Climate Change Guide for Community Radio ... - CDKN Global

Climate Change Guide for Community Radio ... - CDKN Global

What role can community radios play in communicating climatechange informationInformation and knowledge for adaptation can come from research as well as practice,experience, customs and traditions. However to move in this direction there is a need forincreased scientific engagement with indigenous knowledge and experience. The mediaplays an important role in creation of awareness at scale. It is also very effective in reachingout to people and communicating complex information by simplifying it – people are able tolearn a large amount about science through news. Through time, media coverage hasproven to be a key contributor towards shaping science and policy discourse as well aspublic understanding, perceptions and action.In rural areas, the poor remain isolated from various forms of media. Illiteracy, affordability,and lack of access to electricity are all barriers for access to different forms of media.Community radio is a medium that can overcome these barriers. Community radio anchorsare from within the community and thus there is no language barrier when communicating.Community radio can play an important role in initiating a two-way communication processbetween the community and the local level scientists and policy makers, which is currently alacuna. With the right kind of training and capacity building, community radio broadcastersand journalists can provide access to information and serve as an interactive medium wherecitizens can ask questions and raise their concerns regarding climate change. Radioreporters can take the voices and concerns of the community to the scientists and policymakers. They can also address the priority concerns of the community by ensuring that therelevant information available with scientists and decision makers is brought to them. Thisincludes information on relevant government schemes, agro-meteorological data, potentialimpacts of climate change, adaptation options and other up-to-date information.Refer to ANNEX 1 for Climate Change Radio Programmes – Topics and ThemesRefer to ANNEX 2 for background information on climate change impacts (globallyand locally) and adaptation strategies for farmers in semi - arid regions likeBundelkhand2

Key contacts for climate change reportingFollowing is a list of contacts that can be used as a starting point in the reporter’s search forinformation regarding stories on climate change related issues. The reporter may be able toobtain the desired information from these contacts or they may direct the reporter to thecorrect place to find the information.Local level Policy Makers Department of Agriculture Department of Water Resources Department of Irrigation District Planning Office Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA)Scientific Research Organisations Krishi Vigyan Kendra Scientific Research InstitutesCommunity Village elders Progressive farmers Sarpanch Gram Sewak/Krishi MitrClimate change reporting guidelines for radio reporters1) Proper research: Reporter should do his / her research on the relevant topicthoroughly before going out in the field to interview community members and experts.2) Provide sufficient background of the topic to the listeners: What is the issue? How isit connected to climate change? How does it affect the community?3) Avoid jargon: The reporters must simplify climate change terminologies so that thecommunities understand what is being talked about.4) Use numbers very carefully: The figures and projections from research studies mustbe communicated in moderation so that they do not panic the listeners.5) Provide comments from experts for possible solutions: A radio programme should notonly be talking of problems. Providing solutions to the listeners is very important.6) Make balanced stories: While reporting on any story, present different points of viewand facets to the issue so that the story is balanced.3

General rules for making radio programmes related to climatechange1) It is recommended that programmes be made in magazine format having a mix ofsuccess stories from the ground, interviews with community members – scientistsand policy makers, radio dramas, songs to make the radio shows interesting andhold the attention of the viewers. Total duration of each radio programme should beabout 20 minutes. Each section in the programme should not be more than 5 minutesto keep it interesting and crisp.2) In all the radio programmes, anchor script must link the theme with climate change.This information is given in Annex 1 and Annex 2 of this document.3) As a rule in the beginning of each programme, radio anchors should talk about whatwas discussed in the last episode so that continuity is maintained for the viewer.4) The signature tune of the programme should be there in the beginning and end ofevery episode.5) At the end of every episode,Radio anchors should give 1 – 2 minute summary on main points discussed inthe episode. Also they must tell the audience what theme will be discussed in thenext episode.Anchors should give the farmer helpline number – repeat it 2 times.Radio anchors should ask the listeners to call and tell about any communitymembers demonstrating knowledge on climate change adaptation. Radioanchors should then talk about this in the next episode6) As a rule try and use two different types of experts (one who has a scientificbackground and another who is a government official - line department official). Avoidusing only one expert in the entire episode.7) For the radio reporters to form a two way communication link between farmers andexperts – scientists and policy makers, it is important that reporters tell the scientistsand local policy makers about the concerns of the community. It is important to tellexperts about problems that farmers are facing. The reporters must try to findsolutions to their listeners’ problems. The solutions should be communicated back tothe farmers by telling the farmers what the scientists and local line departmentofficials said.8) For every episode while interviewing farmers:Please interview some old farmers (men and women both) and some youngfarmers who are less than 30 years old - to get different points of views.Reporters should try and interview women farmers as well.Radio reporters should find a quiet corner to interview farmers in the village. Theyshould interview farmers one by one - not in a group. While editing – avoid usingsound bites with too much background sound.Radio anchors should avoid saying ‘kisan bhai’ (brother farmer) every time. Usethe word – ‘Shrotaon’ (listeners) for the listeners.Before interviewing anyone, radio reporter should clearly introduce the personwho he is going to talk to and which village he is from.9) While editing farmers’ bites, use music transition between all the bytes. Every farmershould be introduced by the radio anchor.4

