Exploring Social Studies - Pearson


Exploring Social Studies - Pearson

Exploring Social StudiesKey Concept ChartMap reading and researchForm 2◗◗Map reading• zAn aerial photograph is an image that is takenfrom above the ground.• zA satellite object is an object that revolves aroundor orbits another object. The earth revolves aroundthe sun, therefore the earth is a satellite of the sun.• zA map is a drawing that represents a part (orwhole) of the earth’s surface. Maps should includethe following (note that the encircled numbers 1–4below relate to those in the map on the right handside):1 A title, or caption, to tell us what the map isall about.2 Direction, usually shown on a map by simplearrows that represent a compass. This enables usto work out the direction of the cardinal points –north, south, west and east.3 Scale, which shows the relationship between thedistance on the map and the actual distance on theearth’s surface. It is presented as a ratio, e.g. 1 cm= 5000 km. To measure scale, you should measurebetween two points on your map, multiply themeasurement by the scale, and then convert youranswer to kilometres.4 A key, which helps you to understand what thesymbols or features on a map mean. This will helpyou navigate the map better.O k a v a n g oTsodiloH illsTshaneGhanziTshabongC h o b eAhaHillsOkavango DeltaMaunRG h a n z i iLake Ngamid g eK galagadiBasinKangM o l o p oB oit et3scaleA relief map of BotswanaNtwetwe PanLake XauKasaneM ababeDepressionMakgadikgadi PansSowa PanOrapar H i ll sE a s t e nSerowePalapyet san eMahalapyeMolepolole MochudiJwaneng GaboroneKanyeLobatseN g ot w a n eM o tL ol o u t s e0 100 200 300 km1title or captionW2NWSWdirectionFrancistownS ashhSelebiPhikwe4NSeNESEEkeyKey1 000 – 2 000 m500 – 1 000main roadrailwayriversalt lakemarshcapital citymain townother townmain airportResearch◗◗•zResearch is the process of findingout more information about aspecific topic.Step 5: Present dataUse graphs, maps, charts and drawings,or you can simply write text.Step 4: Write a reportPresent a written report that states yourconclusions and how you have reached them.Provide a list of all your resources and/orsources of information.Step1: Identify a topicGive your reasons for conductingthis research. Also, provide somegeneral information about the topic.This will help you to focus and willguide your planning.TheresearchprocessStep 2: Collect dataCollect or gather the information thatyou will analyse. Your sources can bemagazines, journals, newspapers or newsreports. Never copy the informationdirectly from your sources. Use yourown words but don’t change themeaning!Step 3: Analyse dataProcess the data you have collected, and ensurethat your findings are relevant and correct.Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies

Environment and humanity◗◗The physical environment•zThe three elements that make up the physical environmentare relief, drainage and vegetation:◦ { Relief refers to how high above sea level a place is, andhow the land is shaped.◦ { Drainage refers to surface water features like rivers,lakes and swamps.◦ { Vegetation refers to the type of vegetation growing ina given area.• zClimate refers to the average weather conditions of aplace observed over a long period (at least 30 years).• zWe a t h e r is the climatic condition of a country or regionat a certain time, observed over a period of 24 hours.Rainfall, humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure,sunshine, cloud cover and wind speed are all elementsof weather.• zInstruments used to measure weather elements include:◦{the rain gauge to measure the amount of rainfall.◦{the thermometer to measure the hot or coldtemperature of a place or object. There are two typesof thermometer, the maximum and the minimumthermometer. The maximum thermometer is usedto measure maximum temperature, i.e. the highesttemperature for a 24-hour period. This thermometercontains mercury, which is a good conductor ofheat. The minimum thermometer is used to measureThe water cycle or rain cycle◗◗The most common type of rainfall, called convectionalrainfall, occurs as follows:1 Rays from the sun heat up the earth’s surface, and thiscauses the air above the ground to heat up. The airbecomes light in weight or less dense, so it rises.2 As the air rises, it cools slowly, and changes graduallyinto liquid water. This process is called condensation.3 When condensation takes place, tiny water droplets jointogether to form clouds.the rays of the sun heatthe earth’s surfacewarm airrises1The water cycle2clouds form 3air cools andcondensationtakes placeand rainfalls4minimum temperatures, i.e. the lowest temperature fora 24-hour period. Minimum temperature thermometerscontain alcohol, which is more sensitive to the slightestchange in temperature. Thermometers are kept insidea wooden box called a Stevenson’s screen. This screenprovides insulation and protection for the instruments.◦{the anemometer measures the speed at which windmoves or blows.◦{the wind vane shows which direction the windis blowing.cup anemometerthermometerSome common weather instruments4 The tiny water droplets in the clouds become heavierand eventually fall to the earth’s surface as rain.Climate changerain gaugewind vane◗◗•zSignificant and long-term changes in the climate can takeplace over decades or over millions of years.• zGlobal warming has caused the present climate change.This is because high levels of carbon dioxide and othertoxic gases have formed a layer around the earth’satmosphere. The sun’s heat gets trapped in the atmosphereand causes global warming.•zThe increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other toxicgases are caused by human activities, e.g.◦{ deforestation, cutting down trees withoutreplacing them◦{ burning fossil fuels◦{ industrial activities◦{ urbanisation◦{ large-scale livestock farming.•zThe negative effects of climate change include:◦{ extreme weather, e.g. droughts, floods, hurricanes,heat waves◦{ acid rain◦{ soil erosion◦{ desertification.Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies Exploring Social Studies

