Manual 8 - Aapaq.org

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Manual 8 - Aapaq.org

Glossary of termsAdditiveAdhesion agentAnti-foaming liquidAuto ignitionAuto ignitiontemperatureBarrier creamBituminous binderBitumenBitumen emulsionBoil overBund wallCarcinogenicAny substance which is added in small portions tobitumen to impart some particular property, e.g.:improved adhesion, lower viscosity.An additive which forms a water resistancechemical bridge between binder and stone chip.A substance which, when applied to the surface ofbitumen reduces the surface tension. This actionbreaks foam as it forms on the treated surface.When a material ignites on its own accord unaidedby an external source of ignition such as a flame.The temperature at which a material will ignite onits own accord. (Not to be confused with flashpoint which requires an external source of ignitionsuch as a flame).A cream or ointment applied to the skin prior tocontact with irritant substances. Some work byblocking the pores of the skin with soapy solids -dry work - and others by spreading a waterresistant film - wet work. They may later be wipedor washed off taking the irritant with them.A mixture of bitumen, additives, modifiers,emulsifiers and cutters applied to road surfacesas a spray in, e.g. chip seals or in an asphaltmixture.A non-crystaline solid or viscous black or brownsubstance derived from the distillation of crudepetroleum oil. Bitumen softens gradually whenheated and can be pumped at 120 o C or highertemperatures.Very fine particles of bitumen dispersed in waterwith the aid of chemical emulsifiers. Acidemulsifiers make cationic emulsions and alkalineemulsifiers make anionic emulsions. Usuallyemulsions contain 60-70% bitumen.The rapid increase in volume caused by thepresence of water in hot bitumen and thesubsequent overflow of bitumen from a tank.An enclosed area around a tank, capable ofretaining a spillage from the tank or pipe-work.Capable of causing cancer.9


HRAHeating fluesHot workInitial Boiling Point(IBP)Ignition temperatureModifiersNaked flameRiskSource of ignitionTremcardUllageViscosityVolatile solventsHealth Risk Assessment as contemplated in theHazardous Chemical Substances regulations ofthe Occupational Health and Safety Act.An oil or gas fired burner with a wide bore pipewhich is fitted to a binder tank for heating purposes.Work involving flames or equipment, which cancause ignition of flammable vapours.The temperature at which solvents like paraffinbegins to boil.The temperature to which a solid, liquid or gasmust be heated to start burning.Substances added to bitumen to modify itsrheological characteristics for improvedperformance over a range of operating conditions.Modifiers broadly fall within the categories ofpolymers, aliphatic synthetic waxes and naturalhydrocarbons.All uncontained flames, fires, exposedincandescent materials and welding arcs.The probability of substances, operations orcircumstances causing harm to people or theenvironment.Naked light, fires, exposed incandescentmaterials, electric welding arcs, lamps not of theapproved pattern, sparks and flames produced byother means. They all provide temperatures inexcess of the ignition temperature.Transport emergency card that will assist in thecorrect application of emergency measures invehicles carrying dangerous goods.The amount by which the tank falls short of being full.A measure of the ease at which a liquid can flow.A high viscosity liquid is one which does not floweasily. Binder viscosities are usually measured inpascal seconds or centistokes.A low boiling point hydrocarbon (typically of thekerosene type) used in the manufacture ofcutback bitumen to produce a binder with atemporarily low viscosity which will increase againas the solvent evaporates.11


Sabita Health, Safety and Environment policySabita encourages its members to carry out their business in such away that the health and safety of their employees, and of other personsboth on and near their sites, is not endangered, and that the quality ofair, water and soil is protected for the continuing benefit of allecosystems.Accordingly, in adopting a responsible integration of environmental andeconomic considerations, members are urged to design, operate andmaintain their facilities in such a manner as to:• avoid harm or injury to the health of employees or other personson their premises, or those living in the vicinity;• avoid damage or loss to the environment;• ensure the manufacture of quality products, and promote thesafe and efficient delivery of those products; and• implement the best available technology to limit emissions, noiseand the production of waste.Through visible management, commitment and the contributions ofemployees, Sabita members are encouraged to strive for continuousimprovement in their performance under the health, safety, andenvironmental requirements of the State and the industry, andcompliance with the relevant legislation. It is anticipated that everyemployee of Sabita's membership, and those on their premises andwork sites, will comply willingly with this policy.Sabita members not directly involved in the manufacture, storage andtransportation of bituminous binders should also note the wide-rangingbenefits resulting from the implementation of safe and healthy workingpractices.Conservation of life and the environment is an obligation.12


1. IntroductionIn South Africa bitumen is used primarily for road construction, but findsuses in a variety of other applications where waterproofing and adhesionare important requirements. Approximately 90% of all bitumenconsumed in South Africa is used to construct and maintain theextensive road network. Waterproofing, roofing, flooring, anti-rust paintsand sealants for dams and reservoirs account for the other 10%consumption.Successful management of the hazards associated with the storage,handling and transport of bituminous products requires a soundunderstanding of the types, properties and characteristics of bitumenand bituminous binders. This document summarises the health, safetyand environmental data currently available on bitumen and bituminousbinders, and the information covers the following:• Product description, uses and typical properties;• Hazards and effects of bituminous products; and• General advice on handling, emergency treatment and disposal.13


2. Product descriptionCompositionBitumen is a complex combination of hydrocarbons with small amountsof oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and trace amounts of metals. A typicalanalysis is 82-88% carbon, 8-11% hydrogen, 0-1,5% oxygen, 0-1%nitrogen, 0-6% sulphur, and trace amounts of vanadium, nickel, iron,magnesium and calcium.Crude oils normally contain small quantities of polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) which are retained in bitumen. Some of thesePAHs are suspected of causing cancer in humans. However, theconcentrations of these suspected carcinogens are extremely low, andno causal link between bitumen and cancer in humans has beenestablished.To avoid confusion and misunderstanding that may arise from the use ofdifferent terms such as bitumen, asphalt etc., it is essential to be clearabout terminology. In this document the following nomenclature is used:Bitumen: A black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plasticmaterial derived from the distillation of crude petroleum oil andpossessing waterproofing and adhesive properties. Bitumen is defined inthis way in most parts of the world outside North America, where theterm used is "asphalt cement" or simply "asphalt".Natural Bitumen: The term bitumen is also used for “natural bitumen”which can occur as natural deposits or as a component of naturallyoccurring asphalt, in which it is associated with mineral matter. Althoughnatural bitumen may be similar in physical properties to bitumen, it isdifferent in composition and is rarely, if ever, used in South Africa.Asphalt: Refers to a mixture of bitumen (as defined above), or abituminous binder (as defined below) with mineral matter such as stone,sand and a filler e.g. cement, lime or rock flour.Bituminous binders: A mixture of bitumen, additives, modifiers,emulsifiers and cutters used in applications for road surfaces or themanufacture of asphalt mixes.NoteRefer to the Glossary of Terms in the Preface (page 9) for a detailedlist of the terms used in this document.14


3. Types and grades of bitumen and bituminousbindersThere are four main types of bitumen in general use in road constructionand maintenance in South Africa:• Penetration grade bitumen;• Cutback bitumen;• Bitumen emulsion; and• Modified bituminous binders.3.1 Penetration grade bitumenPenetration grade bitumen can be manufactured by straight-rundistillation or by blending two or more base bitumen components.Penetration grade bitumen is used either as a primary binder or as basebitumen for the manufacture of cutback bitumen, modified binders orbitumen emulsions.3.2 Cutback bitumenThese are mixtures of bitumen with volatile petroleum diluents such aswhite spirit, kerosene or gas oil to render them more fluid for ease ofhandling and application. Depending on the level and volatility of thediluents used, the original properties of the bitumen may be partly orcompletely recovered by evaporation after application of the cutback.Cutbacks are sometimes heated for handling and application totemperatures up to 175 o C. Grades are designated by the solvent usedand the lower limit of kinematic viscosity at 60 o C. Cutback grades aremainly used in road prime coats and chip seals.3.3 Bitumen emulsionsTwo phased systems consisting of a dispersion of bitumen droplets inwater which contains an emulsifier. The emulsifiers are added to enablethe formation of the emulsion, to render it stable and to modify itsproperties. The emulsions are available in two classes: cationic andanionic, depending on the electrical charges on the bitumen globules. Ina cationic emulsion the bitumen particles are positively charged; in ananionic emulsion they are negatively charged. Usually emulsions contain60-70% bitumen.15