10) After farmers’ interview section in the beginning of the episode – use someentertainment – song or radio drama before moving on to the expert’s interview.11) Expert interview section:Expert needs to be properly introduced by the radio reporter - from whatdepartment he is and what organization.It is recommended not to keep the expert interview more than 3 minutes. Rest ofthe points talked by the expert should be simplified and explained by the radioanchors in their script.12) After every expert is interviewed, as a rule, the radio anchors should sum up the mainpoints of discussion in a simplified manner for the benefit of the listeners.5

Annex 1: Climate Change Radio Programmes – Topics and ThemesBelow is a list of potential program topics and themes accompanied by potential questionswhich can be asked to the members of the community, policymakers and scientificresearchers:1 st Topic: The community’s, policy makers’ and scientists’ perceptions onclimate change and effects of climate change globally and locallyQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:What does climate change mean to you? What is causing climatechange? How have changes in the climate (such as drought) affected thecommunity? How important is a stable climate (such as a regular andpredictable monsoon) to the livelihood of farmers and the community?What can you do to adapt to climate change?What does climate change mean to you and what are its affects? Howseriously are policymakers taking the issue of climate change? Why dothey believe climate change is or is not important? How is climate changeaffecting agriculture? What is your department’s role in addressing climatechange? What are the difficulties in addressing climate change?What is climate change? What is causing climate change? What are theimpacts of climate change globally and locally? How is climate changeaffecting agriculture? How have cropping patterns changed over the lastdecade? Why have they changed? What can communities do to adapt?2 nd Topic: Climate Resilient Farming: Sustainable practices in agricultureQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:What are farmers currently doing to adapt to climate change? Where dofarmers obtain information on climate adaptation techniques? What arethe barriers (financial, cultural and informational) to practicing sustainableagriculture?What is climate change adaptation? What are the schemes available inthe region for adaptation to climate change impacts? What is thegovernment doing to support the practice of sustainable agriculture?What is climate change adaptation? What are the best adaptationpractices for the local area? What research has been conducted onclimate change adaptation and what have been the results? What kind ofresearch is currently being conducted? Where can communities andfarmers find more information on this research? Why is sustainableagriculture better than conventional agriculture? Why is it better fromclimate change adaptation point of view?6

Anchor script information:If the climate is going to be uncertain, what can the farmer do? In a semi - arid region likeBundelkhand, the first and most important step would be to use farming techniques thatneed less water. That is why it is important to do line and dry sowing, to sow crops likebarley and maize that need less water.This radio episode must include information on the different sustainable agricultural practiceslike:Short duration crop varietiesLine and dry sowingWater efficient crops like barley instead of wheatContour farmingDrought tolerant improved seedsMulti cropping3 rd Topic: Organic farming as a climate adaptation strategyQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:How is organic farming better than using chemicals and pesticides forgrowing crops? Has adopting organic farming improved your yield andincome? What contributed to the adoption of these practices? If you donot use organic farming practices, then why not? What are the barriers topracticing and adopting organic farming?What policies/schemes are in place to encourage the adoption of organicfarming practices?How is organic farming better than using chemicals and pesticides forgrowing crops? How is organic farming a good climate change adaptationtechnique? What should the farmers keep in mind while switching fromchemical based farming to organic farming?Anchor script information for radio programme on organic farminga) Climate change mitigationOrganic farming reduces the amount of climate change causing gases(greenhouse gases) that are released into the atmosphere by using less syntheticagricultural inputs such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides. Synthetic fertilizersand pesticides require large amounts of energy to produce, which causesgreenhouse gases to be emitted. By not using these inputs, organic farmingavoids emitting greenhouse gases that would be emitted under conventionalfarming practices.7

