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UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONGLIBRARYHong Kong CollectionGift fromH.K. Engineering Development !>evt,

VOLUME ¥ -. ROADSContainingCHAPTER 1CHAPTER 2 •»•••••••CHAPTER 3 **««*»*•*CHAPTER *f •••••«•••Administrative ProceduresPrivate Lots and Other Land AllocationsMaintenance of SoadsDesign of Highway Structures5 .•••..••• Minor WorksCHAPKEH 6 »««*«»»»«CE4PTEB 7 «t«*«i»«»«CK.4PTEB 8 *««*««*««Road Recordspavement DesignTyphoon and Rainstorm Damage

NOTESThe Civil Engineering Manual original is maintained by the TechnicalSecretary of the Highways Office.Master copies are maintained in each division, unit, and section, bydesignated officers of a suitable grade, such as S*E*A*(C*), who are responsiblefor keeping these master copies up-to-date and available for reference* Similararrangements are made by Consulting Engineers*Every professional officer should possess a copy of the Civil EngineeringManual* He should amend his own copy as amendments are issued and should check hiscopy at regular intervals against a master copy*Amendment pages carry an amendment number at the top, centre, forchecking against the Annual Amendment Summary* Amendment numbers are in theform :11*8 - A3 - 3/5*(This number identifies the second of five pages comprising the third amendmentto chapter 8 of Volume II*)-^-_-ii

ClauseNo.^£^££j.Titl«CONTENTS1*1 NEW WORKS IN THE PUBLIC WOKKSPROGRAMME1*1*1 Introduction1*1*2 Phase I1.1*3 Phase II1*1*4 Phase III1*1*5 Phase IV1*1*6 Estimating1*1*7 Phase II, "Order of Costs 11 forCat. B1*1*8 Phase III f "Estimate 11 for Cat* A1*1*9 Revisions and Amendments1*1.10 Check List1*2 STREET WIDENING - URBAN ABBAS1*2*1 Procedure for Approval and LandAcquisition1*2*2 Records1*2*3 Corner Splays1.3 SURRENDER OF PRIVATE LAND1*5*1 Procedure1*3*2 Surrender of Private Streets fLanes f etc*1*4 WORKS CONTINGENT ON DEVELOPMENT1*4,1 Procedure1*4»2 Preparation of Programme1*4*3 Progress Reports1,4*% Finance1*4*5 Check List1.5 WORKS ON PRIVATE ACCOUNT1*5*1-a General1*5*2 * Requisitions1*5*3 Works1*6 ReferencesClauseNo.Title2*3*3 B«0«0« Plans and Submissions2.4 GOVERNMENT PROJECTS2.4.1 General2*4.2 Engineering Conditions2*5 PROSPECTING AND MININGLICENSES2*6 PERMITS AND SHORT-TERMTENANCIES2*7 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCEChapter. r22.1 INTRODUCTION2*2 P3K>CEDTOE2*2*12*2*2GeneralNew Towns and Development Areas2.3 PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT2*3*12*3*2Forms Ft*Enquiries by Authorised Personsiii

CONTSUTSClauseNo,TitleClans®No*Title3*1*23*1»33*23*2*23*2*33*2*43® 2*53*2*63*2*73*2.83*2*93*33»3»13*43*4*23*4*33*4*43*53*5*13*63*6.13* 6* 23*6*33*6*43»6»53*6*63*6*7MaintenanceWorks OrdersSurveysANDAMD ACCESSGeneral ResponsibilitiesAuthor it jProcedure - GeneralProcedure - PriYftte StreetsProcedure ~ Access BoadsProcedure ~ Street Lightingand Private DrainageCorrespondence - Notices andOrdersDecisions and AppealsTransfer of maintenanceresponsibility to GovernmentAND TBAMSHB&TBBSResponsibilities and ProcedureBUS AND SHELTEBSBus TerminiBus Stops and SheltersDepartmental Overhead ChargesRepair of accidentalHAfiKETS AND HAWKER BAZMKSSesponsibilities and ProcedureTHAFPIC AIDSThe Authority and DelegationResponsibilitiesProcedure for Erection ofTraffic Signs and Delineationof Bead MarkingsProcedure for Erection of BusStop SignsProcedure for Signs andMarkings in connection withTaxi StandsProcedure for Erection ofSigns for Temporary Car ParksProcedure for Establishmentof Zebra Crossings3*6*8 of Press Notice/PressRelease3*73*7*1 Safety Fences f PedestrianGuardrails, etc*3*7*2 Street Name Plates3*8 OF OBSTRUCTIONS3

TitleOP(Not issued)Chapter^5*1 HESUHFACING-5*2 MINOS HBCONSTRUCTIONType of pavement7® 2® 67®2*7Flexible pavementsRigid Pavements7*2®S Characteristic load hierarchydesigns7*3 DETAILS7*3*1 Reinforcement of Rigidpavements7*3*2 Joints in rigid pavements7*3*3 Manholes7*3*4 Edge details7*3*5 Flexible and rigid pavingmaterials not to be mixed7*3*6 Stormwater drainage details7*4 REFERENCES(Issued separately)5*3 MINOR IMPROVEMENTS5*4 POOTW1IS5*5 PlEPifiATION OP MINOR WOSKS5»5*1 Procedure5*5*2 Technical Details6*1ROAD SECOBDS6*1*1 Procedure6.1.2 tiles6*1*3 Record Sheets Entries6* 1*4 Amendments7*17*1*17.1*27*27.2*17.2*27*2*37*2*4IRTBODDOIIOHBasis of designApplicabilityDESIGN PRINCIPLESDesign parametersEstimation of design trafficEstimation of design lifeStrength of subgrade

ALPHABETICAL INDEXTitleClause No.AAmendmentsApplicabilityAuthority6. BridgeBasis of designB.0.0. Plans and SubmissionsBus Stops and SheltersBus TerminiBUS TERMINI AND SHELTERS3. Parks within Government CompoundsCERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCECharacteristic road hierarchy designsCheck ListCheck ListCLEABANCE OF OBSTRUCTIONSCorner SplaysCorrespondence - Notices and OrdersCrown Land - GeneralCrown Land - ProcedureCrown Land - Summary3.

TitleClause No.DANGEROUS BOULDERSDecisions and AppealsDepartmental Overhead ChargesDESIGN DETAILSDesign parametersDESIGN PRINCIPLESDrainage Works3. detailsEngineering ConditionsEnquiries by Authorised PersonsESTABLISHMENTS AND MAINTENANCE OF CARPARKSEstimatingEstimation of design lifeEstimation of design traffic7. TREESFilesFinanceFlexible pavementsFlexible and rigid paving materials not to be mixedFOOTWAYSForms FG3.

TitleClause No.GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral MaintenanceGeneral PrincipleGeneral ResponsibilitiesGOVERNMENT PROJECTS1.^. of Maintenance WorksIssue of Press Notice/Press Release1. in rigid pavements7.3.2viii


TitleClause No.PERMITS AND SHORT-TERM TENANCIESPhase IPhase IIPhase IIIPhase IVPhase II, "Order of Costs" for Cat. BPhase III, "Estimate" for Cat. APREPARATION OF MINOR WORKS PROGRAMMESPreparation of ProgrammePRIVATE DEVELOPMENTPRIVATE STREETS AND ACCESS ROADSProcedureProcedurePROCEDUREProcedureProcedureProcedureProcedure - Access RoadsProcedure for Approval and Land AcquisitionProcedure for Erection of Bus Stop SignsProcedure for Erection of Signs for Temporary Car ParksProcedure for Erection of Traffic Signs and Delineation ofRoad MarkingsProcedure for Establishment of Zebra CrossingsProcedure for Signs and Markings in connection withTaxi StandsProcedure - GeneralProcedure - Private StreetsProcedure - Street Lighting and Private DrainageProgress ReportsPROSPECTING AND MINING LICENSESPUBLIC ROADS, FOOTWAYS AND LANES2.

TitleClause No.RRecord Sheets EntriesRecordsReferencesREFERENCESReinforcement of Rigid pavementsRepair of accidental damageRequisitionsResponsibilitiesResponsibilitiesResponsibilitiesResponsibilities and ProcedureResponsibilities and ProcedureRESURFACINGRevisions and AmendmentsRigid PavementsRoads6.^7.3.13.^

TitleClause No.Safety Fences, Pedestrian Guardrails, etc.Stormwater drainage detailsSTREET FURNITUREStreet Name PlatesSTREET WIDENING - URBAN AREASStrength of subgradeSURRENDER OF PRIVATE LANDSurrender of Private Streets, Lanes, etc.Surveys3. DetailsThe Authority and DelegationTRAFFIC AIDSTRAMWAY RESERVE AND TRAM SHELTERSTransfer of maintenance responsibility to GovernmentType of pavement5. TRENCHES AND EXCAVATION PERMITS3.9WorksWORKS CONTINGENT CR DEVELOPMENTWORKS ON PRIVATE ACCOUNTWorks Orders1.