3.4 Modified bituminous bindersThe rheological properties of bituminous binders can be modified by theintroduction of polymers (including rubber crumbs) or hydrocarbons oralopathic synthetic wax. Modification with rubber crumbs requires theaddition of oils and fluxes in some cases. Bitumen emulsions may alsocontain modifiers, typically in latex form. Modified bituminous binders aremainly used in road construction and maintenance in conditions whereenhanced performance is required.NoteOxidised and hard grades of bitumen used exclusively in industrialapplications such as roofing, flooring and pipe coatings are notcovered in this document.16


4. Hazards and potential adverse effects associatedwith the handling and use of bitumen4.1 General overviewThe hazards associated with bituminous products are invariably inherentin the very nature of the product, and the handling and applicationprocesses. When handling and using bitumens the potential adverseeffects (unwanted consequences) arise from:• The elevated temperatures generally necessary for ease ofhandling and application;• Vapour and fume emissions associated with the product whenheated;• The combustible and sometimes flammable nature of the product;• Persistent skin contact, particularly when in solution;• Contact of hot bitumen with water in piping, storage tanks or othervessels, resulting in violent expansion of water to steam of morethan 1 600 times its volume. This can give rise to dangerousfroth-over and may cause boil-over and rupture of the tank roof;• Use of compressed air to clear pipeline blockage or suspectedblockage in hot bitumen lines, or use of air in mixing in bitumentanks. As a general rule the potential adverse effects associatedwith the manufacture, storage, distribution, product handling anduse of bitumen arise from one, or a combination of three initiating(top) events:oooLoss of containment;Loss of control;Exposure to health effects.In the sections that follow, generic guidance is provided on methods tolimit and control the hazards associated with the handling and use ofbitumen and bituminous binders. In Annexure A a generic table ofHazards, consequences and recommended controls has been includedas an example of the output of a typical risk assessment process.It is highly recommended that the Bitumen Safety Code, 4th edition,September 2005, published by the Energy Institute, be read and used asreference for the HSE aspects of bitumen manufacture, blending,storage, distribution, product handling and use, and sampling associatedwith the design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance ofroads.17


4.2 Managing the health aspects of bitumen storage andhandling4.2.1 Physical hazards and effectsThe most significant hazard in the use of bituminous binders is exposureto elevated temperatures, with the associated personal effect being heatburns. Bitumen is often handled at temperatures above 130 o C. Modifiedbituminous binders are handled at temperatures of up to 210 o C. Skincontact with liquid bitumen at these high temperatures will cause severeburns and shock, and can be fatal. Contact with storage tanks andpipelines containing hot bitumen will also cause severe skin burns.4.2.2 Chemical hazards and effectsExposure to toxic vapours and fumesIn confined spaces, vapours from bitumen products can be a healthhazard and may displace oxygen and cause suffocation. Potentiallyhazardous concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) may be present in the vapour space ofbitumen storage tanks, or in bitumen fumes liberated when bitumen isheated.H 2 S is a chemical asphyxiant and inhalation can cause respiratoryparalysis. Prolonged or repeated skin contact with bitumen fumes maylead to dermatitis and skin carcinomas.NoteBecause H 2 S inhibits (deadens) the sense of smell, the familiar badeggs odour cannot be relied on to warn of the presence of hazardousconcentrations.4.2.3 Exposure to solvents contained in cold bitumenRepairs to equipment used in conjunction with cutback bitumen andemulsions may involve skin contact with solvents.Prolonged or repeated skin contact with these solvents may lead todermatitis.18


4.3 Controlling the health hazardsLegal responsibilitiesOver and above the general requirements to "provide and maintain, asfar as is reasonably practicable, a working environment that is safe andwithout risk to the health of employees", the Hazardous ChemicalSubstances (HCS) Regulations, 1995, of the Occupational Health andSafety Act, prescribe specific actions that "apply to an employer or aself-employed person who carries out work at a workplace which mayexpose any person to the intake of a hazardous chemical substance atthe workplace".It is not practical to copy or discuss the detailed requirements of theHCS Regulations in this guide. South African users of this manual musthowever be aware that these regulations are the MINIMUM mandatoryrequirements for control of HCS at the workplace. Therefore, cognisanceshould be taken of the fact that the generic controls provided ordiscussed in this document will not necessarily mean that full legalcompliance is achieved.General control measures for health hazards of bitumenThe measures described below are also known as the "heirarchy ofcontrol" because they should be considered in the order presented.Administrative controlsA Health Risk Assessment (HRA) as required by the HCS regulationsshould be performed. The HRA will also guide the implementation ofadequate control programmes to minimise the potential exposure tohazards associated with bitumen, the identification of PPE that shouldbe worn and the development of training programmes for bitumenworkers.Where indicated by the HRA, air monitoring and medical surveillanceprogrammes should be implemented. This should only be done by anaccredited occupational hygienist.Engineering controlsPlant, equipment and processes should be planned and designed tominimise the likelihood of personal contact with hot bitumen orcomponents of storage and distribution systems.19


Storage tanks and pipelines containing hot bitumen and heated bysteam, hot thermal oil or petroleum fired burners must be shielded orlagged with a suitable thermal insulation material.Where hot bitumen is handled by persons working in places withrestricted ventilation, e.g. indoors, effective Local Exhaust Ventilation(LEV) should be used to reduce exposure as far as possible.Procedural controlsAlways carry out bitumen operations at as low a temperature as possibleto minimise potential exposure to bitumen vapours or fumes.Confined space entry and work must be strictly controlled by a Permit ToWork (PTW) system to eliminate exposure to oxygen-deficientatmospheres and hazardous concentrations of harmful substances.Internal tank cleaning and repair operations should only be entrusted tocompetent specialist contractors with a proven track record.NoteThe development of vapours and fumes accelerates with increase intemperature.Personal hygiene precautionsGood personal hygiene in respect of hands and inner clothing must bemaintained in the course of work. Under no circumstances should aperson who has been handling bituminous products eat, drink, smoke orgo to the toilet before first washing their hands.The application of suitable barrier creams to exposed parts of the skin,prior to working with bitumen, assists in subsequent cleansing shouldcontact occur.Petroleum products such as petrol, paraffin or diesel should never beused for skin cleansing purposes because they damage the skin.NoteBarrier creams are not adequate substitutes for gloves or otherimpermeable clothing and should not be relied upon as the sole formof protection.20


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)NoteLegally, and in terms of heirarchical hazard control standards, theprescription of PPE should not be the sole measure for controllinghazards. In order to assure the effectiveness of PPE, personnelshould be trained in the correct use of PPE and arrangements mustbe in place for routine inspection and maintenance. Adequatefacilities for storage should also be provided.The objective of PPE is to prevent exposure and is also a recovery ormitigating measure. If controlled adequately the correct use of PPE canbe an effective "last barrier" to prevent or minimise the potentialconsequences (effects) of a hazard.While the task-specific risk assessment will determine PPE requirements,the typical PPE for a bitumen worker should be as follows:Protective clothing for torso, arms and legsOveralls appropriate to the hazard e.g. acid resistant or heat resistantshould be the standard choice. These should have close-fitting cuffs andtrouser legs capable of overlapping footwear. Added protection isoffered by wearing a leather apron when there is a high likelihood ofcoming into contact with hot bitumen.Face, neck and eye protection21


As the minimum an approved face shield and suitable eye protection(goggles) should be worn. A heat resistant (racing type) balaclava willprovide added protection for the exposed neck area and should beconsidered for certain tasks as identified in the HRA.Hand protectionHeat-resistant/chemicalresistantgloves withclose-fitting cuffs.Foot protectionHeat-resistant heavy duty safety boots, closefitting at the top, such that trouser legs arecapable of overlapping them. Under nocircumstances should light shoes or sandals beworn.Respiratory protectionBesides the obvious respiratory protectionneeded for confined space entry/work, theremay be other tasks (as identified in the HRA)that require the use of respirators to protectworkers from toxic vapours or fumes. Thesewould typically be situations where it is notpracticable to eliminate the existence ofvapours or fumes entirely, i.e.when loading or offloading cutbackbitumen and emulsions containing cutters. A half face-piece respiratorwith an approved P100/OV/AG filter is suitable for such applications.4.4 Recovery measures for the consequences of bitumenhealth hazardsEmergency response planning - bitumen burnsBitumen burns require unique treatment. Each location where hotbitumen is handled must have a bitumen specific medical emergencyresponse plan that should as a minimum cover the following:22