Organic farming techniques tend to increase the amount of organic carbon thatremains in the soil. This decreases the amount of carbon dioxide, a greenhousegas, in the atmosphere because more carbon is stored in the soil instead of theatmosphere.b) Climate change adaptationBy increasing the amount of organic carbon that remains in the soil, organicfarming also has advantageous climate change adaptation characteristics. Soilorganic carbon tends to act like a “sponge” in the soil because it absorbs excesswater and retains additional moisture.Organic farming systems tend to promote biodiversity through varioustechniques. More diverse farming systems tend to be better at adapting toexternal stresses such as extreme weather events like droughts, floods and heatwaves. Biodiversity is also vital for natural renewal processes that maintain soiland water health.Organic farming reduces dependency on expensive agricultural inputs likesynthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It also allows farmers to produce crops thatmay fetch a premium price at the market when compared to conventionallycultivated crops. These two qualities can make organic farming more financiallyviable, especially for small-scale farmers since it reduces the amount ofinvestment needed thus reducing financial risks. Increased financial stability canhelp farmers cope with potential impacts resulting from climate change.c) Navdanya, a Delhi based non-government organisation, has been researching thebenefits of organic farming and aggressively promoting this form of agricultureamong small-scale farmers in different parts of India. They have helped over 200,000farmers convert to organic farming techniques in India. From field trials conducted inarid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid regions of India, Navdanya found that organicfarming techniques can improve soil carbon levels by 5% to 25% and increase thewater holding capacity of soils between 2% to 17% as compared to conventionalfarming methods. Soil that can hold more moisture is particularly valuable for farmersin drought prone regions of India.d) Organic food fetches higher prices for the farmers - The price premium that organiccrops garner from the perceived health and taste benefits perceived by cityconsumers allows organic farming to be more financially profitable than conventionalfarming. In a 2007 study published in the International Journal of AgriculturalSustainability, researchers found that organic cotton farmers in India experienced 30-40% higher gross profit margins than conventional cotton farmers due to lower inputcosts and higher prices for organic cotton. Increasing the income of small-scalefarmers is a very effective way of increasing food and livelihood security.e) Organic Certification - However, for small farmers the cost of obtaining the necessarycertification demanded by consumers can be prohibitively high. Certificationprocesses are often too complex, lengthy, and expensive for individual, small farmersto undertake on their own. It takes about three years for a farm to be labeled as‘totally organic’. Organisations like Navdanya, have been working to make organiccertification processes easier for small-scale farmers by helping them pool their land8

to obtain the ‘organic certificate’ as a ‘group’. This helps the farmers share the costsassociated with the certification.Important note: This radio programme on organic farming must have at least one successstory of a farmer who has adopted organic farming and is happy with the results.4 th Topic: Agro forestry as a climate adaptation strategyQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:Do you practice agro forestry? Do you think agro forestry has anybenefits? Has adopting agro forestry improved your yield and income?What contributed to the adoption of these practices?What policies/schemes are in place to encourage the adoption of agroforestry farming techniques? What are the barriers to adopting agroforestry farming techniques?Why is agro forestry an effective adaptation strategy? What should thefarmers keep in mind while practicing agro forestry? What are the kindsof trees to be grown and the distance to be kept between the trees tohelp improve yield from those trees?Anchor script informationAgroforestry systems use trees to aid the cropping system to increase farm productivity,diversify farmers’ income sources and provide environmental benefits. The trees providefarmers with yields of fruit, oil, fodder, fuel and medicinal products, increasing their livelihoodopportunities. Diversification is a key adaptation strategy for the small and marginal farmersliving in climate vulnerable areas. Agroforestry reduces dependency on one crop variety andso helps in maintaining agricultural production during both wet and dry years. It has greatpotential to increase farm income and sustain crop production thereby strengthening thesocio-economic situation of the farmers.The reason why more farmers do not practice agroforestry by planting trees along with theircrops is that the shade from the trees has an adverse effect on the crops. But this problemcan be solved by choosing the trees that are tall and have relatively few branches, such asguava or amla.5 th Topic: Water resources and climate changeQuestions forcommunity:How has water (both surface and groundwater) availability changed overthe last decade? How has the seasonal monsoon changed over the lastdecade? How have these changes affected community members’ lives?Does the community currently make use of rainwater? Do they storerainwater at all? If they do, how do they store it? How helpful is having theability to store rainwater? Are there barriers to storing rainfall such as notbeing able to build adequate storage facilities or not having adequateknowledge?9