Social and cultural environments◗◗Culture• zCulture is the way of life of a people, a collection of theirhabits and the way they think, dress and eat.•zThe elements of culture that bring about naturalidentity are:◦{traditional music and dance (e.g. borankana);◦{traditional dress (e.g. leteisi or mogagolwane/jale);◦{traditional food (e.g. delele, madila/lengangale);◦{ language; customs and values.A people’s culture unites them and gives them a commonsense of identity or belonging.Settlements in Botswana◗◗Why Batswana prefer to live in urban areas (pullfactors)•zIn urban areas, Batswana have better living conditions, dueto the more developed infrastructure typically found incities and which is perceived as promising an easier life.•zCities have more job opportunities.•zThere are more leisure opportunities in urban areas.Problems caused by rural-urban migration inBotswana• zUnemployment: because more people are moving intotowns than there are actual job opportunities.• z High crime rate: because the people who cannot getwork, and those who do not earn enough, turn to crime indesperation.• zDevelopment of slums: because not everyone will beable to afford decent housing, so they end up living inunplanned settlements. Slums lack basic facilities such aswater, proper toilets and electricity, and diseases spreadvery fast due to congestion and filth.• zShortage of labour in rural areas: because mostable-bodied people move to towns, leaving the oldand weak in the rural areas (most of the rural areas inBotswana are farming areas). Agriculture, which is essentialfor economic diversification, in Botswana is affected.• zFamilies are separated.CivicsOur national symbols◗◗National symbols strengthen a group of people’s sense of acommon identity, and strengthen their sense of nationalism.They help to build a sense of pride in a country. Examples ofthese symbols are:• zThe Botswana national anthem Fatshe leno larona(blessed be this noble land) was written and composedby Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsetse and adopted atindependence in 1966.• zThe coat of arms is an official symbol of a state. Thissymbol may capture the history, achievements, aspirationsor philosophy of a nation.• zThe Botswana motto, PULA, is found on the coat of arms.It means, “let there be rain”. Pula is also the name of thelocal currency. The idiomatic meaning of pula is “blessings”.• zThe Botswana flag is light blue, with a thick black bandand thin white horizontal bands across the centre. Bluecolour = water (rain); white and black = racial harmony.• zNational holidays commemorate national achievements/occasions or celebrate the lives of national heroes, e.g.1 July is Sir Seretse Khama Day, celebrating the birth ofBotswana’s first national leader after independence.◗◗KagisanoOur national philosophy or national principles form the basis of kagisano. Kagisano is a Setswana term that embodies theidea of “living in social harmony”. The main principles of kagisano can be summarised as follows:Democracy: where peoplefreely participate in all affairs oftheir country, and choose theirgovernment through elections.Kagisano(social harmony)Self reliance: where thegovernment and individualsstrive to reduce dependencyon others.Development: relating to all mattersto do with improvements in education,health, infrastructure and Batswana’sliving standards.Botho: which emphasisesthe importance of treatingothers with respect andtolerance.Unity: whereby differences incultural and ethnic backgrounds donot matter – everyone tolerates andrespects others.If we all get this right, Botswana will continue to shine!Exploring Action Social Studies Exploring Action Social Studies Exploring Action Social Studies Exploring Action Social Studies