• Emergency water showers should be provided. It is recommendedthat a minimum flow of 75 litres a minute at 2,1 bar should bedelivered for a minimum of 15 minutes. Eye bath facilities shouldbe available in close proximity to operational areas where thelikelihood of bitumen burns has been identified;• First-aid workers that are likely to administer emergency treatmentMUST be specifically trained for this purpose and available oneach shift;• An adequate number of approved bitumen burns first aid kitsshould be provided, including a supply of the green BitSafebitumen burns tags;• Arrangements should be in place to evacuate burn victims to anapproved burn/trauma unit as not all emergency medical treatmentcentres are familiar with the correct methods for treating bitumenburns.Guidance for first aid and medical personnelNo attempt should be made to remove firmly adherent bitumen from theskin of any victim at the work site!Once the bitumen has cooled it is not harmful, and in fact provides asterile cover over the burned area. As healing takes place the bitumenwill detach itself, usually after a few days. If, because of the location ofcontact, it becomes necessary to remove the bitumen, liberal amounts ofwarm medicinal paraffin may be used. Alternatively, a blend of medicinalparaffin and kerosene may be used. However, care should be exercisedas kerosene may cause skin irritation.After any solvent treatment the skin should be washed carefully withsoap and water, followed by the application of a proprietary defattingagent or skin cleansing cream. Only medically approved solvents shouldbe used to remove bitumen from burns as other solvents could causefurther skin damage.Emergency treatment of bitumen burns• Burns to the skin or eyes should be cooled immediately bydrenching the burned area of the body under clean cold,preferably running, water. This treatment should continue until thebitumen has cooled. (This should take no less than 15 minutes);• DO NOT break blisters or remove solid bitumen from the skin orarea of the eye as it forms a sterile barrier to the affected part andwill protect against infection. A bitumen plaque will normallydetach itself within a few days;23


• DO NOT, under any circumstances, apply ointments, oils, butter,solvents or other substances to a burn;NoteWhen hot bitumen completely encircles a limb or other body part, atourniquet effect may result as the bitumen cools. In such cases thebitumen should be softened as described above, and the patientreferred urgently for specialised medical attention.• Apply a BURNSHIELD dressing over the affected area andsecure the dressing lightly with a sterile bandage;• DO NOT remove or cut away clothing over burnt areas;• DO NOT pull away clothing which has stuck, this may causefurther injury;• Keep the victim warm and provide plenty of fresh air;• Attach a bitumen burns tag to the patient's clothing in a prominentposition before transport to doctor or hospital.4.5 Managing the safety aspects of bitumen storageand handlingHazards arising from the combustible and flammable nature ofbituminous productsIt is important to understand the various components that, potentially,could combine to cause explosions and/or fires in the bitumen storageand handling processes.Combustion of liquids occurs when flammable vapours released fromthe surface of the liquid ignite. Hydrocarbon vapour becomes flammablewhen its percentage in air is generally at about 1% by volume. This isknown as the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) and below this the mixture issaid to be "too lean to burn" or "below the lower flammable limit". Theflammable range extends to a higher level of about 8% by volume, whenit is said to be above the Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) or "too rich toburn".The amount of flammable vapour given off from a liquid, and thereforethe extent of the fire or explosion hazard, depends largely on thetemperature of the liquid, its volatility, the extent of the exposed surfacearea, duration of exposure, and air movement over the surface.24


Other physical properties of the liquid, such as flashpoint, auto-ignitiontemperature and viscosity, give further information on the way in whichvapour/air mixtures may develop, and also on the potential hazards.Some examples of the typical properties of the hydrocarbon substances thatmay be present in bituminous products or used in bitumen operations areillustrated in the following table:Table 1. Typical physical properties of hydrocarbon substancesProduct LFL/UFL (%/Vol) Flashpoint Auto ignitiontemperatureBitumen 300 o C 500 o CPetrol 1,4% - 7,6% < -40 o C 370 o CDiesel (AGO) 1,3% - 6% > 55 o C 225 o CKerosenes 0,6% - 6,5% > 43 o C 205 o CLPG (n-Butane) 1,9% - 8,5% -60 o C 287 o CLPG (Propane) 2,3% - 9,5% -104 o C 460 - 580 o CHydrogen Sulphide 4% - 45% -82 o C 260 o CToluene 1,3% - 7% 4 o C 536 o CMechanism of the ignition of bitumenFor effective blending and application in road construction and maintenanceoperations, bituminous binders need to be in a liquid state. To achieve this theviscosity of the product is lowered either by heating to produce a molten liquidof very high temperature, or diluting with volatile solvents that releaseflammable vapours, i.e. cutback bitumen and some bitumen emulsions, withthe following results:• Product is at a high temperature - above its flashpoint - and contact withan ignition source (flame) can ignite the flammable vapour released fromthe surface of the bitumen;• The elevated temperature also increases volatility, i.e. the ability of thebitumen to release flammable vapours. Bitumen and its derivativescontain hydrocarbons in various concentrations, depending on theblend/mixture. Small quantities of the vapours of hydrocarbons in air canform a flammable mixture that can be ignited by a flame, hot surface,heating element, spark or other source of ignition, particularly in thevapour space of storage tanks, road tankers and other confined spaceswhere bitumen may be stored or handled;25


• Bitumen foams in the presence of water as the temperature of bitumen isusually above the boiling point of water. Bitumen heated in the presenceof small quantities of water forms foam that can quickly expand andcause the tank to overflow. The expanding foam can quickly reach hotobjects or burners, and cause the bitumen and/or flammable vapours toignite.Control of flammable atmospheresin bitumen operationsAn understanding of the anatomy of afire is essential for establishing adecision-making framework for thedevelopment of controls for firehazards. The fire triangle illustrates thenecessary elements that must becombined in order for a fire to start andbe sustained.Controlling flammable atmospheres in bitumen operations will therefore be afunction of effectively excluding and/or removing one or more of the threeessential elements of fire. Fuel (bitumen) is obviously an essential ingredient ofthe bituminous product and asphalt industry, and cannot be removed orexcluded.Oxygen is ever present in the air that we breathe and in the atmospheres of thecontainment systems of our bitumen storage and handling processes. Oxygencan therefore also not be excluded or removed.NoteA combination of the three elements fuel, oxygen and heat will, under idealconditions, result in ignition causing a fire or explosion. It therefore followsthat, by excluding any one of the three elements, a fire cannot start and, byremoving any one of the three elements from a fire, the fire cannot besustained and will be extinguished.Heat (the source of ignition) is the only element that could possibly be excludedor removed in order to control fire and explosion threats. Heating of mostbituminous products to temperatures of between 100 o C - 230 o C is also anessential requirement for ease of handling and application and can thereforealso not be excluded or entirely removed. However we can control the heatingof bitumen and also effectively control other ignition (heat) sources in ouroperations.26


The relationship between the flashpoint/ignition temperature/flammablerange and the ultimate formation or existence of flammable atmospheresin bitumen operations is very complex and is grade dependent. As canbe seen from Table 1, bitumen is invariably stored and handled attemperatures above the flashpoints but, in most cases, below the autoignitiontemperatures of the hydrocarbon components of bitumen blends.In some cases the auto-ignition temperatures can actually be lower thanthe flashpoint of a bitumen blend/mixture.Furthermore, because of operational requirements to pump and applythe bituminous binder, not much can be done about lowering heatingtemperatures. However, in practice there are some fundamental rulesthat can be applied to minimise the risk of ignition of potentiallyflammable atmospheres in bitumen operations.Maximum storage and handling temperaturesThe first rule of temperature control should be to control the maximumtemperature at which bitumen is stored and handled. Bitumen should bestored and handled at the lowest temperature commensurate withefficient use, as recommended in Table 2.27


Table 2. Recommended storage and handling temperatures forbituminous binders in general useBitumen typeand gradePenetration grades150/200 pen80/100 pen60/70 pen40/50 penCutback bitumenMC30MC3000Emulsions 1Cationic spray 60%Cationic spray 65%Cationic spray 70%Invert emulsionModified bindersSBR modifiedSBS modifiedEVA modifiedFT-Wax modifiedNatural hydrocarbonmodifiedBitumen rubberSBR modifiedemulsion 65%SBR modifiedemulsion 70%Minimumpumpingtemperature( o C)10511512012515855151551501401401201301601515Typical applicationtemperatures ( o C)Mixing-140 - 155150 - 160155 - 165------175 - 190170 - 180160 - 170135 - 145165 - 175190 - 210--Spraying155 - 165170 - 180--55130 - 14560657060200 - 210175 - 185---200 - 2106570Maximumstoragetemperature( o C)24hrs160 115160 125160 125165 14060 Amb.130 9080 5080 5080 50-80 50-180 150180 150170 150150 120175 150165 140 270 Amb.70 Amb.1Storage periods for emulsions may exceed 240 hours at the temperatures given in the 24 - 240 hour period.2Bitumen rubber should not be stored for more than 72 hours.28