Questions forpolicymakers:What kind of policies /schemes exist to address water availability issuesand climate changes impact on water availability? Are there any schemesthat can help farmers implement rainwater-harvesting practices?Questions forscientists:How is climate change expected to impact water availability? How isclimate change expected to impact the monsoon? How can communitiesadapt to these expected changes? What are the best practices forrainwater harvesting? Are there concerns that should be addressed whenstoring rainwater? Can stored rainwater be used for drinking purposes?Anchor script informationIn the semi-arid region of Bundelkhand, water is a very valuable resource. With climatechange, water availability may become more and more unpredictable. When it rains, it isimportant to utilise as much of the available water as possible before it runs off and becomesinaccessible. Rainwater harvesting is one way to take advantage of the rains. Rainwaterharvesting uses various techniques to capture and store rain when it occurs such as storageponds, cisterns, and other means. Rainwater harvesting can be an important strategy toreduce the risk of climate change by using water resources more efficiently.All radio anchors can talk about Rajendra Singh, known as the ‘Rain Man of Rajasthan’, whohas won acclaim for pioneering innovative community based water harvesting andmanagement schemes. Through a host of different strategies such as rainwater harvestingstructures, Rajendra Singh has helped bring ‘water back to more than 1,000 villages and gotwater to flow again in all five major rivers in Rajasthan’.6 th Topic: Water efficient irrigation practicesQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Ask farmers about their irrigation practices. How do they irrigate theirfields? Why do they use the technique that they use? Do they know aboutalternative irrigation techniques? Do they take advantage of anygovernment schemes to assist with irrigation?What kind of policies /schemes exists to address water availability issuesand climate change impacts on water availability? What are thegovernment irrigation schemes available? How does one qualify for suchschemes if they exist?Questions forscientists:How is climate change expected to impact water availability? How isclimate change expected to impact the monsoon? How can communitiesadapt to these expected changes? What are the different water efficientirrigation techniques? What methods are best suited for the Bundelkhandarea? Why are some methods better than others? Does the type ofirrigation depend on the type of crops that are being grown?10

Anchor script informationFor farmers that are fortunate enough to have access to water for irrigation purposes, it isimportant for them to use that water as efficiently as possible. Under climate change, usingwater more efficiently will become even more important as water availability becomes moreunpredictable. There are different forms of irrigation such as field flooding, sprinklerirrigation, and drip irrigation. Field flooding requires few resources but is a relativelyinefficient use of water, while drip irrigation requires specialized tubing and pumps but useswater much more efficiently. The appropriate technique will depend on a farmer’s resourcesand location.Important noteIn this radio programme there must be success stories of farmers who are benefitting fromusing water efficient irrigation techniques.7 th Topic: Preventing soil erosion and improving soil qualityQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:Ask farmers about their perceptions on soil erosion. Is soil erosion aproblem in their communities? What do they do, if anything, to prevent soilerosion on their farms? If they do not do anything, why do they not doanything? Do they not know the correct techniques or do they not haveadequate resources? How do they currently manage the fertility of theirsoil. Do they use synthetic fertilizers? Compost? Manure? Do they usespecial techniques to prepare compost or manure? How did they learnabout these techniques?What are the initiatives by the government to reduce soil loss? Are thereschemes to help farmers cope with this problem? How can farmersreceive assistance in improving soil fertility? Are there any schemes thatpromote these techniques? Are there ways farmers can accessinformation on these techniques? Do policy makers think improving soilfertility is important for Bundelkhand? Why or why not?Ask scientists about the importance of conserving soil. What is lost whentop soil erodes? What strategies would be appropriate for regionalfarmers to pursue in reducing soil erosion on their farms? What are thebest options? What are the most affordable options? What are thedifferent ways to improve soil health? Are there certain techniques thatare more suited for the semi-arid region of Bundelkhand? What is theproper way to make compost? What is the proper way to incorporatemanure into the soil? What type of cover crops promotes soil health?What are the costs of these techniques in comparison to syntheticfertilizers?11