V.1.1.(July 77)CHAPTER 1(See also Volume II Chapter 1)1*1*1MEtf VOBKS IQHE PUBLIC WOR^ PSOGRAMMEThis chapter describes the procedures to be followed from theinception of a Highways project to calling for tenders for the work*Detailed instructions on tender procedure are given in Vol* II Chap. 6*The procedure for including or upgrading projects in the P.W. Programmeis given in Vol. II Chap* 1«Traffic Engineering Branch procedures are detailed in Volume III*The Phase and Item Nos* quoted in this section relate to those inthe P»¥»S*C* Submission Check List* (Appendix 1)*Phase : I - before inclusion in P*W*P.General: The T.E, Division is the "Project Division" during this phaseof the project and all other divisions f offices etc* areconsidered to aet in an advisory technical capacity althougha close liaison should at all times be maintniBed with therespective Works Division*Item 1 * The originator of the scheme 9 if not a Traffic EngineeringDivision should submit the proposal to the appropriate T*E*Division which should open a Project Pile*Item 2Item 5: The T*E* Division then considers the need for the scheme takinginto account future traffic requirements * The T*T*S* Divisionis normally aaked for advice*5 The T*E* Division should consider the project in outline andverify it against Statutory and Draft Plans f Mass TransitProposals* the L*T.R*S. and the C*T.S* S*N»T* should beconsulted if the project is located in the New Territories*Item 4* Consideration should be &iven to expenditure on existing and/orother proposed P*¥.P* Items*Item 5 i The T»E* Division should arrange for the project to be includedin the load Priority Programme*Item 6s Notification of inclusion or otherwise in the Traffic PriorityProgramme*

¥.1*1.2 (Cont'd.)(July 7?)Item 7 s T&© submission for the project to be included in the P.V.Programme is prepared by the T .E. Division. The drawing whichaccompanies the submission should be prepared by the T.E. Divisionbut may f by mutual agreement be prepared by the Works Division.Details required for submissions and the procedures for submittingthe proposed items are given in Yol. II Chap* 1.Item 8s Action taken by P.W.D./Secretaxiat/P.W.S.C. is noted.Phase II - usually in Cat. C and before upgrading to Cat. BGeneralItem 9$ As Phase I, General.s The T.E. Division should prepare a preliminary traffic layout planshowing the overall implications of the scheme and giving apreliminary indication of land requirements and problem areas forexample regarding clearances between highway structures andbuildings. The drawing may be 1: 500, 1: 1 000 or, 1s 2 000 scaleand should include a smaller scale area plan showing how theproject fits in with the general traffic circulation for thedistrict. It may be necessary for T.E. Division to consult withthe C. for T. and other Government Departments prior to circulatingthe drawings. On receipt of comments f T.E. Division will amendthe drawing(s) f and recirculate them for further comments ifnecessary.Item 10 s An Border of Cost 11 should be prepared by the Works Division onreceipt of a "provisionally agreed 11 traffic layout. For detailsof preparation of the "Order of Cost** see paras. 1.1.6, 1.1.7 and1.1.9* The "Order of Cost" should be noted by the T.E. Divisionbut it will not normally be included in the P.W.S.C, submissionfor upgrading. See Appendix 1, Pages 8, 9 and 10,Item 11s The T.E. Division will make application for the reservation of thesite (if necessary). See Volume II chapter 3 for details ofprocedure.Item 12 $ As Phase I Item 7.Item 13 : As Phase I Item 8.Item 14s The T.E. Division will formally hand over the project to the WorksDivision together with Stage I of the Project Handbook. Detailsof the latter are given in Appendix 2.The object of the Handbook is to provide an up-dated reference forall the procedures and design data used in connection with theproject. It is intended to be a "working 11 document so that acontinuing revision of the handbook will be necessaacy.

(July 11}1 * 1 * 4 £SS?.? m - usually when in-Cat. B before upgrading to Cat. AGeneral t The Works Division is the "project Division 11 during thisphase and all other divisions, offices, etc* are consideredto act in an advisory technical capacity, although closeliaison should at all times be maintained with the respectiveT.B. Division.Item 15 s The Works Division should prepare and/or update the ProjectHandbook. This implies considerable detailed examination ofthe project by several divisions and it is essential thatthe Handbook be prepared at this stage, although it is recognisedthat updating will continue until the project is upgradedto Cat. A*Item 16 : Work at this stage is primarily on the design necessary forthe development of the project. Considerable detail designmust be done to produce layout of 1: 500 or 1: 1 000 (in N*T.only),Item 17 : The Works Division will circulate the functional layoutdrawing for agreement* This drawing should be checked byactual survey to ensure that there axe no significant errorsin the layouts* On receipt of comments, the Works Divisionwill amend the drawing, and if necessary, recirculate it forfurther comment. On receipt of agreement of all parties, thelayout will be accepted as the "Agreed Layout 1 ' drawing for theproject and should be used for all subsequent administrativeprocedures, W*W*Q« and Utilities must provide details of theirexisting and proposed services*Item 18 s Procedure for clearance is covered under Yol* II Chapter 3«Item 19 : Advice on aesthetic treatment should be sought* Discussionswith other relevant offices and departments such as Agricultureand Fisheries Department, Architectural Office and Urban SenriceDepartment should be carried out (see Vol* II Chapter 4)« Withinthe Highways Office, every effort to plan and implement suchtreatment will be made*Item 20t The Preliminary R e port is prepared, completed and circulated*Details of the Report axe contained in Appendix 5*The object of the Preliminary Report is to summarise theprocedure and action already taken in preparing the project ina precise and logical sequence so that an individual officer,who is not directly concerned with the project may be presentedwith a clear succinct picture of the scheme*Item 21 : Request for site clearance to be forwarded.

V.1.1.4 (Cont'd.)(July 7?)Item 22Item 2JItem 24Item 25t Details of procedure under Street (Alterations) Ordinance aregiven in Vol. II Chapter 3* The various actions are to "berecorded*s Details of procedure under Public Reclamations and Works Ordinanceare given in Vol. II, Chapter 5«s Details of procedure for Allocation of Site are given in Volume IIChapter 3*s There is no standard procedure laid down for major works but it isrecommended that at this stage* an informal meeting be held withall the Utility Undertakers and subsequently drawings and additionalinformation be circulated to the Utilities giving further detailsof the project and requesting more detailed information on theirexisting and proposed services.Item 26 s Details of proeedure for tree felling are given in Vol. II Chapter 3Item 2?Item 28s Details of requirements and procedures for use of explosives canbe obtained direct from the Mines Department* See Vol. II Chapter £$ Details of procedure for Site Investigation are given in Vol. IIChapter 4*Item 29 : For details of preparation of Estimate see 1*1 .6 f 1.1.8 and 1.1.9.See also}Item 30Item 311) Appendix 1* Pages 8 f 9 and 10,2} Project Handbook,3) Preliminary Report *s The Category A submission and the accompanying drawing is preparedby the Works Division. Details of procedure are givan in 1.1*10«t Notification of action taken by H.O./P»¥.D./Secretariat/P»W.S»C.is recorded.Phase IV ~ In Cat. A or D before tendering.General$ The Works Division is the "Project Division 11 during this phase ofthe project. Items 32 to 39 consist entirely of confirmation ofprocedures already instigated under earlier phases of the work.Item 40 i Detailed arrangements must be agreed with T.E. Division, Police(Traffic), C* for T. f Public Transport Companies and Works Division.Item 41 i Details of Contract Documents are given in Vol. II Chapter 5»Item 42i Verification of availability of funds is necessary prior tosubmission of Tender Notice.

Y*1«1*5 (Cont'd.)(July 77)Item 43 $EstimatinDetails of procedure for submission are given In ?ol* IIChapter 6*^ Phase II "Order of Cost w for a project that is to be upgradedto Cat® Bf can be obtained where no detailed drawings exist by using thecurrent Schedule of Unit Costs - Appendix 4*The Phase III ^Estimate" for a project required for upgrading toCat* A should be based on the current rates for the work assessed from s(i)recent tendered rates;(II) average rates in "Cost of Highways Works'*issued by f«S*/H*0* half-yearly* see Yol* II,Chapter 6j(iii) current maintenance contract rates If (I) and (il)are not suitable;(iv)an estimate of labour and material costs If (i) f(ii) and (iii) axe not suitable*1*1 .7 Phase T ,II g|iii "Order __ojT i .....Costs" for Cat, B(a)(b)(c)(d)The area of carriageway of a road f elevated road, footbridge, canbe calculated from the project layout drawing circulated by theT»E* Division* This area multiplied by the unit cost as shown atAppendix 4 will give the first Order of Cost for the project*15/& for Contract Preliminaries and contingencies is to be addedto the figure obtained at (a)*A further 20$ to cover unknown works f job difficulty and joblocation Is to be added to the figure obtained at (b)«The Order of Cost so arrived at does not take into account theitems listed below:(i) excavation (or fill) in excess of 1 metre deep ;(il) drainage, other than that normally associated withroadworks;(iii) abnormal carriageway/footpath ratio?(Iv) pedestrian precincts;(v) overhead directional gantries $(vi)large scale traffic diversions*

Y*1*1*7 (Cont'd*)(July 77)If relevant* costs additional to those calculated at (c) are to be addedto the W 0rder of Cost 11 for the above items*When more detailed drawings and further information axe available anestimate should be calculated using the rates mentioned in 1*1.6 for Phase III"Estimate***1*1*8 Phase III f "Estimate 11 for Cat* A(a)(b)(c)(d)A Bill of Quantities is to be prepared from detail design and drawings.Appropriate rates as mentioned in 1*1*6 are to be entered and the amountsextended* The total amount thias obtained will &ive the first Estimateof the project.15$ for Contract Preliminaries and Contingencies is to be added to thefigure obtained at (a)*A further 15$ to cover unknown works and other unforeseen circumstancesis to be added to the figure obtained at (b)*If relevant, appropriate percentages for difficulty and location are tobe added to the figure obtained at (c)*1*1*9 Revisions and Amendments(a)(b)1*1*10 Check List(a)(b)All % on~costs will be advised separately from time to time*When required, the percentage increase for rising costs should be showiand the revisions of the Order of Cost/Estimate made accordingly*Works Divisions should keep "Orders of Costs" and "Estimates 11 .A detailed Project Implementation and P*W*S.C* Submission Check List isattached as Appendix 1* This Check List should be maintained and updated*The T*E* Division will be responsible for preparing the Check List forPhases I and II*One copy of the complete check list will be kept in the inside coverof the T*E* Division Project Pile - being updated as required*When the project is submitted for inclusion at Cat* C in the P*W*Programme (item 7)t ®&e copy of page 1 of the Check List will beforwarded with the submission to H*Q*H*Q. and one copy to the WorksDivision*When the project is submitted for upgrading to Cat* B in the P*W*Programme (Item 12), one copy of pages 2 and 3 ®&& pages 8, 9 and 10will be forwarded with the submission to H*0*H*Q, and one copy to theWorks Division* (Cont'd.)(July 77)(e)The ¥0rks Division will be responsible for preparing the CheckList for in and 17.On receipt of the copy of Page 1 ©f the Check List from T*E*Division (see (b) above) t it will be kept In the inside coverof the Project Pile.On receipt of the copy of Pages 2 and 3 and Pages 8, 9 and 10 ofthe Check List from T*E* Division (see (b) above) it will be keptin the inside cover of the Project File.When the project is submitted for upgrading to Cat* A in the P*W*Programme (item 30)§ one copy of Pages 4 and 5» aa& Pages 8, 9and 10 updated) will be forwarded with the submission to H«0»H*Q*(d)(e)When an item is submitted by T.E* Division for inclusion in Cat.B (Item 12) f T«E* Division will forward one copy of Pages 1 t 2and 3 and Pages 8, 9 and 10(if possible) with the submission toH*Q»H»Q» and one copy to the Works Division*When an Item is smbmitted by Works Division for inclusion in Cat B(item 12) or Cat* A (item 30) f Works Division will forward thefollowing s(1) For Cat* B - Pages 1 f 2 and 3 andPages 8, 9 and 10(2) For Cat. A - Pages 1 f 2* 3* 4 & 5 andPages 8, 9 and 10with the submission to EUO.H.Q*T»E. Division will not in these cases be responsible forPhase I and Phase II of the Check List (see (b) above)*