Temperature control measures in bitumen operations will include thefollowing:• Engineering controls incorporated in the design of bitumen storagetanks:oooheating element temperature controls;tank maximum working temperature controls;warning (alarms) for high temperatures in tanks.NoteA planned inspection/maintenance programme should be in place toassure the integrity of control instrumentation.• Procedural controls:oosafe work practices to avoid excessive local heating (i.e.spraying operations, clearing of pipeline blockages, bitumendecanting, laboratory testing);Control of sources of ignition.Control of ignition sources in the presence of potential flammableatmospheres• In terms of the Hazard Control Hierarchy, ignition sources in thepresence of potential flammable atmospheres can generally becontrolled in two ways:ooby complete elimination; orisolating the source (e.g. electrical sparks) by installingapproved electrical protection equipment in hazardous areas.Although very important for total and effective control purposes, theselection and installation of electrical protection equipment in hazardousareas is not discussed in this document. Design personnel can obtaindetailed information on the subject by referring to various appropriatenational (SANS) and international codes of practice. The Bitumen SafetyCode, 4th edition, September 2005, published by the Energy Institute,London UK, is an excellent general reference for this purpose.Eliminating potential ignition source.As the first step in this process a detailed risk assessment should bedone to identify the hazardous areas in which flammable atmospherescould occur. A handy guideline to assist with identification of hazardousareas is the IP publication Area classification code for installations29


handling flammable fluids. The code subdivides hazardous areas intothe following zones:• Zone 0: That part of a hazardous area in which a flammableatmosphere is continuously present or present for long periods(e.g. the vapour space of a cutback bitumen storage tank);• Zone 1: That part of a hazardous area in which a flammableatmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation (e.g. immediatelyabove/around/below the compartment hatch during bitumen roadtanker loading);• Zone 2: That part of a hazardous area in which a flammableatmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation, and if itoccurs, will exist for a short period only (e.g. around the pumpseals and flanges of a bitumen pump manifold).NoteAny area not classified under Zones 0,1 or 2 may, for ignition controlpurposes, be classified as a non-hazardous area. However, cautionshould be exercised in applying zone classification becauseoperational activities in close proximity to designated zones could,under abnormal operating conditions, change the state of a safe zoneto hazardous.Having identified the hazardous zones in which flammable atmospheresin bitumen operations could occur, the following control measuresshould be in place:Engineering controls• Design and construction of storage and handling facilities andequipment in accordance with appropriate and approvedspecifications.Administrative controls• The continued operational integrity of electrical protectionequipment in hazardous areas is assured by a planned inspectionand maintenance program;• A Permit To Work (PTW) system to control all hot work in confinedspaces and other hazardous areas;• A training programme to assure the competence of personnelrequired to perform work in hazardous areas (including emergencyresponse training).30


Procedural/process controlsSafe work practices, based on site-specific Job Hazard Analysis (JHA),include the following:• Clear definition of what is "routine" and "non-routine" hot work;• All non-routine hot work is subject to a clearancecertificate/procedure and subsequent PTW control if the work willbe performed in a hazardous zone;• Designated safe areas for performance of all routine hot work (i.e.welding, cutting, etc.);• General site safety instructions with regard to:o Smoking and the carrying of matches, lighters, etc.;o The use of spark or flame producing equipment on site;• Clear procedures and instructions for loading and offloading ofbitumen to prevent loss of containment and contact with potentialignition sources;• To prevent frothing and/or boil over instructions must includeinspection to ensure all tanks are free of water before loadingbitumen. Additives and extender oils must also be checked for thepresence of water before adding to bitumen;• The application of excess heat (e.g. welding torch) on bitumen cancause thermal cracking and the development of flammable vapour.Open flame heating should only be used to free plugged bitumenvalves as a last resort, and the vehicle must be in a safe zonearea. Spray bars should be heated with caution and undersupervision;• The vapours in the closed space above a hot cutback areinvariably flammable, but almost always in too high aconcentration, above the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) to beexplosive. However, where escaping vapour starts to mix with air,extreme care must be exercised, since this is where the mixturemay become explosive. Consequently, whenever practical duringtransfer operations, tank hatch covers should be kept closed, or atleast lowered, to preserve the vapour-rich atmosphere above thebinder;• No surface of the heating flues should be exposed in the vapourspace as this could cause a dangerous explosion. Tanks shouldalways be dipped before lighting burners to ensure that the bitumenlevel is at least 200mm above the burner flues or heating coils.31


4.6 Recovery measures for fires involving bituminous productsIntroductionThis section provides general guidance for bitumen fires in normalday-to-day storage and handling activities, and does not cover theprotection of large fixed storage installations or bitumen loading facilitiesat refineries. The scope is therefore limited to cover immediate responseto small fires and management must ensure that a comprehensive firerisk assessment is performed to cover all potential fire scenarios on aparticular plant or site.NoteLarge bitumen fires can be difficult to extinguish and this task is bestleft to competent professional fire fighting services.Types of firesFor fire fighting purposes, fires are grouped in various classes as an aidto identification of the most appropriate extinguishing medium. The firetypes most commonly encountered in the bituminous products industryare class A, B and C.Class A fires: The combustible materials involved in this class of fireare usually organic materials such as grass, wood, paper, textiles etc.This class of fire is usually extinguished by either quenching or coolingwith water.Class B fires: Flammable liquids such as petroleum products, (e.g.petrol, diesel oil, paraffin, lubricants and bitumen) and flammable andcombustible chemicals, are involved in this class of fire. When fightingClass B fires the exclusion of oxygen by smothering is usually employed.Class C fires: This class of fire is essentially either a Class A or B firethat involves live electrical equipment. The reason for the separateclassification is that no extinguishing agent containing water can be usedto fight a fire involving electricity. Generally CO 2 (carbon dioxide)extinguishers are recommended as first choice to fight these fires.However dry chemical extinguishers can also be applied effectively butmay damage sensitive electronic components.Class D fires involve metals such as magnesium, aluminium, titaniumand potassium, and require special knowledge, skills and extinguishingequipment. As it is not commonly encountered there will be no furtherdiscussion of class D fires in this guide.32


General principles to consider when fighting bitumen fires• When bitumen burns it becomes a mobile liquid that can readilyflow, spreading the fire;• Large bitumen fires are difficult to extinguish because of the highheat content of the liquid;• Direct application of water to the surface of a bitumen pool on fireproduces a froth of bitumen due to expansion of the water tosteam, which is likely to boil-over, spreading the fire andendangering personnel. Straight water jets should never be used;application of water should only be by fog or spray nozzle and onlyperformed by competent fire fighters;• Un-burned liquid bitumen can be heated by the fire to atemperature well above its ignition temperature, making itnecessary not only to extinguish the flames and cool thesurroundings but in order to prevent re-ignition, to cool the productbulk before leaving it in contact with air;• Bitumen fires produce a dense brown or black smoke, severelyreducing visibility downwind of the fire;• As an initial measure to limit propagation of fire, (particularly forlarge fires) the heating circuits of appliances to tanks and kettlesshould be switched off as soon as is practicable.Fighting small bitumen firesSmall bitumen fires from leaks or spills can be extinguished using drychemical (powder), foam, water spray, carbon dioxide or (whereavailable) steam lances. The use of foam, water spray and steam mustbe avoided where it is not practicable to isolate the electrical supply fromequipment near the fire.Provision and maintenance of first attack equipmentNoteIt is a legal requirement that fire extinguishers should be serviced byan accredited service provider at intervals of not less than once peryear. It is also good practice to have an inspection schedule in placeto perform in situ visual inspections of all fire equipment at least onceper month.• Generally, portable (typically 9 kg) dry chemical extinguishers arepreferred for first attack on small bitumen fires. Alternatively33


semi-fixed portable (wheeled) installations (typically 50kg trolleyunits) may also be considered;• When planning the placement of first attack equipment, fire riskassessments should assure that the correct extinguisher is placedin the location where the fire potential has been identified. Thistakes the guess work of selecting the appropriate extinguisher outof the equation when an emergency arises;• There should be a minimum of two extinguishers at each location(including road tankers and spray vehicles) in case one fails;• In addition road tankers and spray vehicles should carry at leastone shovel, and at each static loading/discharge point a shoveland a supply of clean loose sand should be readily available foremergency spill containment.First attack training for personnel• All personnel involved in work where the likelihood of bitumen firesexist, must be trained in the correct use of fire extinguishers. Itshould not be taken for granted that merely following theinstructions on the extinguisher body will ensure correctapplication. Local authority fire services usually have fire trainingprogrammes that can be customised to accommodate specificneeds;• Regular fire drills should be planned and carried out to simulaterealistic fire scenarios. Although it is prudent to protect traineesagainst injury during training exercises it must also be borne inmind that in a real life fire emergency the fireman's PPE will not beavailable and therefore training should be as realistic as ispracticable;• A training programme for first attack fire fighting should include thevisual inspection requirements to ensure that fire extinguishers arechecked before the start of a shift or activity where the potential fora fire exists (i.e. road tanker drivers, plant operators, laboratorystaff, etc.).Fire Emergency PlansA fire emergency plan should be in place at every site/workstation wherethe potential of a bitumen fire has been identified. The plan shouldinclude procedures for:• Raising the alarm in case of fire;• Evacuation of affected personnel and vehicles;• Calling local authority emergency response teams (i.e. fire brigadeand if necessary an ambulance and the police);34