Anchor script informationSoil erosion can have significant negative effects on a farm’s productivity by washing awayimportant nutrient rich soil. With climate change, soil erosion may increase due to thepotential of more heavy rainfall events. Reducing soil erosion is a good way of increasing theproductivity and profitability of a farm. There are various different techniques to help retainsoil including planting fast growing trees and shrubs, using cover crops when food crops arenot being grown, or creating artificial barriers around farming fields. The most appropriatestrategies will depend upon the location and resources available.Crops are only as good as the soil they are grown in. Farmers can improve their crops byimproving their soil. There are many different ways to improve soil. Correctly incorporatingcompost or manure into soil can help increase important nutrients in the soil. Growing certaincrops (called legumes) can also increase important nutrients in the soil. Having healthiersoils can also make farming less sensitive to adverse climatic conditions, making it one wayto adapt to a changing climate.8 th Topic: Impacts of climate change on livestock rearingQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:Ask farmers if they feel the changing climate has affected their livestockrearing practices? If yes, then how? Do they know of any governmentschemes that promote livestock rearing? Do they perceive benefits fromlivestock rearing? How important is livestock for farmers in theirlivelihoods? How do they manage fodder production and livestockveterinary issues, such as vaccinations?Are there any government schemes to help farmers do more livestockrearing?What are the impacts of climate change on livestock rearing? How canthese impacts be addressed? How should farmers look after theirlivestock?Anchor script informationAnimal husbandry in Bundelkhand has been affected very badly by drought and scientiststell us that one of the effects of climate change is that droughts will become more frequentand more severe. So the problems of animal husbandry in this region are also partly due toclimate change. If we can promote animal husbandry, that serves as a way to adapt toclimate change, because it provides farmers with an alternate source of livelihood in case ofcrop failures.12

9 th Topic: Use of agro-meteorological information such as weather, seasonal,and monsoon forecastsQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:What are the traditional ways farmers have used to predict weather andseasonal forecasts? To what extent do farmers use scientifically derivedagro-meteorological information? Where do they obtain this information?Do they think this information is helpful? Why or why not? How does itinfluence their decisions on the farm?How can farmers obtain agro-meteorological information? How is agrometeorologicalinformation integrated into decision making processes atthe district/state level?How are farmers’ traditional methods of predicting weather and seasonalforecasts similar and different from scientific forecasts? How are scientificforecasts derived? How should forecasts be interpreted? How doesclimate change affect the accuracy of traditional forecasting techniques?Anchor script informationForecast information can help farmers make better decisions on their farm. It can help themdecide what type of crops to plant, when to plant them, how much fertilizer to apply, andother decisions. For thousands of years, farmers have developed traditional ways to makepredictions about the future state of the weather. In the increasingly unpredictable climatedue to global climate change, having knowledge of the probability of future weather eventscan be particularly valuable. Traditional techniques may not be as effective under climatechange, making scientifically derived forecast information more important.10 th Topic: Health and climate changeQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:Ask farmers about the incidence of disease and weather related stress onthem, their families, their livestock, and their communities. How do theyperceive the impact of climate on the health of their communities? Havethey experienced increases in diseases like malaria or dengue? Whatsteps do they take to prevent these diseases? How do they deal withthese diseases when they occur? What are the home remedies /traditional remedies to deal with heat strokes?Ask policy makers about government efforts to address the public healthissues of climate change. What does the government do to prevent vectorborne diseases like malaria and dengue fever? Does the governmentprovide assistance for livestock health? Are they incorporating thepotential impacts of climate change into their planning? Why or why not?Ask scientists about the connection between climate change and health.How and why will climate change impact vector borne diseases likemalaria or dengue fever? How might climate change affect thetransmission of infectious diseases? How might climate change affect theincidence on noninfectious diseases? Ask scientists about how to preparefor the health impacts of climate change. What should be done in case ofextreme heat waves? How can vector borne diseases be prevented?13

Anchor script informationClimate change is expected to impact health—both for human populations and livestock.More frequent heat waves are detrimental to public health. Increasing temperatures andaltered rainfall patterns may shift the normal time and location of vector borne diseases suchas malaria and dengue fever. Likewise, these same issues can affect livestock. Heat stressand vector borne diseases may increase livestock mortality under climate change.Responding to these issues will require preventive actions by both farmers andgovernments. Some farmers may already be experience health related impacts.Radio anchors must talk about heat strokes – dehydration – home remedies to deal with this.11 th Topic: Bottom up planning processQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicy makers:Questions forscientists:Are communities participating in the planning process? How are theyparticipating? What have been the perceived results of participating in theplanning process? Ask farmers about their current perceptions on thegovernment’s response to climate change. What do they believe thegovernment is already doing? What do they think the government should bedoing? What government schemes have benefitted the community onclimate change, agricultural, and water issues? What schemes arecommunities aware of and not taking advantage of and why? What are themost utilized schemes? What is the community’s view on the role ofgovernment in climate adaptation issues?How are policy makers incorporating grassroots voices into policy/schemedevelopment? How can community members participate in the process?Why do they feel it is important, if at all, for community members toparticipate? What schemes are available for communities to use for climatechange, agriculture and water issues? Ask policy makers about thegovernment’s response to climate change. What is being done at thedistrict level about climate change? How can farmers and communitiesparticipate in plan development?How do researchers interact with the grassroots level, if at all? How doesthey steer their research, if at all? How do the researchers feel that theirwork is incorporated into policy? How do researchers contribute to thecreation and implementation of schemes and policies? What is thereperception on the efficacy of the government’s policies and schemes?Anchor script informationMany governments at the international, national, and state level are beginning to explicitlyaddress the issue of climate change. In India, the national government has prepared aNational Action Plan on Climate Change that describes the overarching national strategy ofaddressing climate change. Many state governments, including Madhya Pradesh, havedeveloped similar State Action Plans on Climate Change. It is important for communities tobe aware of these initiatives so that they can help influence their development and takeadvantage of the schemes that emanate from them.14