(July 77)££S2£§S£i^(a)This procedure deals only with street widening schemes whichaxe to be implemented as and when property is redeveloped « It doesnot cover street and road improvements which are included in thePublic Worksand charged to a specific vote sub-head* newroads shown on Crown Lands layout plans to be constructed as requiredTyy land sales and charged to works contingent on developments, andminor Improvements not affecting private land*Boad widening lines have already been approved for the mostimportant streets* They are recorded in Appendix 5 attached whichincludes road widening lines listed in a Finance Committee paper inHovember, 1964 f and those schemes subsequently approved by the EoadWidening Sub-Committee of L*B*P«C. and the inter-departmental RoadsCommittee which has succeeded it*When approval has once been given to a street widening schemecovered by this procedure* the approval only extends to propertiesaffected by the alignment considered at that time* If the alignmentof a scheme is subsequently revised with the result that the extentto which it affects property is altered » a new approval must beobtained before the scheme proceeds and the whole of the procedurementioned below must again be carried out«In order to avoid misunderstanding and confusion, revisedproposals should not be superimposed on copies of the originalapproved drawing or the approved drawing amended in any way untilthe revised scheme has been approved by the Secretary for theEnvironment* If considerable amendments were made to the originalapproved scheme f a new drawing should be prepared for signature anddistribution*(!>) Normal ProcedureAny street improvement scheme, from whatever source, will bereferred to the Government Highway Engineer (T* & f*) f in the firstinstance* If he decides that it merits further consideration* hewill pass it to the appropriate Chief Engineer, Traffic Engineering*In most cases the appropriate Chief Engineer, Traffic Engineeringwill prepare, circulate and finalise plans for the scheme*However, where topography and related costs of construction influencethe choice of alignment, the following action is to be taken :(i)preparation of an up-to-date 1s 500 topographicalplan covering the proposed route (if accuratesurvey sheets are not available) by Highways(Works) Division?

V*1*2«1 (Cont f d*)(July 7?)(ii)determination of geometric and cross-section standards by T.E*Division!(iii) design tentative alignment based on (ii) by T«E* Division?(iv)(v)production of estimates of construction based on (iii) and whererequired provide alternative alignments based on cost comparisonssuch as earthworks f retaining walls and structures etc* byHighways (Works) Division!selection of a final alignment for possible adoption andcirculation by T.E* Division*Copies of the finalised plans together with the standard memorandum atAppendix 6 asking for comments f estimates of cost of work and estimates ofcompensation will be sent to the following sDirector of Water SuppliesPrincipal Government Architect, ifconcernedChief Engineer* Drainage WorksChief Engineer, Portworks, if concernedChief Engineer, Development and Airport,if concernedfor commentsand estimatesChief Engineer, Highways DivisionChief Estate Surveyor (Yaluation)Principal Government Town PlannerCommissioner for TransportCommissioner of Police (D.T.)principal Government Building Surveyorfor commentsDirector, Urban Services (if amenities,trees, hawkers, markets, U.S»D* cleaningbuildings or sites reserved for themare involved)Director of Fire ServicesPrincipal Government Highway EngineerGovernment Land AgentGovernment Land Surveyorfor information

7«1*2«1 (Cont f d*(July 77)P*G«B*S» f C*E.S*(?) and C*E*B* will record the proposal aaa scheme which is being processed, for action in accordance withthe Accelerated Procedure at (d) when necessary*C.E*S*(?) will base his estimate of the cost of landacquisition on s(c)(i)(ii)the present market value, despite the fact thatthe value may be quite different when actualacquisition takes place}the assumption that this procedure will come intooperation only when the owner of a property affectedsignifies his intention to redevelop*After receipt of comments 9 the plans will be amended by C»E*T»E«when necessary, to meet, as far as possible, any reasonable objectionsraised* He will summarise all the comments, indicate the fullfinancial implication and forward the scheme together with a draftpaper for Secretary for the Environment to G»E*E* (f * & T*)G»H*E* (T. & f.) will forward the scheme to D*E.D. afterclearing with P.W.D* Conference* He will request D*E»B* to placethe scheme before the Secretary for the Environment*When the scheme has been approved by the Secretaryfor the Environment f the plans are to be signed by GJS.E*(f* & f«) who will send one copy of the approved plan to D.E.D« forinformation and retention in P*¥«D.E 0 Q. G*H*E. (T* & T*) willinstruct C«E»T«E« to forward a copy of the approved plan to allinterested parties•A^uiaition of landPrincipal Government Building Surveyor and Government LandSurveyor will maintain a record of all approved street improvementplans* When an application for redevelopment of a property affectedby an approved scheme is received, P.G»B«S* will advise theAuthorised Architect that the lot may be affected by street wideningproposals, using the standard letter at Appendix 7» Copies of thisletter will be sent to C«E*S»(ir), G.L*S* and the appropriate C«E.H*who will supply C.E*S*(Y) with the details concerning proposed levels,using the standard memorandum at Appendix 8* (Should the initialenquiry be made to the Highways Office or Crown Lands & Survey Office,the initiating office will issue or request a standard memorandum atAppendix 8).The Crown Lands and Survey Office will be responsible fornegotiating and advising the redevelopers of land required forStreet Widening purposes as well as indicating any changes in existingroad levels* But information on proposed levels will also be suppliedto Authorized Architects by the Works Divisions, and the existing

V«1«2«1 (Cont'd,)(July 77)practice of allowing accredited representatives to extract informationfrom plans and drawings or forwarding part plans should continue. Whenpart plans are supplied 9 however$ attention of the recipient should bedrawn to the fact that for planning purposes* the exact road alignmentaad road width to be adopted shall be as determined respectively by theCrown Lands & Survey Office and the Building Ordinance Office•C,E,S,(V) will arrange for the appropriate Survey Division ofC,L. & 5,0,;' to prepare a dimensioned plan showing the area to be acquired,load widths must not be indicated on the plan. If the site is affectedby less than 150 ran road width, it will be regarded as Me minimis" andthe Authorized Architect will be advised that the property is notaffected. Where the property is affected C,E,S,(V) will s(i)(ii)in Zone I f forward the survey plan to the AuthorizedArchitect accompanied by a standard letter at Appendix 9;in Zones II & III, refer the case to Building Conference,which will decide what development restrictions (if aiiy)will be imposed and whether or to what extent the areato be surrendered may be allowed to count for cover*As a general guide, where density zoning is to be imposed and not morethan 10$ of the lot is required for road widening, the area to besurrendered should be allowed to count for coverage purposes subject atall times to the development complying with the provisions of theBuildings Ordinance, C,E,S,(Y) will then forward the survey plan to theAuthorised Architect, and notify him by a non-standard letter of thedevelopment conditions decided upon by Building Conference, incorporatingin his letter such parts of Appendix 9 as are relevant,C»E»S,(VO)will inform the Chief Engineer of the appropriateHighways (Works) Division when the land has been acquired.Acquisition of the land required for street widening will normallybe preferred to dedication except in the case of corner splays f or,occasionally, in other cases where limited areas for public passage atground level are required. Dedication of the land required for cornersplays will be considered wherever there is no objection to buildingover the land at a minimum height of 5nu Proposals for dedication ofland required for street widening must be approved by P,W,D, Conference,This approval will be regarded as the agreement of Government to thededication for the purpose of Building (Planning) Regulation 22(1),(d)Accelerated ProcedureDistribtuion of draft schemes for comment as required under (b)ensures that P,G,B,S, f C,E,S,(V) and C,E,H, f s all have records ofschemes being considered but not yet approved, C,E,f,E, will beresponsible for informing them of any land, roads or streets for whichschemes are not yet in preparation but where it may be desirable to

(July 7?)acquire land for street widening when property redevelops* IfP*G*B*S* receiver an enquiry concerning a lot affected by schemeswhich are not yet approved f he will inform the Authorized Architectusing the Standard letter at Appendix 7 which will be copied toC.E.T.E., CeB«H. f C*E»S«(Y) and G«L*S* On receipt of this information,C*E : T*E* will consult G.H.E. (T. & T.) who will decide whether furtheraction should be taken and f if so s whether the case should be referredto P*¥*D* Conference*1.2.2 RecordsIt is unlikely the above procedures for approval and landacquisition will be applicable to New Towns and areas under thecontrol of C«E»D* & A* However* should cases arise where newwidening lines are to be established within such areas f the officerin charge of such areas will liaise with the appropriate C*E*T,E* inthe same manner*It is intended that Road Widening Schemes listed in Appendix 5 shouldbe updated every year, and it will be the responsibility of the T*E.Divisions to ensure that an amendment is made to the list on receipt of anapproved road widening plan*TJ2, divisions will maintain comprehensive schedules of all approvedand proposed widening schemes and are responsible for advising all concernedof such schemes »Highways (Works) divisions will maintain record plan© showing thestate of development or redevelopment of private property affected*1*2*3 Corner rSplajsThe provision of kerb radii of 7*5*a to 11m for trunk roads* primaryand district distributors* as considered appropriate by the principalGovernment Highway Engineer, has been approved in principle by the Secretaryfor the Environment in cases where the required setback can be implementedby the Building Ordinance Office without compensation*In any other cases and where compensation is required* approval willbe sought for each individual cas& by the Principal Government HighwayEngineer writing direct to Colonial Secretariat*Generally in rarban areas* comer splays will not be provided purelyfor sight-line purposes* Individual cases meriting such provision willbe submitted individually to the Secretary for the Environment for approval*Corner splays to improve sight-lines at rural sites will be consideredseparately on the merits of each case and if acquisition of private land isfound to be necessary the proposal will be submitted to the Secretary forthe Environment for approval* The possibility of the land remaining in

