), accompanied by economic and socioculturalchanges, are evaluated in light of temporal changes inmobility.[152] see Ullinger, JaimeGregory, Cody [161] see McMahon, CatherineGregory, Danny (New South Associates)[81] Archaeological and Geophysical Survey Along theCumberland River in Kentucky and TennesseeNew South Associates completed an inventory along a300-mile stretch of the Cumberland River for the Corps ofEngineers. It extended from Lake Cumberland in centralKentucky, southwest to Nashville, and northwest to LakeBarkley in western Kentucky. The survey encompassed avariety of prehistoric and historic sites includingprehistoric campsites, Mississippian villages, stone boxcemeteries, Civil War earthworks, farmsteads, historiccemeteries, and a 19th century town and steamboatlaunch. Fieldwork included inventory, stabilization oflooted sites, and geophysical survey (GPR andmagnetometer). The behavior and field methods of locallooters were also examined.Gregory, H. Pete [64] see Hargrave, Michael L.Grenda, Donn (Statistical Research, Inc.), JohnDouglass (Statistical Research, Inc.) and RichardCiolek-Torrello (Statistical Research, Inc.)[151] Changing Patterns of Settlement and Site Structurein the Ballona Area, west Los AngelesSince the 1920s, avocational and professionalarchaeologists have documented archaeological sites ofthe Ballona area, both adjacent to the former wetlandand on the bluffs overlooking them. This paper discusseshistorical perspectives on Ballona settlement and sitestructure, as well as current interpretations based onextensive archaeological investigations of numeroussites in the area. Although some settlement patterns mayreflect the ebb and flow of the evolving Ballona Lagoonand climatic changes, other patterns strongly suggestcultural interaction and persistence of place.Grenda, Donn [151] see Ciolek-Torrello, Richard [151]see Altschul, Jeffrey H. [151] see Reddy, Seetha N.Grier, Colin (Washington State University)[232] Resource Ownership and Contested Domains ofSociopolitical Complexity in the Coast Salish WorldWith few exceptions, resource ownership systemsamongst the Coast Salish have been described ratherthan analyzed. Diachronic models for their developmentemphasize control of salmon fishing locations, and deriveprimarily from human behavioral ecology premises. Yet,the Coast Salish have actively invested in their physicaland symbolic world over millennia, and resourceownership systems must be seen as arising within newand contested social domains emerging from anincreased investment in infrastructure, resources andlandscapes. I present a model that posits ownership asan expansive and profound realignment of Coast Salishsociopolitics within a broader trajectory of increasingsocial complexity.[178] see Flanigan, Kelli B.Griffin, Dennis (Oregon State Historic PreservationOffice)[154] Education Through Recreation: CelebratingOregon's Cultural Heritage through Theme-basedPlaying Cards2009 marked Oregon's Sesquicentennial celebrating thestate's 150 years of statehood. To help celebrate thestate's anniversary a deck of playing cards has beencreated highlighting the state's rich cultural heritage.Inspired by the U.S. Department of Defense's 2007archaeology awareness playing cards for the troopsfighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Oregon SHPO hasdesigned a deck of playing cards highlighting the state'shistory through recognition of its unique historicstructures, archaeological sites, artifact classes, and keypreservation issues. These cards are designed tointroduce the public to Oregon's rich history andencourage cultural resource stewardship.Griffin, Mark (San Francisco State University), DavidGrant (San Jose State University) and Randy Wiberg(Holman and Associates)[194] Oral Health Status in an Ancient Central CaliforniaPopulationThe Vineyards site (4-CCO-548) is a central Californiasite dating to the Middle Archaic (4350 and 550 BC). Thelarge sample size (N=479) makes the Vineyards siteideal for the examination of the relationship betweenattrition, caries, and periodontal disease. Results of thisanalysis show: (1) extensive dental attrition (6.11 on theSmith scale), (2) extraordinarily low frequency of cariouslesions (2.5%), and (3) high frequency of apical abcesses(10.7%). Results of our analysis show that there is aninverse relationship between attrition and caries and apositive correlation of heavy attrition and apicalabcesses.Griffin, Mark [194] see Guidara, Andrea L [194] seeMarks, Jennifer L. [194] see Bartelink, Eric J.Griffin, Robert [119] see Dunning, Nicholas P.Griffith, Cameron (Northern Arizona University) andAndrea Stone (University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee)[60] Try This on for Size: Exploring Implications of Scalein Mesoamerican Rock ArtThe fact that rock art is literally connected to the Earth‘srocky surface raises issues of scale of the size of certainrock carvings as well as the spatial references encodedin rock art symbols. This paper explores petroglyphabstractions from many regions of Mesoamerica whichsymbolically reference vast tracts of terrestrial space andtheir hydraulic features. Examples of speleothemsculptures in Belizean caves, whose large scale defiesexpectations of rock art‘s size in relationship to the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 137environment, are also presented. We argue that theexpression of large scale emanates from the terrestrialsubstrate of petroglyphs and sculptures.Griffitts, Janet (SRI)[177] Birds of a feather: wild food use in turn-of-thecenturyTucsonThis study examines the varying ways of interpreting wildfood use using different kinds of data and illustrates theimportance of multiple lines of evidence. The study usesmaterial recovered in SRI's excavations of the JointCourts Complex project in Tucson, from two adjacentresidences occupied by two generations of one family.Amounts and proportions of wild game differed betweenthe two households, especially birds, but the householdwith more bird bone contained almost no ammunition.Finally, archival evidence provides hints to behaviors thatcould have caused this pattern. This study also examinessocial significance of different wild taxa.Griffitts, Janet [151] see Cannon, Amanda C.Grijalva, Daniel (CSU-Fullerton) and Steven James(CSU-Fullerton)[263] Prehistoric Human Impacts on San Nicolas Islandin the Southern California Channel Islands: Evidence forOverexploitation and Resource Depression of ShellfishAt Site Ca-Sni-44Archaeological evidence from 2.7 meter-deep testexcavations at a late Holocene shell midden (CA-SNI-44)on the central plateau of San Nicolas Island arepresented. Measurements of black abalone andCalifornia mussel indicate that the prehistoric inhabitantswere over harvesting shellfish beds through time.Analytical results provide the following: evidence forimpacts of human predation on shellfish populations overprolonged periods of harvesting; inferences on changesin subsistence patterns based on overexploitation ofcertain species; and reconstruction of foraging practicesover a long archaeological sequence that can becompared to other island and coastal sites in southernCalifornia.Grillo, Katherine (Washington University in St. Louis)[208] Pastoralist Ethnoarchaeology on HouseholdContainer Assemblages in Samburu, KenyaEthnoarchaeological research among a mobile herdingcommunity in Samburu, north-central Kenya, has yieldedresults on the multiple factors that influence householdcontainer assemblages. Data from household inventorysurveys speak to how mobility, wealth, income,household demographics, and pastoralist subsistenceinfluence the numbers and types of cooking, serving, andstorage vessels found in Samburu homes. Particularattention will be paid to ceramics and their distributionacross the broader pastoralist landscape. Discussion willalso consider archaeological implications for futurestudies of pastoralist vs. hunter/gatherer andagriculturalist material cultures.Grillo, Michaela [106] see Hanson, ThomasGrofe, Michael (American River College)[145] The Astronomical Associations of Uhuk ChapatTz'ikin K'inich Ajaw: archaeoastronomy using the MayaHieroglyphic DatabaseThis paper presents an example of how the MayaHieroglyphic Database is used to identify correlationsbetween hieroglyphic texts and specific positions in thetropical year. "Uhuk Chapat Tz'ikin K'inich Ajaw" is adeity name mentioned throughout the corpus of Mayainscriptions. The database identifies most knownexamples of this name, together with the Long Countdates of the monuments on which they appear. Ananalysis of this data suggests a strong correlationbetween this deity and the solar nadir at Maya latitudes.This correspondence is informative when consideringadditional iconographic, ethnographic, and astronomicalinformation.Grossardt, Ted [64] see Mink, Philip B.Grove, Matt (University of Liverpool)[43]Viable versatilists? A single locus model of variability selectionThe variability selection hypothesis suggests thatincreases in environmental fluctuationhave led to the evolution of complex, flexible behaviors able to respond to novel andunpredictable adaptive settings. This hypothesis is testedvia the framework of a single locusgenetic model in which an invading ‗versatilist‘ allele competes with two opposed specialists in a selectionregime driven by a temporally fluctuating environment.Results demonstrate that versatilist alleles achievefixation given a minor fitness increase over the basicgeneralist template. These results arediscussed in relation to the appearance and spread ofOldowan technologies.Grover, Margan (Bold Peak Archaeological Services)[195] Historical Archaeology of Early Russian Americaon Adak Island, Central Aleutian IslandsFor decades, small-scale Russian fur traders movedacross Russia, eventually arriving in Kamchatka and theAleutian Islands. The 1741 Bering and Chirikovexpedition confirmed the existence of the AleutianIslands and mainland Alaska, and revealed a region richin resources. The evidence of these early hunters on thelandscape is minimal, yet their impact wasimmeasurable. This paper will explore several earlyRussian American period sites on Adak Island and therelatively untapped data potential for historicalarchaeology in the Central Aleutian region.Grupe, Gisela [42] see Vohberger, Marina A.Guderjan, Thomas (University of Texas at Tyler),Colleen Hanratty (Southern Methodist University)and Tim Preston (Merritt College)[191] Abandonment, Ritual, and Survival at Blue Creek,Belize, and its Neighbors.This paper is focused on the large scale, Late–TerminalClassic abandonment and concomitant ritual activities inpublic and elite residential settings at Blue Creek.Importantly, at least two large elite residential groupscontinued to renovate and rededicate structures and toreorient themselves to external political powers after thecentral precinct was abandoned. We also review thePostclassic occupation and use of the extensive systemof ditched agricultural fields, though we are uncertain

138ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGwhether these are continued occupations orreoccupations of the area. Finally, we contrast thesepatterns with the anomalous polities of the region thatthrived into the Postclassic.Guderjan, Thomas [238] see Krause, SamanthaGudino, Alejandra (Human Environmental SciencesUniversity Missouri) [15] Second Organizer [15] FirstChair [15] see Lippi, Ronald D.Guendon, Jean-Louis [224] see Salinas, Hernan P.Guengerich, Anna (University of Chicago)[227] Public, private, and the political house:reconfiguring the role of residential structures in lateprehispanic ChachapoyasRound stone structures dominate the built environment ofsettlements in late prehispanic Chachapoyas. Althoughusually glossed simply as ―houses,‖ preliminaryarchitectural analysis suggests that these structurestranscended strictly domestic functions to play anencompassing role in Chacha societies, serving as theprimary theaters of social, political, and ritual life. Thesebuildings are distinguished by a high degree of artisticembellishment and technical expertise, traits usuallyassociated with the monumental constructions ofhierarchical polities. The Chacha database furtherproblematizes our conceptions and theoretical models ofthe ―household‖ and how we understand its relationshipto ―public‖ spheres of political activity.Guernsey, Julia (University Of Texas At Austin)[186] From household to plaza: figurines, sculpture, andthe construction of elite identity in the PreclassicAspects of the La Blanca ceramic figurine tradition, ahallmark of Middle Preclassic household ritual, anticipateLate Preclassic sculpture programs, in particular thefamous yet enigmatic ―potbellies‖ or barrigónes. I linkthese intriguing transitions between figurines andsculpture, and domestic and public space, to theconstruction of elite identity during the Late Preclassicperiod and discuss how it appears to have successfullyappropriated earlier domestic ritual forms. The paper alsotouches on the implications of this evidence as it regardsthe transition from chiefdoms to states during the Middleto Late Preclassic period in this region.[186] Second OrganizerGuidara, Andrea (San Francisco State University),Mark Griffin (San Francisco State University) andRandy Wiberg (Holman and Associates, SanFrancisco)[194] Canine Dimorphism in Ancient Central CaliforniaThis study examines the extent of canine sexualdimorphism at the Vineyards site (4CCO548). Byconducting one-way independent (student‘s) t-tests, astatistically significant difference was found betweenmales and females for the MD and BL measurements ofthe upper and lower canines of each the left and rightsides. A discriminant analysis was conducted usingSPSS. The resulting discriminant function and cut-offscore was used to predict group membership (male orfemale) for previously indeterminant individuals from theVineyards site. The results of this analysis will provide auseful tool for assessing sex in fragmentary remains.Gullapalli, Praveena (Rhode Island College)[189] Crafting Continuity: Delineating (Social) Actions inMetal ArtifactsSites from South India have yielded an extraordinarycorpus of early metal artifacts that have been subjectedto analyses that highlight their functional efficacy and thetechnical expertise of their makers. I use extantmetallurgical data to continue the discussion of howthese artifacts were made, moving beyond a narrowfocus on utilitarian paradigms to investigate evidence forother types of information that might be encoded withinthem. I argue that certain patterns in the productionpractices of the early South Indian metalworkers – suchas lamination – could also be understood to be as muchsocial practices as technical ones.Gunter, Madeleine (Hamilton College), NathanGoodale (Hamilton College), Dave Bailey (HamiltonCollege), Melissa Coles (University of Notre Dame)and Ian Kuijt (University of Notre Dame)[107] Portable XRF Analysis of Early MedievalGravestones in Western IrelandTwo years of data collection and field work on the remotecoastal islands of western Ireland suggests that, despitetheir geographic isolation, Early Medieval peopleproduced and transported gravestones during the 5th tothe 12th century. Gravestones at different sites exhibitsimilar decorative motifs; however there is no otherphysical evidence to support their inter-island exchange.Using portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) technology,we reconstruct gravestone trade by analyzing andcomparing the elemental signature of over 200metamorphic gravestones and bedrock samples fromseven islands. Preliminary data analysis has identifiedmultiple patterns of inter-community exchange and localproduction.Gursan-Salzmann, Ayse [167] see Massey, DavidGusick, Amy (University of California, Santa Barbara)[123] Behavioral Adaptations and Mobility of EarlyHolocene Hunter-Gatherers, Santa Cruz Island,CaliforniaPrevious mobility hypotheses that have been formed forthe Early Holocene on the Northern Channel Islandshave included minimal data from Santa Cruz Island, thelargest and most environmentally diverse landmasswithin the Northern Channel Island chain. Yet, data fromthis island are important because the three mainNorthern Channel Islands vary in size, environment, andbiodiversity. These differences can have a profoundeffect on foraging and mobility. Recent excavations haveprovided data that help clarify the nature of EarlyHolocene mobility and settlement systems on Santa CruzIsland.Gustafson, Daniel (Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN) [199] DiscussantGustas, Robert (Humboldt State University)[161] Peoples of Humboldt County – A Cultural CenterThe Northwest Coast of North America is home to adiverse and unique mixture of indigenous cultures. Thisposter explores the idea of creating a cultural education

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 139center in Humboldt County, CA to inform the public aboutthe indigenous cultures of the county, the field ofarchaeology, and provide cultural and archeologicalresources for local communities. This project attempts tosuggest ways of facilitating cooperation betweenarchaeologists, indigenous peoples, and mostimportantly local communities. By increasing cooperationand communication among all of these parties thearchaeological process becomes more productive andthe results more satisfactory for all parties.Guthrie, Brady (Idaho Army National Guard- BoiseState University), Sam Smith (Idaho Army NationalGuard) and Jonathan Dugmore (Idaho Army NationalGuard)[150] Site Integrity within National Guard Training LandsThe 140,000 acre Orchard Training Area (OTA) providesarchaeologists with unique research opportunities. Thecentral question of this project is: how well is site integritymaintained within the National Guard zones of controlwhen compared with those sites outside of the OTA? Thefocus is on three areas of investigation specifically, siteswithin the impact areas, sites within the maneuvertraining areas, and those sites outside of the OTAboundaries. The project will take into account controlsand efforts to abate looting, military training activities,and environmental changes to site areas over time.Gutierrez, Adam [77] see O'Brien, Christopher [77] seeBayham, Frank E.Gutierrez, Maria (CONICET, INCUAPA), AgustinaMassigoge (CONICET, INCUAPA), Daniel Rafuse(INCUAPA, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales(UNCPBA)), María Alvarez (CONICET, INCUAPA,Facultad de Ciencias Sociales (UNCPBA)) andCristian Kaufmann (CONICET, INCUAPA, Facultad deCiencias Sociales (UNCPBA))[177] Actualistic Taphonomy in the Pampean Region:Limitations, Challenges, and ResultsIn the pampean region of Argentina, taphonomic studieshave focused on the analysis of taphonomic effects andpatterns in the archaeofaunal assemblages. Progress inactualistic taphonomy studies is lacking. The followingwork presents the preliminary results of recent actualistictaphonomy studies developed in the region. Theobjective is to generate a corpus of data for thedevelopment of hypothesis regarding different processesinvolved in the formation of the archaeological record inthe pampean grasslands. Results from taphonomictransects in different environmental settings in the region,the systematic observations, as well as the experimentaldesign of the project are discussed.Gutierrez, María de la Luz (Instituto Nacional deAntropología e Historia)[147] Beyond the Threshold: Mortuary Customs andWorship to the Caves in the Prehistory of Central BajaCalifornia, MexicoOne of the least known aspects of the prehistory ofcentral peninsula of Baja California refers to the mortuarycustoms practiced by the Peninsular Yumans. In thesierras of San Francisco and Guadalupe only sevenburial sites have been explored, very few considering theextent of this region; however, excavations haveprovided interesting results. This paper will present somereflections about burial techniques and evidence thatsuggests how important this was for the cultural identityand collective memory of these peoples, the venerationof their ancestors, their mythical figures and their caves,whether they were mortuary or not.Gutiérrez, María [168] see Martinez, Gustavo A.Guttenberg, Richard, William Kendig, RebekkaKnierim, Steven Schwart and Renè Vellanoweth[123] GIS as a Tool for Analyzing Intrasite SpatialVariability on San Nicolas IslandOn San Nicolas Island we have been using GIS for overa decade to analyze the spatial distribution ofarchaeological sites across the landscape. We haverecently explored the efficacy of GIS on an intrasitebasis. Here, we focus on CA-SNI-25, a village site withexcellent stratigraphy, chronology, and preservation andexamine variations in lithic technology in association witharchaeological features within separate loci. Bivariateand multivariate spatial data are statistically and visuallyanalyzed and interpreted. This methodology offers awindow into spatial and temporal variability in technology,subsistence, and the organization of traditional village lifebefore European influence.Guzman, Benito [88] see Wake, Thomas A.Guzman Piedrasanta, Melvin Rodrigo [9] seeKovacevich, BrigitteHaas, William [264] see Huntley, Deborah L. [155] seeAnderson, Derek T.Haas, Wm. (The University of Arizona)[63] XRF Characterization of Fine-grained Volcanics ofthe Lake Titicaca Basin, PeruFine-grained black igneous toolstone comprisesapproximately 65 percent (n=870) of Archaic bifaces inthe Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru. Because of its ubiquityand potential for generating geographically distinct geochemicalsignatures, such material provides a means forexamining prehistoric material flows at relatively resolvedgeographic scales. The goal of this study is to explorethe scale at which Titicaca Basin volcanics can generatebehaviorally meaningful geo-chemical variation. I presentthe results of XRF observations on debitage and geologicsamples from the Ilave, Ramis, and Vilque drainages.The implications for reconstructing and analyzing Archaicland-use patterns are discussed.Habicht-Mauche, Judith (UC-Santa Cruz)[264] Dr. Strangesherd or: How I Learned to StopWorrying and Love Tijeras White WareThe White Ware assemblage at the Late Coalition-EarlyClassic Period site of Tijeras, New Mexico (ca. A.D.1280-1420) is amazingly diverse. While reflecting somegeneral similarities with other fourteenth century, carbonpainted,Rio Grande White Ware assemblages, it is noteasily sorted into the standard types, most of which weredefined from sites further north. Attribute analysis is usedto examine how surface treatment, rim form, anddecorative elements either cluster within or crosscutdifferent paste groups. These data are used to definenetworks of social interaction as reflected in theproduction and exchange of White Wares from Tijeras.

140ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGHackel, Steven [151] see Douglass, John G.Hackenberger, Steven [178] see Endacott, NealHackner, Stacy (University of Chicago/UniversityCollege London), Maria Cecilia Lozada (University ofChicago) and Augusto R. Cardona (CIARQ)[129] Us and Them: Molle and Maize Beer in the SouthCentral AndesEvidence of production of chicha de molle, a beer madefrom pink peppercorns, has been found at Wari sitesincluding Cerro Baúl, Beringa, and Millo II in the VitorValley. We examine the archaeological evidence at eachof these to characterize the Wari‘s production,consumption, and distribution of this fermentedbeverage. By comparing this practice to the traditions ofalcohol consumption of the Tiwanaku and the Inka, wediscern a pre-Hispanic paradigm of consumption. Weexplore how the Wari diverged from this model byconsuming molle beer instead of maize beer and thepossible reasons for this unique cultural preference.Hadden, Carla and Kelly Orr (American Associationfor the Advancement of Science)[10] Lumping and Splitting: Measuring the Effects of DataAggregation on Site InterpretationData aggregation is inherent to archaeology, but the waywe decide to lump or divide our data may result in subtledifferences in interpretation. To better understand theseaffects, we recorded primary zooarchaeological data(e.g., taxonomic identification, count, weight) fromseveral discrete, rapidly deposited features from BayouSt. John (1BA21), a Late Woodland site in coastalAlabama. The feature data were aggregated orpartitioned according to a variety of random and nonrandomschemes, and secondary data (e.g., biomass,diversity, equitability) were derived from each aggregateddataset. The results illustrate the importance of selectingappropriate data aggregation schemes.Haeusler, Werner [162] see Wagner, UrselHageman, Jon (Northeastern Illinois U) and DavidGoldstein (University of South Carolina)[148] Acting Locally: Rural Ancient Maya FarmingCommunities and Resource OrganizationIntensively terraced areas of the landscape comprise thefoci of ancient farming communities across the ThreeRivers Region of the eastern Peten. Such practices mayhave taken priority over extractive core-peripheryrelations or other visible, active, enforced power relationswith larger ceremonial centers. Paleoethnobotanical andceramic evidence argue for a local tradition of periodicfeasting and daily provisioning based on availableresources of the bajos, forests, and farmland. Our testcases indicate locally mediated land use was germane todeveloping and maintaining social ties, and in ruralcontexts may have taken priority over interaction withregional-scale power brokers.Hager, Lori (Catalhoyuk Research Project)[16] The Young and the Old: Sex-related AgeDifferences and Age-related Sex DifferencesGender identity of individuals from archaeological sitesbegins with accurate determinations of age and sex.Since many factors, including age, sex and gender,contribute to bone development and bone degradation,the age of an individual influences the morphologiesused to determine sex and the sex of an individualinfluences the morphologies used to determine age. Theimportance of sex to age determinations, such as inyoung people where males and females mature atdifferent times, and of age to sex determinations, such asin older females where hormonal shifts haveconsequences in skeletal biology, are issuesbioarchaeologists need to revisit.[152] see Boz, BasakHaggis, Donald (University of North Carolina atChapel Hill)[86] Social Organization and Aggregated SettlementStructure in an Archaic Greek City on Crete (ca. 600B.C.)One aspect of urbanization in the Aegean at the end ofthe Early Iron Age (ca. 800-600 B.C.) is the nucleation ofpopulation—settlement aggregation and the restructuringof social, political and economic landscapes, giving riseto Classical Greek cities and city-states. This paperpresents a case study of an excavation of one such earlyemergent center, the site of Azoria on Crete (700-500B.C.), examining patterns of agropastoral production andconsumption in specific contexts (domestic andcommunal) of emerging public and civic institutions andbuildings that mediated social and political interactionand formed mechanisms of community organization andintegration.Hagler, Jeremiah (Phillips Academy), Claire Gallou(Phillips Academy) and Malinda Blustain (PhillipsAcademy)[196] Teaching From the Museum: the OngoingIntegration of the Robert S. Peabody Museum Into theCurriculum of Phillips AcademyThe unique collaboration between Phillips Academyteachers and the Peabody has played a continuing rolein interdisciplinary education since 2004. The museumhas created customized presentations for a wide range ofcourses and students have undertaken researchcollaborations and creative projects in different fieldsincluding history, biology, and languages. In this session,the Biology and French Departments will explain howsuch collaborations worked, presenting examples ofgenetic studies on ancient dog bone by biology students,and translation by French students of documentsexchanged between the Peabody and Muséed'Archéologie Nationale about the return of FrenchPaleolithic artifacts.Hagler, Jeremiah [196] see Doheny, Marcelle AHahn, Randy (McGill University)[227] Local Interactions with Provincial Administration inthe Kingdom of ChimorThis paper examines the relationship betweensubjugated provincial populations and the politicaladministration of the Kingdom of Chimor on the PeruvianNorth Coast. Focusing on the site of Huasi Huamanfollowing the Chimú conquest of the JequetepequeValley, material expressions of identity are used toexplore interactions with Chimor‘s provincialadministration. Through the lens of local responses to