• First attack on the fire (i.e. availability and strategic placement ofsuitable fire extinguishers, training of personnel in use ofextinguishers, maintenance of fire extinguishers, etc.);• Handing over fire-fighting command to the local authority fire chief;• Mitigating damage and in particular managing fire-fighting water inorder to prevent pollution;• Signalling the end of the emergency.NoteThe best way to fight fires is to prevent them! Management mustinsist on, and enforce, good housekeeping practices and adherenceto safe working procedures. Fire and explosions have devastatingdestructive power, and the time and effort spent on fire prevention isALWAYS a good investment.4.7 Managing the environmental aspects of bitumen storageand handlingIntroductionThe main environmental hazards related to bitumen are associated withatmospheric discharges and the impact on the water environmentresulting from loss of containment during the manufacturing, storage,transport, handling and use of bitumen, particularly cutback bitumen andemulsions.Air pollutionThe key emissions from bitumen processes that warrant control arebitumen fumes, odours, PAHs, H 2 S, volatile organic compounds, andparticulate matter.Emissions could arise as result of the following activities or processes:Activity/ProcessDelivering, storing, heating, mixingand cooling of bitumenStorage and delivery of solventsand blending them with hotmaterialsThe oxidising of bitumenBurning of coal tar fuel in boilersMay give rise toBitumen fumes, odours and PAHsVolatile organic compounds andodoursH 2 S, bitumen fumes, odours andPAHsCoal tar fumes containing PAHs35


Water pollutionBecause of the viscous nature of penetration grade bitumen it isextremely unlikely that these binders could cause water pollution as aresult of failure of storage systems. Cutback bitumen and bitumenemulsions, however, have the potential to cause serious environmentalharm if they reach water courses or ground water.In most cases hydrocarbons will form a layer at the surface of any waterbody. However emulsions, by their nature, incorporate a range ofadditional emulsification agents, acids and bases that are harmful in theaquatic environment and will emulsify the bitumen, distributing itthroughout the water body and increasing the potential hazard.Preventing air pollution and monitoring emissionsEnvironmental protection in South Africa is regulated under a myriad oflaws, regulations, codes of practice and standards. Full legal complianceis not within the scope of this guideline and only a general discussion ofgeneric prevention measures is included. However, it is stronglyrecommended that all parties involved in the planning, provision andapplication of bituminous products ensure that the requirements of theNational Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, 2004 (Act no. 39of 2004 effective from 1 April 2010) are taken into account whenassessing environmental risk and impact of their operations. Inparticular, the schedule of listed activities and minimum emissionstandards identified in terms of section 21 of the Act is of importance toestablish monitoring programmes and plans to manage emissions.General pollution prevention measures in bitumen storage andhandling processesPlant operations• As processes which involve the use of bituminous binders atelevated temperatures release fumes, a key method of reducingemissions is to keep the bitumen temperature as low as possible;• To prevent or limit the emission of vapours during storage,manholes must be kept closed. Breather pipes must be open andfunctional at all times;• All site static tanks should be inspected on a daily basis forpossible subsidence or leaks. When not in use the valves shouldpreferably be locked;• Regular tank gauging and stock reconciliation should be standardpractice as a measure to detect possible tank floor leaks;• Contaminated materials should be removed from site anddisposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner;36


• Cleaning of contaminated equipment must be done undercontrolled conditions to prevent seepage of washing and flushingmaterials into water sources. Where possible make use of acertified wash bay.Transport, and spray operations (Refer to Sabita Manual 23: Code ofPractice: Loading bitumen at refineries, for safe loading procedures.)• To minimise the risk of pollution of natural resources, i.e. rivers,dams, groundwater or wildlife during transportation, a route withthe lowest possible pollution impact should be selected. This canbe done by researching information on the area, or consulting withlocal authorities and emergency services. These bodies should beinformed of the operation and its nature;• During long trips the driver should stop periodically to donecessary in-transit vehicle inspections (at least every 2 hours ifpracticable);• Spray bars on spraying vehicles must be covered when lifted, andthe covers must have designated storage positions when the barsare down and the vehicle is spraying;• Transfer lines (flexible hoses) contribute toward leakages andspillage. Where practicable, reverse the sprayer pump, leaving alllines empty, prior to storage;• Pressure and nozzle checks are usually conducted next to theroad to be sprayed. This must always be done using drip pans orpaper, which can be picked up for safe disposal;• All flexible discharge hoses must be stowed in designatedpositions. Hoses should be emptied before uncoupling. Aprocedure should be in place for collection and disposal of all hosedrainings;• All flanges, nozzles and pumps must be maintained in goodcondition to prevent spillage. Where necessary drip trays must beused to contain leakage;• At the end of each day's spraying the spray bar system must beflushed with cleaning solvent. All flushing fluids must be collectedin secure containers and returned to the base plant for recycling orsafe disposal.Temporary storage of bituminous products on construction sitesTo prevent pollution, the establishment of static tanks on sites must beplanned properly. Consideration must be given to:• The hardness or firmness of the surface;• The gradient;• The drainage;37


• Position of adjacent water sources and sensitive environmentalareas;• Accessibility;• A bund wall around the tanks.Disposal of bituminous wasteAlthough penetration grade bitumen has been declassified as ahazardous substance for packaging and transport purposes, otherbituminous binders (i.e. cutbacks, emulsions, etc.) and waste containhazardous substances. Care should therefore be exercised whenbituminous waste is classified for disposal purposes.Waste derived from bituminous binder applications may only bedisposed of at approved waste disposal sites. Under no circumstancesmay waste be disposed of in any other manner or without the necessarywritten authority. Bituminous binder waste includes spills, scrapings,flushing residue, contaminated product and bituminous mixtures. Ensurethat a certificate of safe disposal is obtained from the disposal site.NoteThe National Environmental Management Act No. 107 of 1998 holdsthe polluter accountable for any incident where environmentaldegradation has occurred.38


5. General guidance for specific bitumen storage,handling and distribution activities5.1 Vehicles, transport and transfer of bituminous productsGeneral transportation requirementsTransportation of bituminous products must be conducted in accordancewith legislation on the transportation of dangerous goods. Somebituminous products are classified as Dangerous Goods and all vehiclescarrying such products must display hazard warning placards, which areused to provide the emergency services with information on how tohandle the cargo being carried in the event of an accident or otheremergency. These placards indicate the nature of the product, its UNnumber and telephone numbers of the transporter and a specialistresponse advisor, who should ideally be able to provide prompt physicalassistance in cleansing and rehabilitation of the area. Regulations basedon various codes of practice set out by the SABS govern the use ofthese warning panels.All relevant documents must be carried in the vehicle, including:• MSDS, route plan, tremcards, licences and permits;• Dangerous goods transportation documents, supplier'scommercial documentation;• PrDP licence and any relevant medical documentation.To assist emergency services, Tremcards must be available and storedin the designated space i.e. orange coloured box.The driver must ensure that emergency breakdown triangles, fireextinguishers, flashing lights, first aid kit etc. are available. It isrecommended that a first aid kit containing the minimum items listed inAnnexure D is carried on each vehicle. Refer to Annexure F for a proforma aide mémoire that can be used by drivers to check on availabilityof essential equipment before departure on a delivery trip. Legally,drivers must undergo the prescribed annual medical examination.Care of vehicles and equipmentAll bitumen equipment must be kept in good condition at all times.Hoses, fittings and threads in particular should be thoroughly cleanedafter each delivery or transfer. Product lines, hand sprays, pumps,valves and hoses should be flushed after use to avoid bitumen slugs.Bitumen slugs blocking partially closed valves or leaking hoses mayremain undetected until the bitumen is too hot to approach with safety.39