Y*1»2«3 (Cont'd*)(July 77)private ship for site coverage purposes but the agreement of the ownerbeing obtained for Government t© out down the site to road level should beconsidered*The practice of referring new corner lots or corner lots for leaserenewal to H*0* by C»L» & S»Q« will continue* The C*L*S*Q* file will bepassed direct to the relevant Highways Division* which will deal with thematter in the first instance f consulting the appropriate C»E.f»E. as required*The following procedure for dealing with private development or redevelopmentproposals for corner sites will apply *(a)(b)Receipt of Plansfrom Buildings Ordinance Offiee(i)(ii)fhe recipient Works Division should prepare commentsafter reference to existing established standards andpolicies in Tolume III of the Manual* If specialistadvice by the T*E» Division is still considered to berequired t the f.E* Division should be consulted bypersonal contact* If necessary, a note in the fileshould be entered recording such consultation* Itshould only normally be necessary to record theconsultation when an established standard/policy isviolated due to special circumstances of the case*If the case is affected by a project handled by theConsultants Management Division f the latter shouldbe consulted again by personal contacts rather thanby correspondence or minutes* A file record ofconsultation should be made if necessary*(iii) fhe replies should be drafted by Highways (Works)Division Engineer* initialled by the S.E. Highways(Works) Division for signature by G*H*E«/f* & T* ona divisional file* Where C.E.O* divisions axe involved*the reply will be routed through G*C.E* When S e cretariatapproval is required to acquire the land* G*H*E./f* & T*will address Secretariat separately on a H*0* Headquartersfile*Receipt of Enquiries from Authorized Persons(i)By Highways Division or Development and Airport DivisionA procedure similar to that out-lined in (a) above shouldbe adopted except that the reply will be made by theEngineer vetted by the S*E** or C*E. of Highways (Works)Division depending on importance of the case* C.E* shouldminute requirement to G*H.E*/f* & T* (through G*C*E* ifD* & A* Division is involved) for agreement "before sendingout reply*

V.1.2,3 (Cont'd.)(July ?7)(ii) By nTraffic iEngjLneering ,(c)(d)The enquiry should be referred to the appropriateHighways (Works) Division* T»B« comments shouldbe forwarded at the saute time if it is consideredthat the Highways (works) Division Engineer willbe unable to deal with the matter even withguidance from established standards and policies*All other corner splay requirements f includingGovernment projects and Forms P*G« should be similarlydealt with as in paragraph (b) except that the reply willbe made by the S«E* and initialled by the C*E, of theDivision*It is important to avoid using the word "approved* 1in correspondence which is an expression with specialstatutory meaning under the Building Ordinance*If corner splays are required f the AuthorizedPerson should be advised to submit plans to B*O.G. in thenormal manner*For Highways (Works) Division read B* & A* Divisionfor cases which fall within areas under the control ofC.E«D» & A.

V.1.3.1(July 77)1 *3 SUKREHBER OF PRIVATE LAgD1«3«1 Prpced'oreThese instructions establish the procedure to be followed when aprivate owner signifies his willingness to surrender* free of charge, aportion of hie lot for use as a public road or lane,Advice that the owner agrees to the surrender is normally receivedfrom C.B*S« in the form of Appendix 10 and if the surrender is considereddesirable by all concerned f C*B.S. will notify the owner in the form ofAppendix 11, (See Vol. II Chapter 3 in respect of Buildings Ordinance).Highways (Works) Division will %(i)prepare an estimate of the cost of works required,(ii) forward the Demand Note to the owner f(iii) when the D/H has been paid f advise R*G, (Appendix 12)and Carry out the work.Prior to preparing surrender plans, D»L.S. will advise H*G, onform ZSA/3(TOS) at Appendix 13*When a party wall stands on the area to be surrendered, D«L»S* willnotify E.G. on form STY 86 or SYT 8? at Appendices 14 and 15,When siorrender has been completed, and registered in the LandsOffice, R,G* will inform D»L«S, (Appendix 16)1*3.2 Surrender of Private Streets,, Lanes, etc*When a private owner wishes Government to assume maintenanceresponsibility for private streets or lanes a procedure similar to theforegoing will be followed,Private streets should be taken over only when direct access isavailable for maintenance purposes.

(July 77)1 *41*4*1OHThese instructions establish the procedure to be followed inobtaining authority to carry out w.C. on B* General Authority isgiven in (25) in BL 51/5181/49 VI (Appendix 17).¥«C» on D. items are compiled into monthly programmes (Appendix 18)and passed to C.H.E. (w) before 24th of each month for approval*The categories or types ©f work that may be carried out as W.C. onD* are given in full in Appendix 17 and the necessary information must begiven for each and every item on the programmes*1*4*2 Prearation ofProgrammes should be prepared in the form of Appendix 18*Highways (vorlcs) Division will •(i)(ii)(iii)consult with the appropriate T.E* Division and/orDrainage Works Division as necessary?prepare the programme, allotting each programme aniMber in the form month/division/year (e«g*2/H.K./71)*prepare the drawings (1s 500 or 1: 1000 natural scale)for each item in the programme}(iv) forward copies of the programme and drawings as follows :G.H.E./W.T.E. Div.D.W. Div.Copies ofProgrammes Drawings411111G.H*E«/W« will advise the appropriate Highways (Works) and T.E,ons of the approval, with copies of the programme only to D*P.W. fD* of A* and Director of Accounting Services*

V«1*4*2 (Cont s d«)(July 7?)The Highways (Works) Division will check whether assy amendments have"been mad© to the programme f ensure that only the approved programme is workedto f and advise C«E*D*V* as necessary*The programme should include the information listed "below,(a)Details & Progress of DevelopmentGive sufficient information to indicate the nature ofthe development f e*g* tIf 40 classroom 6-storey school completed to4th storey* Road formation completed*•*. ("b) Remarks Column in Programme should include s(i) drawing number }(ii)statutory or approved plan number or full justificationif no approved plan exists j(iii) divisional file reference }(iv) category or type of work as defined in Appendix 17}(v) the statement "road cross section W 1 + X f 4- T 1 « 2*recommended "by T.E* Division"*DrawingsNormally drawings will be prepared to 1; 500 scale*The following colouring legend should be used :(i)(ii)proposed roadworks covered by the item coloured red}proposed footpaths covered by the item coloured yellow;(iii) existing adjacent surfaced roads and footpaths colouredgrey;(iv) adjacent works included in previous V*C* on D.Programmes but not yet complete shown edged brownf(v)(vi)adjacent works covered by P*W,P, Items shown edged brown}existing stormwater drains coloured blue}(vii) proposed stormwater drains shown dotted blue}(viii)existing sewers coloured red}(ix) proposed sewers shown dotted red*

(July 77)1.4.31 *4*4 FinanceMonthly progress reports axe required on the form at Appendix 19*For accounting and audit purposes 9 all contracts, works orders andpayment documents should be endorsed with the ¥*C. on D* Programme anditem number*The financial limits given below f on the ¥«C* on D« Yote areapplicable*(i)(ii)The vote may be overcosumitted by up to one half of theamount approved in the estimates each year on conditionthat the actual provision is not overspent withoutspecial reference to the Finance Committee*Authority 5 C.S. Memo (38) in BL 31/3181/49 VIIdated 6*3*65.Committment for a project should be the total costof the approved project*1*4*5 Check ListAuthority : C.S. Memo (22) in BL 31/3181/49 Xdated 16*7*66*(iii) Overall committment control is held byH.O.H.Q* andG*H*E.(w) f s approval of the programme is invariablysubject to availability of funds*Authority : C.S. Memo (142) in FIN 1/4626/48 III "dated 13.12*72*A check list for processing W.C. on D* items is at Appendix 20*This check list should be stuck on the inside front cover of theappropriate file.