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 141imposed rule, Huasi Huaman is used to demonstrate thecomplexity of political relations within a subjugatedpopulation while providing insight into the scope ofChimor‘s political power and its influence on theformation of identity.Haines, Helen (Trent University)[40] Curiouser and Curiouser: A Glimpse into the EarlyHistory of Ka‘Kabish, BelizeRecent work at the site of Ka'Kabish in Northern Belizehas raised questions as to the structure of political powerin the region during the Formative and Classic periods.Previously thought to be a subsidiary site of the largercentre of Lamanai (roughly 10 km distant) this new datashows that Ka‘Kabish possessed its own elite residents,economic base, and program of ritual architectureindicative of a thriving independent city. Using this newdata this paper addresses an enigmatic period of Mayahistory in Northern Belize.[243] see Aimers, Jim J.Hale, Micah (ASM Affiliates)[132] A 10,000 year old habitation in La Jolla:Implications for trans-Holocene adaptive stability inSouthern CaliforniaA 10,000 year old human burial was recovered from CA-SDI-4669, a prehistoric habitation on the bluffs of LaJolla, California. The associated assemblage fits theclassic La Jolla (i.e., Millingstone Horizon) profile,characterized by large numbers of groundstone tools,cobble tools, and crude flaked stone tools. Placed in aregional context, this site is the anchor for one of thelongest-standing socioeconomic patterns known for theNew World and forces reconsideration of the character ofcultural evolution. I argue that this site reflects thebeginning of a stable time-minimizing adaptive strategythat persisted until ethnohistoric times.[168] see Brodbeck, MarkHall, John (Statistical Research Inc.), Michael Heilen(Statistical Research, Inc.), Robert Wegener(Statistical Research, Inc.) and Christopher Garraty[80] Between Hohokam and Salado: View-shed Analysisof a Fortified Hilltop Site along the Upper Queen CreekDrainageAs part of a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)ARRA funded project, Statistical Research, Inc.intensively surveyed USACE fee-title lands in theWhitlow Ranch Flood Control Basin, along Queen Creekand near Queen Valley, Arizona. A previouslydocumented and extensive early-Classic period hilltopsite complex (AZ U:11:29 [ASM]) was re-recorded.Viewshed analysis was conducted to evaluate visibility ofarable land and other contemporaneous sites alongQueen Creek. Analysis results reveal the importance ofagricultural land, cultural affiliation, intersitecommunication, and the potential establishment of anearly-Classic period defensive network of fortified hilltopsites along upper Queen Creek.Hall, Lauren [31] see Szirmay, JenicaHall, Sharon [223] see Kruse-Peeples, Melissa R.Haller, Jonathan [137] see Boyd, Jon R.Halligan, Jessi (Texas A&M University, CSFA)[265] Site Formation Processes and Paleoindian ArtifactContext in Submerged Sinkholes of Northern FloridaThousands of Paleoindian artifacts have been recordedfrom Florida rivers, but only a small percentage wererecovered by archaeologists from excavated context.Geoarchaeological analyses, including remote sensing,vibrocoring, sediment analysis, unit excavation, andradiocarbon dating, are being done at two submergedsinkhole localities in the Aucilla River of northwesternFlorida. Both contain diagnostic Paleoindian artifacts andpotentially intact strata. One, Sloth Hole, has beenextensively excavated, while the other, Wayne‘s Sink, iswell-known to local collectors. These analyses will beused to reconstruct natural and cultural site formationprocesses in order to discuss potential Paleoindianbehavior during the terminal Pleistocene.Hallmann, Nadine [205] see Burchell, MeghanHalperin, Christina (Princeton University)[93] Maya Political Economies: Creative Improvisationsand Structural ReproductionsThis paper examines Maya economic practices inrelation to political transformations between Classic andPostclassic periods. Emphasis is placed on incorporatingmultiple scales of analysis to underscore the notion thatwhile both agency and structure are two sides of thesame coin, they are not necessarily visible under thesame spatial-temporal lenses. I turn, in particular, toreproductions and changes in ceramic media to exploreways in which material remains reflect broad political andeconomic reorganization. When tied to particular placesand temporal moments, however, the continuities andshifts in pottery are more firmly tied to the ways in whichpast peoples creatively improvised with, reinvented, andembraced the structural constraints and practices towhich they belonged.Hambrecht, George (CUNY Graduate Center) andFrank Feeley (CUNY Graduate Center)[202] Historical Archaeology in BarbudaBarbuda in the post-Columbian period did not fit into theclassic Caribbean narrative centered around sugar. Itwas never a sugar island, it was owned by one familyand its history has a very different character thanneighboring Antigua or the larger Caribbean world in theEarly Modern Period. Part provision ground and partfortified Georgian hunting retreat, Barbuda has a uniqueheritage that is a central part of the modern Barbudanidentity.Hamilton, Laurel (Tulane University)[156] Sharp Force Trauma in Moche SacrificeCut mark morphology and patterning on the bones ofhuman sacrificial victims excavated from the Moche sitesof Huaca de la Luna, El Brujo and Dos Cabezas on thenorth coast of Peru are discussed. Analysis of the cutmarks involved macroscopic and microscopic techniquessuch as drawings, photographs and scanning electronmicroscopy. Results indicate that the perimortem andpostmortem treatment of the sacrificial victims includedfacial and genital mutilation, decapitation, defleshing anddismemberment, and likely involved metal tools.Similarities between the physical evidence and Mocheiconography suggest that artistic depictions of prisoner

142ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGtorture, sacrifice and mutilation reflected actual practices.Hamilton, Marcus [22] see Buchanan, Briggs [155] seeCollard, MarkHamilton, Nathan (University of So. Maine) andEugene C. Winter Jr. (Robert S. Peabody Museum ofArchaeology)[196] Roots Run Deep: An Historical Perspective on theRobert S. Peabody Museum of ArchaeologySince its 1901 founding, the Robert S. Peabody Museumof Archaeology was at the vanguard of North Americanarchaeological method and theory. It was involved infounding of the SAA, employed stratigraphic principles tounify regional chronologies, developed a systematicapproach to excavation and a focus on environmentalreconstruction, initiated the use of C14 as an absolutedating technique, and devised innovative interdisciplinarycollaborations to research agricultural origins and thedevelopment of societal complexity. This importantlegacy is the foundation of the museum‘s currenteducation and public archaeology initiatives that focus onthe Phillips Academy, scholarly and modern indigenouscommunitiesHamilton, Nathan [196] see Slater, Donald A.Hammer, Emily (Harvard University), Peter Magee(Bryn Mawr College) and Marc Händel (Bryn MawrCollege)[13] Iron Age Fortification Systems at a Trade Nexus inCoastal Southeast ArabiaExcavations conducted since 1994 at the Iron Age II siteof Muweilah, UAE, have revealed a large Iron Agesettlement surrounded by complex and unparalleledfortification systems. Over perhaps 100 years, a systemof ditches, surrounding walls, indirect entrances, andramparts was constructed, extended, and repaired toaccommodate the expanding settlement. We employ athree-dimensional model of these features to discusstheir form, function, and chronology. These features‘ rolein defending Muweilah and dividing intra-site space morebroadly relate to settlement intensification throughoutsoutheast Arabia beginning around 1000 BC.Hammerstedt, Scott (University of Oklahoma)[6] Testing the Effectiveness of Mill Creek Chert Hoes inPrairie SoilsAn increase in Cahokia‘s population after AD 1050 mayhave raised it to levels that the existing agriculturalsystem could not support. A recent American Antiquityarticle suggests that farmers may have used Mill Creekchert hoes to convert fertile upland prairie to farmland,thereby increasing production to support this largerpopulace. However, prairie grasses possess a formidableroot mat and are difficult to till even with metal tools,therefore the effectiveness of chert hoes is uncertain.This poster presents the results of experiments using areplica Mill Creek hoe in prairie settings in Illinois andOklahoma.Händel, Marc [13] see Hammer, EmilyHandler, Jerome [121] see Hauser, Mark WilliamHanes, Erin (WAVE Consulting, Inc.), Phil Hanes(WAVE Consulting, Inc.) and Colleen Delaney-Rivera,(CSU Channel Islands)[64] Ground Penetrating Radar at Audrey: A GPRInvestigation of an Early Mississippian-era Site in theLower Illinois River ValleyThe Audrey site is a multi-component site located on theeast side of the Lower Illinois River valley. The site arearelated to the early Mississippian-era component (ca. AD1050) was excavated during the 1970s and 1980s usingelementary and secondary students. In April 2010 theauthors revisited the site and conducted an extensiveground penetrating radar survey in an attempt to identifyearlier excavations and new features. Preliminary resultssuggest that the GPR successfully identified portions ofthe initial block excavations, and possibly manyadditional unexcavated features extending the originalsite boundaries significantly.Hanes, Phil [64] see Hanes, Erin SaarHanratty, Colleen [191] see Guderjan, Thomas HaroldHansell, Patricia (Temple University)[7] The Evolution of Lithic Technologies during theMiddle Ceramic Period, Gran Cocle, PanamaStone tool production techniques employed in GranCocle (Central Panama) during the Late Preceramic andEarly Ceramic periods (ca. 7800-2200 cal years BP)were remarkably simple and stable. In contrast,techniques used during the succeeding Middle CeramicPeriod (2200-1250 cal years BP) were distinguished by aseries of innovations, including the removal of pointedflakes and blades from carefully prepared cores. Thispresentation explores the implications of this morecomplex lithic technology for shifts in settlement patterns,intraregional exchange, craft specialization and socialcomplexity.Hanson, Diane and Debbie Corbett (U.S. Fish andWildlife Service)[168] Adak Island Upland Sites: Four Seasons ofArchaeological Surveys in the Aleutian Islands, AlaskaTwenty-one sites found during archaeological pedestriansurveys over four years on Adak Island more than doublereported upland sites in the Aleutian archipelago. Thesites have multiple cultural depressions and all but twopredate Russian occupation. ADK-266 sits in a swalebeside a small lake on top a 250-foot hill. Onedepression has multiple occupation floors and evidenceof stone tool manufacturing. ADK-265 is a single culturaldepression that appears to contain primarily domestictools. These data contradict the general wisdom thatarchaeological sites are not upland from the shoreline inthe Aleutian Islands and were not used intensively.Hanson, Jeffery (Statistical Research, Inc) andRobert Heckman (Statistical Research, Inc)[80] Archaeological Condition Assessment: a tool formanaging cultural resourcesSRI, in conjunction with the USACOE, has developed atool for land managers to aid in fulfilling their statutorymission regarding the identification, evaluation,protection and preservation of cultural resources. Thearchaeological condition assessment tool requiresobservations that measure levels of risk to sites based onthe weighting of a number of explicit variables, or

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 143impacts, which can affect site integrity, and ultimately,significance. Examples from the National HistoricPreservation Act Section 110 compliance surveys arepresented showing how condition assessments provideefficient baseline and longitudinal data that assistdecision makers in assessing and treating archaeologicalsitesHanson, Thomas (University of Texas at SanAntonio), Michaela Grillo (The Center forArchaeological Research, UTSA) and SoniaAlconini (University of Texas at San Antonio)[106] Assessing the Nature and Function of the InkaImperial Road in the Eastern Bolivian AndesIn this poster, we will examine the nature and function ofthe Inka road system in the eastern flanks of the BolivianAndes. Specifically, the study region is Charazani-Camata, located in the confines of the Inka Empire. Thisregion, inhabited by the Kallawaya, was central infacilitating the interaction of peoples and resourcesbetween the highlands and tropical lowlands. In thisposter, the results of a pedestrian survey along asegment of the pre-Columbian road will be presented, inorder to assess its function, changes over time, andkinds of shifts promoted by the empire.Harbach, Dennis [193] see Gencay Ustun, OzgeHard, Robert (Univ of Texas at San Antonio), ArthurMacWilliams (University of Calgary), John Roney(Colinas Cultural Resource Consulting), JacobFreeman (Arizona State University) and KarenAdams (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center)[199] The Absence of Aggregated Populations in Centraland Southern ChihuahuaThe absence of midlevel societies in the western portionof central and southern Chihuahua has long been knownyet given little consideration. Recent work in the regionbetween the Chalchihuites and Casas Grandes culturesconfirms the general absence of prehistoric aggregatedsettlements and intensive agricultural adaptations.Despite being situated between Mesoamerican andSouthwestern intensive agriculturalists, and the presenceof well watered river valleys, 400-800 mm of rainfall, andlong frost-free seasons, the region only supportedmobile, mixed hunting and gathering and farmingadaptations. The ecology of this surprising pattern mayhave implications for understanding agriculturaladaptations more widely.Hard, Robert [244] see MacWilliams, Arthur C.Hardesty, Donald and Eugene Hattori[18] The Evolution of Historical Archaeology in theAmerican WestThis paper explores the past, present, and future of thearchaeology of the Modern World in the American West.It considers historical issues in method and theory,environmental change and landscapes of the modernworld, the archaeology of industry and industrial lifesupport systems, class and ethnicity, sex/gendersystems, the archaeology of emigration and colonization,the archaeology of contact, public archaeology, urbanarchaeology, world systems, and historic preservation.Hardy, Thomas (University of Pennsylvania)[269] Transforming Natural Landscape into SacredPlace: The Huacas of Inca CuzcoMany of the hundreds of sacred shrines (huacas) aroundCuzco were organized into a system of ceque lines,through which the Inca inscribed meaning onto thelandscape and physical space surrounding the ancientcapital. Much of our current knowledge of how thesehuacas were organized has stemmed from textualevidence, but less has been done through archaeologicalsurvey and especially excavation. This paper seeks toexplore processes by which the Inca physically andculturally transformed these huacas into sacred, cultural―place,‖ particularly through alterations in the landscape.New evidence is discussed from excavations conductedon huacas around Cuzco.[269] First ChairHare, Lizzy (University of Florida)[212] A Holistic Approach to Environmental Archaeologyat the Classic Maya site of Motul de San Jose,Guatemala.In this paper, I bring together zooarchaeological andpaleobotanical datasets from the Classic Maya site ofMotul de San Jose, Guatemala. By analyzing multiplelines of environmental data, we are better able todetermine which types of proxy data are better suited foruse by archaeologists in this area. Additionally, the useof multiple types of data should provide a more completeunderstanding of the ecological and economic processesof the site than either zooarchaeological orpaleobotanical analyses alone.Hargrave, Michael (ERDC CERL), Eileen Ernenwein(Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies,University of Arkansas, Fayetteville), George Avery(Stephen F. Austin State University), H. PeteGregory (Northwestern State University ofLouisiana) and Jeff Girard (Northwestern StateUniversity of Louisiana)[64] Demonstrating an integrated multi-sensorgeophysical approach at Presidio Los Adaes, LouisianaA 5-year project has demonstrated an integrated, multisensorgeophysical approach for investigatingarchaeological sites. A new software (ArchaeoFusion)was developed to reduce the technical expertise andlabor requirements that previously restricted use of theapproach. A core group of geophysical practitionersevaluated ArchaeoFusion‘s capabilities relative toalternative software. Presidio Los Adaes, an 18th centurySpanish fort and mission in west-central Louisianaserved as the demonstration site. Large site areas weresurveyed using gradiometry, magnetic susceptibility,conductivity, resistance, and GPR during the 2009 NPSclass in remote sensing. Interpretations of selectedanomalies were evaluated by small scaled excavations inMay 2010.Hargrave, Michael [193] see Lundin, Richard J. [162]see Baxter, Carey L.Harkey, Anna (University of California - Berkeley)[250] DiscussantHarman, Jon (DStretch)[158] Using DStretch to investigate paintings in CuevaSan Borjitas, BCS Mexico.

144ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGCueva San Borjitas is located near Mulege in BajaCalifornia Sur. On its magnificent ceiling are over 80polychrome painted anthropomorphs. The figuresrepresent several different styles. Figure overlap can giveclues to the style sequence. The figures are generallywell preserved, but nevertheless pigments have faded,some colors more than others. I will use DStretch, animage enhancement program used by rock artresearchers worldwide, to demonstrate the existence offigures and details of figures not documented by previousresearchers. These details give new insights into stylisticconventions and concerns of the Great Mural painters.Harrington, Lucy [158] see Dodd, Lynn S.Harris, Kathryn (Washington State University) andPhilip Fisher (Washington State University)[257] Efficiency of hafted bifaces as sawsThis study examines the efficiency of hafted bifaces assaws. While previous research indicates that haftedbifaces were used as multipurpose tools, little is knownabout the actual application of a hafted biface as a saw.Results of this experiment suggest: hafted bifaces do notquickly lose sawing efficiency over several uses andresharpenings, maximum raw material efficiency variesdepending on the length of time the biface is used, andvariability in hafting method and shape of the biface mayinfluence sawing efficiency. While preliminary, this studyis a useful springboard for understanding the relationshipbetween tool design and function.Harris, Kathryn [257] see Fisher, Philip R.Harrison, Ainslie [193] see Beaubien, Harriet F.Harrison-Buck, Eleanor (University of NewHampshire)[191] The Fall of the Classic Maya Kings: DefacedMonuments as Acts of ViolenceDavid Stuart (1996) argued that monuments with imagesof Maya kings were not just elite portraits, but viewed asextensions of the royal self. As animate persons, these"kings of stone" were active agents and their defacementis interpreted as evidence of violent overthrow. I examinemonument defacement associated with the destructionand abandonment of elite residences at the end of theClassic period, often interpreted as the result of longtermwarfare among elites. I cross-examine thisinterpretation and suggest shifts in regional powerbrought changes in warfare practice and contributed tothe downfall of Classic Maya aristocracy.Harrod, Ryan (UNLV) and Debra Martin (University ofNevada, Las Vegas)[237] Taphonomy After the Fact: Violence, Sex andRitual in Room 33 at ChacoChaco Canyon‘s Room 33, discovered by GeorgePepper in 1896, is recognized for its rich taphonomiccontext that reveals great detail about ritualized behavior(e.g., perimortem violence, exotic and extensive gravegoods and social status). One male burial showsevidence of extensive perimortem fractures on thecranium suggesting a violent death. Researchers such asAkins, Schelberg and Palkovich provided partial analysesof the skeletal material in the 1980s, however thisreanalysis of the remains considers the burials in relationto the grave goods, archaeological records, and historicaldocuments to provide a better understanding of thiselaborate and unique mortuary room.[237] First ChairHarrold, Francis (Univ of Nebraska at Kearney)[218] Attempting Synthesis in the Late Bordesian Era:The Example of the ChatelperronianIn the synthetic study of an industrial tradition and/orgeographic region, the author gathers data from manyexcavations and analyses to discern and explainpatterning in the archaeological record. The worker mustsort out different kinds of evidence, recovered at differenttimes by different investigators and methods,differentially available for study, and in varying conditionsof curation. Using as an example my 1978 study of theChatelperronian, I discuss the difficulties, shortcomings,and possibilities of such an approach.Harrower, Michael (Johns Hopkins University)[13] Geo-Economics of Water across Ancient SouthernArabiaWater and irrigation shaped ancient geographies andeconomies across Southern Arabia. Through GeographicInformation Systems (GIS) based modeling of hydrology,this paper considers the spatial distribution tombs,settlements and societies with respect to waterresources. In particular, differential patterning andconfigurations of ancient Southwest and SoutheastArabian societies are highlighted.Hart, Isaac (University of Utah)[91] A 4,000 year Pollen Record from Range CreekCanyon, UtahI will present a 4,000 year pollen record from a bog coretaken from upper Range Creek canyon, Utah. The core ispart of a larger project involving the analysis of severalpollen samples and woodrat middens taken in thecanyon in an effort to reconstruct biotic communitiesbefore during and after the fluorescence of Fremontoccupation at roughly 1,000 A.D. Results from this kindof research are key to understanding the ecologicalfactors constraining human activity in Range Creek andhave implications for the forager-agriculturalist transitionin general.Hart, John (New York State Museum) and WilliamEngelbrecht (Buffalo State College)[55] Northern Iroquoian Ethnic Evolution: A SocialNetwork AnalysisSocial relationships are integral to the humanexperience. Ethnicity is one kind of social relationshipthat archeologists explore. The evolution of the northernIroquoian ethnic landscape has been of longstandinginterest to archaeologist working in that area. SinceMacNeish‘s (1952) pottery typology study, thepredominant model for this evolution has been cladistic.An alternative model is rhizotic. Collar decoration servedas a means of signaling attributes of the potter andpottery users that mirrored other, more visible signals.We use Social Network Analysis to determine whetherpottery collar decoration data best fits one or the other ofthese models.Hart, John [19] see Raviele, Maria E.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 145Hastorf, Christine (University of California-Berkeley)[227] Discussant [250] Second OrganizerHastorf, Christine [35] see Wu, Chia-ChinHattori, Eugene [18] see Hardesty, Donald L.Hauser, Mark (Northwestern University) and JeromeHandler (Virginia Institute for the Humanities)[121] Archaeological implications for the comparison ofthree cottage industries: Ethnographic and documentaryobservations about the introduction of the Monkey andCoal Pot.Today, in a handful of Caribbean islands, persons ofAfrican descent continue to manufacture earthenwarepottery. This paper compares ethnographic and historicaldata from Antigua, Jamaica, St Lucia and Barbados todocument changes in pottery manufacture from the earlynineteenth century to recent decades. The paper focuseson two distinctive forms, the so-called monkey jar andcoal pot which have a wide distribution in the Anglophoneand Francophone Caribbean. While the exact temporaland geographical origin of these forms are difficult topinpoint, we argue they reflect broader trends in thephysical mobility of islanders.Hawks, John (University of Wisconsin, Madison)[17] Genetic Algorithm Simulations of Stone ToolManufacture and Cultural TransmissionPaleolithic tools are cultural products, propagated byinformation transfer among individuals, explaining somespatiotemporal patterns of artifact manufacture. Ideveloped a "computer knapping" model to estimate theKolmogorov complexity of Paleolithic intermediate andfinal products. A genetic algorithm is progressively tunedto replication of simulated Paleolithic objects. Altering thefracture dynamics and cobble size heterogeneityincreases the complexity of reduction sequencesnecessary to reproduce types. These elements ofcomplexity mimic some steps that facilitate observationand replication for novice algorithmic "learners". Similarstrategies of core reduction may address thecomplementary problems of heterogeneity andinformation transfer.Hawks, John [108] see Kissel, MarcHaws, Jonathan (University of Louisville), BryanHockett (US BLM), Nuno Bicho (Universidade doAlgarve) and Caroline Funk[4] Late Pleistocene Environmental Change and HumanOccupation of Lapa do Picareiro (Portugal)Lapa do Picareiro has provided an intact stratigraphicrecord between 8,000-35,000 cal BP with undateddeposits below. This provides a unique opportunity torecover key data to understand human settlementpatterns, technology, paleodiet within a paleoecologicalcontext. The cave has numerous cultural and nonculturallayers that contain faunal, floral, lithic andsedimentary information needed to test models for theprocess of modern human colonization of Portugal andSouthern Iberia in general. Here we present results of the2008-2010 field seasons.Hayashida, Frances (University of New Mexico), NeilDuncan (University of Missouri), David Goldstein(University of South Carolina) and Luis Huamán(Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia)[93] Agriculture, Plant Use, and Political Change on theLate Prehispanic North Coast of PeruThe Proyecto Ynalche investigates late prehispanicagriculture on the Pampa de Chaparrí on Peru‘s northcoast. The pampa was first cultivated during Sicán rule inca. AD 900, when agriculture was largely managed fromthe bottom up by farming communities. Conquest by firstthe Chimú and later the Inka resulted in state control ofagriculture. Recent fieldwork examined how thistransformation affected day-to-day life throughexcavations of Sicán and Chimú/Inka domestic contexts.Plant remains (macrobotanical, pollen, phytoliths) werecollected and analyzed to investigate changes ineconomy and landscape. In this paper, the results ofthese analyses are reported.Hayden, Brian (Simon Fraser University), SuzanneVilleneuve (Simon Fraser University) and RolfMathews (Simon Fraser University)[176] New Interdisciplinary Investigations into theEmergence and Collapse of Keatley CreekNew research directions at Keatley Creek focus ondebates over the timing of, and conditions surrounding,the emergence and collapse of large pithouse villages onthe British Columbian Plateau. Interdisciplinary researchhas been developed which integrates geoarchaeological,botanical, faunal and geochronological evidence from alarge sample of housepit rim middens, representing theoccupation history of the village site. Digital methods ofrecording assist in the correlation of data andinterpretation of complex rim stratigraphy. This posteroutlines the key archaeological and paleoeological issuesin the debate and presents results from the initial seasonof new excavations.[176] Second OrganizerHayden, Brian [176] see Villeneuve, Suzanne [176] seeEndo, Naoko [176] see Leech, Rhonda [176] seeRichards, Michael P.Hayes, Daniel R. [80] see Monaghan, George WilliamHaynes, Gary (University of Nevada-Reno)[155] Nearly Visible Stirrings a Thousand Years Beforethe Clovis Era?Clovis cannot be clearly defined as an archeologicalculture in North America, and may be better identified asan ―era‖ when some behaviors were similar in thecontinent but geographic variability also can be seen.The Clovis era was coincidental with many selective andclustered megafaunal extinctions. Clovis-era shocks thatled to the extinctions may have been preceded by pre-Clovis foreshocks, perhaps a thousand year-long span ofclimatic shifts and low-level human hunting. The possibleevidence for such a nearly-invisible human presence inNorth America is sometimes fishy but sometimesrespectable, although still ambiguous.Haynes, Gary [60] see Hutson, Jarod M. [30] seeKrasinski, Kathryn [4] see Wriston, Teresa A.Hays-Gilpin, Kelley (Northern Arizona Univ),Laurie Webster and Linda Cordell[18] Basketmaker Roots of Chaco Culture: In Praise of

146ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGCollections ResearchMuseum collections and archives are central to DonFowler's research. Insuring their continued preservationis a hallmark of his professional career. Don, with RayThompson, saved Chaco Canyon for New Mexico. Intribute, we examine Chaco origins by revisiting potteryand textiles long hidden in storerooms. The Chaco DigitalInitiative used archives to demonstrate that ritualdeposits in Pueblo Bonito reflect 300 years ofgenerational connections to the past. Our collectionsresearch shows that Chaco ritual sodalities usedBasketmaker-style sandals, burden baskets, andagricultural implements as ritual paraphernalia thatconnected many generations of Chaco people toancestors in the Chuska Mountains.Hayward, Michele (Panamerican Consultants), FrankSchieppati (Panamerican Consultants) and MichaelCinquino (Panamerican Consultants)[60] [Rock Art and Dating in Puerto Rico: AnExamination]It has been some 17 years since Peter Roe firstproposed a relative dating sequence for Puerto Ricanrock art based on the seriation of anthropomorphicimages from three locations. The three-fold frameworkhas largely gone untested. Images from several welldocumentedrock art sites in the last few years haveadded significantly to an available comparative ortestable data base. We select these and other locationfigures to examine the utility of Roe‘s sequence forordering the island‘s rock art development.Hazell, Sarah (McGill University)[159] Preliminary Analysis of Thule Occupation atResolute Bay, Cornwallis Island, Nunavut.Under the IPY initiative between 2007 and 2009, anintensive program of field research was implemented tobetter understand the nature and timing of Thuleoccupation at Resolute Bay given its standing importanceand in view of its connections to the West and recentrevisions of the dates surrounding their expansion intoCanada. Preliminary analysis of data from both Henry B.Collins‘ work and that produced under the IPY suggest infact that a number of occupations occurred at Resolute.This paper will explore the temporal associations of theoccupations and how these relate to Thule expansion.Headrick, Annabeth (University of Denver)[98] The God‘s a Stiff: Visual Cues in Teotihuacan ArtThis paper will take a stylistic tack to explore the functionof iconic and narrative forms of representation in the artof Teotihuacan. Whether the medium was stonesculpture, ceramic figurines or frescoed murals, artistsconsistently reserved static representational forms for thesupernatural while applying freer narrative scenes tohuman events. Yet, in the case of high status individualsand state sanctioned entities, human representationswere allowed to adopt stylistic characteristics of thedivine. The result was a visual system that clearlydelineated three distinct categories and carefully framedsocial behaviors and status.Healy, Paul [75] see Cheong, Kong F.Heath, Barbara [121] see Neiman, Fraser D. [121] seeAhlman, ToddHecht, Kyle [77] see Riffe, JedHeckman, Robert (Statistical Research, Inc.) andAnna Neuzil (EcoPlan Associates, Inc)[264] Trends, Styles, and Types: Prehistoric Ceramics InSouth East Arizona.In southeastern Arizona, painted ceramics arecharacterized by broad stylistic traditions that crosscutgeographic regions and traditionally defined cultureareas, and defy classification in traditional type and warecategories. Researchers studying ceramics in this areatend to become narrowly focused, attempting tounderstand how specific ceramic traditions relate toculture areas. Instead, to be fruitful and yield meaningfulresults, future research on these southern ceramicsshould focus on stylistic trends as a means to get atbroad social themes such as identity, and usetechnological differences to examine methods ofmanufacture and pinpointing loci where ceramics weremanufactured.[81] First ChairHeckman, Robert [80] see Hanson, Jeffery R. [80] seeMajewski, TeresitaHector, Susan (San Diego Gas & Electric Company)[230] Evidence for Intensification and Diversification ofActivities during the Contact Period in McCain Valley,San Diego County, CaliforniaThe contact period in San Diego County (1769-1870)was a time of movement and change for native people.Many relocated away from towns and ranches to avoidconflicts and re-establish traditional lifestyles andsettlements. In some cases, areas that had beenmarginally or seasonally occupied or used for theexploitation of specific resources became permanentcamps and villages. This study examines McCain Valley,and site CA-SDI-4010 in particular, to evaluate evidencefor an intensified, more diverse, higher-density settlementpattern during the contact period.Hedgepeth, Jessica (University of Colorado, Boulder)[5] A typological and iconographic analysis of EarlyPostclassic pottery from Río Viejo, Oaxaca, MexicoThis poster introduces a newly created typology of EarlyPostclassic (A.D. 800-1100) Yugüe phase ceramics fromRío Viejo in coastal Oaxaca, Mexico. The ceramicsderive from non-elite households which occupied the sitefollowing a major administrative collapse (c.a. A.D. 800).I give an overview of the main ceramic types classifiedaccording to three technological modes—finewares,greywares, and coarse brownwares—and discuss thesocial practices associated with each mode. The posterconcludes by presenting an iconographic interpretation ofthe Yugüe phase ceramics.Hedges, Robert [255] see Whittle, AlasdairHedquist, Saul (University of Arizona), AlysonThibodeau (University of Arizona), E. Charles Adams(University of Arizona) and David Killick (Universityof Arizona)[136] Sourcing Homol‘ovi I Turquoise Through Lead andStrontium Isotopic AnalysesHigh-precision measurements of lead and strontium

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 147isotopes have been shown to discriminate betweenturquoise sources in the American Southwest. This studyemploys a recently developed geochemical andgeological framework of paired isotopic measurements todetermine the source(s) of turquoise recovered fromHomol‘ovi I in an effort to better understand processes ofturquoise procurement and exchange during lateprehistory. Selected turquoise samples are analyzed toinvestigate 1) if one or multiple geologic sources arerepresented at Homol‘ovi I, 2) if intrasite dispersalpatterns are evident, and 3) the associated implicationsregarding regional patterns of interaction and exchangein the American Southwest.Heffner, Sarah (University of Nevada, Reno)[195] Healthcare Practices of the Chinese in NineteenthandTwentieth-Century Nevada Mining CommunitiesThis paper will discuss healthcare practices among theChinese in Nevada mining communities during the latenineteenthand early-twentieth centuries. In addition tolooking at the types of Chinese medicinal artifacts foundat sites in Nevada, this paper will address the presenceof Euro-American patent medicines on Chinese sites.The Chinese voluntarily adopted aspects of Euro-American culture such as dress and religion and Euro-American artifacts have been found on Chinese sites.Studies indicate Euro-American adoption of Chinesemedicine, but little research has been done to addressthe use of Euro-American patent medicines by theChinese.Hegberg, Erin (University of New Mexico) andWendy Sutton (National Forest Service)[211] Risque Ranchers and Bored Shepherds:Possibilities for dendroglyph researchDendroglyphs are marvelous examples of a singleevent—something rare in archaeology. They alsofrequently provide us with convenient, precision datingcarved right into the tree. A large sample of carved aspencan provide archaeologists and historians withinformation regarding land-use, historic grazing, literacy,ethnic identity, climate change from year to year, andmore. This poster presents some potential lines ofdendroglyph research using GIS. This research is basedon 19 sites, representing over 300 trees, documented inthe 2010 summer field season in a small area aroundBuckles Lake in the San Juan National Forest, PagosaRanger District.Hegmon, Michelle (Arizona State University) andPaul Minnis (University of Oklahoma)[53] The Local Context of Long Distance Exchange:Mimbres and Casas GrandesGreat research, which provides far-ranging conclusions,advances archaeology in many ways, including byproviding ideas and assumptions worthy of futureexamination. We examine Di Peso‘s ideas andinterpretations of exotica at Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.Were rooms full of exotica actually stores for exchange,as Di Peso argued, or are the exotica better interpretedas offerings? The distinction between exchange goodsand offerings is developed through comparative analysesof Classic Mimbres material from a slightly earlieroccupation of an adjacent area. The distinction is alsosupported by ethnographic literature and site formationprocess research.Heidenreich, Stephan (University of Cologne)[231] Late Pleistocene Lithic Tool Assemblages inEastern Beringia: Cultural-Chronological Disparity vs.Functional VariabilitySince the definition of various lithic industries in EasternBeringia the actual sense behind this separation has notbeen clarified. Some researchers are convinced ofcultural and/or chronological differences, others havesuggested seasonal or functional variation. Evaluation ofvarious ―complexes‖ of Central and Northern Alaska anda review of their application reveal a mismatch. Thearchaeological record should be addressed with a transregionalapproach independent of cultural designations.Chronological control can only be gained throughradiocarbon dating. Preliminary results of analyzed toolassemblages indicate functional variability of huntergatherercampsites. This requires a new approach,recognizing settlement pattern diversity instead of apremature interpretation of cultural differences.Heidner, William [83] see Slaughter, Mark C.Heilen, Michael [80] see Hall, John D.Hein, Anke (UCLA)[23] Prehistoric Cultures of the Liangshan District -Disentangling Identities and Geographic Preconditions ina Multiregional Interaction SphereThis paper gives an overview on archaeological materialfrom the Anning River valley in southwest Sichuan. Thearea is characterized by a multitude of different culturesand ethnic groups that have intermingled here since thelate Neolithic. Furthermore, it is crisscrossed by manyrivers that dissect it into ecologically very different subregionsbut also connect it to other areas far north andsouth. Therefore, it is especially well-suited for researchon identity groups and their relation with and expressionin their local environment. Moreover, the materialprovides an opportunity to reconsider general questionsof cultural contact and ethnic identity.[23] First Chair [23] Second OrganizerHeindel, Theresa[8] Seeking durable indicators of manioc processing:scrapers.During the 2009 excavations conducted near Ceren, adacite scraper was found in a midden located withinOperation P. Analyses indicated that the working edge ofthe scraper showed substantial and distinctive usewear,including abrasions consistent with the working ofmaterial covered in dirt or grit. The present studyattempts to replicate the abrasion seen on the OperationP scraper by using a replicated scraper in conjunctionwith Ilopango volcanic ash to remove the cortex frommanioc. Results should provide information on thisunique type of usewear, and add to our understanding ofcultivated manioc processing at Ceren.Heller, Eric (University of California Riverside)[170] When it Breathes, It Pours: Foundations andFunctions of the Mesoamerican Reptilian EarthZoomorphic representations of the earth as a reptiliancreature, whose breath emanates rain-bringing windsfrom cave-like maws, are common to manyMesoamerican cultures. An analysis of the reptilian earth

148ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGcomplex reveals that cosmological beliefs and empiricalenvironmental phenomena were not discrete subjects forancient peoples of Mesoamerica. Rather, empiricalobservations dialectically informed cosmological andmetaphysical knowledge. An analysis of geological andmeteorological phenomena combined with interpretationsof iconographic materials suggests that, for ancientMesoamericans, environmental observations formed abase constituent of cosmological models. Furthermore,some cosmological models may have served asfunctional diagrammatic representations of criticalenvironmental processes.[170] First ChairHelmke, Christophe [56] see Freiwald, Carolyn R. [56]see Wrobel, Gabriel D.Hemmings, C. Andrew (Mercyhurst College) andThomas Loebel (University of Illinois, Chicago)[120] Clovis writ small: The Mineer site (Vernon) flutedpoint assemblage of east central Arizona reexaminedMineer was first investigated more than 40 years ago andincluded surface collection of a large quantity of flutedpoint material as well as documentation of numeroussimilar collections held by locals. The material housed atthe Field Museum has been variously described asFolsom or Folsom-like based strictly on size rather thantechnical reduction processes. This assemblage containsnumerous diagnostic Clovis bifaces, performs, and flutedpoints, as well as two blade core tablet flakes. This is aClovis assemblage produced in miniature due to thesmall stone package sizes available in high quality buttough stream tumbled nodules.Hemmings, C. Andrew [265] see Adovasio, James M.Henderson, A. Gwynn (Kentucky ArchaeologicalSurvey) [113] DiscussantHenley, Michelle [82] see Everson, Gloria E.Henrickson, Celeste (UC Berkeley) and ShaneMacfarlan (Washington State University)[179] Analysis of Archaeological Materials from CuevaSanta Rita, Baja California Sur, MexicoIn this poster we present preliminary results from studiesin the southern Sierra de La Giganta region of BajaCalifornia Sur, Mexico. Data from excavations at CuevaSanta Rita and recent regional surveys in the La Gigantaregion reveal an interesting diversity of artifact materialsand sites. The cave‘s location adjacent to a series ofsprings and an ephemeral lake basin may have attractedmany different types of use by ancient peoples. Thepresented research works to expand our knowledge ofpeoples who lived in the southern Baja California Sur,Mexico.Henry, Amanda (The George Washington University)[111] Formation and taphonomic processes affectingstarch grainsAs complex organic molecules, starch grains are subjectto a variety of processes that affect their architecture andvisible properties, at all stages of their 'life history',including during the life of the plant that formed them,during their removal from the plant (whether natural orhuman-mediated), and within the archaeological contextsin which they may be preserved. A good understandingof the current literature that describes these processesand their affect on starch grains is vital for accuratelyinterpreting the starch grain record. This paper discussesthese processes, and outlines the areas where moreresearch is needed.Hepp, Guy (University of Colorado)[157] The Material Culture of Early Sedentism in CoastalOaxaca: Probable Early Formative Ceramics from LaConsentidaThis paper discusses a collection of probable EarlyFormative ceramic vessel fragments from the lower RíoVerde Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. This study sheds lighton a diverse assemblage that included small graterbowls, large-diameter conical vessels, some tecomates,and figurines. Despite erosion, remnant plasticdecoration allows commentary on the iconographiccannon utilized on La Consentida ceramics. This paperdemonstrates differences between the La Consentidaassemblage and its closest chronological neighbors inthe regional sequence, and provides contextual supportfor the argument that La Consentida is producing the firstrelatively well-understood Early Formative ceramics fromthe western Oaxacan coast.Herbst, George (UC Santa Barbara) and Stuart Smith(University of California, Santa Barbara)[246] Pre-Kerma transition at the Nile Fourth Cataract:evidence of stratified late prehistoric settlement innorthern SudanThis paper reports the preliminary findings ofinvestigations of a multi-component, stratified lateprehistoric settlement located at the upper reaches of theNile Fourth Cataract. UCSB 03-01 is characterized bydistinct occupation sequences that show continuoushabitation of the area from the late Neolithic (4300-4000B.C.) through the Pre-Kerma and early Kerma periods(3900-2300 B.C.). AMS radiocarbon data, diagnosticpottery and domestic architecture demonstrate a clearhorizontal and vertical stratigraphy. These results provideevidence of uninterrupted settlement during a crucialperiod of social transition at the florescence of theearliest Nubian Kingdom.Hermes, Bernard [14] see Zralka, JaroslawHermes, Taylor [169] see Longacre, William A.Herr, Sarah (Desert Archaeology, Inc.), Michael Diehl(Desert Archaeology, Inc.) and Michael Sullivan(Tonto National Forest)[139] To Everything there is a Season: Western ApacheLand Use in the Mogollon Rim Region, Arizona.Formerly an Western Apache homeland, today theMogollon Rim region is the location of archaeologicalsites and remembered places. Traditional Apachelifeways are tied to plants and seasons and the forestedmountains of central Arizona are filled with food,medicinal, and ceremonial resources. Ethnographicallyinformed studies of food procurement and processingassemblages from archaeological sites relatesubsistence activities to the social order and help toconvey the enduring connection of Apaches to theirancestral landscape.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 149[139] First ChairHerrmann, Edward (Glenn A. Black Laboratory ofArchaeology)[163] Predicting Late Pleistocene and Early HoloceneSettlement Patterns along the White River Valley inSouth-Central IndianaAlthough early hunter-gatherer sites are common in theWhite River Valley region, relatively little is known aboutregional Paleoindian and Early Archaic cultural andsubsistence practices. This poster utilizes GeographicInformation Systems (GIS) to model the spatial andtemporal relationships between site locations, landscapegeomorphology, and fluvial depositional environments.Ultimately, synthesis of this information can helpresearchers model and locate stratified sediments whichmay harbor cultural and paleoenvironmental data usefulin deciphering hunter-gatherer settlement andsubsistence practices 8,000-13,000 years ago.Herrmann, Nicholas P. [216] see Yerka, Stephen J.Hescock, Sara [87] see Gebauer, Rachel SmithHesp, Patrick [265] see Evans, Amanda M.Hewitt, Barbara (University of Western Ontario),Christine D White (University of Western Ontario),Brian J Fryer (University of Windsor, Great LakesInstitute for Environmental Research) andFred Longstaffe (University of Western Ontario)[49] ―Chosen Ones‖ in the north? An isotopicinvestigation of a suspected Acllawasi at Túcume, Peru.In this study we use oxygen and strontium isotopeanalyses to investigate the social identities of 19 femalesburied together at Túcume in northern Peru. Thesewomen have been hypothesized to be Aclla (―chosenones‖), master weavers and ceremonial attendantsselected by the Inca and sent to regional training centres(Acllawasi). According to Spanish ethnohistoricdocuments these women were relocated primarily to thesouthern areas of the Inca Empire, and their lives werelargely spent in seclusion and servitude. Although littlearchaeological evidence exists for the presence of thistradition in the north, Túcume may have been one suchsite.Heyman, Marjie[163] Analyzing Social Space:Interpreting SpatialPatterning at Archaeological Sites UsingEthnoarchaeological DataA community‘s social behaviors may be inferred from itssite‘s spatial patterning. Spatial patterning results fromthe repeated actions and space use of corporatemembers. Ethnographic data analysis of extanthorticultural groups identify common spatial patterns.Occupational density influences social behaviors andinformation exchange. Variation is influenced by kinshipand residential layout; private and communal spaces;ecological context; and degree of residential sedentism.Archaeological correlates used to interpret spatialbehaviors are predicted. A model links ethnographicobservation with expected archaeological surfaceremains. This model is used to interpret the spatialpatterning at two prehistoric horticultural communities inthe American Southwest.Hicks, Pat [83] see Slaughter, Mark C.Hicks, Tyler (Simon Fraser University), Matthew Sisk(Stony Brook University), Andrew Watson (AnterraConsulting), Utsav Schurmans (University ofPennsylvania) and Suzanne Villeneuve (Simon FraserUniversity)[176] GIS in the Analysis of Pithouse Village Occupationat Keatley Creek, British Columbia PlateauGIS is a useful tool for processing large volumes ofexcavation data to examine the spatial dimensions ofhuman behavior across different periods of occupation.New research at Keatley Creek examines the timing andconditions surrounding the emergence of these complexcommunities and integrates data from householdactivities to examine changes in socioeconomy. HereGIS applications provide a well-structured descriptiveand analytical tool for excavation and analysis and allowus to integrate new information with over 20 years ofexcavations data. Results illustrating how these toolsassist in identifying spatial patterns, housepit formationprocesses and understanding site-wide occupation areprovided.Hidjrati, Nazim (NOSU Inst of History & Archaeology)and Larry Kimball (Appalachian State University)[108] The Function of Flint Mousterian Tools fromMyshtulagty Lagat (Weasel Cave), RussiaResults of a high-power microwear analysis ofMousterian artifacts from Myshtulagty Lagat, Russia arepresented. This sample represents 100% of all flint toolsand debitage from Isotope Stage 5e through FinalMousterian (~28,000 B.P.) contexts. Significantly, thepreservation of use-traces and hafting-traces isexceptional. We find that the tools were used for woodworking,butchery, and scraping hides, in rank order; andthat hafting is very common for formal Mousterian tools,especially small flakes. There is not a one-to-onecorrelation between general tool morphology and toolfunction. These data assist our understanding ofMousterian technology from the tool-user‘s perspective.Hidjrati, Nazim [108] see Koetje, Todd A. [59] seeKimball, Larry R.Hiebert, Fred (National Geographic Society)[247] Cultural heritage protection in Afghanistan: Updateon archaeologyThe cultural heritage of Afghanistan continues to be inperil due to poor security, lack of infrastructure, rampantlooting and lack of funds for cultural heritagemanagement. Despite this, positive developmentscontinue to be made in this challenging environment.This includes international exhibition, repair of museumand training of museum and conservation staff, limitedexcavations at threatened sites, and cooperation withU.S. Army in training forces to recognize and respectcultural resources within the context of rules ofengagement. Future steps rest on cultivation ofrelationships with multiple stakeholders within andbeyond Afghanistan.[247] First ChairHiebert, Fred [5] see Casson, Aksel

150ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGHigelin, Ricardo (ENAH)[95] Estudio bioantropológico de Atzompa a partir de lasmuestras óseas recuperadas en Tumbas.Durante el año 2007 – 2009 el Proyecto Arqueológico delConjunto Monumental de Atzompa, Oaxaca; realizótrabajos de excavación de enterramientos humanos, asícomo el análisis de los materiales esqueléticos enlaboratorio. Cabe mencionar que varios restosesqueléticos obtenidos en entierros directos seencontraron en mal estado de conservación mostrandopoca información sobre la serie osteológica. Por talmotivo, esta presentación tiene como objetivo principal,conocer y exponer las características bioantropológicasde los restos esqueléticos humanos recuperadosúnicamente en tumbas; rescatando información sobre lascaracterísticas físicas de la población prehispánica deAtzompa.Higgins, Howard (TRC Environmental Corp.),Christopher Watkins (Arizona State University)and Glen Rice (Rio Salado Archaeology LLC)[158] Petroglyphs and Pilgrimages; A Perspective fromthe Gillespie Rock Art ComplexArchaeological work has documented both Hohokam andPatayan residence at the Gillespie Dam site near GilaBend, Arizona (Watkins and Rice 2009). Across the GilaRiver from the village is the 4 km long Gillespie DamRock Art Complex containing many oversized and veryvisible monumental glyphs. The petroglyphs include acombination of the Hohokam Gila stylistic tradition, andthe Patayan Sears Point stylistic tradition. This publicdisplay includes examples of large elements pecked overeach other. It is argued that the rock art served as publicstatements of life in a plural community where separategroup identities were maintained.Hildebrand, Elisabeth (Stony Brook University) andTimothy Schilling (Washington University In St.Louis)[246] Social and Economic Significance of Early StoragePits on Sai Island, SudanEarly storage pits in the Nile Valley and nearby areas(Fayum) are associated with the spread of plant foodproduction. Some scholars suggest these innovationsinitially aimed to preserve seasonal surpluses andameliorate unpredictable year-to-year resourcefluctuations. Through time, storage pits and seasonalsurpluses may have been co-opted by incipient elites asa means of aggrandizement. On Sai Island, a storagefacility had >100 subterranean pits; some, sealed since~4150 bp, contained the area‘s earliest known domesticplants. Archaeological data suggest these pits werecreated and maintained by small social units in thecontext of household-scale economies.[246] First ChairHildebrandt, Tod (Utah State University)[179] High Elevation Adaptations in the Late PrehistoricGreat BasinA recent survey on the East side of the Toquima Rangein central Nevada encountered a series of 10 rock ringsthat represent a late archaic occupation of Pine Creek.The Pine creek drainage serves as a least cost path toAlta Toquima village. Preliminary survey and subsurfacetesting hints that this site may represent an archaicsubsistence strategy that predates the later highelevation adaptations associated with the occupation ofAlta Toquima Village. This site provides a modest, yetvaluable contribution to our understanding of highelevation habitation in the Great Basin.[177] see Jones, Emily LenaHildebrandt, William (Far Western AnthropologicalResearch Group) and Kelly McGuire (Far WesternAnthropological Research Group, Inc.)[11] A Land of PrestigeDuring much of the Early and Middle Holocene, peoplelived in small residentially mobile groups. Larger morepermanent settlements developed later and wereaccompanied by increased gender differentiated workorganization, storage, inter-regional exchange, andlogistical access to distant patches. The costs ofobtaining commodities through exchange and logisticaltransport were often higher than for resources closer tohome, indicating that the non-local items representedalternative, non-energetic currencies used to increaseprestige and fitness. By focusing on these relationships,and the behavioral ecological theory that explains them,we can improve our understanding of the rich characterof California's prehistory.[256] DiscussantHill, Brett (Hendrix College), Patrick Lyons (ArizonaState Museum), Jeffery Clark (Center for DesertArchaeology) and William Doelle (Center for DesertArchaeology)[52] Coalescence, Core Decay and Hohokam CollapseThe collapse of Classic period Hohokam society ofsouthern Arizona offers significant lessons for studies ofenvironmental degradation and its social consequences.We propose a model of Core Decay along the lower SaltRiver Valley in which multiple environmental and socialfactors operated in a systematic manner to amplifydifficulties. Population coalescence and irrigationconstraints led to environmental degradation anddeclining productivity in core areas near canal intakelocations. Consequent production effort tended to moredistant locations where conflict with recent immigrantsensued. Ultimately, the costs of irrigation systemmaintenance and social tension contributed to collapseand depopulation.Hill, Brett [52] see Lyons, Patrick D.Hill, Christopher [218] see Blackwell, Bonnie A. B.Hill, Matthew E. [231] see Knell, Edward J.Hill, Rebecca [204] see Lincoln-Babb, Lorrie [85] seeStockton, TrentHills, Kendall[40] From Space to Place: A Developmental Analysis ofthe Epicentral Court Complex at the Ancient MayaCenter of Minanha, Belize.Using a spatio-temporal artifact frequency distributionanalysis, this paper explores the long-term occupation ofthe physical ―space‖ that would, during the Late Classicperiod, emerge as the seat of power for the small citystateof Minanha. Emphasis is placed on understandingthe diverse economic, social, political, and ritual activitiesthat were carried out in this ―place‖ before, during, and

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 151after the existence of the Minanha royal court. Ultimately,the general trends that emerge from this analysis informus as to how this segment of the greater Minanhacommunity changed over time. Some of the key spatiotemporaltrends are highlighted.Hilton, Michael (Black Hills National Forest)[92] Lime Plaster Floors–Or Not? A Call for CautionRegarding Field InterpretationsThin, light-colored stratigraphic units encountered inarchaeological contexts are frequently assumed torepresent the sedimentological signatures of lime-plasterfloor sequences. While such interpretations are oftenaccurate, caution must be exercised. This study utilizesthin-section petrography to examine a series ofundisturbed sediment samples from the southern coastof Israel. Microscopic analysis demonstrates that thephysical properties that characterize lime plaster aresometimes absent. A significant number of the lightcoloredstrata are composed exclusively of denseaccumulations of translucent opaline phytoliths whichproduce a hue and color value nearly identical to that ofplaster floors. This analysis has significant implicationsfor interpretations proffered.Hirshman, Amy (West Virginia University) andChristopher J. Stawski (Michigan State University)[38] Paddlers and porters: moving Late PostclassicTarascan ceramics to marketArchaeological study of Tarascan ceramics from theLake Pátzcuaro Basin, Michoacán, Mexico, indicatelocalized production and market exchange. What is notknown, however, is the relationship between thislocalized production and the trade economy within theBasin. There is conceivably a direct relationship betweentrade and travel and the logistics behind the production,movement and use of ceramics. Drawing fromarchaeology and ethnography, this paper modelstransport costs within the larger context of the ceramiceconomy in the Basin during the Late PostclassicTarascan state.[38] First ChairHirst, K. Kris (Archaeology at [214] FirstChairHirth, Kenneth (Penn State University) [116]DiscussantHockett, Bryan [4] see Haws, Jonathan A.Hodges, Charles [231] see Kopperl, RobertHodgetts, Lisa (University of Western Ontario), DonButler (University of Calgary), Peter Dawson(University of Calgary) and Edward Eastaugh(University of Western Ontario)[159] Seeing the unseen: geophysical and geochemicalinvestigations of activity areas in the southern KeewatinDistrict, NunavutArchaeological investigations of Arctic sites havetraditionally employed surface mapping, test-pitting andexcavation in order to understand the relationshipsbetween archaeological features and human activities.We present a case study of the use of magnetometersurvey and geochemical soil analysis on a largearchaeological site west of Hudson Bay, in order toillustrate how these techniques can complement moretraditional approaches to understanding northern sites.Both techniques have great potential in Inuit archaeologyas they provide information about the differential use ofspace that cannot be accessed through other means.Hodgetts, Lisa [159] see Dawson, Peter C.Hodgins, Greg (University of Arizona), Amy JoVonarx (University of Arizona, School ofAnthropology), Tatsuya Murakami (University ofSouth Florida) and Arleyn Simon (Arizona StateUniversity, Archaeological Research Institute, Schoolof Human Evolution and Social Change)[92] Radiocarbon Dating Mesoamerican plasters andmortars: a comparative perspectiveDating architecture in Prehispanic Mesoamerica presentsspecial challenges for archaeologists. Pottery sequencesmay be temporally imprecise, reuse of materials iscommon, deposits are often disturbed, and preservationof organics is poor in moist, jungle environments. Limemortar and plaster technologies have been used inMesoamerica for millennia and surviving structures withsamples are relatively common. Direct radiocarbondating of mortar and plaster holds great potential but ourattempts have generated few successes. Here we reviewradiocarbon dates and summarize lessons learned fromstudies of lime-based materials at Teotihuacan in CentralMexico and numerous Maya sites in Guatemala.Hoekman-Sites, Hanneke (Florida State University)[19] Resource Intensification in Early Village Societies:Dairying on the Great Hungarian PlainI examined early dairying practices on the GreatHungarian Plain during the Neolithic and Copper Age(6000-3000 cal BC) to identify how milk product usechanged through time. The results of this analysis willyield information about patterns of dairy residuedistribution across individual sites and in various vesseltypes. The impact of this project reaches beyond theconfines of residue analysis. By providing informationabout general trends of animal product use over time, ourknowledge about the process of economic intensificationin Eastern Europe will be greatly expanded.Methodological issues will also be addressed.Hoffecker, John (INSTAAR), Owen Mason(INSTAAR), Nancy Bigelow (University of Alaska-Fairbanks) and Christyann Darwent (University ofCalifornia-Davis)[159] One Thousand Years of Settlement at CapeEspenberg, Northwest AlaskaGroups of former houses and associated features arespread across ten beach ridges near the tip of CapeEspenberg, representing roughly one thousand years ofInuit settlement. During the second year (2010) of athree-year interdisciplinary project, houses were partiallyexcavated on the three of the ridges. The excavatedhouses are small, but yielded a wealth of artifacts andfaunal remains that will be used to address questionsconcerning social, economic, and technological change(including the possibility of whaling) during the pastmillennium at Cape Espenberg.[159] Second Chair

152ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGHoffman, Laura (SWCA Environmental Consultants)[186] Differential Access to Resources and theEmergence of Elites: Obsidian at La BlancaThis paper presents the results of a comparative analysisof obsidian artifacts recovered from five householdcontexts at La Blanca. Although situated in the shadow ofGuatemala‘s volcanic mountains, the denizens of LaBlanca had limited access to obsidian; this presents aunique opportunity to examine differences in access tothis valuable resource. The distribution of obsidian at LaBlanca reflects the emerging dominance of the nascentelites as well as the resistance of non-elites to the loss ofhousehold autonomy. This paper explores this dichotomyand its effects on the development of regional complexsocial systems.Hofkamp, Anthony (Portland State University) andVirginia Butler (Portland State University)[178] ―Ground truthing‖ the use of radiographic analysisof annular growth rings for age determination in Pacificsalmon (Oncorhynchus sp.)Since the 1980's, radiographic methods have beenemployed for age determination and speciesidentification of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.)vertebrae from Northwest Coast archaeological sites.This method involves counting incremental growthstructures, which hypothetically represent one year ofgrowth. Our study tests this approach using modernvertebrae from two species of Pacific salmon (O. kisutchand O. tshawytscha) with known ages-of-death based ontag ages. Discrepancies varied between 4 and 62 % forthe species. We consider the reasons behind the higherror rate and future work needed to extend the value ofincrement analysis to archaeological and fisheriesscience research.Hofman, Courtney (University of Maryland), JesusMaldonado (Smithsonian Conservation BiologyInstitute) and Torben Rick (National Museum ofNatural History)[105] Mice and Man: Ancient DNA Analysis of Deer Micefrom Daisy Cave, San Miguel Island, CACalifornia Channel Island ecosystems have beeninfluenced by human activities for over 10,000 years. TheIsland deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), one offew endemic island mammals, appears to have replacedan older and now extinct deer mouse (P. nesodytes)during the Holocene. P. maniculatus may have beenunintentionally introduced by Native Americans, butquestions remain about the relationship between the twospecies. Genetic analysis of archaeological deer micefrom San Miguel Island provides data on the relationshipbetween ancient and extant Peromyscus. These datademonstrate the importance of ancient DNA analysis forinvestigating a variety of archaeological andenvironmental issues.Hofman, Courtney [105] see Jagani, Sheel A.Hogan, Richard [158] see Gaskell, SandraHogberg, Anders (Sydvensk Arkeologi AB)[254] Old Uppsala, Sweden: 1,500 year old Royal burialmounds and what they can reveal about heritage todayOld Uppsala with its three mighty burial mounds from the6th century AD is one of Scandinavia's most renownedheritage sites. Today Old Uppsala is managed by theSwedish National Heritage Board. In addition toinformation boards, there is a small museum telling thehistory of the site. I analyzed the thinking underlying theconstruction and design of the heritage site we seetoday. My paper discusses in what way thearchaeological excavations, conservation measures,educational efforts, and improved access reflect thesocial and cultural meaning of the site today and whatOld Uppsala can reveal about our own societyHoggarth, Julie (University of Pittsburgh)[34] Commoner Resilience in the Classic to PostclassicTransition: Settlement and Households at Baking Pot,BelizeThe Terminal Classic period in the central and southernMaya Lowlands has often been characterized bydepopulation and abandonment of major centers, alongwith the decline of elite-related paraphernalia. Althoughsignificant research has focused on the "Classic MayaCollapse", fewer studies have focused on the processesof social reorganization and regeneration in the Classicto Postclassic transition at the level of households andcommunities. This poster will present the results ofexcavations of commoner housegroups at Baking Pot, acenter that was occupied into the Terminal Classic andEarly Postclassic, and discuss community integrationduring this period of social change.Højlund, Flemming [13] see Zambelli, AmberHoldaway, Simon (University of Auckland), MatthewDouglass (University of Nebraska, Lincoln) andRebecca Phillipps (University of Auckland)[22] Flake selection, assemblage variability andtechnological organizationTwo types of raw material, silcrete and quartz areabundant in western New South Wales, Australia in theform of cortical cobbles and were used by Aboriginalpeople to manufacture flaked artifacts. By comparing thequantity of cortex on the cobbles and in thearchaeological assemblages it is possible to show thatlarge, thin flakes were removed from the locations wherethey were knapped. What was removed depended onraw material form, reduction technology and anticipatedartifact use. The significance of selecting flakes that werenot retouched is considered in relation to assemblagevariability and assessments of technologicalorganization.Holdaway, Simon [3] see Lin, Sam CHolen, Kathleen (Denver Museum of Nature & Sc)[29] "It fits perfectly in my hand" and Other Affordancesof Expedient Bone Tools―It fits perfectly in my hand‖. Archaeologists cringe whenthey hear those words used to describe artifacts. Butneuropsychological research shows that the ability toconceptually and physically grasp a tool is hardwired inprimate brains. Tool creation is based on the perceptionof function in form. This paper discusses a qualitativestudy of the behavior of archaeologists as they replicatedPleistocene bone technology. Their spontaneousidentification and use of expedient tools is explainedusing the concept of affordance. The analysis is thenexpanded to suggest an approach to identification and

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 153interpretation of expedient bone tools at Pleistocenearchaeological sites.Holen, Steven (Denver Mus of Nature & Science)[231] The Lamb Spring and Scott Spring Sites, DouglasCounty, Colorado: New evidence for late PleistoceneHuman AssociationNew high-precision radiocarbon ages on humanlymodifiedmammoth bone from the Lamb Spring Site,excavated by the Smithsonian Institution in the early1960s and again in the early 1980s, are reported.Another nearby site, Scott Spring, was first discovered bya USGS geologist, Glenn Scott in the early 1950s. Hecollected mammoth, camel and horse bone from springdeposits and loess including one camel bone that mayhave been modified by humans. Test excavations in2010 discovered more late Pleistocene faunal elementsin loess near the spring that appear to have beenmodified by humans.Holk, Gregory [5] see Bernal, JudyHollenbach, Kandace D. [129] see Carmody, StephenB.Holliday, Vance (University of Arizona)[155] Geoarchaeology and Paleoenvironments Of TheClovis Occupation in the Southwestern U.S. andNorthwestern MexicoClovis sites the SW U.S. and NW Mexico are found in avariety of settings. Kill/butchery sites are located in lowordertributaries of main streams in what were oncewetland settings. Camps are in uplands in proximity tothe tributaries or to paleo-lakes. Mainstreams (RioGrande, San Pedro River) were quasi-stable just before,during, and just after the Clovis occupation. Lake levelsfor this time in paleo-lake basins with evidence of Clovisoccupation (Estancia, San Agustin, Jornada del Muerto,Willcox) are poorly dated, but none provide evidence forhigh stands. Stable isotopes indicate relatively cool butwarming conditions.[120] see Sanchez Miranda, GuadalupeHollimon, Sandra (Santa Rosa Junior College)[16] Bioarchaeological Approaches to Non-BinaryGenders: Case Studies from Native North AmericaRecent research has begun to explicitly address therelationship between biological sex and culturalconstructions of gender. Queer theory, theories ofembodiment, and the body as material cultures aredevelopments that inform this research. The bioculturalinteractions of sex and gender equip bioarchaeologyperhaps uniquely to identify non-binary genders in thearchaeological record. It has been suggested that nonbinarygenders have a great time depth in North America,and that the colonizing populations who migrated fromnortheastern Asia recognized more than two genders. Idescribe examples of these analyses from archaeologicalsites in the U.S.[48] see Murley, Daniel F.Hollowell, Julie ([none or "independent"]) [78]DiscussantHolm, Steven (University of Nevada, Reno)[208] In Small Things Lost and FoundThis presentation is the preliminary results of the 2010University of Nevada, Reno field school in archaeology.Excavations focused on Cornish Row, a historicneighborhood on the slopes of Mount Davidson aboveVirginia City, Nevada along Howard Street. No standingstructures remain except house platforms built into themountain. Domestic material recovered includes:ceramic, glass, clothing fragments, and personal items.Since interaction with the public is a vital part ofarchaeology, this presentation focuses on the smallartifacts or things not usually seen by the public tohighlight the potential of these small things to illustratelarge concepts.Holmer, Nick [63] see Rauh, Whitnie D.Holstad, Emily (Washington State University), PaulScott (Iowa State University), William Lipe(Washington State University) and John G. Jones(Washington State University)[46] Basketmaker II Stone Boiling and the Enhancementof Maize Protein Availability at Cedar Mesa, Utah: AnExperimental StudyExperiments show that limestone heated to >600 C,when dropped into water, generates calcium hydroxide,or slaked lime. Results from cooking maize with heatedlimestone suggest this nixtamalization, or lime treatment,produces beneficial results when compared to simplyboiling the maize. The levels of Tryptophan, Lysine, andMethionine are significantly higher in extracts ofprotease-treated maize boiled with limestone than in thecontrol group. Physical evidence from limestone heatedin the lab versus Basketmaker II archaeologicallimestone from a Cedar Mesa midden indicates thatBasketmaker II people subjected limestone to levels ofheat sufficient to produce slaked lime.Holt, Haley (Tulane University)[38] Enclave or Emulation?: Identifying and InvestigatingZapotec Presence in the Tula Region of Central MexicoThe Oaxaca Barrio of Teotihuacan, a well investigatedexample of an archaeologically known enclave,represents not an isolated occurrence, but rather is partof a network of Zapotec-related occupations around theBasin of Mexico during the Classic Period. Several sitesnear Tula, Hidalgo exhibit pottery and tomb structureswith apparent Zapotec influence. Recent analyses ofceramic collections from the site of El Tesoro/PresaEscondida have brought to light interesting stylisticconnections between the Tula region the Valley ofOaxaca, as well as Teotihuacan. This paper presents theresults of these preliminary analyses as well as futureresearch goals.Holtorf, Cornelius (Linnaeus University, Kalmar,Sweden)[254] The Archaeology of Heritage: An IntroductionHeritage professionals preserve sites, objects, and theinformation they contain for the future, yet they havebeen reluctant to consider seriously what the future willbe like. Future generations may appreciate preservedsites and objects not so much because they allow themto remember their origin in the past, but because theyallow them to remember remembering the past – whenthey were preserved for the future. This paper introducesthe session by placing heritage and preservation into a

154ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGlarger historical context.[254] First Chair [254] Second OrganizerHomburg, Jeffrey (SRI/University of Arizona),Jonathan Sandor (Iowa State University) and PaulMinnis (University of Oklahoma)[223] Soil quality of ancient terraced agricultural fields ofChihuahua, MexicoAgricultural soil quality of ancient field systems wasinvestigated as part of an interdisciplinary study of theanthropogenic ecology of Medio period (~A.D. 1200-1450) fields near Casas Grande. We compared the soilquality of fields in high versus low population valleys andbetween fields thought to have been owned by chiefs. Anumber of statistical differences were identified, but thereis no indication that agriculture reduced soil quality, sosoil degradation does not explain the ultimate decline ofthe Casas Grande cultural system. Soil differences,however, were found between fields, likely due togeologic differences in the parent material.Homburg, Jeffrey [199] see Sandor, Jonathan A. [151]see Douglas, Diane L.Hood, Angela (University of Cincinnati) and DavidLentz (University of Cincinnati)[8] One Person's Trash is Another's Treasure: APaleoethnobotanical Approach to Reconstructing PlantUse Practices at CerénExcellent preservation conditions at Cerén grant adetailed view of ancient Maya plant use and agriculturalpractices. This replete record extends south of Cerén‘scenter, where agricultural fields were preserved beneathtephra from the Loma Caldera eruption. A middenuncovered among these fields yielded abundantcarbonized paleoethnobotanical macroremains, and thispaper focuses on results of their analysis. Theintersection of macroremain data with plaster casts ofplants preserved in Cerén‘s agricultural fields andhabitation area presents an opportunity to test themethodological significance and reliability of carbonizedmacroremains, often the major vestiges of plant usepractices at Maya sites.Hood, Angela [119] see Lentz, David L.Hopkins, Nicholas (Jaguar Tours)[157] The Origin of the Southern Mayan LanguagesThe Southern Mayan languages (Mayan minusHuastecan and Yucatecan) display an interesting patternof distribution that suggests a history of out-migrationsfrom a common source. Applying the principles ofanalysis developed by linguists for such cases and takinginto account the genealogical relationships of thelanguages, this paper identifies the probable homelandand describes the hypothetical routes of dispersion thatresulted in the observable patterns of diversification.Seen in the context of the archaeological record, thechronology of the linguistic diversification suggests themotivation for the population movements that underliethe development of the varieties of Southern Mayan.Hoppa, Kristin (University of California, SantaBarbara)[123] Terrestrial Resources During the Middle Holocene:A View from Santa Cruz IslandThe role of terrestrial resources on the Channel Islands isa topic of growing interest. In geographically boundedareas with limited freshwater, such as islands, suchresources may factor into settlement and mobilitydecisions. This paper draws on macrobotanical data fromthree Middle Holocene sites located on the east end ofSanta Cruz Island. Coupled with faunal data from theseand other sites, this study contributes to a broaderunderstanding of Middle Holocene subsistence andmobility decisions of Channel Islands inhabitants.[123] Second ChairHorlings, Rachel (Syracuse University), Greg Cook(University of West Florida) and Andrew Pietruszka(Syracuse University)[89] A tale of Historic Maritime Trade and Tragedy inCoastal GhanaWith the first maritime archaeological survey in WestAfrica and discovery of an historic shipwreck off the coastof Elmina, Ghana in 2003, a new door of inquiry into theAtlantic trade opened. Three subsequent field seasons ofresearch have devoted countless hours to unraveling thestory of that shipwreck. This account follows the variousavenues of inquiry that have been pursued and the oftensurprisingoutcomes. While still ongoing, results of thisresearch have already provided new perspectives onhistorical maritime trade, and hold the promise of morein-depth understandings of trade on the coast of WestAfrica.Horn, Sherman (Tulane University)[14] Constructing Complexity: Architectural expansionand social development at Middle Preclassic Cahal Pech,BelizeRecent research at the site of Cahal Pech, Belize adds tothe growing corpus of architecture known from the MiddlePreclassic period in the Maya area. Excavationsdemonstrate the presence of multiple platform typesburied beneath Plaza B of the site epicenter, along witharchitectural sequences showing the construction,expansion and elaboration of these building platforms.This paper examines the built environment of the MiddlePreclassic Cahal Pech site core and the developingphysical and social complexity of settlement there, at atime intermediate between the earliest settled farmingvillages and the rise of kingship in the southern Mayalowlands.[14] First ChairHorowitz, Rachel (Tulane University) and GrantMcCall (Tulane University)[61] Aim in Throwing and Precision in Flintknappingamong Novice FlintknappersA frequent supposition concerning the origins of stonetool creation among hominids is that the skills used inthrowing provided the abilities necessary forflintknapping. However, no evidence of a connectionbetween the two skills has been demonstrated. Thispaper addresses this lack of evidence throughexperimental archaeology, specifically measuringparticipants aim in throwing and precision inflintknapping, to address the possibility of a correlationbetween the two. The information collected from thisexperiment could shed light on the possible evolutionaryconnection between throwing and flintknapping.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 155Horowitz, Rachel [22] see McCall, Grant S.Horton, Elizabeth (Arkansas Archeological Survey)and George Sabo, III (Arkansas ArcheologicalSurvey)[204] Framing the Sacred: Craig Mound Sacred BundlesThis paper presents new findings regarding embossedcopper plate bundles and decorated lidded cane basketsfrom the 15th century Craig Mound ―Great Mortuary‖deposit. Our analysis of perishable and associated nonperishablematerials curated by the University ofArkansas Museum has increased the number of knownbaskets, and provided substantial data on theconstruction of elaborate copper plate bundles with caneand leather frames. These data provide new insight intopotential correspondences in structure and color schemebetween perishables and other aspects of the GreatMortuary deposit and provide critical evidence for the roleof basketry and textiles the ―Great MortuaryCosmogram‖.Horton, Kristina[188] Reverse Archaeology- A History of the Falls CreekCollection from a Database and Collection ManagementPerspectiveEighty years ago, the Falls Creek Rockshelters, inDurango, Colorado, were excavated by Earl Morris andZeke Flora. Following excavation and litigation, the FallsCreek collection was dispersed to and ultimatelyaccessioned at three primary facilities: CU Museum,Peabody Museum, and Mesa Verde National Park. Aspart of this grant funded project, the NAGPRA materialsfrom the collection have been moved to the AnasaziHeritage Center for reevaluation and eventualrepatriation. This paper provides a database andcollection management perspective on the project anddocuments the steps in building a collection inventorythrough reverse archaeology.Hostenske, Mary (University of Pittsburgh)[31] Life in a Liminal Zone: Intermediate Elites at LateClassic Los Naranjitos in the El Paraíso Valley, NWHondurasThe liminal socio-political zone (Maya speaking to Non-Maya speaking) in NW Honduras is an environment inwhich to investigate the multiple roles enacted bymembers of the intermediate elite class during theClassic Period (AD 600-900). Los Naranjitos, an eliteresidential group, offers a portal into the social, political,economic, and ideological activities of its residents. Acomparison of spatial organization, architecture, andmaterial remains will situate the residents of LosNaranjitos on the socio-political spectrum of the regionand will also investigate the degree of autonomyresidents may have exercised, distancing themselvesfrom ruling elites at surrounding centers.Hough, Ian (National Park Service) and EllenBrennan (National Park Service / Grand CanyonNational Park)[20] Pre-Hispanic Architecture of the Eastern GrandCanyon River Corridor: A Preliminary EvaluationFormative Period occupation of the Colorado Rivercorridor in eastern Grand Canyon National Park includeswell preserved evidence of a masonry architecturetradition that changed with time. We use architecturaldata from the Museum of Northern Arizona-National ParkService joint excavation project to illuminate a buildingtechnology that was uniquely adapted to the riverenvironment. Changes in architectural design andmodification between A.D. 1050-1220 suggest a shifttoward more permanent residences and an associatedintensification in the number and type of architecturalspaces.Hough, Ian [248] see Brennan, EllenHouk, Brett (Texas Tech University)[191] The Deadly Years: Terminal Classic ProblematicDeposits and the Fates of Dos Hombres and ChanChich, BelizeA pair of Terminal Classic problematic deposits from DosHombres and Chan Chich, Belize was first investigatedand reported over a decade ago. Since then, similarfeatures have been excavated at other lowland Mayasites. By their very nature, these problematic depositsresist simple classification and universal interpretation.However, they are important features for understandingthe specific nature of the Terminal Classic abandonmentat the sites where they occur. Using newly reporteddeposits for comparison, this paper reassess thesignificance of problematic deposits from Dos Hombresand Chan Chich with respect to the specific fates of thethose two centers.Houle, Jean-Luc [54] see Clark, Julia K.Houston, Stephen [148] see Luzzadder-Beach, SherylHovers, Erella (The Hebrew University ofJurusalem) and Anna Belfer-Cohen (Institute ofArchaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.)[218] Are they For Real? The Paradigms of PrehistoricResearch, Burials and ―Burials‖ in the Levantine MiddlePaleolithicThe Levant holds one of the richest records of MiddlePaleolithic fossils. In less discriminating days, those wereclassified as intentional burials without the need to gointo details of depositional contexts and taphonomicprocesses that could be used to evaluate this scenario.More recent research has put the burden of proof on theprehistorians who have to provide supporting evidencethat Middle Paleolithic burials were intentional andsymbolic. Here we review the research on this topic inthe last three decades and evaluate its effects on ourunderstanding of Middle Paleolithic burials in the Levant.Howard, Jerry (Arizona Museum of Natural History)[52] Issues of Collapse in Classic Period HohokamIrrigation SystemsThe massive irrigation systems of the Hohokam createda unique and sustainable agricultural system that lastedfor over 1000 years. Archaeologists have oftenconsidered possible mechanisms that brought an end tothe use of this highly successful adaptation to the desertenvironment. Past hypotheses concerning environmentaldegradation created by irrigation technology arereviewed and evaluated. The patterns of chronologicaland engineering shifts in the structure of the irrigationsystems are then investigated in light of recent research.Finally, the questions of environmental degradation

156ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGraised in the recently proposed core decay model areexplored.Howe, Mark (Tonto National Forest), Tim Kelly(Sequoia National Forest), Daniel F. McCarthy (SanBernardino National Forest), Claudia Brackett(California State University/California StateUniversity-Stanislaus) and Richard Lundin (WondjinaResearch Institute)[158] Lake Isabella Rock Art Recording ProjectIn September of 2010 the Tonto National Forestconducted a Rock Art Recording Project around LakeIsabella in the southern Sierras of California. This projectwas designed to find new and previously recorded RockArt sites using dstretch picture technology and pXRF.The pXRF was to determine the composition of thepictographs to understand basic composition ascompared to the underlying country rock. This pXRFdetermination will aid in identifying pigments used bylocal tribes in prehistoric character and determine whatmaterials were used in pictographs. This understandingwill help to characterize trade patterns or local use ofpigment materials.Howell, Cameron (University of South Carolina)[64] Airborne and Satellite Remote Sensing of ShellMiddens along the South Carolina CoastExtensive vegetation studies have shown that thecalcareous forests overlaying prehistoric shell middensand mounds differ substantially from vegetation onsurrounding soil types. Differentiating between types ofvegetation canopy coverages is possible using airborneand satellite remote sensing platforms. Usingspectrographic signatures from key plant speciescharacteristic of midden sites, the imagery can beclassified and trained to identify the spectral properties ofknown midden sites. The model can then be applied tosearch for unknown sites, with the potential to expandthe area of study to the Atlantic coastline from NorthCarolina to northern Florida.Howell, Todd (Ecosystem Management Inc.)[143] In With the Old: Examining Issues in Using OlderMortuary DataThe use of mortuary data collected early this centuryposes a number of problems and opportunities. In thispaper I address some of these issues with respect tomortuary databases from the ancestral Zuni villages ofHawikku and Kechipawan. These data were collected inthe 1910s and 1920s; the excavations had goals thatwere somewhat different than current goals. This paperexplores the basic qualities of these databases and thechallenges of making the data comparable to otherSouthwestern mortuary datasets.Howie, Linda (University of Western Ontario)[85] Intruder Alert! The provenance, technology andsocial meaning of foreign-looking serving vessels fromLamanai, BelizeCentral to the reconstruction of community patterns ofceramic production and consumption is the discriminationof locally-made from intrusive pottery. Scientific studiesof vessel provenance and technology aid this objective,providing a direct means of linking pots to the landscapethrough their raw material ingredients and/or othertechnological characteristics. This information isespecially helpful when similarity in vessels‘ surfacefeatures and appearance does not permit obviousdistinctions. This paper investigates the archaeologicalsignificance of foreign-looking monochrome black servingvessels at Terminal Classic Lamanai, demonstrating howmicroscopic, chemical and micromorphological analyseshave contributed to understanding their social meaning.[56] see Donis, Alicia E. [190] see Wiewall, Darcy L.Hritz, Carrie (The Pennsylvania State Un), JenniferPournelle (University of South Carolina) andJennifer Smith (Washington University in St. Louis)[26] High Risk: Deltaic Resilience and the Genesis ofMesopotamian Cities (Iraq)The flourit of early Sumerian civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates delta at the onset of the 4th millennium BCmarked a degree of economic differentiation, sociopoliticalcomplexity, and urbanization theretofore unseenelsewhere in the ancient world. Discussions of theeconomic foundations of this urbanization posit threesustainable pillars of resources (1) alluvial irrigable (2)surrounding pasturelands and (3) levee back swampsand marshes. Following a quarter-century hiatus inforeign archaeological field research in Iraq, this paperwill report preliminary results of the first NSF funded geoarchaeologicalground reconnaissance of theMesopotamian delta, aimed at investigating the relativecontribution of these pillars.Hu, Di (University of California, Berkeley)[49] Weaving for the Sun and the Son: a comparison ofproduction and control in the Inka acllawasi and theSpanish obrajeA cursory inspection of the Inka acllawasi and theSpanish obraje points to many similarities. They werecontrolled spaces primarily for the production of textiles.Both spaces functioned as institutions for religious andpolitical indoctrination. This paper will examine bothinstitutions through architectural, archaeological anddocumentary evidence to see whether the organization ofproduction and control was fundamentally similar ordifferent. Such a comparison will shed light on whetherthe Spanish regimes of labor, particularly those related tothe production of textiles, represented a break or acontinuation of the underlying principles of Inka labororganization.Huamán, Luis [93] see Hayashida, Frances M.Huang, Jennifer (Bureau of Reclamation), MitziRossillon (Renewable Technologies, Inc.) andEjvend Nielsen (Bureau of Reclamation & Boise StateUniversity)[83] Just checked in to see what condition site conditionis inThe condition of archaeological sites in the AmericanFalls Archaeological District in southeastern Idaho hasbeen an area of concern due to exposure to multiplekinds of erosion over the years. Off road vehicles, cattletrampling, looting, vandalism, and the natural forces ofwind and water are threatening the integrity of thesesites. But to what degree? A recent conditionassessment project looked at four sample sites acrossthe District to gauge current conditions and providerecommendations for management action. The District islisted on the National Register and contains sites

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 157representing regular human use over 12,000 years.Huang, Jennifer [83] see Lincoln, Thomas R.Hubbard, Duane (National Park Service, SouthernArizona Office), Gavin Gardner (National ParkService) and Jake DeGayner (National Park Service)[248] New Archaeological Research Resulting fromBorder Impacts atThe National Park Service recently partnered with theUniversity of New Mexico to preserve sites in the borderregion of Southeast Arizona. Over the last year, the teamhas encountered new discoveries and managementchallenges. Although some parks have been in the NPSsystem for nearly a century, little is known regarding thearchaeological sites on these lands. In the process ofrelocating previously discovered sites, archaeologistsalso recorded resources ranging from historic structuresto Archaic period camps. In an effort to curtail impactscaused by illegal border crossings and subsequentinterdiction efforts, as well as natural erosion, a widearray of condition assessments, documentation, andpreservation methods have been implemented. Theresult of this effort is the establishment of a proactivearchaeological inventorying and monitoring program thatincludes GIS analysis, intensive archeological sitemapping, in-field recordation of current impacts andimplementation of preservation treatments.Hubbe, Mark (Universidad Católica del Norte) andChristina Torres-Rouff (Universidad Católica delNorte)[233] The occupation of the San Pedro de Atacamaoases (northern Chile): A review of the chronology andgeography of settlement through the direct 14C dating ofhuman remains.The San Pedro de Atacama oases have beenpermanently occupied since approximately 4.2 kyr BP.This history is marked by distinct periods of interactionwith neighboring groups and influence from foreign states(including Tiwanaku and Inca) as well as periods ofrelative cultural independence. Here we present 54 newAMS dates from human remains that, together with 57previous dates from local cemeteries, allow us to reviewthe chronological occupation of the distinct oasis districts.These data provide a better understanding of how humansettlements were dispersed, including occupation andcontrol of strategic areas and patterns of interregionalinteraction.Huckaby, Laurie [192] see LaBelle, Jason M.Huckell, Bruce (University of New Mexico)[94] West of the Plains: Paleoindians in the SouthwestKnowledge of Paleoindian prehistory is strongly coloredby work accomplished on the Southern Plains, but theNorth American Southwest has an equally long andimportant record. This paper presents an overview ofwhat is known of these manifestations from previous andcurrent research, and shows that Clovis, Folsom,Plainview-Goshen, Cody, and Allen-Frederick sites areall present. Data on subsistence, site type, settlementlocation, and mobility are presented, and suggest thatthese groups were resident in the Southwest forextended periods of time. This overview suggests that wehave barely scratched the surface of the potentialinformation available.Huckleberry, Gary (Geoarchaeological Consultant)[199] What We Still Don‘t Know: The EnvironmentalContext for the Northward Spread of Agriculture 4000-2000 BC into the SouthwestRecent research suggests that maize agriculture arrivedin the North American Southwest through diffusion fromMexico in part due to climate change (increasedmoisture) beginning ca. 3900 BC. However, the proxyevidence for changes in Southwestern climate (e.g.,packrat middens, pollen, paleoflood chronologies,laminated sediments, etc.) during the middle and lateHolocene remains contradictory. The current lack ofconsistency between different proxy data sets limits ourunderstanding of regional climatic-geomorphologicalconditions that may have influenced indigenousagriculture. Improved spatial and chronological resolutionof Holocene paleoclimate and surficial geologicalprocesses is needed.Hudgins, Carter (Clemson University) and EricKlingelhofer (Mercer University)[121] Lost and Found: Jamestown, Nevis and theCalculation of Urbanization in the Early EnglishCaribbeanDescribed by its governor in 1720 as ―a desert island towhat it was thirty years ago,‖ Nevis soon after lost its preeminentposition among England‘s sugar islands.Archaeological investigations at Jamestown, one of twosettlements that coalesced in mid decades of the 17thcentury, revealed evidence of cycles of urban resilienceand revival until the decline of sugar production afteremancipation obviated the need for two commercialentrepots. A high incidence of Afro-Caribbean wares andvariation in vessel form signaled changes in the town‘srole as well as it dependence on market and populationcycles.Hudson, Nicholas [258] see Silverstein, Jay E.Huerta, Edgar (Cal State Fullerton) and CarlWendt (California State University, Fullerton)[96] Using Petrographic Techniques to Understand theOrganization of Olmec Bitumen ProcessingPreliminary studies on the organization Olmec bitumenprocessing indicate regional differences, productionscale, and processing techniques. However, thesestudies have not involved detailed analyses of thematerials added during processing. Thirty-sevenarchaeological bitumen thin sections from seven Olmecsites were subjected to petrographic analysis to identifythe types, quantities, and sizes of materials added to theraw bitumen. Results show differences in types,quantities, and sizes of additives, within and betweensites. These findings indicate different ―recipes‖ andprocessing scale, and may reflect distinct regionalvariation in the organization of Olmec bitumenprocessing activities.Huffman, Thomas (Univ of the Witwatersrand)[253] The organisation of ritual in early farming societiesin southern AfricaRitual activity in pre-Colonial farming settlements insouthern Africa took place in areas pre-determined by anorganisation of space that emphasized blood vs marriage

158ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGties and status, as well as sacred and profane activities.Inside the settlement, codified rituals occurred at theback of the cattle kraal, the back of the main house andthe back of the homestead. In times of extreme drought,rainmaking rituals followed similar principles except theytook place in the bush.Hufthammer, Anna Karin [236] see Dolphin, Alexis E.Hughes, Richard (Geochemical Research Laboratory)[230] Taming Time in the Great BasinFollowing the pioneering work of Heizer and Baumhoff,from 1967-1968 Billy Clewlow published a series ofpapers describing and chronologically ordering numerousmorphological forms of Great Basin projectile points intomeaningful archaeological sequence. His work wascritical to establishing the temporal duration of each ofthese forms and creating what we call today temporaltypes. The projectile point chronology that Clewlow wasinstrumental in developing has been reaffirmed atcountless archaeological sites throughout the GreatBasin, has been pivotal in cross-dating otherwiseundatable open sites, and has provided a chronologicalanchor for understanding how sites may have functionedthrough time.Hull, Kathleen (University of California, Merced)[11] A Land of Many People: Population Dynamics asContext and CatalystThe archaeological record of California providesunparalleled opportunities for study of long-termpopulation dynamics of small-scale societies. Thispotential derives from the wealth of oral tradition,ethnohistoric, ethnographic, linguistic, and humanbiological data, as well as the nature of thearchaeological record itself. Multi-faceted demographicstudies have explored fundamental issues of populationsize, growth, and movement, and may also contribute tomore nuanced examination of historically situated socialrelations in small-scale societies. The relevance of suchresearch extends beyond the state, as case studies offoraging societies in abundant, rather than impoverished,resource areas of both coastal and interior zones.[151] see Kremkau, Scott H.Hull, Sharon (University of Manitoba), MostafaFayek (University of Manitoba/Maxwell Museum) andF. Joan Mathien (Maxwell Museum)[136] Turquoise Procurement and Exchange Patternsbetween Three Ancestral Puebloan Great HousesMany turquoise artifacts have been recovered in thecommunities of Pueblo Bonito, Salmon, and Aztec;especially in early excavations at Pueblo Bonito, wherean extraordinary amount (>200,000) of turquoise artifactshave been recovered. Although all three of these SanJuan Basin communities share an interest in turquoiseand have Chacoan attributes, the relationship betweenthem has remained elusive. Identifying the provenanceregion of turquoise artifacts and examining the extent ofand patterns of turquoise procurement and exchangeprovides insight into the relationship between theinhabitants of these three great houses.Hulse, Eva (University at Buffalo)[181] Patterns of domestic space in Subarctic soilsThis study compares patterns of soil composition thatreflect various domestic activities at two different sites,Kierikki in Finland and Old Factory Lake in Canada. Theresults of this analysis allow prediction of regions ofarchaeological interest, and distinguish betweenarchaeological features. The patterns reveal how peoplemaintained their living space, and hint at seasonality ofoccupation.Humphrey, Emma (University of Toronto)[69] Stocking the Larder: Site function through faunalanalysis in the Kebaran Epipalaeolithic.The site of Urkan e-Rub IIa, an early KebaranEpipalaeolithic site (approximately 18,000 cal years BP)in the Lower Jordan Valley, shows evidence ofspecialised gazelle hunting and processing. Initialinterpretations of the site argued for a multi-purposeresidential base camp, supported by lithic tool and shellbead manufacturing. This paper will present faunal datathat throws some question into this interpretation. Thisevidence suggests instead that the site was part of alogistical mobility pattern, where gazelle were procuredand processed in their entirety for either immediateconsumption or transport elsewhere.Hunt, Leigh Ann [57] see Mitchell, Mark D.Hunt, Robert[199] Water is not only H20: Solutions, Suspensions andAgriculture―Water‖ is widely known to be necessary for plant growth,and therefore for agriculture. ―Water‖ however is not justH2O. Water as found in nature is also a set of solutions,and a set of suspensions. These solutions andsuspensions can affect plant growth, and are thereforerelevant for investigations of prehistoric agriculture. Inthis paper we focus on canal irrigated and flood waterrunoff fields. Attention is paid to the contents of thewater. It is our objective to alert other scholars to whatwe do not know, and why it may be relevant forunderstanding agriculture.[199] Second OrganizerHunt, Terry (University of Hawai'i) [123] DiscussantHunt, Terry [153] see Morrison, Alex E.Huntley, Deborah (Center for Desert Archaeology),Barbara Mills (University of Arizona), LaraMuncaster (University of Arizona) and WilliamHaas (University of Arizona)[264] The White-on-red Pottery Phenomenon in theAmerican SouthwestBetween about AD 1050 and 1450, several varieties ofpottery with white paint on a red-slipped backgroundwere made in the American Southwest. This ―white-onredphenomenon‖ crosscuts traditionally defined ceramicware categories. We use a comprehensive databasedeveloped as part of the Southwest Social NetworksProject to graph densities of white-on-red types throughtime and across space. We then examine the white-onredphenomenon comparatively, tabulating specificdecorative and technological attributes. We postulate thatthis phenomenon is at least partly the result ofwidespread interaction and migration, and that somewhite-on-red varieties were distinctive markers linkingdiverse groups.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 159Huntley, Deborah [201] see Dungan, Katherine A.Hurley, Kevin [55] see Rogers, MichaelHurley, Warren (Bureau of Reclamation) andElizabeth M Perry (SWCA EnvironmentalConsultants)[83] Traditional Cultural Properties and the Animas-LaPlata ProjectThe archaeological investigations associated with theAnimas-La Plata water reclamation project nearDurango, Colorado were fundamentally linked to theconcept and manifestation of traditional culturalproperties or places (TCP‘s). An often misunderstoodand contested concept, TCP‘s in this project emerged asmore than a regulatory challenge. In this project,archaeological sites and TCP‘s were one and the same,and the process of mitigation invited fresh discourseamong Indian and non-Indian stakeholders concerningthe value of archaeological sites and the informationgathered from them. This poster chronicles importantmilestones in a journey towards cross-culturalunderstanding that spans more than a decade.Hurst, Winston (Bohunk Inc.) and CatherineCameron (University of Colorado)[117] Continuity and Change: Exploring the Chaco toPost-Chaco Transition in Southeastern UtahSoutheastern Utah was on the fringe of the classicalChaco world; yet during the Chaco era, communitiesthere were often centered on great houses or quasi-greathouses. The Bluff Great House and Comb Washcommunities were both occupied through both the Chacoand post-Chaco eras. Investigations in thesecommunities illuminate the nature of the Chaco to post-Chaco transition in this part of the old Chaco world andhighlight difficulties with discerning continuity in culturalpractices during this crucial time.Hurst, Winston [46] see Till, Jonathan D.Huster, Angela (Arizona State University)[58] Long Term Stability?: Chronology andDemographics at Calixtlahuaca, MexicoThe development of a three-phase chronology for theMiddle to Late Postclassic site of Calixtlahuaca showsthat the site does not conform to the Central Mexicanpattern of steadily rising population over these periods. Idiscuss the methods involved in creating the chronology(discriminant analysis based ceramic seriation and MonteCarlo based methods developed by Kintigh and Cowgillfor determining phase length from radiocarbon dates)and the implications of the findings.Hutson, Jarod (University of Nevada-Reno), TeresaWriston (University of Nevada-Reno) and GaryHaynes (University of Nevada-Reno)[60] Rock Art and Foragers' Imagination, and the DirtyTricks of Rockshelter DepositionLifelike hoofprint engravings (petroglyphs) are verylimited in distribution in Zimbabwe. Rockshelters withthese images are clustered in northwestern Zimbabwe,where foragers created the art between 2,000 and 4,000years ago. Late Iron Age occupations overlying theforager levels are much younger. A nearby Early FarmingCommunity may date to the same time the foragers'rockshelter deposition ended. Two unknowns prevent usfrom reconstructing a timeline of the transition fromforaging and farming: shifting paleoenvironments andchanging human behaviors. The rock art may be the beststarting point for understanding human societies in theLate Holocene.Hutson, Scott (University of Kentucky)[24] They Built the Road. Did the Road Build Them?Early in the Classic period in Northern Yucatan, Mexico,leaders from the site of Ucí oversaw the construction of araised stone causeway connecting Ucí with several sitesextending eastward up to 18km. The causewayfunctioned as a political symbol because travel requiredno more than a non-constructed foot path. Nevertheless,the arduous process of constructing the causeway andthe high settlement density along its route suggest thatthe causeway did more than manifest the agenda ofpolitical actors. Rather, it helped shape political agendasand local histories, thus encouraging a symmetricanalysis of people and things.Hutson, Scott [38] see Davies, Gavin R.Hyde, David (The University of Texas at Austin) andFred Valdez (The University of Texas at Austin)[34] Social Memory at an Eastern Maya LowlandsHinterland Community: Pots and Burials at the MedicinalTrail SiteExcavations at Group A of the Medicinal Trail site, acommoner community in northwestern Belize, haverevealed two caches on a small Late Preclassicceremonial platform and two burials on a Late Classicshrine are similarly arranged. A pattern of interment thatutilizes the northwest and southeast corners ofceremonial structures is believed to be expressions ofsocio-religious importance, creating continuity of spaceand kinship by the inhabitants. This pattern and othermaterial culture evidence reinforce the possibility of aninvestment in long term, multi-generational householdidentity, using social memory to link the past to theirpresent.Hylkema, Mark (California State Parks)[222] California State Parks and the Quiroste ValleyCultural PreserveThe newly created 220 acre Quiroste Valley CulturalPreserve, situated along the central California Coastencompasses multiple prehistoric archaeological sitesand was the location where the first Spanish landexpedition visited a large village of Quiroste Ohlone justprior to finding San Francisco Bay. The goal of thepreserve is to use archaeological information to restorethe native habitat and manage it in cooperation with theAmah/Mutsun and Muwekma Ohlone Indian tribes.[222] Third OrganizerIannone, Gyles (Trent University)[191] Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Power, Prosperity,and Political TruncationCross-culturally, the legitimacy of rulers has always beenintricately bound up in the perceived prosperity of theirpolities, as is exemplified in the construction of aweinspiringmonumental architecture, the sponsorship ofelaborate ceremonies, the wearing of ostentatious attire

160ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGand display of symbols of authority, and the ―trafficking‖in various forms of social currency. During times ofstress, kings would have been expected to ramp upthese various activities in efforts to maintain – at least insurface appearance – the prosperity of the polity. Thiscould exacerbate an already difficult situation, leaving theking open to condemnation, and sometimes violentoverthrow.[191] First Chair [238] see Macrae, Scott A. [191] seeSchwake, SonjaIbarra, julio (Zona Arqueológica de Monte Albán) andAgustín Andrade (Zona Arqueológica de MonteAlbán)[95] El uso del espacio en el Conjunto Monumental deAtzompa.El sitio arqueológico de Atzompa está conformado porespacios, públicos y privados. El emplazamiento del áreaprincipal, dispuesto en un grupo de plazas delimitadaspor basamentos, asentados sobre terrazas construidas,aprovechando diferentes niveles altitudinales y siguiendoejes orientados. Por otro lado, las Plazas o ConjuntosArquitectónicos que se encuentran en la periferia,presentan mayor diversidad en composición, orientacióny distribución. Han sido definidas 11 plazas, asociadas acasas, terrazas, plataformas, accesos, y diversas etapasconstructivas. Se presenta la descripción y análisis deestos espacios, considerando su asociación, conelementos arquitectónicos y materiales arqueológicos,así como los diferentes momentos de construcción.Iizuka, Fumie (Fumie Iizuka), Hector Neff (CaliforniaState University Long Beach) and Richard Cooke(Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute)[228] Deducing Human Mobility by Studying theCirculation of Panama‘s Earliest Pottery (Monagrillo) (ca.4,800-3,200 B.P.)Human residential and individual mobility during the LatePreceramic (~7,000 – 4,800 B.P.) and Early Ceramic(~4,800 – 3,200 B.P.) periods in Central Panama havebeen inferred from studies of settlement size andlocation, and subsistence practices. At this timecommunities were located on the Caribbean and Pacificwatersheds in several biomes. The relevance ofPanama‘s earliest pottery (―Monagrillo‖) to mobility hasnot been evaluated. We used chemical (portable XRFand LA-ICP-MS) and petrographic analyses to infer thenature of ceramic circulation among inland and coastalcommunities with a mixed farming, collecting, huntingand fishing economy.Ikehara, Hugo (University of Pittsburgh)[93] Economic strategies and Political developmentduring the Formative Period of the Andean North CoastThe goal of this paper is to present a model whichexplains the relationships between agricultural strategiesand political development during the Formative Period ofthe Andean North Coast. Economic structures during theEarly and Middle Formative periods were very differentacross polities, but changes beginning around 750 B.C.created economical differences that supported theconsolidation and rise of elites groups.[125] see Chicoine, DavidIlirian, Gjipali [169] see Allen, Susan E.Inanez, Javier (University of Barcelona)[208] Red Shine: Archaeometrical Characterization ofRoja Bruñida Pottery from PanamaPanamá Viejo was founded in 1519 by the Spanishexpeditionary Pedrarias Dávila, becoming an importantbase for the trade with Spain. In 1671, pirates attackedand sacked the city, resulting in a fire that destroyed itentirely. Thus, a new settlement was built a few mileswest, which would become the origin of the modernPanama City. This study accounts for the firstarchaeometrical characterization of the so-called RojaBruñida pottery from Panama recovered in recentarchaeological excavations at Panama Viejo and CascoAntiguo. The archaeological implications of this importantceramic in the Spanish colonial market in Panama isassessed.Ingraham, Robert [206] see Belknap, Samuel L.Ingram, Scott (Arizona State University)[199] What We Don't Know About Human Vulnerability toDry PeriodsWe don‘t understand climate‘s differential influence onhuman behavior over time and space. Thus, we cannotexplain why at some times and places climatic hazards,such as dry periods, appear to stimulate behavioralresponses and why at other times and places responsesare not evident. I argue that a lack of progress on thisissue in the Southwest is caused by insufficient empiricalscrutiny of existing models of human vulnerability toclimatic hazards and our reliance on an unverifiedassumption of resource marginality. I also present resultsthat document the greatest vulnerability to dry periodswhere we least expect it.[199] First ChairInomata, Takeshi (University of Arizona)[182] Plaza Construction and Ritual at the PreclassicMaya center of Ceibal, GuatemalaCeibal was founded as a formal ceremonial centeraround 1000 BC. The focus of its communal, public lifewas a temple-plaza complex, generally called an E-Group assemblage. The substantial accumulation ofplaza floor constructions and the concentration of ritualdeposits found in the plaza suggest that this open spacewas a symbolically and political charged place tied to theidentity of the community, its social order, and powerrelations.[182] First Chair [225] First Chair [225] see MacLellan,Jessica [225] see Triadan, DanielaIriarte, María-José [218] see Arrizabalaga, AlvaroIseminger, William [193] see Lundin, Richard J.Isendahl, Christian (Uppsala University) and MichaelSmith (Arizona State University)[90] Urban agriculture and dispersed housing in the lowdensitycities of MesoamericaMaya and Aztec cities exhibited a distinctive kind of lowdensityurbanism common in ancient Mesoamerica. Thenon-monumental components of these cities shared anumber of characteristics that distinguish them from thehigh-density ancient and historical cities in the Old Worldthat are often considered the norm for pre-modernurbanism. These traits include the practice of intensive

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 161cultivation within urban settlements, residential zonesthat were dispersed and unplanned, and thearrangement of houses into spatial clusters that servedas urban neighborhoods. Models from research onmodern peri-urban zones and informal settlements helpilluminate Mesoamerican low-density urbanism.Ives, John (University of Alberta)[94] Resolving the Promontory Culture EnigmaWith no small irony, Julian Steward's approach to culturalecology (and its subsequent impact on Americanistarchaeology) limited interest in his earlier assertions thatthe Promontory Culture was created by Apacheanancestors. With few exceptions, neither his Apacheanproposition nor the inherent richness of the Promontoryassemblages received the serious attention theydeserved. When viewed from Subarctic and Plainsperspectives, however, his Apachean proposition is wellsupported; irrespective of this, the extraordinary fidelity ofthe Promontory materials allows for remarkableanthropological insights into the AD 13th centuryoccupants of the Promontory Caves.Ives, John [17] see Eiselt, B. SundayIwanaga, Shozo (Kyushu University Museum)[149] Position of the Yayoi Society in the Context ofSocial Evolution and a Re-examination of the Concept ofChiefdomDebates still persist among Japanese archaeologists asto the position of the Yayoi (ca. sixth century B.D. to A.D.third century) society in the context of social evolution inJapan, whether it was at a tribal level or at the level of astate. The debates are an outcome of difference in theconceptual definition of a state, especially the early statein Japan. In this paper, I intend to re-examine theconcepts of a tribe, ranked society, stratified society,early state, and especially chiefdom. I go on to define theYayoi society by distinguishing it from the succeedingKofun.Izeki, Mutsumi (Keio University) and Kazuo Aoyama(Ibaraki University)[93] Aztec and Classic Maya SocioeconomicOrganization and UrbanismThis paper discusses Aztec and Classic Mayasocioeconomic and political organization and providessome insights into the ongoing debate about the natureof ancient Mesoamerican urbanism. The Aztec obsessionwith turquoise, which characterizes their solar-war cult,contributed to develop long distance trade networks andaffected socioeconomic system of the Southwest orturquoise mining district. The results of analysis of morethan 140,000 lithic artifacts collected in and aroundCopan, Honduras, and Aguateca, Guatemala, suggestthe procurement and distribution of obsidian polyhedralcores may have been administered by the royal court ofthe both cities as part of its political economy.Jackson, Damon [81] see Bailey, Ralph [81] see Agha,Andrew [81] see Shah, Sudha A.Jackson, Donald [224] see Salinas, Hernan P.Jackson, Paul [195] see Pearce, KennyJacobson-Tepfer, Esther (University of Oregon,Mongolian Altai Project)[12] The Appearance of Ostriches in Rock Art ofMongolia: Fauna and PaleoenvironmentOstrich (Struthio camelus) images are well knownthroughout Africa, including the oldest from Messak andthe Tassili region through modern San paintings ofostrich theriomorphs. Although there are images said tobe ostriches from northern China, the most reliabledocumentation of Struthio anderssoni comes fromwestern Mongolia, from Khoit Tsenkir cave in Khovdaimag and Aral Tolgoi, in Bayan Ölgiy aimag. The lattercould well be the oldest known representations ofStruthio in the world. This paper will present theMongolian images within the context of rock art indicatorsof faunal sequence and reconstructedpaleoenvironmental conditions.[54] DiscussantJacomet, Stefanie (IPAS Basel UniversitySwitzerland) [45] DiscussantJagani, Sheel (University of California, Berkeley),Torben Rick (Smithsonian Institution, NationalMuseum of Natural History) and Courtney Hofman(University of Maryland)[105] Ancient Oyster Fisheries of the Chesapeake Bay:Methods and ImplicationsAnthropogenic change is well documented incontemporary records of the Chesapeake Bay, especiallythe collapse of the Bay‘s oyster fishery and associatedchanges in ecosystem structure and function. Questionsremain about the nature of the oyster fishery inprehistoric times when Native Americans intensivelyharvested oysters and other Bay resources for millennia.Here we present results from our recent work at FishingBay, Maryland focusing on ancient shellfish harvest at aseries of sites dated to the last 1000 years. Our analysisprovides perspectives on ancient Chesapeakeecosystems, as well as oyster abundance and populationstructure.Jagani, Sheel [152] see Piro, Jennifer J.Jaillet, Angela (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)[65] Investigating Historic Accounts of Pandenarium:Geophysical Investigation at 36ME235The haunting words of African American writer, RalphWaldo Ellison, give a voice to the unseen peoples of thepast; ―I am invisible, understand, simply because peoplerefuse to see me.‖ Recent archaeological investigationsof antebellum African American and African diasporacommunities are giving voice to a dynamic period of thepast. Archaeological investigations, such as thoseconducted at Pandenarium, an antebellum freed AfricanAmerican settlement in northwestern Pennsylvania, are away to see the past and to recognize, where we oncerefused. Geophysical investigation, in the form of groundpenetratingradar, provides invaluable insight into thevariable landscape of Pandenarium.[65] Second OrganizerJaime-Riveron, Olaf (University of Kentucky),Christopher Pool (University of Kentucky), DoloresTenorio (Instituto Nacional de InvestigacionesNucleares), Fabiola Monroy (Instituto Nacional de

162ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGInvestigaciones Nucleares) and Melania Jimenez(Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares)[193] Formative Period Variation in Basalt Sources andTechnology at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, MexicoIn this study we employed a portable X-ray fluorescencespectrometer (XRF) to determine the chemicalcomposition and infer source outcrops for basalt artifactsand debitage from Olmec and epi-Olmec contexts at TresZapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. We analyze source variationwith respect to technological change and the contexts ofproduction and consumption of basalt implements.Whereas previous studies of Olmec basalt sourceprovenience focused on monuments and/or finishedgroundstone implements, we analyze debitage, andperforms as well as finished artifacts to examine therelationship between manufacturing technology, materialcharacteristics, and geological source .Jakeli, Nino [203] see Bar-Yosef, OferJakimavicius, Ramunas [92] see McCormick, David R.James, Steven R. (California State University atFullerton)[263] Late Holocene Human Impacts on Marine andTerrestrial Fauna in Southern Coastal California:Archaeological Examples from San Nicolas Island andthe Palos Verdes PeninsulaZooarchaeological and paleontological evidence fromvarious regions of the world indicate that ancient humanssubstantially impacted many island and mainland coastalecosystems. Data from late Holocene archaeologicalsites on San Nicolas Island and the Palos VerdesPeninsula in southern coastal California are examinedwith regard to overexploitation and resource depressionof marine mammals, fish, and shellfish populations. Therole of domestic dog as a top predator introduced inprehistory on San Nicolas Island and other ChannelIslands is also examined. Biologists, conservationists,and other researchers need to consider prehistoricimpacts in managing and preserving coastal ecosystemsfor the future.[263] see Grijalva, Daniel S. [263] see Jones, Gary A.Jamison, Gregg (University of Wisconsin-Madison)[47] Understanding Indus Seal Carving Traditions: AStylistic and Metric ApproachDuring the Integration Era of the Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) inscribed seals were among the mostimportant components of Indus material assemblages,yet important questions remain regarding how productionwas organized and varied within and among differentsites. Using formal stylistic and metric analyses ofvarious elements of seals, it may be possible tofingerprint groups that would have been carved bydifferent producers. Preliminary results suggest thesetechniques are useful for providing new insights into thescale and nature of variation in Indus seal carvingtraditions.[47] First ChairJanes, Stephen[136] An Ancient North American LinescapeGround surveys have discovered a network of ancientlines crossing the San Juan Basin and adjacentmountainous areas of New Mexico and Arizona.Separate from the inferred Chacoan "road" system, thelinescape is defined by the alignment numerous smallstructures (>100 square meters), linear sherd scatters,and distinct landforms. Two sets of lines occur in thebasin trending east to west and northeast to southwestrespectively. Lines mapped in detail extend at least 70kilometers and beyond the basin suggesting that theymay be part of a much larger linescape.Janetski, Joel (Brigham Young University) andRichard Talbot (Brigham Young University)[94] Fremont Social Organization: A SouthwesternPerspectiveFor too long scholars have embraced an introspectiveview to illuminate our understanding of the Fremontphenomenon. This is especially true of social structure asno ethnographic analogues existed in the Fremont areato provide a basis for conjecture regarding Fremontsocieties. Here we propose re-casting the question ofFremont social order as an aspect of the largerSouthwestern farming pattern. Fundamental to thatpattern are the well-documented, albeit diverse,Southwestern tribal communities that can provide astarting point for understanding Fremont society.[188] DiscussantJansen, Doris (University Kiel (Germany)) and OliverNelle (University Kiel (Germany))[25] Relationship between human influence and forestcomposition in the Neolithic – examples from thelowlands of northern Central EuropeHumans left their fingerprints already in the Neolithic bychanging the environment around their settlements andgraveyards. How far from these areas the human impactreached? Did they influence the forest composition? Tofind out about these questions, analyses of charcoal aredone. Additional to the determination of charcoal,diameter class and growth ring analysis are carried out.Not only information about the wood composition, butfurther knowledge about what part of a tree was burntand sometimes even about growth conditions is gained.Samples from archaeological sites (human wood usage)are compared with samples from soils (natural forestcomposition).Jantz, Richard L. [77] see Willey, PJanusek, John (Vanderbilt University)[24] Animate Monoliths and Emergent Authority in theAndean Lake Titicaca BasinMany stone objects were powerful nonhuman subjects inthe Andes. In the Lake Titicaca basin, these includedmonumental carved effigies erected in early centers.Charged events in evocative places afforded contexts foranimating these effigies and facilitating their embodimentof relations with ancestral beings and landscapefeatures. As social networks continually shifted and, inparticular, the urban center of Tiwanaku emerged, oldermonolithic effigies came to present a community‘s pastand newer effigies its present. The same sociospatialmoments fostering animation became equally vital forproducing new types of human subjects in a context ofincreasingly centralized authority.[24] Second Chair [24] Second Organizer [267] seeWilliams, Patrick R.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 163Janz, Lisa (University of Arizona)[12] Radiocarbon dating of ratite eggshell as a means ofdating archaeological sitesRatite eggshell is an ideal material for radiocarbon datingand provides highly accurate dates. As such, it should bean excellent source of dates for archaeological sites,particularly those with no organic remains. Ostricheggshell from dated and undated archaeological contextsin Mongolia and China were analyzed using AMSradiocarbon.Results suggest that in while in somecircumstances, ostrich eggshell may be useful fordetermining the age of a site, in other cases it is not areliable indicator. More work should be done indetermining in what circumstances humans may haveutilized fossil shell.[12] First ChairJanzen, Anneke (UC Santa Cruz) and J. CameronMonroe (University of California, Santa Cruz)[177] The Dahomean Feast: Royal Culinary Practicesand Animal Procurement Strategies in 18th-CenturyWest AfricaFauna from an 18th-century Dahomean royal palace sitein Cana, Bénin provides insight into royal West Africanculinary practices in a period of dramatic politicaltransformation. The remains of a wide range of taxaindicate a broad array of food procurement strategies.Additionally, the low incidence of weathering, relativelyhigh density of bones, and very tight date range for theassemblage (1775-1780) suggests a feasting event. Thisassemblage yields insights into the political economy ofanimal resources in Atlantic West Africa, and, morebroadly, provides a comparative example for discussionson the nature of foodways in the African Diaspora.Jarrett, Rebecca [31] see Kittel, MichelleJazwa, Christopher (University of Oregon), DouglasKennett (University of Oregon) and BruceWinterhalder (University of California, Davis)[123] Testing Predictions of a Human Settlement Modelon California‘s Northern Channel IslandsThe expansion of permanent settlements on the NorthernChannel islands starting ~8,000 cal BP is generallyconsistent with the predictions of the Ideal FreeDistribution (IFD). The current model incorporatesenvironmental factors such as watershed size, shorelinetype, and the presence of kelp beds to predict the age offirst settlement. We have expanded the model toincorporate additional variables and test, usingexcavation data from Old Ranch Canyon, a high rankedlocation on Santa Rosa Island, the persistence ofpermanent settlement in high ranked drainages andresource depression in this drainage prior to theexpansion to less suitable locations.[123] First ChairJelinek, Lauren [80] see Maeyama, KimberlyJenkins, Austin (St. Cloud State University)[163] Blackduck and Psinomani: Using GIS toDistinguish Archaeological ComplexesThe Blackduck and Psinomani Complexes of the UpperMidwest are chronologically sequential and overlapspatially. Stylistic and technological differences inceramics provide the strongest evidence fordistinguishing the two. Other diagnostic artifacts andfeatures are not well defined due to a lack of stratigraphicintegrity within most sites. Site locations and types aswell as environmental and cultural data were analyzedusing a geographic information system (GIS) andstatistical measures. This study seeks to furtherunderstanding of the Blackduck/Psinomani transition andto demonstrate how GIS can help to understand culturalphenomena (e.g. culture change/continuity and land use)in archaeological contexts.Jenkins, Dennis (Museum of Nat. & Cult. Hist.,University of Oregon), Loren Davis (Oregon StateUniversity), Thomas Stafford (Stafford Research,Inc.) and Eske Willerslev (Centre for GeoGenetics,University of Copenhagen)[262] Dating, context, and stratigraphic associations oflate Pleistocene cultural deposits in the Paisley Caves ofSouth-Central OregonAncient human DNA has been recovered from 16coprolites radiocarbon dated between 12,895 and 14,370calibrated years (10,980 ± 20 to 12,345 ± 55 BP) at thePaisley Caves in the Summer Lake basin of south-centralOregon. This paper presents new evidence ofassociations of artifacts, coprolites, and extinct faunalremains in the well dated ―Gray Sand‖ strata of PaisleyCaves 2 and 5. Chronological control is provided by asuite of 27 radiocarbon dates obtained on speciesidentified twigs, soluble residues, single fibers fromcoprolites, rodent droppings, and bones.Jenkins, Sarah (Washington State University)[178] Old site, new questions: putting resourceintensification to the test in the Southeastern ColumbiaPlateau using faunal remains from Windust Cave C(45FR46)Recent research suggests that the use of certainresources intensified in the Columbia Plateau during theLate Prehistoric period. Evidence for intensification isillustrated by the many artifacts and features related to aforager-collector lifestyle in the Southern ColumbiaPlateau. However, direct evidence for intensification ofArtiodactyls through decreased richness and evennessand greater processing of elements for extraction ofgrease and marrow, has yet to be shown. I put resourceintensification to the test using the findings from WindustCave, a temporary hunting camp used from 10,000 historic time, in conjunction with faunal assemblagesfrom contemporaneous sites.Jennings, Justin (Royal Ontario Museum)[267] The Huarhua Rock Salt Mine: PossibleArchaeological Implications of Modern Salt ExtractionPracticesOne of the larger sources of rock salt in the south centralAndes is the Huarhua mine in Peru‘s Cotahuasi Valley.Although continued extraction has destroyed traces ofPre-Columbian activities within the mine itself, otherarchaeological evidence suggests that the salt has beenexploited for at least a millennium. Mining practices haveundoubtedly changed through the centuries, butHuarhua‘s rock salt is still mined today by villagersworking without mechanized tools. The methods andorganization of modern extraction at Huarhua maytherefore provide some insights into how Andean rocksalt mines could have been mined, managed, and

164ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGcontrolled in antiquity.Jennings, Thomas (Texas A&M University) andAshley Smallwood (Texas A&M University- Center forthe Study of the First Americans)[155] An Analysis of Clovis Site Types and OccupationPatterns: Exploring Homogeneity and Variability withinClovis SettlementClovis was traditionally defined by a shared suite oftechnological traits, but new evidence suggests somevariation within Clovis technology. This variability raisesthe question, was Clovis a homogenous continental-wideadaptation? Should we expect consistency in settlementpatterns, or do site size and function vary regionally?This paper compares Clovis sites in North America toevaluate whether occupation patterns are consistent orvariable across space. We use site area, inter-clusterdistance, and artifact assemblages to infer site functionand compare and contrast settlement strategies withinand between regions.[155] First ChairJennings, Thomas [120] see Smallwood, Ashley M.Jensen, Anne (UIC Science LLC)[159] Where Great Whales Come Sailing By: WhalingCaptains‘ Footprints on Alaska‘s North SlopeWhaling has long been the organizing focus of coastalNorth Slope Iñupiat culture. Many scholars believe thatwhaling was important in Thule culture prior to the Thulemigration, although it has been difficult to confirm this.This paper examines the material correlates of whaling atsites where whaling is known to have taken place. It issuggested that little evidence of whaling is to be found inhouse interiors, which have received most archaeologicaleffort to date. Rather, whaling-specific material culturetends to be found outside the houses proper, in somecases associated with women‘s activity areas.Jerardino, Antonieta (ICREA/University of Barcelona)[253] Integrating hunter-gatherer resource intensificationand feasting along the West Coast of South AfricaMegamiddens dating to between 3000 and 2000 BPalong the South African West Coast are interpretedwithin a resource intensification framework. Most proteinconsumed by foragers during this millennium derivedfrom marine resources according to isotopic evidence.Raising population densities and signs of impact on localfauna between 3500 and 2500 BP are concomitant withgrowth stunting among coastal foragers. A later declinein environmental productivity between 2500 and 2000 BPcoincides with an increase in interpersonal violence.Feasting and/or intensified ritual at nearbySteenbokfontein Cave were probably developed as acoping mechanisms to mediate social and ecologicalstress.Jerrems, William (Independent)[231] Testing the Clovis paradigm: fishing and hunting atthe end of the Younger DryasIt has been thought that Pleistocene megafaunalextinctions occurred prior to the peopling of the GreatBasin. Few unequivocal associations of extinct fauna andhuman activity have been dated to Clovis times (11.3-11.0 kya). Challenging this, evidence from shores ofPyramid Lake, Nevada, suggests the persistence ofextinct mammoth to 10.3 kya (terminal Younger Dryas)and human utilization of fresh bone, ivory and antler fortool manufacture. This paper reviews the evidence offishing and hunting along the receding shoreline ofPyramid Lake and the refugium that this area offered forthe late survival of mammoth.Jeske, Robert (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee)[141] Red Ochre Mortuary Sites in SoutheasternWisconsinRed Ocher is a poorly understood and vaguely definedarchaeological concept relating to burial sites scatteredacross the south and west Lake Michigan drainage.Although generally accepted as Late Archaic in age,there are few data to support chronology or most otheraspects of Red Ocher sites from southern Wisconsin,northern Illinois, or northern Indiana. The concept of RedOcher is reviewed using new data from several recentlyexcavated and newly analyzed sites in southernWisconsin. Biological, material culture and spatial dataare summarized to provide a tentative framework forplacing these burials into a cultural context.Jessome, Kenzie [96] see Merchant, Peter SJimenez, Melania [193] see Jaime-Riveron, OlafJiménez Betts, Peter [237] see Perez, Ventura R.Jimenez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto [68] see Silva, RosiclerT.Jochim, Michael (Univ of Cal - Santa Barbara) [123]DiscussantJohannesson, Erik (UNC Chapel Hill)[54] Identity, Death, and Commemoration: An Analysis ofXiongnu Mortuary PracticeThis paper examines aspects of mortuary practiceagainst the backdrop of the first nomadic polity inMongolia, the Xiongnu (ca 200 BCE-200 CE). Mortuarycontexts provide invaluable opportunities to assessidentity formation and ideologies on display in funeraryritual. Here is discussed how political centralization canbe discerned through the treatment in death of variousage categories and how these in turn can revealinformation about the perception of personhood in thepast.Johansen, Peter (University of British Columbia)[189] Forging Social Relations, Producing Metals:Investigating Scale and Context in the Socio-materialLandscape of Iron/Steel Production in Iron AgeKarnatakaMortuary evidence from the South Indian Iron Age (1200-300 BC) documents the materiality of iron and steelobjects in the expression of social differences in deathritual. Yet far less is known about the social relations ofmetallurgical production itself. Here I consider ferrousmetallurgy a technologically sophisticated package ofland-use practices that produce a range of materialobjects, social relationships, and dynamic, multi-scalar,socio-material landscapes. This paper investigates thepolitical materiality of landscapes of metallurgicalproduction in Northern Karnataka and the consequences

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 165of its potential vectors of differential access to places,people and things on Iron Age social life.[189] First Chair [189] Second OrganizerJohansen, Trine Bjørneboe (UC Davis)[180] Snares, nets and stone traps: Increasing foragingefficiency for small game at Iita, Northwest GreenlandThe utilization of snares, nets and stone traps madesmall animals valuable additions in the subsistencestrategy of the Inughuit at the site of Iita, NorthwestGreenland. Small game such as arctic fox (Vulpeslagopus), arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) and dovekies (Allealle) dominate the 24,743 faunal remains excavated atIita. Although foraging efficiency is often measured interms of body size this paper suggests that capturingtechniques should be considered equally whendiscussing optimization of resources and that thepresence of small animals caught in snares, nets, andstone traps may indicate an overall increase in huntingefficiency independent of prey size.Johnson, C. (Bureau of Land Management)[239] The Long-Lost Coast: Searching for Evidence ofEarly Coastal Migration in the King Range NationalConservation AreaThe long-held ―Ice-Free Corridor‖ theory for the initialpeopling of the Americas has been challenged by anumber of researchers posing a ―Coastal Migration‖model. Testing this concept is proving difficult however,due to the fact that most terrestrial coastal settings of theLate Pleistocene are inundated by higher sea levelsresulting from large-scale glacial melting. Recent GISmodeling indicates only one region with tectonic upliftrates that exceed the rise of post-glacial sea levels. Thispaper reports on current efforts to locate, map, and testremnant marine terraces in search of evidence of coastalmigration along California‘s Lost Coast.[239] First ChairJohnson, Danette [158] see Gaskell, SandraJohnson, Donald (McGill University), James Savelle(McGill University) and Arthur Dyke (GeologicalSurvey of Canada)[159] Pioneering Thule Inuit on Somerset Island:Implications for Thule Development‗Pioneering‘ period Thule sites (ca. A.D. 1200-1300) havebeen reported on northwest Ellesmere Island andnortheastern Greenland, but the route by which thesegroups may have entered the eastern Canadian Arcticfrom the Bering Strait region has never been addressed,due to lack of data. Recent excavations on southeastSomerset Island at an apparent ‗Pioneering‘ Thule sitesuggest that these earliest groups followed a southernArctic mainland coast/Boothia Peninsula/Somerset Islandroute. The implications of this research are addressed,and suggest that many more ‗Pioneering‘ Thule sites inthe southern Arctic mainland coast/islands are yet to bediscovered and investigated.Johnson, Eileen [66] see Puseman, KathrynJohnson, Erlend (Tulane)[31] Entrance Structures and Their Uses and Meanings:a look at Entrance Structures from Three Sites in theSoutheastern Mesoamerican AreaLow ranged, structures were built at the site‘s mainentrance at several sites in the Southeast Mesoamericanarea. These entrance structures are unique to the areaand provide important insights into elite management ofpublic areas. This poster uses three examples of thesestructures from El Cafetal, El Coyote and El Puente.Entrance structures controlled the access of people tothese sites and were stages for public activities likefeasting. Through activities such as the burial ofancestors within these structures elites symbolically andphysically claimed control over access to and publicritual.Johnson, Jerald (CSU, Sacramento)[77] Ishi In Retrospect From An ArchaeologicalPerspectiveThis presentation will emphasize the many discrepanciesbetween the published literature and the archaeologicalrecord. It will also explore why the Yahi were so culturallyconservative and had such a small population. Werethese people really as uncontaminated by White cultureas Alfred Kroeber had hoped or were they on the way toacculturation? Also how did Edward Sapir manage toobtain so much information from Ishi before he died?Finally when will the Sapir notebooks be published sincethey were missing for almost 70 years and onlyresurfaced in 1985?[256] DiscussantJohnson, John (Santa Barbara Museum of NaturalHistory), Joseph Lorenz (Central WashingtonUniversity), Ripan Malhi (University of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign), Tracey Pierre (University ofCopenhagen) and Eske Willerslev (University ofCopenhagen)[11] A Land of DiversityNative California has long been recognized for its greatdegree of linguistic diversity. The multiplicity oflanguages derived from past migrations into the regionand cultural adaptation to a diverse range of ecologicaltypes. Reconstructing the record of ancient migrationshas been approached through techniques of linguisticprehistory, archaeology, oral tradition, morphometricmeasurements of skeletal anatomy, and most recently byDNA studies. Specific mitochondrial DNA lineages havebeen shown to correlate with ethnolinguistic groupings,shedding light on the origins of the diverse peoples thatinhabited the California region at the time of Europeancontact.[151] DiscussantJohnson, Kent (SHESC / Arizona State University),Kristin Nado (Arizona State University) andPaul Goldstein (University of California, San Diego)[233] A Reevaluation of the Dual Diaspora Model ofTiwanaku Organization in the Moquegua Valley, Peruusing Odontometric and Cranial Nonmetric DataTiwanaku enclave communities in the Moquegua Valleyof southern Peru were composed of two distinct groups:Omo-style and Chen Chen-style Tiwanaku populations.While archaeological data from the Río Muerto sitecomplex indicate that cultural boundaries between thegroups were fluid, previous biodistance studies havegenerated contradictory interpretations of biologicalinteractions between these populations. The presentstudy uses two morphological proxies of genetic

166ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGrelatedness (odontometric and cranial nonmetric traits)from skeletal samples from Omo-style and Chen Chenstylesites at Río Muerto to calculate biological distancesthat better represent underlying genotypes and providegreater resolution of the biological interactions betweenthese populations.Johnson, Laura (Pacific Lutheran University) andBradford Andrews (Pacific Lutheran University)[190] Expedient Flaked Stone Tools at a Mayan Center:Analysis of a Lithic Collection from Baking Pot, BelizeLittle research has been done on stone tools from thesite of Baking Pot, a prominent Mayan center in Belize.Baking Pot was primarily occupied during the LateClassic period. This paper examines how the availabilityof local chert conditioned the types of tools beingproduced. In particular, the collections contain manyinformal tools, including utilized flakes, partially utilizedcores, choppers, and hammerstone cores. Thenumerous informal tools support the idea that rawmaterial availability can affect the nature of flaked stonetechnologies. These data provide valuable comparativeinformation on flaked stone technology in the BelizeRiver Valley.Johnson, Phillip (Texas A&M University) and EricJ. Bartelink (California State University, Chico)[255] Prehistoric Marine and Terrestrial ResourceConsumption in West Polynesia: Isotopic Evidence fromTutuila Island, Amerika SamoaThe relative dietary importance of marine versusterrestrial resources has been the focus of several recentsubsistence studies of ancient Polynesians. This studyexamines stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 32radiocarbon dated burials from Tutuila, American Samoa(ca. 1600-100 B.P.). Additionally, we provide a partialfood web reconstruction through stable isotope analysisof archaeofaunal remains and modern faunal and plantremains. We tested the hypothesis that marine proteinconsumption declined through time concomitant withincreased use of terrestrial domesticates, and discussthe implications of our findings in light of currentarchaeological subsistence models for West Polynesia.Johnson, Phillip [35] see Riley, Timothy E.Johnson, Sarah [232] see Springer, Chris L. M.Johnson, Scott (Tulane University)[221] Yaxuna to Chichen Itza: Using Small Sites to Lookat Big ProblemsIt is clear that Chichen Itza rose to power in the Late andTerminal Classic periods. Many of the data used toreconstruct past political, social, and regional historieshave come from large sites, such as Yaxuna, Ek Balam,Coba, Uxmal, and Chichen Itza itself. Only a handful ofsmall sites have been examined for evidence of thisregional power shift. This presentation will outline thework and research paradigms used at small sites,emphasizing the work at Popola, Yucatan, and how itrelates to the question of Chichen Itza's rise.[221] First ChairJohnson, William [181] see Gaines, Edmund P.Johnstone, Dave (Humboldt State University)[228] The Middle Formative Ceramics from the CochuahRegionNearly half of the sites excavated within the CRAS studyarea have yielded some sherds dating to the MiddleFormative period. However, no primary depositscontaining pure Middle Formative ceramics have beenencountered. All Middle Formative ceramics wererecovered from construction fill associated with lateroccupation. While the collection has some superficialresemblances to the Mamom ceramic sphere, thedifferences suggest that we have a separate ceramicsphere for the Northern Yucatan during the MiddleFormative.Jolie, Edward (University of New Mexico)[188] A Perishables Perspective on Falls Creek and theBasketmaker II WorldPerishable artifacts were an integral component ofBasketmaker II burial assemblages at the Falls CreekRock Shelters. The associated perishable artifactinventory, including coiled baskets, prepared hides,human hair cordage, braided sashes, and twinedblankets, bags, aprons, and mats, provides a uniqueglimpse into the social lives and funerary practices ofearly agriculturalists at the eastern edge of ColoradoPlateau. This presentation describes the style andtechnology of these artifacts and interprets them in lightof perishable assemblages from other regions of theBasketmaker II world.[78] Discussant [188] see Webster, LaurieJones, A [20] DiscussantJones, Alexandra (University of California, Berkeley)[268] DiscussantJones, Brian (UMass, Amherst)[2] A Social Network Analysis Approach to Henrich‘sModel of Biased Skill Transmission: Implications for theMSA – LSA TransitionSocial Network Analysis provides an appropriatemodeling environment for exploring the dynamics oflearning among socially interconnected groups. Henrich‘s2004 model of biased information transmission is appliedto the development of behavioral modernity in Africaduring the Middle Stone Age. As between-group linksincrease between small-scale social networks, complexinformation is more effectively stored and transmittedthroughout the population. Rather than particulartechnological innovations or cognitive changes, thedevelopment of a pattern of behavior promoting betweengroupsocial interaction may mark the dawn of behavioralmodernity among humans.Jones, Catherine (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[142] A Pilot Study of the Application of EnergyDispersive X-Ray Fluorescence to the Identification ofIndividual Human RemainsThis paper presents the results of a pilot study todetermine the feasibility of applying energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to the analysis of humanbone. The aim of this study was to identify a discreteelemental signature that could provide a diagnostic toolfor separating the remains of one individual from another.X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful, portable

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 167tool for nondestructive elemental analysis, and its use inthe determination of an elemental signature wouldestablish a new diagnostic tool that could be effectivelyused in archaeological cases of commingled remains,especially those which are large scale or fragmentary.Jones, Daniel [258] see Silverstein, Jay E.Jones, Deanna (CSU Northridge) and AnabelFord (UCSB)[238] Mismanagement or Misrepresentation: Implicationsof Botanical and Faunal Data from the Maya ForestCurrent notions of environmental interaction by theancient Maya suggest grave mismanagement. Ford(2008) has studied the interaction between the Maya andtheir landscape by analyzing archaeological andpaeleoenvironmental data. Ford argues thatpaleoenvironmental reconstructions commonly used tostudy the Maya rely solely on wind pollen, which does notaccount for over 90% of the biotically pollinated fruit andhardwoods. The lack of complete information results inmisrepresentations of the Maya, and deserves moreattention. The focus of this presentation will be to testFord‘s hypothesis by evaluating flora and fauna fromarchaeological sites in the Maya area.Jones, Emily (Utah State University), TodHildebrandt (Utah State University), Ryan Breslawski(Utah State University) and Elizabeth Seymour (UtahState University)[177] The Idaho Archaeofaunal DatabaseThis poster describes the Idaho Archaeofaunal Databaseproject. The Idaho Archaeofaunal Database is a GISlinkedsearchable database of vertebrate animal remainsfrom archaeological sites in Idaho. Users can search forspecific species of animals; search results consist of amap highlighting sections of Idaho that includearchaeological sites containing that taxon. The project isdesigned to serve both wildlife managers, who can usethe database for information on the historic ranges ofvertebrate species as reflected by their presence inarchaeological sites, and zooarchaeologists, as part oflarger projects in the state of Idaho.Jones, Eric (Wake Forest University)[55] Building Swidden Agricultural Settlement Theory:Comparing the Late Woodland Northeast and SoutheastFifteen years ago, Glenn Davis Stone stated, ―it is noteven clear what an agrarian settlement theory shouldlook like‖. This was and still is strikingly true for swiddenagriculture in temperate climates. Several swiddenagricultural societies thrived in the Eastern Woodlandsfrom AD 1000–1600. Studying their settlement remainsand reconstructed landscapes allows us to buildsettlement theory for this subsistence strategy. Thisresearch analyzed the spatial patterning ofHaudenosaunee sites and sites in the North CarolinaPiedmont in relation to environmental and sociopoliticalfactors. The results suggest that defensibility,transportation, and agricultural production influencedsettlement choice decisions.[55] First ChairJones, Gary (California State University, Fullerton)and Steven R. James (California State University atFullerton)[263] The Ninth Channel Island: ArchaeologicalInvestigations and Historical Ecology at Abalone Cove onthe Palos Verdes Peninsula in Southern CoastalCaliforniaArchaeological investigations on the California ChannelIslands and adjacent mainland coastal sites are providingsignificant information for understanding ancient humanimpacts on marine and terrestrial fauna, which can beused for interpreting the historical ecology of these pastecosystems. Through a partnership with the PalosVerdes Peninsula Land Conservancy, field classes fromCalifornia State University at Fullerton conductedarchaeological surveys and test excavations at AbaloneCove on the Palos Verdes Peninsula during the past fouryears. Results of the research are presented andcomparisons are made with other coastal and islandsites.Jones, George (Hamilton College) and CharlotteBeck (Hamilton College)[262] A Paleoarchaic Surface Record from Coal Valley,NevadaIn 2007, exploratory reconnaissance of Paleoarchaicsites in Coal Valley, Nevada, was conducted to recoverstone artifacts for source provenance analysis. Weinvestigated three assemblages, each of which containsdiagnostic tools including fluted and unfluted lanceolates,stemmed points, and crescents. Among the former is anexample that compares favorably with western Clovis,while others have gracile features. The crescent sample,though small, exhibits the full range of morphologicalvariation seen in the tool class. Source characterizationof obsidian and dacite artifacts points to a strong localprovenance signal. We consider these assemblages inlight of questions regarding tool morphology variation,assemblage function, and Paleoarchaic mobility.Jones, George [22] see Goodale, Nathan B. [94] seeBeck, CharlotteJones, John G. (Washington State University),Nicholas Dunning (University of Cincinnati) andDavid Lentz (University of Cincinnati)[119] Typha Tales: Paleoenvironmental Analysis of TwoTikal AguadasPeripheral areas of Tikal were heavily occupied andutilized, particularly in the Bajo de Santa Fe area, east ofthe site center. Numerous aguadas were employed bythe site inhabitants reflecting this intense exploitation.Sediments in these wetlands are generally undisturbedfollowing site decline and abandonment, leavingexcellent pollen records of past environmental conditions.Examination of two of these sequences, AguadaTerminos and Aguada Vaca de Monte reveals a fairlydetailed agricultural and silvicultural record. Ancientagriculture, site abandonment, reforestation and site reuseare apparent in these records.Jones, John G. [46] see Holstad, Emily [88] see Drake,Douglas H. [119] see Dunning, Nicholas P. [88] seeKennett, Douglas J.Jones, Kevin (State Archaeologist, Utah) [91]DiscussantJones, Robert [201] see Dungan, Katherine A. [52] see

168ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGClark, Jeffery J.Jones, Terry (Cal Poly San Luis Obispo) and AlSchwitalla (Garcia and Associates, Inc.)[11] A Land of Many Seasons: BioarchaeologicalSignatures of the Medieval Climatic Anomaly in centralCaliforniaData from 16,152 central California skeletons showstrong evidence for demographic stress during theMedieval Climatic Anomaly (cal A.D. 800-1350), a periodmarked by prolonged and severe droughts. Culturalphases that bracket the Medieval Climatic Anomaly showfrequencies of enamel hypoplasia and dental carieshigher than any other pre-contact period. Phasessynchronous with the Late Medieval Climatic Anomaly(cal A.D. 1210-1390) show pre-contact apices in dentalcaries, signs of disease, and violence. Evidence ofanemia is high for the late MCA although it increasedafterwards. Findings suggest that unforeseen climaticdownturns caused problems for California huntergatherers.Jones, Terry [11] see Klar, Kathryn A.Jones, Timothy (Contemporary Archaeology)[197] An Overview: 30 Years of Applied ActivistArchaeologyContemporary archaeology, the use of archaeologicalprincipals and techniques to address current problemsand issues, has been in use for at least three decades.The theoretical foundations and justifications wereprovided nearly two decades ago. This presentation willcover a host of applied applications including thoserelated to food systems, supply and manufacturingsystems, waste disposal systems, alternative energyproduction, mining exploration and others.Jordan, Aaron [150] see Nelson, Shaun R.Jordan, Alexis (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[42] A Preliminary Study of Iron Age Glass in IrelandThe study of beads in archaeological contexts is asignificant part of the reconstruction of material culture.As portable pieces that serve as stylistic, temporal, andsocial markers, beads reflect patterns of interaction andcommunication. In the Irish Iron Age, the systematicstudy of artifact types has begun to clarify dating andcultural contact questions. Glass objects, most commonlybeads, appear in multiple contexts across Ireland buthave only been summarily discussed. Therefore, acomprehensive database of sites containing Iron Ageglass was created to establish a preliminary set ofobservations regarding the characteristics and variabilityof the glass objects.[42] First ChairJordan, James [263] see Anderson, Shelby L. R.Jordan, Kurt (Cornell University)[55] Life in Wartime: Local Adversity at the SenecaIroquois White Springs Site, circa 1688-1715Research on Postcolumbian Seneca Iroquois sitesillustrates that political-economic conditions (especiallythe local military setting) played a crucial role in guidingdecisions about the course of daily labor, community andhouse construction, resource choices, and settlementecology. Since 2007, archaeologists from CornellUniversity and Ithaca College have investigated the1688-1715 White Springs site. This paper reviews theresults of the project, detailing life in a Senecacommunity founded after French invasion and occupiedin a time of war and uncertainty. While overall conditionswere adverse, Senecas remained politically autonomous,maintained significant inter-regional connections, andexperimented socially and materially.[55] see Rogers, MichaelJordan, Stacey (AECOM)[50] ―The Trail is Not a Trail‖: cultural resourcesinventories in the BLM National Historic Trails projectAmerica‘s National Historic Trails are congressionallydesignated routes echoing the major overland travels ofthe historic period that shaped what is now the westernUnited States. As drawn, these routes illustrate the flowof goods and people through the region, however theirtraces on the ground may differ vastly from the solidblack lines mapping their paths. As shown by this project,the trail is a concept – manageable nonetheless – thatincludes physical traces of a trail, its setting, and thecontext provided by associated archaeological resources.[50] First ChairJorgensen, Mia (University at Buffalo)[243] Resuming the Past: Revisiting Ceramic Materialsfrom Millon, Drewitt, and Bennyhoff‘s 1959 Investigationsof the Pyramid of the SunThe reanalysis of ceramics from the Pyramid of the Sunis based on the archaeological investigations of RenéMillon, Bruce Drewit, and James Bennyhoff held at theUniversity at Buffalo and published in an 1965 report inTransactions of the Philosophical Society volume 55 Part6. The reanalysis intends to examine vessel fragments inan effort to further clarify the relationship between thePyramid of the Sun and Plaza One situated within thesite of Teotihuacán in San Juan, México. Theimplications of the study could reveal relatedness relativeto chronology, vessel style, form, and fabric.Jorgenson, Gina (UC Davis, BLM), Jelmer Eerkens(University of California, Davis) and Gry Barfod(University of California, Davis)[194] A Bioarchaeological Investigation of Migration andSocial Organization in the Prehistoric California DeltaThe analysis of strontium isotope ratios (86Sr/87Sr) inhuman teeth and bone can be used to answerincreasingly complex questions about past humanbehavior. By focusing on individuals, detailed andspecific analysis of migration, social organization, andgroup composition can be examined. This paperpresents an analysis of 86Sr/87Sr in human teeth andbone samples from the recently excavated population atCA-CCO-548 (the Marsh Creek Site). This Windmillersite is providing an important opportunity to investigatehow social organization is influenced by the interrelatedprocesses of resource intensification and sedentism inCalifornia.Joslin, Terry (University of California, Santa Barbara)[263] Historical Ecology and Human Adaptations toCoastal Ecosystems along the Southern San SimeonReef Region, CaliforniaArchaeological and ecological data from central