Flexible hoses should be used under suction rather than under pressure.Hose assemblies should be inspected regularly for defects or holes.Defective hoses and fittings must be withdrawn and destroyed. Hoseassemblies should be stored flat in such a way as to ensure that noresidual binder is left in the line. When carried on items of plant or storedat the depot, both hose ends should be fitted with dust caps to prevententry of foreign material (e.g. stones) that may jam or damage thebitumen pump.Operators should inspect all equipment required for the transport anddelivery of bitumen products before leaving the filling point. Faultsshould be reported and rectified before any further deliveries arepermitted.All ladders, catwalks, safety rails and grab points must be maintained ina good and clean condition. Accumulation of bitumen must not beallowed.All vehicles, tanks and equipment should be maintained in accordancewith acceptable practices, maintenance schedules and procedures.Equipment checksVehicle checks must be carried out on a scheduled basis. In additionoperational inspections should be done on a daily basis. Checklists mustbe completed and maintained by the responsible personnel i.e. thedriver.Regular checks on internal overflow and breather valves must be carriedout to ensure they are in proper working order.All delivery hoses must be inspected regularly, be in good condition andfree of bitumen residue. All connections and hoses must be cleanedthoroughly after each delivery. Residual bitumen in hoses must beallowed to drain into suitable trays after use.Spray nozzles must be inspected daily to ensure that they areundamaged and correctly fitted. The bitumen pump must be turned offbefore any attempt to inspect, replace or maintain spray nozzles, or anypart of the spray bar or its fittings.Product samplingBinder samples should preferably be taken from purpose-designedsample cocks. Most tankers and sprayers are fitted with a sampling40


device and this should be used at all times. If a sampling device is notfitted, the sample may be taken, with great care and under supervision,from a valve or single jet in the spray-bar.During sampling or while handling the hot sample personnel shouldstand clear and wear the recommended PPE to avoid being burned. Thebinder pump should always be operated at the lowest speed whentaking a sample to minimise pressure in the system.The recommended method is to have sample cocks fitted to sprayers,tankers or storage tanks. In the event that the sample is drawn from themanhole, a thief sampler should be used. Care should be taken to allowthe sample to cool in a safe place where it does not present a danger toother people in the area. The sample should be allowed to cool beforethe lid is put in place.HeatingNoteHeating flues should be designed such that:• the flues do not pass through the vapour space above theproduct;• the surface temperature will not exceed 350 o C on any part of theheating flue;• the flame tube insert can be easily removed for service orreplacement;• the inlet or exhaust flues will not be closer than 1,5m horizontallyfrom any manhole or vent pipe;• the flues are not in direct contact with the tank.The following requirements should be complied with during heatingoperations:• Bituminous material must be at least 200mm above heating flues.Parking of vehicles on sloping ground may cause heating flues tobecome uncovered and therefore pose a danger during heating;• When discharging a tank, burners must be turned off. Fireextinguishers must be removed and placed in a position ready foruse before heating commences. Manhole covers must be open;• Appropriate PPE must be worn during heating operations;• Under no circumstances should burners be used while travelling.This is prescribed by legislation;41


• No source of ignition should be permitted within 3m of the vehiclewhen loading or discharging. The operations must be supervisedconstantly;• Sufficient ullage must be left in a loaded vehicle or tank to allow forexpansion of the bitumen when heated;• Gas cylinders must be stored and secured in an upright position.When turning off gas supply after use, the valve on the cylindermust be closed first, and thereafter the valve at the nozzle;• Ensure that only required personnel are in the vicinity during theheating operation;• A product should never be heated above the recommendedtemperature required for transporting, pumping and spraying.Thermometers should be checked regularly and anymalfunctioning thermometer reported immediately;• Cutback bitumen must only be heated in tankers with circulationfacilities.Precautions during heating• Do not leave the tanker unattended when burners are on;• Position tankers so that the wind will carry vapours away from theburners;• Do not stand on top of the tank during heating;• Discharge product from the tanker only when the burners havebeen turned off;• Only heat product if heating tubes are covered by at least 150mm;• Do not use burners if any heating equipment has fuel leaks;• Do not stand directly behind burners when lighting or adjusting;• Do not store open solvent or fuel containers near heatingoperation;• Do not smoke or use cell phones during the heating operation.Transfer (loading and offloading) of bitumenThe reader's attention is drawn to Sabita Manual 23: Code of Practice:Loading bitumen at refineries, which offers guidelines for proceduresand safety requirements for hauliers collecting bitumen from refineries.General considerations for transfer of hot bitumen are as follows:• Tankers must not be offloaded during heating;• It is recommended that two persons be in attendance duringloading and offloading of bulk bitumen carriers. When loading, oneperson should be so positioned that he can clearly observe theproduct level to prevent the likelihood of spill over;42


• Fire extinguishers must be removed from storage and placed in asuitable area ready for use;• Flexible hoses and couplings must be inspected before use, andunsafe hoses must not be used;• The type and level of material in both the supply and receivingtanks should always be checked. If the receiving tank containssome material ensure that it is the same as, or compatible with,the material being delivered and that there is sufficient space forthe quantity being delivered;• Ensure that there is no water in the tank prior to loading as thiscould cause a violent explosion, frothing or boiling over;• Operators should be aware at all times of the potential dangerswhen transferring hot bitumen, and remain at a safe distance fromthe hose during transfer. All personnel not required for theoperation should keep well away and not stand near or over thehose while it is in use. The equipment should never be leftunattended during the transfer operation;• When loading is carried out using a discharge extension throughthe manhole, the free end of the extension must be below theopening of the manhole;• Before loading commences a check must be carried out to ensurethat all discharge valves on the receiving tank are closed. Caremust be taken to ensure that no valves are plugged with solidifiedbitumen, giving the impression of being in the closed position;• The safest method of clearing plugged valves, on an empty tank,is to heat a steel bar to a temperature sufficient to melt thebitumen and no more, and to insert the heated bar into the plug;• The use of gas burners or other open flame methods to freeplugged valves must only be considered as a last resort. If thismethod is to be used the vehicle must be moved to a clear safearea with fire extinguishers on hand;• During loading no source of ignition should be allowed in thevicinity of the receiving tank;• Earthing the vehicle to eliminate the accumulation of electrostaticcharge is necessary during the loading or offloading of cutbackbitumen. This is done by making sure that the metal of the loadingpipe is in electrical contact with the metal at the manhole bymeans of an earth cable. The simple act of a material flowingthrough a pipe or hose may generate sufficient static electricity tocause a spark when connecting/disconnecting hoses unless thereis a continuous connection;• Ullage of at least 10% should be left after loading to allow forexpansion resulting from any subsequent heating;43


• After completing the transfer of materials, a check should becarried out to ensure that the valves on both the supply andreceiving units are closed and the bitumen pump is turned off;• Carefully undo the hose. The bottom must first be loosenedslightly. A small amount of material may flow out of the hosecoupling into a drip tray, indicating that it is empty, that there is nopressure, and that it is safe to remove. If there is a large amount ofmaterial, or residual pressure in the hose, possibly due to a valvenot having been closed properly, this procedure will ensure thatthe product squirts onto the ground rather than into the operator'sface or over his body;• The free end of the hose must be kept clear of the ground to avoiddirt, stones etc. lodging in the hose. There are special hose chairsavailable to plug and hold the end clear off the ground. Commonpractice is to turn the end of the hose up and over so that it willremain in that position. This procedure will also prevent entry ofrainwater into the hose. Failure to do this could cause a dangerousboil over of hot material loaded next into the tank;• After loading, the pump lines must be emptied by sucking backinto the tank. On completion of discharge, pump, pipelines andhoses must be flushed out with paraffin or diesel and cleared ofproduct. Hose couplings must also be thoroughly cleaned;• Flushing fluids must be collected for re-use, and disposal must bein accordance with statutory requirements and best practiceprocedures;• The manhole cover must be securely fastened before departureafter loading;• In the event of any spillage of bitumen during delivery or transfer(such as by hose failure or tank overflows), all valves should beclosed, hoses disconnected, all caps screwed down and thecustomer or his representative informed of the spillage. The areashould be cleaned and authorities must be informed so that theycan certify that the site has been restored to its former condition.NoteAfter the unloading of cutback bitumen that has been heated tospraying temperatures the tank will contain a gas/air mixture that maybe in the explosive range. This is the time when the product is mosthazardous. All sources of ignition and heat must be prevented fromcoming into contact with this explosive mixture.44