(July 77)1 * 5 IQHKS OH PRITATE ACCOTOT1*5*1 General(a) No works should be carried out by the Public Works Department forprivate persons and interests other than those required by Governmentregulations or approved by P*W«B» Headquarters* The cost of privateworks should be charged against the Public Works Recurrent Sub-head"Works executed on private account"*(b) * The cost incurred in repairing wil£"ul damage to Government propertyor damage arising as a result of, road accidents which can beequitably charged against private persons should not be regarded asworks executed on private account« These works whether or not thecost can be recovered in part or in wh&le f should be charged againstthe appropriate maintenance vote and any recovery should be creditedto Revenue Reimbursements Item "Loss of, or damage to GovernmentProperty 11 *(c)The estimated cost of all works executed on private account plusDepartmental Overhead Charges or Supervision Charges should be paidby demand note in advance unless specific approval to the contraryhas been given by Headquarters. The works listed below may howeverbe undertaken without the payment of deposit s(i)Works carried out for the Military Authorities}(ii)Works carried out on behalf of the Building Authorityunder the provisions of the Building Ordinance Cap* 123 *(a) Section 24(4) -> Demolition or alterationof buildings,(b)(c)(d)Section 26(3) and (4) - Dangerous buildings,Section 28(2)(b) and (3)(b) ~ Private drainageworks»Section 29(6) - Private street worksj(iii) Works carried out for the Public Utility CompaniesJ(iv) Reinstatement of trenches opened by the WaterworksOffice in respect of the Waterworks House ServiceAccounts;(vj(vi)Works carried out for Bon-Expatriate GovernmentOfficers Co-operative Building Societies inconnection with their housing schemes;Works carried out for the Housing Authority;

,1«5.1 (Cont'd*)Fuly 77)(d)(vii) Works carried out for tenants of Government Quarters tinderE.R.R. 882 and 885(2)(a) f (2)(b) and (4)|(Till) Works carried out for Consul tants|(ix) Works carried out for Agriculture and Fisheries Department inconnection with the Fisheries & Yegetable Co-operativeSocieties«Note s The term "Supervision Charges" applies only to works carriedout under section 33 of the Buildings Ordinance*Works carried out by direct labour should be charged at the rates laiddown in the Public Works Departmental Accounting Circular on "DirectLabour Charges - Private Works Account"*(e) When demand notes are prepared, the particulars of \ account shouldbegin "To estimated cost of *..**•«*% and the following statementmust be included s "Government will use its best endeavours to carry outthe work in accordance with the estimated cost but it reserves the rightto charge additional amounts to cover any work necessarily undertakenand materials (supplied but not allowed for in the estimate* 11(f) Departmental Overhead Charges (see Vol* II Chapter 8)*(g)Supervision Charges to be levied under Section 33 of the BuildingsOrdinance are as detailed below.(i)Scale of Supervision ChargesCost of work$Up to 1 f OOO 25$Supervision Charges1,000 - 5,000 20fo with a minimum of $2505,000 - 10 f 000 15J6 with a minimum of $1,000above 10,00015$ on the first 10 f OOO andon balance •(ii) In instances where the Building Authority carries out worksother than as the result of non-compliance with orders made,no supervision charges should be imposed (e«g« in the caseof emergency works)*(iii) In cases where the Building Authority appoints an AuthorizedArchitect to act for him and the fee required by such architectcan be acceptably based at a higher level than that providedfor by the scale at (i) above, then the actual fee must becharged to the person from whom recovery of the cost of work

V«1«5*1 (Cont'd.)(July 77)1*5*2 Requisitions1*5*3 Worksis to be effected* An example of this would be where therequired work is demolition, the cost of which is nil, orsmall, due to recovery by the contractor of usable materials,Departmental Authority - (J01) in P.W.D* 4081/46 dated 23*9*70*Requisitions for work to be carried out for private persons aremade on form P*W,D« 48 (Appendix 21)«A check list for progressing Vorks on Private Account is given atAppendix 22 and should be stuck on the inside front cover of theappropriate file*In processing works, standard forms of letter/notice are used(Appendices 23, 24, 25 & 26)«It is important that no delay should occur in processing andexecuting Works on Private Account but the works must not be ordered onthe Contractor until the site is available*A works progress and inspection record must be maintained on allworks «

V.1.6(July 77)1>6 KefersiacesRelevant information continued in the Departmental TechnicalCircular Nc e 10/75* ft Street Widening in Urban Areas - Procedure forApproval and Land Acquisition^1 has already been incorporated inttiis chapter®

Highways Office, P,V.D,» Hong KongV.1Appendix 1 - p*1(July 77)Project Implementation and P»W,S.C. Submission - Highways ProjectCheck ListP.W.P. No. :Title :File Reference sNOTES: 1* See C.E. Manual Vol. II Chap* 1for further details of PWSCSubmission.2. Enter »N.A. lf for "not applicable"or "N.K. 11 for "not known" -DO NOT LEAVE BLANKS.3» See pages 1 9 8 & 9 for Suimnaryof Order of Cost or Estimate.4* Original of check list to bekept in the Division's ProjectFile and updated as actiontakes place.5. When required, additional copiesprepared need only cover actualphase in hand.Cat.ReviewPresentProposedPhase IEnter reviewBD« before inclusion inP.V.P.Phase II - usually in C* beforeupgrading to BPhase III - usually in B, beforeupgrading to APhase I? - in A or D and beforetendering*

Appendix 1 - p«2(July 77)Pliase I - before inclusion in Project Division -No.Action Pile Ref« BateProject file opened and Handbook started (Appendix 2)23Drawing prepared (1i 2 OOO/ 1: 7 500/ 1s 15 000)Project compatible with:a) Tcwn Planning Board Plan approved by Governorin Councilb) Draft plan^ approved by Town Planning Boardfor public exhibitionc) Plans adopted by Director of Public Works/Secretary f ° r tiie New Territoriesd) Plans in preparatione) Mass Transit proposalsf ) Long Term Eoad StudyVill commit Government to expenditure on P,W*P.Item Ho*5678Submitted for inclusion in Eoad Priority ProgrammeIncluded/not included in R«P* Programme with Low/Medium/High priority* Commencement year ( / )Submitted for inclusion in Public Works ProgrammeInclusion approved/not approved bya) P.W.D.b) Secretariat/Priority Committee - (Reviews only)c) P.W.S.C. *» Cat. ItemP»W»P« Item No*PHASE IACTION BYSAME IN BLOCK CAPITALS SIGHATUBEDATEc,c« H.O* K*Q*Workss-

Phase II - usually when in Cat. C and before upgrading to Cat. BProject Division - T.E.No,9Inclusion in Cat* approved in __J ReviewActionProject drawing with design standards circulated as below(where applicable) for information or agreement. Scaleof drawing :1:500,1:1000, 1:2000.Dept* or Div**^"-~ MST>r?£» *f i n'v*tr—rlctiivid/ uQjLjf1) CEH (3)2) CESD5) CETTS4) CEGM (3)5) CEDW6) CEPW7) CED & A8) CE Railway?!10]11]12;13) GLA/DO ( )> GLS) GTP) PGBSPGAPGEMEWO) DMTS\l3) DNTD18) CP (OT)19) C for T20) DCA21) GMKCR1st CirculationComments& AdviceComments andAdvice Rec'dPileRef.DateV.1Appendix 1(July 77) - P.3Information2nd Circulation(if necessary)Comments Information& AdvicePile No.DateComments andAdvice Rec'dFileRef.Date22) D of H23) BUS24) DHA/SNT25262728D of APD of FSB of M) C of Mines29) Electric Co30) Gas Co.51) Tele. Co.32) Others.,

V.1Appendix 1 - p*4(July 77)Phase II - usually in Cat* C and before upgrading to Cat* BProject Division - T«S*iHo* Action Pile Eef. Date10111213Order of cost prepared in collaboration with WorksDivision (not necessarily included in Submission)Reservation of site requested if necessarySubmitted for approval for inclusion/upgrading inP.W.P.Inclusion/upgrading* approved/not approved bya) P.W.D.b) Secretariat/Priority Committee - (Reviews only)c) P«W«S«C. as Cat. Item P.W.P, Item Ho«14Hand over project leadership to Works Division withProject Handbook f Stage I*c.c. H.O* H,Q*Works DivisionPHASE IImm IK BLOCKCAPITALSACTION BYSIGNATUREDATE

Phase Hi - usually when in Cat. B before upgrading to Cat. AProject Division - WorksT.1Appendix 1 - p.5(July 77)No.151617Inclusion in Cat. approved in / ReviewActionProject Handbook prepared/updated and issued.Drawing prepared (1: 500/1 j 1 200 in N.T.)Pile tef *DateProject circulated as below (where applicable) for information or agreement :Scale of Drawing 1: 500/1: 1 200 (in N.T.)De] )t. or Div.*- Mandatory2; 1;A9!) GLA/DO ( )10 GLSGTPII PGBSPGA\\15 16 PGEMEWO;) DMTS) DHTD17,i CETE ( )I CESDCETTSCECM (3)CEDWCEPWCED & ACE Hailway18) CP (DT)19) C for T20) DCA21) GMKCR22) D of H23! ) DUS24. ) DHA/SNf25262728D of AFD of PSD of MC of Mines29) Electric Co, •30} Gas Co.31) Tele. Co.32) Others1st CirculationComments& AdviceComents andAdvice Eec'dPilelef.BateInformation2nd Circulation(if necessary)Comments& Advice mationInfor-Comments andAdvice Eec'dPileRef«Date

V. 1Appendix 1 - p*6(July 77)Phase III - -usually when in Cat. B before upgrading to Cat* AProject Division - WorksNo, Action Pile Hef« Date1819202122252425262728295051Clearance procedure commenced.Aesthetic and landscape treatment advice requested/planned*Preliminary Report prepared.Clearance of Site requested.Submission for Street (Alterations) Ordinance(a) P.W.D. ConferenceAction/no actionrequired(b) GazettingSubmission for P.R. & W. Ordinance.Allocation of Site requested*Utilities informed of intention to upgrade.Submission for tree removal prepared.Blasting requirements requested.Site investigation procedure commenced.Final estimate of cost prepared.Submitted for approval forin P.W.P.inclusion/upgradingInclusion/upgrading, approved/not approved by(a) P.V.D.(b) Secretariat/Priority Committee - (Reviews only)(c) P.W.S.C. as Cat. Item P*W.P. Item No*c.c* H.C. H.Q,PHASE IIINAME IN BLOCK CAPITALSACTION BYSIGNATUREDATE

Appendix 1 ~ p*7(July 77)Phase IV « in Cat. A or B and before tenderingProject Division « WorksNo. Inclusion in Cat* approved inAction323334353637383940414243Clearance of Site confirmed*BeviewStreet (Alterations) Ordinance authority confirmed.P.R* & W. Ordinance authority confirmed.Allocation of Site confirmed.Resumption confirmed.Utilities informed of intention to commence work*Tree removal confirmed.Blasting requirements confirmed.Traffic arrangements agreed.Contract documents completed.Confirmation of availability of funds.Submission of Tender Notice to H.O. Headquartersfor gazetting 4k weeks before closing of Tenders*Pile Hef«Datec.c. H*0* H.Q.PHASE IVNAME IN BLOCK CAPITALSACTION BYSIGNATUREDATE