12 th Topic: Wasteland reclamationQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forscientists:Ask farmers about their perceptions of wastelands. How much of theirland is ‘wasteland’? How much of their community is wastelands? Whatdo they think is the cause of lands becoming unproductive? Have theysuccessfully reclaimed wastelands before?Ask policy makers about government initiatives to address the problem ofagricultural wastelands. Do they view this as a priority? What is beingdone to reclaim wastelands at the government level? Are there schemesthat farmers can take advantage of to help them reclaim wastelands?Ask scientists about the causes of wastelands. What causes agriculturallands to be unable to support cultivation? How can this be avoided? Askscientists about methods for reclaiming wastelands. What are techniquesthat can be used in Bundelkhand to make wastelands productive again?Anchor script informationIn many areas, agricultural wastelands go fallow because of environmental degradation. Ifthese lands could be used for productive agricultural activities, the potential detrimentaleffects of climate change could be partially alleviated through the increased production ofcrops. Also wastelands could be used for growing trees or fodder for livestock.13 th Topic: Crop insurance and crop loansQuestions forcommunity:Questions forpolicymakers:Questions forbankers:Ask farmers about the current use of crop insurance and crop loans. Dothey currently use these financial services? Did they use them in thepast? What has their experience been in using these services? Have theybeen treated fairly? Do they feel it was a good purchase? Would theyrecommend other farmers to purchase these services?Ask policy makers about the government’s role in crop insurance and croploans. Does the government provide any of these services? Do theyensure that the process is fair? Do they provide any help in makingdecisions on these services?Ask bankers about the advantages, risks and types of crop loans and cropinsurance. How can these services help farmers? How can these serviceshurt farmers? How should farmers make decisions on whether to usethese services or not? What are the different types of crop insurance andloans?15

Anchor script informationCrop insurance and crop loans are financial instruments that farmers can use to increase theproductivity of their farm and decrease the risk of crop loss or failure. Crop insuranceensures financial compensation to the farmer in case their crop fails and they are not able tosell it in the market. Crop loans provide financial assistance to farmers to allow them topurchase agricultural inputs and other resources to increase the productivity of their farm.These services can help farmers adapt to the negative effects of climate change by reducingrisk and increasing productivity. Both services, however, do cost money. Therefore,purchasing the right kinds of crop insurance and crop loans should be a carefully consideredoption.Important noteHere other than interviewing farmers and government policy people, please interview banks– NABARD, Gamin bank etc. as experts16

ANNEX 2What is climate change?To understand climate change, one must understand the meaning of climate and how it isdifferent from weather. Weather is a specific condition that occurs over a short period oftime, such as a thunderstorm or today’s temperature. Climate, on the other hand, is theaverage or prevailing weather conditions of a particular area over a long period of time. Forexample, ‘today is very hot’ is a statement about an area’s weather, while ‘the Thar Desert isvery dry’ is a statement on the area’s climate.In this sense, climate change is the term given to a shift or alteration in the planet’sprevailing long-term weather patterns. Specifically, it refers to an increase in the planet’saverage temperature due to human activities, which in turn is causing additional changes inother climatic parameters such as rainfall patterns.What is causing climate change?Climate change is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide,methane and nitrous oxide into the earth’s atmosphere. Due to their chemical properties,these gases trap heat in the atmosphere. When the quantity of these gases builds up in theatmosphere (as is currently occurring), it can cause the planet’s overall temperature toincrease. When the temperature increases, it affects many other aspects of the entireclimate system, thus causing climate change.Many different human activities contribute to the addition of greenhouse gases to ouratmosphere. The biggest contributing activity is the burning of fossil fuels such as coal,natural gas and oil for use in electricity, transportation, industry etc. When these fuels areburned, they release the carbon that has been stored within them for millions of years intothe atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide. The next biggest contributing activity isdeforestation i.e. the destruction of forests. Forests store large amounts of carbon withinthem and when forests are cut down, the carbon stored in them is released into theatmosphere. Other human activities such agriculture and waste management contribute asmall, but significant, amount to the total global greenhouse gas emissions.Historically, the developed nations of the world are responsible for the vast majority of totalgreenhouse gas emissions due to these countries’ high levels of fossil fuel use since thebeginning of the industrial age. Now, even developing countries are releasing significantamounts of greenhouse gases as they are growing and using more fossil fuels.What are the global impacts of climate change?The global climate system is very sensitive to changes in temperature. When increasingconcentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause the planet’s temperature toincrease, the change also affects where, when and how much rainfall occurs, winds blow,and storms develop. These changes in temperature and rainfall then have significant effectson many other aspects of our world - oceans, plants, animals and diseases - just to name afew. The effects of climate change on the planet are referred to as climate change impacts.The impacts of climate change are already being observed. During the last decade, theglobal average temperature was higher than it has ever been recorded. Heat waves (periodsof sustained high temperatures) are becoming more common in many areas around theworld. The warmer temperatures are also causing glaciers and sea ice to melt, which isincreasing the sea level threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services thus affecting food17