Loading of different productsChange of product should be carried out only when approved andsupervised. When loading the next product, due consideration must begiven to the previous content of the vessel to avoid contamination orboil-over. Generally this requires draining the tank lines and flushing thesystem with appropriate fluid compatible with the new product beingloaded. All flushing and other residue must be collected and disposed ofin accordance with best practice procedures and the requirements of therelevant legislation.When bitumen emulsion is to be loaded into a tank that has containedbitumen, it is necessary to drain out as much bitumen as possible. Thetank and pipeline should be flushed out with MC30 or similar material toremove any remaining bitumen. All flushing solvents must be collected ina manner that complies with both best practice and statutory regulations.Centrifugal or low shear gear pumps are preferred for pumpingemulsions as some emulsions may be shear sensitive, especially latexmodified emulsions. Positive displacement pumps suitable for penetrationgrade bitumen, cutbacks and modified binders have a tendency to shearemulsions after excessive circulation unless the emulsion is hot, i.e.above 50 o C. When loading emulsion ensure that the emulsion isdischarged into the bottom of the tank and not allowed to free fall fromthe top of the manhole.There are two forms of emulsion - anionic (basic) and cationic (acid). Ifthese are mixed, almost instantaneous breaking of the emulsion will takeplace in the tanker. The load will solidify and the tank will becomedifficult to clean. If it is necessary to change tank contents from one tothe other product, the tank must be flushed out.At the completion of discharge of emulsion, the pump, tank and linesmust be thoroughly cleaned with MC30 or similar material to ensure thatall emulsion is removed from the system. Any emulsion left in the unitcould result in a boil-over when hot bitumen is next loaded into thevehicle.5.2 BlendingCutting back hot bindersOn-site cutting back of hot binders with volatile solvents is undesirableand is strongly discouraged from both quality and safety perspectives.Best practice dictates that all blending operations using cutters becarried out at fixed facilities under controlled conditions with therecommended safety and quality measures in place.45


Blending of modified bindersBlending of polymer modified binders and bitumen rubber must only beconducted in tanks and blending units designed for this purpose andmust be carried out in accordance with the supplier's methodstatements. Due to the limited shelf life of some modified binders suchas bitumen rubber, the blending of these materials must be done on site.The digestion of rubber in hot bitumen could cause an increase of 10 to25% in volume. Sufficient ullage must be allowed for this increase toavoid boil over.Polymers and rubber crumb must be stored in a dry place and awayfrom any source of heat. The addition of rubber crumb to a blending tankshould be done by mechanical means that is earthed to prevent thebuild-up of static electricity.Adhesion agents should only be added to binders shortly beforespraying unless they are temperature storage stable. The contents mustbe circulated for 15 minutes before spraying. Gloves and eye protectionmust be worn and care should be taken to avoid inhalation of fumes.Compatibility with water should be established before dilution. Whenmixing water with emulsions, always add water to the emulsion and notemulsion to water.5.3 Storage and storage temperaturesIf binders are stored for long periods above their applicationtemperatures, a loss in quality may occur. This is more likely in the caseof cutback bitumen as considerable cutter can be lost. With modifiedbitumen, degradation of the modifier will occur, resulting in thesubsequent loss of product quality. For safety reasons the maximumstorage and spraying temperatures given in Table 2 (page 28) shouldnot be exceeded.Emulsions should only be heated prior to application. Heating should begradual to reduce the possibility of deposits forming on the burner flues.Emulsions stored in bulk should be circulated for 30 minutes everysecond day. Drums containing emulsions should be rolled before use.46


Table 3 Time and temperature limits for bindersTypical temperature / time limits for bindersBinder class Short term handling Storage Maximumsprayingtemp.( o C)Max.temp.( o C)Max.holdingtime(hrs)Max.temp.( o C)Max.holdingtime(hrs)80/100 180 24 130 240 190150/200 170 24 120 240 180MC30 65 24 30 240 65MC70 80 24 50 240 80MC800 110 24 60 240 130MC3000 130 24 90 240 155Emulsions(not modified)80 24 50 240+ 80S-E1; S-E2 180 24 150 240 200C-E1 160 24 140 240 -SC-E1; SC-E2 70 24 Ambient 240+ 80CC-E1 Ambient 240+ Ambient 240+ -S-R1 165 24 140 72 21047


6. TrainingAll personnel involved in the handling, storage, blending or spraying ofbituminous binders must receive training in the safe handling of theseproducts and the relevant legal requirements. HSE critical positions andtasks should be identified, documented and an appropriate trainingprogramme should be developed to assure the competence ofpersonnel.A typical training (competence assurance) programme could include thefollowing:• Task risk assessment training;• Managing of task specific hazards as identified in the site riskassessments;• Firefighting;• Procedures to follow in case of emergencies;• Treatment of bitumen burns;• The use of protective clothing and safety equipment;• Sampling procedures;• Safe operation of bitumen handling equipment such as pumps,hoses, burners and compressors;• Advanced driver training for bulk vehicle operators;• Incident investigation.Sabita has developed a basic bitumen safety training programme calledBitSafe. The implementation of the BitSafe course is done through therecruitment and training of selected employees of Sabita membercompanies as trainers. After completing a "Train-the-trainer" course thetrainers conduct the training at their respective places of work.The course has been designed in a modular format which allows forshort interventions of approximately two hours, thereby minimising theimpact on operations. The course consist of 12 training modules whichcovers all the activities normally associated with the handling ofbituminous binders. These are:Module 1 (a): Understanding the industryModule 1 (b): The certification processModule 2 (a): Hazards: GeneralModule 2 (b): Hazards: Fire preventionModule 3: Health and safety awarenessModule 4: Reducing the riskModule 5: Treatment of bitumen burnsModule 6: Our environment48


Module 7:Module 8:Module 9:Module 10:Module 11:Module 12:Loading of liquid bitumenTransport of bitumenSampling and testingStorageDisposal of bitumen wasteApplication of bituminous bindersFor more details contact Sabita on 021 531 2718 or email info@sabita.co.za49


Annexure AHazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP)A.1 Brief introduction to the HEMPThe HEMP entails a detailed analysis and documentation procedureusing four basic steps:1. Identify:a. The hazards (what can cause harm):b. The threats (under what circumstances can the hazard bereleased); andc. The potential consequences (injury, damage, etc) if the hazardis released.2. Assess:a. Consider the likelihood of the occurrence of the potentialconsequences and classify the risk using a risk assessmentmatrix; andb. Analyse the threats and determine the necessary controls(barriers) to prevent the release of the hazards.3. Control:Document existing controls (barriers) and developnew/additional controls that are necessary to manage the risk toALARP.4. Recover:Develop comprehensive reaction plans to mitigate the adverseeffects of potential consequences.A.2 Suggested strategy for establishing a site HEMP programmeTo assure full compliance with legal and HSE Management Systemrequirements the HEMP must be organisation and site-specific.• Select, train and appoint a HEMP facilitator (ideally an HSEpractitioner);• Establish a site HEMP team consisting of experienced personnelfrom each department or business function i.e. administration,engineering, production, laboratory, transport;• Provide basic HEMP methodology training for team members;• Prepare a project plan with scheduled HEMP workshops;• Conduct HEMP workshops under guidance of the HEMPfacilitator;50


• Record/document the results of the HEMP in a hazard registersimilar to the format suggested in Annexure C of this manual;• Compile a register of HSE critical activities (processes) andpositions (jobs) for the site and assure competence of HSE criticalpositions;• Conduct further detailed analysis of HIGH RISK hazards anddemonstrate ALARP (using BowTie or similar methodology);• Get management sign-off for hazard register;• Communicate contents of hazard register as widely as necessary;• Establish a procedure for maintenance of the hazard registerincluding:o Management of change;o Regular review to check barrier efficiency;o Compliance auditing;o Follow up on remedial action, etc.NoteSabita members are encouraged to establish their own site-specificHEMP programmes to ensure that a detailed analysis of all HSEcritical operational activities and associated hazards is completed.A.3 Table of hazards, potential consequences andrecommended controlsFor purposes of this guideline a simple generic high level assessmenthas been prepared to illustrate how the HEMP is applied. Annexure Cprovides an example of a suggested structure and format fordocumenting the HEMP results in a hazard register.As an example, the table below provides an overview of the mostcommon hazards and effects associated with the types, properties andcharacteristics of bitumen and bituminous binders, and also a briefsummary of the general precautionary measures that should be appliedto control these hazards.NoteThreats are not included here and only product-related hazards arediscussed in this model.51