V.1Appendix 1 - p.8(July 77)NotesSummary of Order of Cost and Estimate - Prepared "by Works Division(1) Order of cost may "be required for Phase II but is not usually quoted in PWSCpaper®(2) Estimate is required for phase III and must "be detailed and confirmed*(3) Care must be taken to check the estimate when the proposals are revised or ifthe estimate is of long standing*(4) Departments etc* should be asked to include 20$ contingencies in submittingestimates but not to allow for rising costs* Contingencies are only addedseparately in Item H of the estimates*PART IItem Description1 Land2 Structures3 Crops4 Disturbance5678 Bx-gratia compensation.GravesTreesOthersA* InvestigationsAB* Other Divisions1 Traffic Engineering2 Drainage Works3 Port Works4 Development & Airport5 OthersSub-total BC* Other Offices1 Architectural Office2 Waterworks Office3 E* & M. Office4 OthersSub-total CD* Other Departments DE* Resumption and ClearanceSub- total EPhase IIOrder ofCostPile Ref *and DatePhase IIIEstimatejiIPile Ref *and Date

T.IAppendix 1 - p.9(July 77)PART IItemP.DescriptionReprovisioning1 Divisional2 Office3 i Departmental4 | Private5 | OthersSub-total PPhase IIOrder ofCost•Pile Hef *and DatePhase IIIEstimatePile Ref .and DateG.H.12545671234 5UtilitiesElectric Go.Telephone Co,Gas Co.RediffusionCable & WirelessTramwaysMilitarySub-total G(Allow 15?£ forContracts Preminaries &General Cont.)Additional Cont. Phase IIJ.Phase IIISub-total HConsultants' Fees andResident Staff Supervision1556 of Total of H £Stores and Equipment(Major items to be entered)Sub-total K

V.1Appendix 1(July 77) - p*1QPART IItem |DescriptionPhase IIOrder ofCostPile Bef ,and BatePhase IIIEstimatePile Ref.and BateL* Landscaping and Amenities1 | Highways Office2 Architectural OfficeOthersM*123Sub-total LMiscellaneous(Major items to be entered)Sub-total M

PART II¥.1Appendix 1 - p.1111}A« Investigati onsB« Other DivisionsC. Other OfficesD« Other DepartmentsE* Resumption and ClearanceF* ReprovisioningG* UtilitiesH* ContractsJ. Consultants 1 Pees etc*K* Stores and EquipmentL* Landscaping and AmenitiesM« MiscellaneousSummaryGRAND TOTALPhase IIOrder of CostPhase IIIEstimateDescriptionOrder of CostPrepared ByName in Block CapitalsSignatureDateEstimatePART IIIRising Costs and Revisions(a) No. of financial years between 0* of C./Est* and construction(b) Rise in cost p«a*Revised Cost /~( a x b ) + 100 J x Grand Total100Record of Revisions, Year19 /1919 /19Order of CostEstimate

1* PresentationHighways Office* P+V+.D.,! Hogg., Kong*Divisionalt Capital Works, ProjectsProject HandbookFormat of a logical Projeot HandbookAppendix 2 ~ p*1(July 7?)(Phase II Item 14 and Phase III Item 15 of Check List)1*1 The report should be typewritten on A4 size paper and kept in looseleaf covers*1*2 The cover should include the *itle f the P*W*P* Item number, theDivision's name and the date*2* ContentsThe handbook is divided into two stages and typical contents shouldinclude s *2*1 Stage I(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)2*2 Stage II(a)(b)Justification of ProjectScope of Project - Terms of ReferencePolicy Rulings relating to ProjectRelated ProjectsOrder of CostDesign Data - TrafficProgramme - time and phasesLand and Legal RequirementsSite Investigations(c) Design Data - (i) Drainage}(ii) Roads}(ill) Earthworks}(iv) Structures*

V.1Appendix 2 - p*2(July 77)5* Stagg^I(d)Design Procedure and Contract Management(e) lelated Works - (i) for other Bepts*/Offices/Divs*t(ii) by other Depts*/Offices/DiYs«j(iii) by utilities s(f)(g)3*1 InteoductionP*W,S»C* Justification and EstimatesContract Doc-laments •It is intended that* except where otherwise noted, this section ofthe Handbook should be compiled in-toto by the T*E* Branch and be handedoverto the Works Branch on the completion of Phase II of the projectimplementation check list, (See Item 14 of Check List)3*2 Justification of ProjectThis should include the P.V*S,C. Submissions and Drawings togetherwith all additional backing information, e*g* traffic counts f trafficprojections f pedestrians t etc.3*3 So^e^ofJPro^ect - Terms of ReferenceThis section should outline in some detail 9 the sizie and extent ofthe project together with detailed information of the functionalrequirements of each section* This must include carriageway widths,climbing lanes, bus bays f footpaths, amenity strips* etc*3*4 Policy Eulipg8 iii relating to the Projectfhis section will detail decisions of policy affecting the project,e*g« Mass Transit Proposals, Double Tracking the KGR Railway, UrbanRenewal f etc*3*5 Related ProjectsIt is seldom that a P*¥* project can be considered in isolation, andit is essential that all other Public ¥orks as well as known privatedevelopment be taken into consideration, fhese should be considered anddetails of the schemes recorded*3*6 Order of Costfhese are normally produced in association with the Works Branch,fhe Stimmary of the Order of Cost should be attached together with anyfurther information not given in the Stuaiaaxy*

v.rAppendix 2 - p*3(July 77)3*7 Dgglfi&jyata - TrafficThe main criteria to be given are speed* gradients, sightdistances f radii* transitions, lane widths, superelevation, verticalcurves, etc* The design of ground level intersections (whereapplicable) should be outlined*3*8 ProgrammeStage IIThis should indicate both a tentative "time 1 * and a "phases ofwork" schedule* The programme should be produced in association withthe Works Branch*(a) The "time 1 * schedule should allow for the following i(b)4*1 Introduction(i) all administrative stages}(ii) all design stagesf(iii) pre-contract stage|(iv) Contract time*The "phases of work" schedule should include the majorphasings of work f major traffic routings etc*This section of the Handbook should be compiled by the WorksBranch* (See Item 15 of Check List)4*2 Land and Legal RequirementsThe major land problems are ;(a)(b)(c)(d)acquisition of land by resumptionfclearance of squatters etc*}allocation of site}Works areas etc*These must be concisely laid down together with an assessment of thetime required for the administrative procedures.' Early consideration of possible action under the Streets(Alterations) and P*H. & W« Ordinances is required*

7.1Appendix 2 - p*4(July 11}4.5 InvestigationsDetails of investigation requirements should "be clearly recordedtogether with the justification, costs etc*4*4(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)GeneralThis is a susmary of the design data and standards for thedesign and construction of the project* Much of this informationis contained in the C*E* Manual and only the relevant section/chapter need be quoted* ¥here this is not possible, the informationshould be obtained from the appropriate authority and reproduced infull in the Handbook*DrainageThe design of all major foul and storm-water drainage iscarried out by the Drainage Works Division, C*E*0. The designprocedure is given in C*E.O* Instruction No* 5/74 and H*0*Instruction Ho* 9/74«RoadworksThe design of the pavement should include subgrade, sub-base*base f surfacings, slabs$ joints etc*EarthworksStandards on embankments 9 cuttings (with associated drawings),rock blasting etc* are all covered under this heading*StructuresThe design of structures covers all works such as bridges,foundations, footbridges, subways, tunnels, retaining walls etc*Horizontal and vertical clearances should be noted in this section.4*5 Design Procedure and Contract Management(a)This section will contain in some detail, the various designprocedures that are undertaken and descriptions of the sections asthey axe designed* For example, design procedures for a smallbridge will include the basic outline of the following :(i) analysis of soil investigation;(ii) geometric layout of scheme}(iii) design of retaining walls j(iv) design of abutments}

Y.1Appendix 2 - p*5(July 7?)(v) design of embankments}(vi) design of roadj(vii) computer analysis of deok f beams, columns etc*}(vxii) design of structural members f(iac) design of foundation*(I)Details of Contract Management should incline such item as s(i) number f aisa and type of contracts}(ii) staff requirements |(iii) duties of staff and outline of their responsibilities}(iv)(v)4*6 Related Worksliaison with other Divs*/Qffices/Depts*§Specification to lie used}(vi) Method of Measurement to be used}(vii) number of drawings*Work by and/or for other Divs*/Offices/Depts* is often requiredto be carried out, similarly the various utility undertakings may havemajor works to be done in conjunction with the project* These shouldall be recorded in the Handbook and* if possible, shown on drawings.4*7 Justifioation and EstimatesThis comprises 'Xh* justification for upgrading to Cat* f A* or 'together with additional background information* ,The Summary of theEstimated Cost should be attached*4*8 Contract Documents5* CirculationThis section should enumerate the documents being used, withreasons for the adoption of any non-standard documents*It is almost impossible to lay down a firm circulation list for whatis essentially a "working" document but a suggested list is as follows :(a)Works carried out by a Division}1, Project Division (T*E./\forks) ~ 1 copy

V.1Appendix 2 ~ p*6(July 77)("b)2* Structural Design Division - 1 copy(if necessary)}Works carried out by Consultants}1. C.M. Division - 1 copy2« Structural Design Division - 1 copy(if necessary).