and water supply, livelihoods and the wellbeing of coastal communities all over the world.Additionally, the increasing temperature has significant effects on global rainfall patternscausing more periods of drought as well as excess rainfall and flooding depending on thearea. All of these impacts, and more, are only expected to increase in the future as climatechange occurs to a greater degree.How is climate change affecting rural communities in Bundelkhand?Bundelkhand is a semi-arid, drought prone region in Central India comprising of 13 districtsin the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. This is one of the most climate sensitiveareas in the country characterised by degraded forests and rapidly reducing surface waterbodies. Due to its topography of shallow soil depths and hard rocky substrata, there isminimal groundwater recharge and consequently the region suffers from low water storagein aquifers and low moisture conservation in the soil. A high run off rate causes heavy loss ofthe top soil. Increasing temperatures and uncertain availability of water resources can havesignificant impacts on agriculture. Many scientists believe that climate change is causing andwill cause less rainfall in the region. Higher temperatures and less rainfall can have negativeeffects on agricultural production, especially in areas that are not irrigated and rely on rainfedagriculture. With over 80% of the population dependent on agriculture, climate change hasmajor economic, social and ecological implications for this region.Due to the already precarious situation of many communities in Bundelkhand, any decreasein agricultural productivity due to climate change may have far reaching effects. If foodproduction decreases, many people may lose access to sufficient amounts of food becauseof both the decrease in food availability and decrease in agricultural income with which foodcould be bought. This can further lead to the forced migration of farmers to other areas insearch of alternative livelihoods.What can be done about climate change?a) Climate Change MitigationIn order to reduce the severity of climate change, human civilisation must take actions thatslow the increase and eventually reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in theatmosphere. This is called climate change mitigation. Climate change mitigation includesmany different actions.The most important mitigation action is reducing the amount of fossil fuels that are burnedfor energy. To do this, alternative sources of energy that do not emit as much greenhousegases as coal, oil, and natural gas, will need to developed and implemented. There aremany alternative sources of energy available today such as solar, wind, and biomass powerthat produce very little greenhouse gases when compared to fossil fuels.Other actions can also help mitigate climate change. Stopping deforestation will helpmitigate climate change by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into theatmosphere as well as maintaining forests that actually absorb greenhouse gases from theatmosphere. Plants such as trees take in carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, as part of theirlife processes. Since forests are very large, they can absorb large amounts of carbon dioxideif they are not destroyed or degraded, thereby helping reduce the amount of greenhousegases in the atmosphere.18