Table A1. Hazards, potential consequences and recommendedcontrolsHazardHazard group:ThermalPlant/Equipment/Liquids at elevatedtemperaturesHazard source:Bituminous binders stored,transported and handled attemperatures between100 o C - 210 o CBitumen heating andapplication equipment/toolsHazard group:ChemicalFlammable and toxicvapours or fumes(kerosene, CO 2 hydrogensulphide, bitumen fumes,nitrogen oxide, carbonmonoxide, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons)Hazard source:Cutback bitumen and otherbituminous binders thatcontain volatile organiccompoundsConsequenceand effectPeople:Severe burns andshock, potentially fatalAssets: Damage toequipment, tools,structures notdesigned to resisthigh temperaturesEnvironment:Destruction ofsensitive floraPeople:Fires and explosionscause severe injury ordeathAcute health effect:(asphyxiation) could befatalChronic health effects:Long term regular andrepeated exposure(skin contact) maycause skin cancerAssets: Fire orexplosion results insevere damage ordestructionEnvironment: Airpollution; ground watercontamination;destruction of sensitivehabitatRecommended controls• Thermal insulation: shielding,cladding, lagging of plantand equipment• Avoid contact of hot bitumenwith water to eliminatepotential of boil over• Proper design andmaintenance of plant andequipment to preventleaks/spillage• Competent personnel followcorrect operating procedures• Provide, maintain and useappropriate PPE asprescribed• Medical, fire and spillemergency response plans• Substitute cutback bitumenwith less hazardous binders• Proper design andmaintenance of plant andequipment to preventleaks/spillage• All hot work and confinedspace work is strictlycontrolled by a Permit ToWork (PTW) system• Where practicable provideadequate local exhaustventilation at source ofexposure• Provide, maintain and useappropriate PPE (respiratoryprotection) as prescribed• Personal health monitoringprogrammes• Medical, fire and spillemergency response plans• Air quality monitoring• Engineering controls to limitemission of noxious fumes.52


Annexure BExample of a risk assessment matrixAn example of a Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM), used to determine therisk potential in the hazard register example in Annexure C.SeverityPeopleConsequencesAssets0 Noinjuryor healtheffectNodamage1 Slightinjuryor healtheffectSlightdamage2 Minor Minorinjury or damagehealtheffectEnvironmentNoeffectSlighteffectMinoreffectNoimpactSlightimpactMinorimpact3 Major Moderate Moderate Moderateinjury or damagehealtheffecteffect impact4 PTD or Major Majorup to 3 damage effectfatalitiesReputationMajorimpact5 More Massive Massive Massivethan 3fatalitiesdamage effect impactANeverheardof intheindustryIncreasing likelihoodBHeardof intheindustryCHashappenedin theorganisationor morethanonceper yearin theindustryDHashappenedat thelocationor morethanonceper yearin theorganisationEHashappenedmorethanonce peryear atthelocationFor practical application the four areas (colours) of the RAM describe the level of control required to manage risk:Manage for continuous improvement, although the organisation may set a higher priority for furtherrisk reduction.Manage for continuous improvement through the effective implementation of the HSEManagement System.Identify and implement controls and recovery measures to reduce risk to ALARP.Identify and implement controls and recovery measures to reduce the risk to ALARPand provide a documented demonstration of ALARP.53


NoteThe organisation defines the parameters and criteria in each of theconsequences and likelihood categories, as well as the processesand methodology for determination of ALARP.54


Annexure CSuggested format for a hazard registerHazardNo.H-01.12H-08.01Hazard Activity Location Threats Top event Consequenceor incidentconsidered forRAM ratingHydrocarbons:Cutback bitumen(flammablevapour).Moving transporton land.Bulk loading anddeliveries;Bulk storage andhandling;Storage andhandling ofsamples;Plantmaintenance;Operation ofbitumen heatingsystem;Binder sprayingoperations.Movement ofvehicles/mobileplant.Loading gantries,blending plants,laboratories.Blending/storageand distributionsites:Roadconstruction sites.• Equipmentfailure• The potentialof ignition notrecognised• Hot work inhazardousareas• Staticelectricity• Lack of workprocedures• Proceduresnot followed.• Operator error• Lack of siteplanning• Lack ofjourneyplanning• Site workinstructionsnot followed.Loss ofcontainment.Loss of control.Asset damage:Fire in loadinggantry.Injury/fatality:Vehicle collisionat roadconstructiontraffic controlpoint.Risk potentialP A E RALARPdocumentation4B 4C 2C 1C BowTie hazardComments: fire partiallyControl Sheet;destroyed loading gantry atPTWS;the XYZ refinery in AprilEIA;2009.Designstandards;Ops standardsand procedures;Site ERP.4D 3D 1B 2B Hazard ControlComments: Several fatalSheet;incidents have occurred onSite workSA roads during roadinstructions;construction projectsDesignstandards;Site ERP.NoteThe development of hazard registers should be done by a carefully selected team with relevant engineering, operational and HSE experience under the guidance of acompetent HEMP facilitator.55


Contents of first aid kitAnnexure DThe items below can be ordered from most pharmacists or safetyequipment suppliers. Sabita also provides complete bitumen first aidkits. Order from info@sabita.co.za.The following items are in the bitumen burns first aid kit:Antiseptic solution;Antiseptic ointment;Assorted packs of sterile burn dressing;Cotton buds;CPR mouthpiece;Elastic bandages;Eye pads;Eye shields;Gauze swabs;Instant cold pack;Latex gloves;Micropore tape;Non-adhesive burn dressing for open burns;Rescue sheet;Safety pins;Scissors;Sterile eye irrigation solution;Triangular bandages;Tweezers;No. 3 wound dressing;No. 5 wound dressing;Burnshield dressings and burnshield liquid;2 plastic interlocking straight splintsA 25l container of water should be kept with the kit for cooling down thepatient's burnt section.56


Annexure EEmergency telephone numbersDoctorAmbulanceFire BrigadePoliceBitumen SupplierBurns Unit/Medical Centre57


Annexure FPre-trip aide mémoire for bitumen road tanker driverCompany/operator: ...................................................Driver: .......................................................................Vehicle No: ...............................................................Trailer No: ................................................................EquipmentItemQuantityEmergency triangle 2Fire extinguisher (9kg dry chemical powder) 2Shovel 1Water in robust containerThe following PPE is worn or readily available:• Heat resistant overall and leather apron;• Face shield, goggles and heat resistant balaclava;• Heat and chemical resistant gloves;• Heavy duty safety boots;• Half face-piece respitator with appropriate filter.25 litre1 of each1 of each1 pair1 pair1Hazchem decal 1Elevated temperature warning decal 1First aid kit (checklist for minimum contents inside) 1DocumentationOperator registration card displayedOrange document container mounted in the cabPublic Driving Permit for Dangerous Goods (PrDP-G)Dangerous good declaration for product on board(either separate or part of a waybill, consignment ordelivery note)TremcardMaterial Safety Data Sheet relevant to product onboardRoadworthy certificateMedical certificate58


Annexure GTypical content of a Transport Emergency Card(Tremcard)Cargo: MC30 Cutback bitumen UN NO: 1999• Black bituminous productNature of hazard:• Highly flammable;• Product may adhere to the skin and cause burns;• Fumes may cause eye and skin irritation, respiratory irritation,dizziness and nausea.Basic personal protection:• Face and eye protection;• Protective overalls;• Safety shoes;• Heat resistant gloves.Immediate action by driver:• Stop the engine;• No naked lights, no smoking;• Mark roads with self standing warning signs and warn other roadusers or passers by. Keep public away;• Keep upwind;• Notify emergency services.Spillage:• Stop leaks if without risk;• Prevent material from entering storm-water drains and rivers;• Vapour may create explosive atmosphere;• Use sand, earth or spill control material to contain spill.Fire:• Extinguish with dry chemical powder or fine water spray;• Sand or earth may be used for small fires.First aid:• Remove to fresh air;• In case of contact with hot bitumen immediately flush skin (oreyes) with large amounts of cold water. Do not remove bitumenfrom skin!59


Annexure HBitumen burns cardH.1 Front page of the bitumen burns card60


H.2 Back page of the bitumen burns card61


Notes62


Notes63


Notes64

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