1* PresentationV.1Appendix 5 w P*1(July 77)Divisional Capital Works Projects Preliminary EeportsFormat of a Typical Report(Phase III Item 20 of Check List)1*1 The report should be printed on A4 size paper and preferably be boundin thin cardboard covers•1*2 To prevent the report from becoming bulky the drawings should be foldedor photographically reduced - C*L* & S*G* can provide this service*1*3 The General Arrangement or Layout drawing should be in a form suitablefor a P*¥*S*C* Submission*1*4 Stencil reproduction is acceptable*1*5 The cover should include the title, the P.W*P. item number, theDivision f s name and the date*2* List of ContentsTopical contents should include :1* a Simmary - if the report is complex}2* an Introduction* including Terms of Reference (if any)}3* an Outline of General Description of the Project}4* details of proposals* e*g. road works, structures*drainage* landscaping and amenity treatment, etc.}5* Services}6* cons time ti on requirements and a programme}7* list of drawings}8* Estimates*3* Requirements of the report3* 1 IntroductionThis section should state the purpose of the report, itsscope and limitations and terms of reference*

V.1Appendix 3 - P*2(July 77)3.2 Outline pf i General Description of ProjectThis section should describe the project and its function andshould state the extent of the investigations s consultation with ©±herauthorities, surrey f soil investigation etc.3*5 Detaiis of ProposalsDetails of proposals f including reasons f should be given for roadalignment* pavement construction, structural design f drainage design etc.Calculations are not required and detailed design concepts such as typeof piles etc* are not expected* However f an explanation of choice ofdesign of the component parts of the project should be given*3«4 ServicesThe report should reveal f at least in outline, the problems thatcan be expected from existing services and how these may be overcome*Proposals for accommodating new or diverted services in structures androad reserves should be given*3.5 Construction requirements and programmeThis section should cover the following %(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)3*6 Drawingsextent of further site investigations required}sources of materials and disposal areasjworking area and contractor f s lard}number of contracts and extent - with explanation?construction staging including temporary works,diversions etc*}construction programme - a bar chart is acceptable?proposals for site staff*The amount of inf ormatxon to be shown on the drawings depends on thecomplexity and type of the project, but generally, the information out-*lined below should be presented*(a)The general layout or arrangement including a key plan.This drawing should preferably be in a form suitable fora P.W.S..C. submission* A scale of 1s 2000 is desirableand may best be obtained by a photographic reduction ofa 1s 500 scale drawing*

V.1Appendix 5 -(July ?7)(b)(c)(d)load proflies f and road cross-sections*General arrangement of structures- showingtypical details f Including if necessary 9drainage details*Construction staging Including road and/ordrainage diversions»3*7 EstimatesThe report should give an assessment of quantities and costsof main Items« The estimate should be prepared in the form as shownin the Check List with all the relevant sections completed* If thecost of any particular section of work is weighted e*g* because ofdifficulties of access f this should be clearly stated and the reasonsgiven* If any part of the project has not been Included In theestimate $ this should also be stated and the reasons given*5«8 CirculationIt is probable that this will change from time to time but asuggested Circulation List is as follows 21. H.O* H*Q* - 3 copies}2* Works Division - 2 copies}3* T«E* Division - 1 copy;4* G»B« (M«T.) - 1 copy (where M«T* Proposalsare affected)?5* C*E*CjyU - 1 copy (for Consultants Workonly)i6, C.E* Structural Design- 1 copy (where structuraldesign is carried outby that Division)*

Appendix 4 - p+1('July 11}Schedule of Unit Costs forCat, B Order of CostsDescription Illustration Rate $ Unit RemarksCarriagewayrigidconstruction175 250 * 30/40 concrete200 lean concreteCarriagewayflexibleconstructionts160I105 bitumen material200 lean concrete150 sub-baseCarriagewayreconstraction*(Rate assumes50$ footpathre-constructed)EXISTINGPROPOSEDi->- -s.127*Existing construction105 bitumen and200 lean concrete.Proposed 200. 30/40concrete and 150lean concrete.Elevated roadstructuresPre-cast posttensioned beam andcast in place posttensioned construction.Pilingassumed to be10-15$ of total cost.(a) Continuousspan withrampedapproaches2,000rfArea includes ramps(b) Two spanwithoutramps3,200(c) One spanwithoutrampsJ f 200 j m 2

V.1Appendix 4 - P»2(July 77)Schedule of Unit-Costs forCat* B Order.of CostsDescriptionFootbridgeIllustration~r£^J^^sAm _.HHate $1 t OOOUnit^HemarksSpread foiandation*Area includesRamps/stairs*I I ._PedestrianSubwayi^6 f OOOL.M*4 500 x 2 100subway with 3 000width stairs andramps. Lengthincludes ramps &stairs

Name ofRoad/StreetApprovedDrawingList of Roads Affected ..by Road Widening SchemeHong Kong Island* The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening line*Date Signedby D.P.W.or G.H.E./T..T.Drawing sentto C.S.in 1967LatestDrawing#MetricConversionRemarksAmoy StreetR 43521.1.49R 433R 435A0*Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment A*Ap Lei Chau MainStreetRH 7296.10.55.RH 729RH 729«BThis drawing shows approvelevels *Arbuthnot RoadRH 9407.2.58RH 940ARH 940A«.Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment A*Babington PathL/H 11/2/2B18.1.57L/H 1J/2/2CRH 1128L/H 11/2/20RH 1128A•»Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment C* Wideningline is based on TovmPlan No* L/H 11/2/2.Blue Pool RoadBonham RoadHT 499RH 741G20.11.7226.2.71-RH 741 BHT 499RH 741GA

The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening lineName ofRoad/StreetCaine Road.1ApprovedDrawingRH 927Date Signedby D.P.W. orG.H.E./T.T.11.12.57Drawing sentto C.S.in 1967RH 927CLatestDrawingRH 927C#MetricConversion«.RemarksAmendment A involves slightincrease of resumption*Amendment B involves lessresumption* Amendment Cdoes not affeot th©widening lin@«^I•el « roCanal Road E* &w. iRDH 67/70A12.1.66- _RDH 67/70Ai^.Caroline HillRoadCastle RoadRH 773B„.5.4.56m»RH 1240BRH 775BRH 1240B«»««*Drawing Ko* EH 1240B isbased on Drg* Ho« R95 &RH 1344D approved by D.p«y 0on 10«9»47 and25*1*64 respectively*Cochrane StreetHP 25451.12.70M»HT 254A•Conduit RoadB'Aguilar Street(Queen's Road C*to WellingtonStreet)RH 1098BEH 110?|?22.6.6151.3.59RH 1098BRH 1107PRH 1098BRH 11 DTP-m»«H»Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments «(Wellington St.to Wyndham St»)TH 101B i 17*8.64iTH 101 CTH 101DBWidening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments •Des Voeux Rd« C«R 279 2.5.48R 279R 279ABWidening line is notaffected by amendment A*

Name ofRoad/StreetDes Voeux Road W*Dragon RoadExtensionElectric RoadFleming RoadHam fat LaneHigh StreetHill RoadHing Van StreetHollywood RoadHospital RoadApprovedDrawingHT 632HT 885HT 1046HT 72HT 792RDH 67/119RH 1485BEH 1272RH 985GTH 143BRH 721RH 1059ijDate Signed Drawing sentby D.P.W. or to C.S.G.H.E./T.T. i in 196729.5.7430.8.7310.5.7431.12.70 |I15.11*721.4.68 TH 306s1.4.68 RH 1485A12.5.62 RH 127224.5.62 RH 9851i3.1.68 ;9.10.56 !RH 721G18.3.59 RH 1059Ai iThe amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening line*££& urawingHT 632HT 883HT 1046HT 72HT 792RDH 67/119RH 1485BRH 1272RH 985JTH 143BRH 721CRH 1059A* etricconversionAAAAACDRemarksBus Bay fronting 1*1*6456*Bus Bay fronting House®Hos* 131-145*Bus Bay fronting M*L* 455-Between LocMmrt RoadGloucester Road*Widening line is thein both drawings »-«Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments*• •Amendment A involvesadjustment of wideningline between LyndhurstTerrace and CochraneStreet*Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment A*^AVI^

Name ofRoad/StreetApprovedDrawingBate Signedby D.P.W. orG.H.E./T.T.* The amendment is direct cconversion to metric *£>and does not affect the aapproved widening line* £*gDrawing sentT ** g.-«4 p.Latestto C.S.Drawing| MetricRemarks ^ ^in 1967* ConversionVJ1Ice House St«*R 233/222.5.48R 253/2R 233/2i^r- m - nrm - — — - -^ — — j §?4^>Jardine f sBazaarR 20413.4.51RH 204RH 204~•Jervois St*TH 174B18.7.67TH 174BC•Kennedy RoadRH 1380B27.10>62RH 1380CRH 1380C-Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment 0*RH 703A17.11.56RH 703BRH 703B«Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment B»RH 68118.3.55RH 681RH 681«»MacDonaell Road «Monmouth TerraceRH 1578C15.3.69«»RH 1579D«aWidening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment D*Kat On StreetKennedy StreetKing's BoadKing Sing StreetKd Shing StreetTH 145BTH143BRH 881 ATH 143BTH 171C5.1.683.1.6820.8.583.1.6818.7.67-RH 881 C-~TH 143BTH 143BRH 881 CTH 143BTH 171CfIICc«cD--Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments ««-

Name ofRoad/StreetLain Kwai PongApprovedDrawingTH 101BDate Signedby D.P.W. orG.H.E./T.T.17.8.64Drawing sentto C.S.in 1967TH 1010* The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening line.LatestDrawingTH 101D!iMetricConversionDRemarksAmendment D involvesslight adjustment towidening line.Lin Pa Kung St.Lower Albert Rd.HT 1617HT 102528.5.768.11.73«HT 1617HT 1025-A-Glenealy « Ice HouseStreet*Lung On StreetLyndhurst TerraceTH 143BRH 845B3.1.681.4.57—RH 845CTH 143BRH 8450C-«,Brg* No* EH 845C involvesslightly increasedresumption*Lyttelton RoadMadonnell RoadRH 1343RH 86226.3.6220.3.57RH 1543CRH 862BRH 13430RH 862B:Iii._Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments*Widening line shown onDrg, No* EH 862B is thesame as the originalapproved line* QMonmouth PathRDH 67/1051.4.68TH 110RDH 67/105 ;AIApproved widening line *4is the same in both -4drawings* *~*Morrison Hill Rd.RH 1403E23.1.64RH 1403/PRH 1403/G ;«,Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments*Morrison StreetRH 1401/229.5.63RH 1401/2RH 1401/2—-