This course is supported by the onlineA NEW teaching experience!For new curriculum implementation in BotswanaStudent’sBookHeinemann Exploring Social Studies Form 2 covers all the requirements of the RevisedJunior Secondary School Social Studies syllabus for Form 2.Exploring Social Studies Form 2 helps students to understand the subject:• Each chapter lists the learning objectives helping students to clearly understand whatthey need to be able to do• The wide range of varied activities and additional information enables studentsto explore the content• Clear and concise language makes the content accessible for students• Acomprehensive glossary defi nes and explains new and diffi cult words.Exploring Social Studies Form 2 helps students to pass the subject:• Exercises help students test their understanding of the subject and build confi dence• Chapter summaries reinforce learning• Revision exercises expose students to a variety of commonly used examination questions• Asample examination paper provides valuable exam practice.Exploring, a new teaching and learning experience!Rosemary Ford, Alois Mlambo, Andrew MolwaneHistory and foreign relationsMfecane/Difaqane wars◗◗• zMfecane: Zulu term which means ‘the crushing’. TheMfecane war started with the rise of the Zulu kingdomunder Shaka.• zDifaqane: Sotho-Setswana term for ‘the scattering’.• zCharacteristics of these wars: constant bloody warfareand unrest in southern Africa between 1816 – 1840.• zCauses:−− Some chiefdoms, e.g. the Mthethwa, grew powerfuland rich through ivory trade, and so they sought todominate weaker tribes.−− Powerful chiefdoms sought to control availableresources (e.g. hunting grounds, trade routes to thecoast, grazing land for cattle and fertile lands) and thiscaused conflict.−− After good rains in 1700, people of southern Africaproduced more food, leading to a growth in population.This was followed by a drought and famine in the early1800s. Chiefdoms started to raid each other’s cattleand stores of grain.• zEffects: larger, more powerful states or kingdoms replacedold chiefdoms. For example, Shaka’s military and politicalreforms made the Zulu kingdom so powerful that itdominated other groups (‘the crushing’) and caused them toflee inland throughout southern Africa (‘the scattering’).Colonial effects on Batswana◗◗• zThe positive effects of colonialism: Missionariesmediated disagreements between Batswana and the Boers;they built mission stations where teachers were trained;they brought reading and language skills and introducednew technologies (e.g. crop irrigation methods, knitting anddress-making).• zThe negative effects of colonialism: Between 1880and 1900, there was a greedy competition among Europeancountries for land in Africa (the Scramble for Africa). Thereasons for this were religious (missionaries wanted toconvert Africans to Christianity), political (the Europeanswanted power), economic and social.Botswana gains independance◗◗•zCecil John Rhodes wanted to colonise the entire Africancontinent. Tswana chiefs Khama, Bathoen and Sebelestrongly opposed this plan and they travelled to Britain toprotest. They were successful and the plan was abandoned!•zThe Union of South Africa also tried to get control of theBechuanaland Protectorate, but failed.•zAfrican nationalist parties emerged from the late1950s onwards.•zBotswana gained independence on 30 September 1966,under the Botswana Democratic Party, led by SirSeretse Khama.Economic development◗◗Basic economic concepts• zInflation is the rise in the price of goods and services overa period of time. When the price level rises, money buysfewer goods and services. Therefore, inflation is an erosionof the power of money or currency.• zTrade is the exchange of goods with either money or othergoods. Countries trade with each other to meet nationalneeds that they cannot meet themselves.• zExports are goods that are sold by one country to othercountries.• zI m p o r t s are goods that a country buys from othercountries.• zThe exchange rate is the value of a foreign nation’scurrency, e.g. the American dollar in terms of our Pula meansthat 100 Pula is worth the same as $14,88 on a given day.• zA trade agreement is an agreement between two ormore nations that outlines how they will work together toensure mutual benefit in the field of trade and investment.• zCommunication is the passing or sending of informationfrom one person to another.ExploringSocial StudieszMedia refers to ways of communication,Form 2e.g. print media (e.g. letters, magazines)Contact detailsPearson Botswana: Tel: +267 3922969 Fax: +267 3922682Plot 14386, New Lobatse Road, G-West Industrial Site,Gaborone, Botswana. Website: www.longmanafrica.co.zaExploring Social Studies Form 2 Student’s BookExploringSocial StudiesForm 2Student’sBookFREEKEY CONCEPT CHARTWITH STUDENT’SBOOKor electronic media (e.g. television or radio).• zEcotourism is responsible travel to protected areas. Thetourists, the local communities and the environment allbenefit from ecotourism.Production sectors◗◗The four main sectors of production or industryin Botswana are:• zthe primary sector where raw materials or naturalresources are produced, collected or extracted, e.g.farming, mining, fishing and forestry.• zthe secondary sector where materials are producedusing primary industries, e.g. processing, manufacturing andconstruction.• zthe tertiary or service sector which provides services tothe nation, e.g. banking, book publishing, tourism, transportand insurance.• zthe quaternary (or hi-tech) sector which includesinformation and technology services, i.e. all services to dowith the use of computers or the Internet.

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