) Climate Change AdaptationUnfortunately, climate change is already occurring and will continue to occur into theforeseeable future. Because of this, actions will need to be taken in order to helpcommunities adapt to the effects of the changing climate. This is referred to as climatechange adaptation.In Bundelkhand, there are many different things that can be done to reduce the current andfuture impacts of climate change. These measures range from improved agriculturaltechniques and water resource management to the availability of crop loans and insurance.The different strategies that may be used to adapt to the effects of climate change are givenbelow:1) Agricultural strategies for climate change adaptation in BundelkhandPlanting drought tolerant cropsCertain crops and crop types are better suited for drought-like conditions than others.Planting these crops will help in adapting to situations where water availability is low.Planting short duration cropsShort duration crops have shorter planting to harvest periods than other crops. Using shortduration crops can help in adaptation to scarce water situations by shortening the duration ofthe time that water is needed. It can also help increase cropping intensity by allowingadditional crops to be planted and harvested during a given year.Mixed croppingMixed cropping techniques involve planting two or more crops in the same fieldsimultaneously. Depending on the crop selection, mixed cropping can increase overall yieldsof the crops when compared to planting them separately as well as reduce the risk of totalcrop failure through the diversification of planted crops. Example: Sesame, back gram andsoyabean in Kharif seasonDry sowingDry sowing is a technique that allows the planting of seeds in dry topsoil as opposed to thenormal requirement of wet/moist topsoil. If practiced correctly, dry sowing allows for thetimely planting of crops during dry conditions, which is more advantageous than waiting forwet conditions.Line sowingInstead of casting seeds onto the field by hand, seeds are planted in straight lines with theuse of tools such as a seed drill. Using this technique, farmers use less seed and canimprove crop yields through more efficient planting.19

Agro-forestryAgro-forestry is the cultivation of crops with trees and shrubs. It can increase the productivityof agricultural fields as well as increase the availability of woody materials that can be usedas alternative livelihood sources.Ridge and furrow cultivation methodsThe ridge and furrow method involves planting crops in raised soil beds with furrowsalternating between rows. This method allows for enhanced water drainage in cases ofextreme rainfall and helps conserve soil moisture during times of scarce rainfall.Grain and fodder storageAdequate storage facilities can reduce/eliminate spoilage and degradation of grain andfodder. Being able to store grain and fodder can allow farmers to delay selling their cropsuntil market prices are favorable and/or retrain excess fodder for times when it is scarce.2) Water resource management strategies for climate change adaptation inBundelkhandDrip irrigationDrip irrigation applies water directly to the soil’s surface through thin piping with many smallwater outlets. This technique can decrease water and fertilizer wastage by reducing waterevaporation and runoff.An example of a drip irrigation systemSprinkler irrigationSprinkler irrigation is a method of applying irrigated water in a manner similar to rainfall.Water is piped to a central location and then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that itbreaks up into small water drops, which then fall to the ground. Using sprinkler irrigation canallow a much larger area to be irrigated with much less labor and water waste.20

An example of a sprinkler irrigation systemCheck damsCheck dams are small structures that retain and/or slow water across a stream, drainageditch, or small river. The retained water can be utilised for irrigating nearby agricultural fields.Additionally, by slowing the movement of water, additional water can infiltrate into thegroundwater table.An example of a check dam in BundelkhandArtificial groundwater rechargingArtificial groundwater recharging is a group of techniques that increase the infiltration rate ofwater in the groundwater table. One technique is utilising dried dug wells by diverting surfaceand rainwater into them. In areas with rocky terrain, dug wells often pass through the soil’shard rock layer allowing water to infiltrate into the groundwater table at a faster rate. Otherstrategies that retain/slow water like check dams also contribute to increased groundwaterrecharging.21

3) Other climate change adaptation strategiesLivestock rearingLivestock rearing refers to the raising of animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, chicken andpigs for food products (both for dairy and meat). In some cases, raising livestock may beless susceptible to drought and other events in comparison to agricultural crops. For thisreason, raising livestock can reduce the risk of climate related issues impacting a farmer orcommunity.Alternative livelihoodsIn Bundelkhand, alternative livelihoods refers to methods of gaining income through nonagriculturalmeans. Alternative livelihoods are an effective climate change adaptationstrategy for individuals because it gives them a source of income that is not as dependentupon the climate like agriculture.Crop insuranceCrop insurance is a financial service that ensures agricultural producers receive some formof financial return in case of crop loss due to natural events that reduce crop yield or revenueloss due to low market prices at harvest. It ensures the farmer’s financial security in case ofclimate related issues or market instability.Crop loansCrop loans are a financial service that provides a sum of money at the beginning of thegrowing season for the purchase of agricultural inputs that must be paid back at a later date,with interest. These loans provide an additional tool for agricultural producers to maintain orincrease agricultural productivity through obtaining needed resources.Example: Kisan Credit CardsKnowledge and information sharingKnowledge and information is a vital component for adapting to climate change. In order tosuccessfully adapt, communities need information on how the climate is changing andknowledge on how they can adapt. Mechanisms that allow the sharing of this informationand knowledge, whether from community to community, researcher/decision maker tocommunity, or community to researcher/decision maker, will allow adaptation to occur moreeffectively.Example: Bundelkhand Knowledge Platform22

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