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 169California Coast midden sites spanning the Middle toLate Holocene provide a unique perspective into marinesubsistence and the dynamic nature of humanenvironmentalinteractions. The research presented inthis paper suggests that intertidal resource communitiesremained relatively stable over time, perhaps the result oflow population densities dispersed across the region.Small near-shore marine fish and rocky intertidal shellfishappear to have largely supported human occupation over5,000 years without diminishing littoral productivity,demonstrating the considerable adaptive variability ofcoastal hunter-gatherer-fishers.Jousse, Hélène [133] see Sereno, Paul CJoyce, Arthur (University of Colorado at Boulder)[24] Social and Material Transformations of MonteAlbán‘s Main Plaza after the Classic-Period CollapseThis paper considers Postclassic (A.D. 800-1521)material and symbolic transformations of Monte Albán‘sMain Plaza. I argue that Early Postclassic ritual depositsreflect the historical rupture of the time as commonersreclaimed the sacred rites of the Main Plaza, noblesremoved the remains of their ancestors, and largeportions of the plaza were abandoned and erased frommemory. By the Late Postclassic the history of MonteAlbán‘s sacred ruins was reinvented for the ideologicalpurposes of a new noble class as the Main Plazabecame a place where elite ancestors participated withgods in the creation of the current world.Joyce, Arthur [5] see Brzezinski, Jeffrey S. [182] seeUrcid, JavierJoyce, Rosemary (University California Berkeley)[122] Generic archaeology: Changing the packaging, orchanging the product?I have argued that archaeologists engage in thereproduction of what Bakhtin called genres, "formshapingideologies" that "convey a vision of theworld…by developing concrete examples". I would nowargue that the many innovative experiments consciouslyintended to change the nature of archaeologicalcommunication have not transformed the basic genres inwhich they are embedded. The generic uniformity ofarchaeology surely can be changed, but not by slightmodifications in the packaging. What we need is torethink the product itself. I illustrate my argument withdiscussion of a work in progress that does not conform toexisting archaeological genres.[16] DiscussantJuarez, Santiago (Northwestern University)[212] Community Practices at the Periphery: HouseholdSettlement Patterns near Lake Mensabak in Chiapas,Mexico.Modern agricultural fields were surveyed for Mayaarchaeological sites near Lake Mensabak in Chiapas,Mexico. Three fields revealed evidence of a complex andwell organized settlement patterns, in which householdswere rigidly organized according to a Northwest axis.Such organization exhibits community practices thatguided the distribution of land and its resources. With anemphasis on community, my research concentrates onthe macro-level processes that brought householdstogether. This research also represents a new directionin which the Late to Terminal Classic period is treated asthe emergent period of settlement.Judd, Margaret (University of Pittsburgh)[152] REMEMBRANCE, RELICS AND RECOVERY ATMOUNT NEBO, JORDANMount Nebo, the largest and hypothetically mostcosmopolitan monastery in Byzantine Jordan, providesan opportunity to understand the structuring of thehuman death course among individuals united bymonastic culture. The collective burials within theRobebus Chapel (A.D.530) blurred the individualbiological identities, thus necessitating the method andtheory of ‗anthropogie de terrain‘ to disarticulate theindividual from the community in order to rearticulate theexperienced life and funerary deposition. Disparities inplacement, processing and selective remembrancesuggest that some individuals were venerated in death,yet retained their communal identity.Juengst, Sara (UNC-CH) and Sergio Chavez (CentralMichigan University)[233] After the Fall: Trauma and Labor in the LateIntermediate Period at Ch'isiThe Late Intermediate Period (AD1000-1450) in the LakeTiticaca region was a time of decentralization and chaoticpolitical fluctuations. The collapse of both Tiwanaku andWari at the end of the Middle Horizon left the politicalsphere open to new powers and influences, causingabandonment of sites and shifting social conditions. TheLate Intermediate Period burials at Ch‘isi, a Lake Titicacatemple site occupied from Yayamama times onward,reflect this cultural revolution through the pathology andtrauma seen on these skeletal remains. The tumultuouspolitical changes are directly visible on these bodiesthemselves.Julien, Catherine (History, Western MichiganUniversity) [15] DiscussantJulien, Marie-Anne (University of Tubingen), HeleneMartin (INRAP - UMR 5608), Herve Bocherens(University of Tubingen) and Ariane Burke(University of Montreal)[205] Bison procurement in the southern steppes ofEastern Europe: zooarchaeological, incremental andbiogeochemical approachesDuring the Upper Paleolithic, bison is well represented infaunal assemblages in the southern steppes of EasternEurope, and Paleolithic economies are considered to"specialize" in bison hunting. Located in south-easternUkraine, Amvrosievka is a complex of Epigravettian sites- including a camp and a kill/processing site - particularlyrich in bison remains. In this paper we present the resultsof a seasonality study based on the combined use ofzooarchaeological tools, incremental study and stableisotope analysis of the bison remains from Amvrosievka.The results enable us to evaluate the advantages anddisadvantages of the different methods.Julio-Miranda, Patricia [67] see Lelgemann, AchimKagawa, Aurora [261] see Vitousek, PeterKahn, Jennifer (Bishop Museum)[261] Elite Access to Resources and Labor: Late

170ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGPrehistoric Residential Complexes in Coastal Kohala,Hawai‗iExcavations at two elite residential complexes inLeeward Kohala indicate multiple phases of siteoccupation in later prehistory and the presence of activityareas. Elite access to marine and terrestrial resources,craft specialization, and labor allocation are highlighted inthe assemblage analyses. Results of the fishboneidentifications are discussed in relation to fishing gearand profuse shell midden. The size and frequency of theshell and faunal remains are indicative of access to highstatus foods. Geochemical analyses of basalt artifactsillustrate the extent to which local versus imported exoticraw materials were used in adze production.[261] see McCoy, Mark D. [261] see Mills, Peter R.Kahotea, Des (University of Waikato)[197] The Margin of ArchaeologyWhen individual archaeologist use the field ofarchaeology for cultural and political activist purposessuch as Maori land claims and seeking the protection ofsignificant heritage this is condoned by thearchaeological community who view archaeology is to beused for science not political activism. This stance is alsoto protect their institutional power and role they have asthe authority for archaeology which is in the main Maoriheritage. This paper examines the dilemma faced byindividuals who use their archaeological training,knowledge and professionalism for community advocacyroles.[252] DiscussantKaiser, Bruce [267] see Rademaker, Kurt M.Kaiser, Jessica (University of California, Berkeley)[152] The Wall of the Crow Cemetery in Giza, Egypt:Remembering the ChildrenThis paper will give a brief overview of the non-elite Saiteand Roman period Wall of the Crow Cemetery in Giza,but will mainly concentrate on the differential patterns ofchild-burials in the Saite material, which diverge fromthose of adults not only in terms of spatial arrangementwithin the cemetery, but also in terms of the amount andtype of burial goods and bodily treatment they received.Possible explanations for this discrepancy and thereasoning behind the specific choice of placement withinthe cemetery (at a locale that is still today associatedwith pregnancy and childbirth) will be discussed.Kakaliouras, Ann (Whittier College) [217] DiscussantKakos, Peter (Navajo Nation-HPD)[158] Rock Art: A Lost Language of Meaning, Myth, andSymbolsRock Art: A Lost Language of Meaning, Myth, andSymbols Ethnographic inquiry into the aboriginal use ofsymbols, stories and myths often provides no clue tounderstanding or decipherment in most cases. But ifRock Art incorporates a structure of mythos into its matrixusing symbols with apparent meaning, how then is one toproceed in its study and how does archaeology addressthis, and what underlies the true meaning of Rock Art?Even when close ethnographic links between Rock Artand culture can be demonstrated,Kakoulli, Ioanna (Materials Science & EngineeringDept. UCLA), Sergey Prikhodko (University ofCalifornia, Los Angeles), Christian Fischer(University of California, Los Angeles), Sirine Fakra(Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory) and Matthew Marcus (Advanced LightSource, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)[220] CSI archaeology: ‗The Andean Mummy Case‘. Anomnidisciplinary approach intergrading field, laboratoryand synchrotron radiation methodsThis research describes the application of portable X-rayfluorescence (pXRF) and Variable Pressure ScanningElectron Microscopy (VPSEM) coupled with EnergyDispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) combined withsynchrotron radiation X-ray and infraredmicrospectroscopies (SR-microXAS and SR-microFTIR)for the study of Pre-Columbian human scalp hair. Resultsindicated acute arsenicism most likely caused by drinkingarsenic contaminated water and through diet. Ourapproach was able to discriminate from exogenouscontamination and diagenetic processes.[220] First ChairKaldahl, Eric (Amerind Foundation, Inc)[139] The Tohono O‘odham Nation Museum: One NativeNation‘s Presentation of their People and their LandThe Tohono O‘odham Nation built a museum between2001 and 2007. The museum featured nine exhibitionsthat told their people‘s story. The museum‘s primaryaudience is the Nation‘s 28,000 tribal members,particularly their youth. The exhibition content wasdecided in community meetings. The O‘odhamrelationship to their land was crucial to the exhibitions.Their relationship to the archaeological landscape wasnot deemed worthy of much exhibition space. The storiesthat archaeological research might tell were also not ofmuch interest. Instead the relationship between theO‘odham and their homeland was explored viacommunity history, story, song, and lived experience.Kaldenberg, Russell (ASM Affiliates)[230] Honoring the Life and Times of C. William Clewlow,Jr., Iconic Archaeologist of the Great Basin and FarSouthwestC. William ―Billy‖ Clewlow, Jr. has placed hisincontrovertible stamp on the anthropology andarchaeology of the Great Basin and the Far Southwestfor over forty years. From his early days at UC Berkeley,where he was mentored by Robert Heizer and pioneeredstudies of Native American rock art to his days in the1960s protest movements, his flings as a contractarchaeologist, professor, story-teller, prolific writer, rockand roll artist and visionary and bullfighter. Billy is a livinglegacy to generations of archaeologists. Among hisnoteworthy accomplishments include a long list ofpublications from seminal papers on early humans in theGreat Basin to recent papers on ethnohistoric rock artand aboriginal trails. This paper attempts to summarizesome of his long lasting accomplishments and helprecognize his place as a creative contributor toarchaeological studies and one of the founders of culturalresource management.[230] Second Organizer [230] First ChairKalosky, Ethan (University of New Mexico) andKeith Prufer (University of New Mexico)[40] Settlement and Ecology at the Classic period Maya

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 171center of Uxbenka'Studies of settlement dynamics in the Maya Lowlandtraditionally focused on the development of socialcomplexity and institutionalized hierarchy. Agenciesresponsible for these patterns are frequently ignored.Drawn from Human Behavioral Ecology, The Ideal FreeDistribution provides an empirical framework toinvestigate household decision making strategies overtime, placing agents at the forefront of analysis. Usingthe Classic period polity of Uxbenka as a case study, weexamine the distribution of non-elite settlement in relationto ecological and social variables. The results suggestthat household level decision making, rather than politicalconstraints, are at least partly responsible for settlementpatterning.Kamiya, Masahiro (Texas A&M University) and LauraShort (Texas A&M University)[162] Effects of Post-Excavation Conditions on InfraredSpectroscopyInfrared Spectroscopy is a well-established method forchemical residue analysis that identifies molecular bondsbut only in the last few decades has it been applied toarchaeology. This poster presents preliminary studies inthe applicability of Fourier-Transformed InfraredSpectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy toarchaeology—the effects of potential contaminants onartifacts post-excavation. This study replicates theenvironments an artifact may experience in short termstorage and transportation from the field into thelaboratory. Modern ceramic ―artifacts‖ were spiked withorganics, stored in plastic and paper bags, and left in avariety of indoor and outdoor conditions for a week.Kamiya, Masahiro [35] see Thoms, Alston V.Kang, Bong (Gyeongju University)[149] A Social Reconstruction of the Korean Bronze Age:Based on the Dolmens Discovered in the SoutheasternKoreaDolmens are considered one of the principal mortuaryprograms in the Korean Bronze Age. Some scholarsbecame interested in a social reconstruction and theyhave asserted that Korean dolmen society reachedchiefdom. This issue has been one of the hottestresearch topics among Korean and foreignarchaeologists. A number of Korean scholars have takenit for granted that Korean dolmen society reached acentralized political organization. This paper based onthe analyses of spatial distribution of dolmen and artifactsrecovered from the burials argues that the dolmensociety in the southeastern part of Korean peninsularemained egalitarian.Kangas, James [83] see Slaughter, Mark C.Kannady, John [257] see Noll, Christopher D.Kansa, Eric (UC Berkeley, School of Information)[216] Effective Use of the Web to Support ArchaeologicalResearchThe World Wide Web represents one of the mostprofound developments in information sharing since theorigins of writing. In the past 15 years, it has radicallytransformed scholarly communications and research.New NSF data access and management policies furtherhighlight the growing importance of the Web. However,because the Web is still new, archaeologists needguidance using it effectively. This paper will discuss basicprinciples of Web architecture, design, services,interoperability and longevity. Examples from OpenContext and related projects provide practical guidancefor researchers in using the Web as a platform to publishfield data.[144] Discussant [144] Second OrganizerKansa, Eric [216] see Kansa, Sarah W.Kansa, Sarah (AAI / Open Context), Levent Atici(University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Justin Lev-Tov (Statistical Research, Inc.) and Eric Kansa (UCBerkeley)[216] Other People‘s Data: Blind Analysis and ReportWriting as a Demonstration of the Imperative of DataPublicationScholars increasingly rely on digital formats for theirresearch. While sharing PDFs of published syntheseshas become commonplace, researchers tend not toshare raw data, meaning that others cannot access theprimary content for reexamination or reuse. Thus, thoughweb publication of data is increasingly easy toaccomplish, many scholars have yet to realize therewards of sharing their primary data. We present resultsof blind analysis and report-writing by threezooarchaeologists on the faunal dataset from ChoghaMish, Iran. Divergent results highlight the importance ofpublishing original datasets alongside syntheses andproviding detailed documentation of datasets andmethodologies.[144] Third Organizer [144] First ChairKantor, Loni (Arizona State University)[36] The Materiality of Huichol CostumbreAmong the Huichol of Jalisco, Mexico, costumbre, orancestral tradition, is more than a means of maintainingcultural identity, it is necessary for the preservation of theworld as a whole. Costumbre is the manner in whichHuichol people negotiate with their deities in order toprevent calamitous change and a return to primordialchaos, and it entails the performance of rituals at variousplaces throughout the landscape. In this poster I describethe practice and materiality of Huichol costumbre, anddemonstrate its potential to enhance our understandingof the geographic scope and content of ritual activity inancient contexts.Kanukova, Maria [108] see Koetje, Todd A.Kappelman, John [3] see Loewen, NataliaKappers, Michiel (QLC), Frederik W. Schnitger (QLC,Amsterdam) and Scott M. Fitzpatrick (NC StateUniversity)[115] Development of an Integrated Database andGeographical Information System for Archaeological SiteRecording and ManagementThe management and recording of data recovered fromarchaeological sites has benefited tremendously from thedevelopment and use of computerized GIS software andmore sophisticated forms of data management. Here wepresent a user friendly database system specificallydesigned for real-time field processing of archaeological

172ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETINGfinds that: 1) utilizes barcode labeling as an inventorytool; 2) does not require a link with third party software;and 3) harnesses the analytical and imagery power ofGIS. Case studies from the Netherlands and theCaribbean highlight the effectiveness of this integratedsystem in both field and laboratory settings.Kappers, Michiel [163] see Casto, Kara I.Karavanic, Ivor and Fred Smith (Illinois StateUniversity)[218] Research history and alternative interpretations ofthe Middle/Upper Paleolithic interface in CroatiaA short research history of the Middle/Upper Paleolithictransition in Croatia will be presented. Alternativeinterpretations of transitional evidence from Vindija andVelika Pecina will be discussed from variousperspectives (archaeological, paleoanthropological,genetic). New interpretations are relevant for the debateabout Neandertal/early modern human relationships inCentral Europe.Kardulias, Paul (College of Wooster)[6] The Multi-Component Wansack Site (36ME61): ThePrehistoric Longue Durée in Western PennsylvaniaStraddling the glaciated/unglaciated divide on the borderbetween Ohio and Pennsylvania, the Wansack Siteprovided an economically viable locus for humanoccupation from the Early Archaic to the Late Prehistoricperiod. Four seasons of intensive excavation in the1970s retrieved a large array of ceramics, lithics, andenvironmental data. The lithics include a large number ofpoints and scrapers; microwear analysis of the latterreveals hideworking traces. The ceramic assemblageincludes fragments of over 40 cord-marked vessels,many with incised rims. Pollen indicates the setting was adeciduous forest; corn pollen was found in one feature.Karoll, Amy (University of Arkansas)[258] Reconsidering the End of the Early Bronze Age inWestern SyriaBased on analysis of materials from Tell Qarqur on theOrontes River in western Syria, this paper presents newinsights on the end of the Early Bronze Age (c. 2200-1950 B.C). Archaeological sites across the region showevidence of abandonment during this period, which somescholars have attributed to climate change. Excavationsat Tell Qarqur indicate an urban expansion during theterminal Early Bronze Age with a continuous sequence ofoccupation well into the 2nd millennium B.C. Resultssuggest that abandonment of sites may not have been aswidespread as previously assumed and force areconsideration of regional settlement history.Kartal, Metin [63] see Grant, SarahKasper, Kimberly (University of Massachusetts-Amherst) and Kevin McBride (University ofConnecticut and the Mashantucket Pequot Museumand Research Center)[3] Reconstructing the Cultural Factors of Anthracology:A Case Study of the Mohantic Fort in Southeastern NewEnglandIn the last two decades, the study of wood charcoal(anthracology) emerged as a sub-field to reconstructpaleo-environmental landscapes. More recentinvestigations focus on cultural factors associated withthe use and management of woodland resources. Thelate seventeenth century Mohantic Fort, located withinthe Mashantucket Pequot Reservation, is ideal toanalyze those human-environmental dynamics. Methods,such as Minimum Piece Diameter Analysis, explore thepresence of wood charcoal in different contexts, such aspalisades, midden, and pit features. This data will becompared to eighteenth century Mashantucket sites andcreate a diachronic study of plant interactions on achanging historical landscape.Katterman, Grace[49] Puruchuco Garments from the Time of the ConquestThe Puruchuco Cemetery on the outskirts of present dayLima has yielded numerous Late Horizon burials. Two ofCIPS textile specialists recently had the privilege ofanalyzing the garments from the last four mummiesrecovered there by Dr. Willy Cock. One was male andthree were female. Two were extended, Christian style,and two were flexed. While no Spanish features werefound in the clothing, the mix of local and Inca garmentsincluding the wide striped dress of a Chosen Woman inone of the Christian burials, suggests an intriguing story.Katz, Sandra (University of Pittsburgh), WilliamEngelbrecht (Buffalo State College) andKathleen Allen (University of Pittsburgh)[164] Hearthside activities at the Eaton SiteArchaeological research has revealed much about thearchitecture of Iroquoian longhouses, and how structuralfeatures have changed in response to historical events.However, the economic organization of the longhouseremains, by and large, a ―black box.‖ This studyinvestigated the distribution of economic activities withina prehistoric Iroquoian village, the 16th century Iroquoiancomponent of the Eaton site. We compared theconcentrations of artifacts and faunal remains fromindoor and outdoor fire pits at this site, and found thatcomplementary activities took place within and betweentwo houses. Implications for future research on taskdistribution within Iroquoian villages are explored.Katz, Sandra [55] see Allen, Kathleen M.Kaufman, Brett (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology,UCLA)[220] Metallurgical responses to Deforestation: Alloysequencing and environmental proxy data from the EBIV-MBII Southern LevantConsistent and widespread exploitation of metalsthroughout the late third and early second millenniumBCE by cultures of the Ancient Near East necessitatedand increased the fuel requirements for production ofthese metals, primarily in the form of timber charcoal.Anthropogenic deforestation, in addition to the aridifyinglandscape caused by the Late Holocene climatic episode(~2300 BCE), led to the mass adoption of tin bronze byhumans as a fuel saving mechanism. Investigation of thelocal alloy progression over an 800 year period (EBIV-MBII) at the site of ‗Enot Shuni in the Southern Levantreveals this culture‘s environmental choices.Kaufman, David (University of Kansas)[170] Orion, Uaxactun, Izapa, and CreationOrion is linked with creation and fertility in the mythology

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 76TH ANNUAL MEETING 173and cosmology of Mesoamerica and North America. Thispaper explores the possibility that, based on monumentalevidence at the site of Uaxactun, Orion and creation areboth linked in Mesoamerica with a February nadir, orpassage of the sun. This winter nadir, coinciding with thebeginning of the annual agrarian cycle, was perhapsmore important to ancient Mesoamericans than solsticesand equinoxes. The link between the winter nadir andcreation is supported by the Popol Vuh and possibly bymonumental evidence at the site of Izapa.Kaufmann, Cristian [177] see Gutierrez, Maria A.Keeler, Dustin (University at Buffalo)[89] Archaeological survey of a paleo-shoreline inNortheastern Kamchatka, RussiaDuring the 2010 field season a large scale survey wasconducted over two months along a paleo-shorelineresulting from seismic land uplift near the coast ofNortheastern Kamchatka. The sites found are quicklyand accurately dated in the field based known volcanictephra layers, which are abundant in this area due to thepresence of nearby volcanoes. The results demonstratechanging settlement patterns throughout the Holoceneoccupation of the region.Keeley, Jon (U.S. Geological Survey)[192] Early Human Impacts on Fire in CaliforniaEcosystemsGlobal studies of Holocene fire activity find a strong linkbetween climate and fire activity and this has been usedas evidence that humans played a minimal role inHolocene fires. In some regions such as California thischarcoal record is biased against detecting humanimpacts and there is abundant evidence of humanscontrolling fire regimes. Human impacts were largely afunction of natural ignition sources and populationdensity. High elevation sites with unlimited lightningignitions may have been little affected but just thereverse is to be expected on coastal and foothilllandscapes.Keene, Joshua (Texas A&M University) and ClaytonMarler[262] XRF Analysis of Stemmed Points from the IdahoNational Laboratory, Northeastern Snake River PlainThe Idaho National Laboratory is located on the upperSnake River Plain, in southeastern Idaho, andencompasses nearly 900 square miles of Federallymanaged cool, high desert. During summer 2010 wecollected a sample of obsidian stemm