The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening lineName ofRoad/StreetMt* Bavis RoadApprovedDrawingRH 1366ADate Signedby D.P.W. orG.H.E./T.T.28.5.65Drawing sentto C.S.in 1967RH 1566BLatestDrawingRH 1566BMetricConversion—Drg d No* RH 1366B involvesslightly reduced resumptionnear I.L* 7588*PL,Park RoadRH 71 6E12*3*58RH 71 6HRH 71 6H«.Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments *Pok Pu Lam RoadRH 985024*5*62RH 9851RH 985J**Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments*RH 614/4I 4.6.63jiRH 614/4ARH 614/4A-Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment A*TH 20DHT 882I 16.5.62i50.8.75TH 20D_TH 20FHT 882GAWidening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments *Bus Bay fronting HousesNo* 36-44*Fottinger StreetQueen's Rd* C*Queen's Rd. E.RH 242R 263! R 267i HT 348D; R 2485i 1.8.51; 15.1.48; 23.2.48. 1.11.71i; 5.2.48; RH 242Ai R 265| R 267IIIR 248RK 242AR 263R 267HT 348D .R 248«"•--E-Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment A*-«Bus Bay fronting HousesNos* 166-176C*-

Name ofRoad/StreetQueen's Rd. WQueen's Road W.iApprovedDrawingR 73R 135HT 21 5DHf 612* The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening lineDate Signed Drawing? by D.P.W. or to C.Sent *I' LatestMetricRemarksPrawingG.H.E./T.T. , _ in 15J67Conversion9.10.47 | R 73ij16.12.47 R 1352.3.728.9.72iR 73AR 135HT 21 5DHT 612.*»EAAmendment A involvesslight adjustment towidening line near WhittyStreet Junction*-Bus Bay fronting HousesNos* 252-276*Bus Bay fronting HousesNos* 15&-148*Queen StreetRobinson RoadIifH 171CHT 741RH 937BRH 1544DRH 1343i18.7.67j 7.12.7213.11.61 RH 937123.1.64 s RH 134' LEI ;Ij':TH 1710jHT 741 |3 RH 937BRH 1544E| 26.5.62 j RH 1342 iC RH 1545C :I \iDA--II«*-.Amendment E shoTim theboundary line of I*L*589to be adjusted* It doesnot affect the originalwidening line*Widening line is notaffected by subsequentamendments*?Seymour RoadRH 1009Aii14.6.61 RH 100$ii)B RH 1009B»|iWidening line is notaffected by subsequentamendment B*

JName of j ApprovedRoad/Street j Drawing1!Shau Kei ¥anMain St* E*Shau Kei Wan Rd*Smithfield RoadStone Nullah LaneSun Chun StreetSwatow StreetTin Hau TempleRoadTin Lok LaneTsing Pung St*SJan Chai Road\\jja* '„RH 1390ATH 143BLH 6/9/1 BH433Hf 72RH 1403ERDH 67/71 BR 69Date Signedby D.P.W. orG.H.E./T.T.«a»«.12*7*623*1*6821*12*6021, 1.4931.12.7023.1.6412.6.693.7.47'!;:Drawing sentto C.S.in 1967RH 1374CRH 1137CRH 1390ALH 6/9/1 CR 433-RH 1403FRDH 67/71R 69The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening line.LatestDrawingRH 1374DRH 1137CRH 1590ATH 143BLH 6/9/1 CR 433AHT 72RH 1403GRDH 67/71 BR 69*MetricConversion_!I

- • fName of; ApprovedEoad/Street ; DrawingWellington St. EH 1107:Wing King St. j TH 245jWing Lok St. ' TH 148iIBate Signed51.5.5915.11.6419.12.65^tfcfs!^ I Late !*in• ^i yof\£*iiXf2rawxngRH 1107FTH 245The amendment is direct conversion to metricand does not affect the approved widening line*RH 1107PTH 245B• TH148BIMetricConversion !Remarks- Subsequent amendmentsinvolve redaiced re«*| sumption •CCAmendment A involvesredticed resumption*I Bes VoeiDC Hd« w. - BonhamStrand* Widening lin© isnot affected by subsequentamendments*iTH 174BWo On lane HT 521sWong Nai Chung HT 786RoadsWyndham Street ; RH 1107i|\16.7.6710.6.7112.2.7551.5.59RH 1107F3jTH 174BHT 521HT 786RH 1107FCAA! Morrison St« - Bee Toeu%Road CUiIji-* i Widening line is not| affected by subsequent\ amendments*it-'SUlII

List of Roads Affeoted by Road Widenigg: SchemesKowloonName ofRoad/StreetApprovedDrawingBate SignedbyD.P.W.Drawing sentto C.S. inJuly, 1967LatestDrawing= • _ . __ — — .• ^.^^a^jRemarksS«*»*VJ1IAustin RoadRK 994A17/2/60RK 994BRK 994BWidening of whole length,shown on RK 994B covers deletion ©freserve and additions of retaining wallin front of Gun Club Hill Barracks.Battery StreetR 20?5/11/47R 207R 207Widening of whole length.Canton RoadR 228/1/48R 22R 22Widening of portion between SalisburyRoad and Jordan Road.RK 14229/8/50RH 142RE 142Amended plan showing widening of portionbetween Navy Street and Jordan Road.Lo Lung HangSt.R 149R 86/A29/10/4729/3/49R 149R 86/AR 149R 86/AWidening of portion between Jordan Road& Public Square St.Widening of whole lengthReclamation St.iR 12715/9/47R 127R 127Widening of portion between Public Square& Mongkok RoadShanghai Street|R 19229/12/47R 192R 192Widening of portion between Jordan Roadand Water 1 do Road.Walker Road! R 202|R 917/1/4818/8/47R 202R 91R 202R 91Widening of portion between Waterloo Rd.& Mongkok RoadWidening of whole lengthWaterloo RoadRK 1021 A4/4/60RK 1021 ARK1021AWidening of portion between TyphoonShelter & Nathan Roadj

List of Roads Affected by Road Widening SchemesKowloonName ofRoad/StreetApprovedDrawingBate SignedbyD.P.W.Drawing sentto C*S. inJuly, 1967LatestDrawingRemarksHo Han Tin HillRoadTK 245Dij10/10/68&»*TK 245GSubsequent amendments do not affectapproved widening lines*Prat Ave* atKIL f s 7700and 7072KT 470A9/3/72**KT 470AWidening7700 andof portion adjacent to K«I«L« v s7072.Hart AvenueKT 460B26/6/72"KT 460BWidening of pssrbion adjacent to K#I»L* f s6457 S,A* t 576 s*C. BB. IJUP. t 3432H.P. 9794 aad 3440 S*A,Kimberley RoadRK 3048/1/55iRK 304Widening of section from Carnarvon Roadto Observatory Road*•ii!:jiiVJIIk

V.1 'Appendix 6(July 77)Prom s Chief Engineer f TrafficEngineering DivisionRef. inTel. No.DateMEMOTo g Addressees as belowYour Ref. indatedStreet ImprovementsIn accordance with Departmental Technical Circular Ho* 10/75 a printof a plan showing a proposed improvement tois attached for yourcomments if any and also for the following information $From D;W*S», P*G*A«» C*E*D.V» t C«E.P*V* t C*E«D* & A.» C«E»H» ( )An estimate of the cost of any work necessitated by theproposed improvement*From C,E»S»(V)An estimate of the cost of land acquisition and compensationprepared in accordance with the Departmental Technical Circular*2. C,E.S.(Y), P*G.B.S« f C.E.H. ( ) and G*L*S* axe requested to recordthis proposal as a tentative scheme in accordance with para* 14 of theDepartmental Technical Circular*DistributionChief Engineer, Traffic Engineering ( )D.W.S.C.E.P*¥*C*E*D. & A*C* for T*C.P*(D.T*)P*GJUP*G*B.S*C.E.H. ( )P.G.T*P*D*U*S*D. of F»P.G.H.E*

Appendix 7(July 11}Buildings Ordinance OfficePublic Works DepartmentHong Kong*Dear Sir fLot Ho*, etc*Address of premisesWith reference to the plans you have submitted in connection withbuilding works at the above, I invite your attention to my Circular LetterNo* 41 dated 30th June, 1966 addressed to all Authorized Architects*The above lot may be affected by proposals for alterations to thewidth and alignment of the street* This matter is being investigated and you willbe advised as soon as possible of the decision taken* Where appropriate adimensioned plan of set-backs involved, etc* will be supplied to you.Your plans and application form are returned herewith*Yours faithfully,Ends.pro Building Authorityc.c. C.E.S.(V)C.E.H.C )G.E.T.B.( )

Appendix 8(July 11}M'E M 0From s C.E«H. ( ) To i D.L.S. (C.E.S.(Y))Ref . ( ) inTel* No«Your Ref • inDate s dated :AddressLot No«Street ImprovementsEnquiries have "been received concerning the redevelopment of theabove lot and I should be grateful if you would open negotiations with theowners to acquire the land required for implementing the approved roadwidening scheme.2* ^Future road reconstruction will not result in any substantialvariation from levels already existing«/Planned future levels are indicatedon the plan enclosed herewith*3, Please inform me when the land has been acquired.Chief Engineer, Highways ( )Delete as appropriateC.E.T.E. ( )

V.1Appendix 9(July 77)Crown Lands & Survey OfficePublic Works Department,Hong Kong*Dear Sir(s) fStreet WideningI enclose herewith a surveyed plan showing by red colour cross hatchedgreen, land which is required to be surrendered for road widening purposes*When submitting redevelopment plans to the Building Authority,provision must be made for set-back of the building to the new road line, andit may be possible for the Building Authority to consider the grant of concessionsunder the provisions of Planning Regulation 22(2).When plans have been approved by the Building Authority, I will assesswhat development value, if any, has been lost by virtue of the acquisition ofthe land, having regard to any benefit attainable under the concessions and thewidened road generally*If, after approval of the plans, compensation cannot be agreed betweenus, a recommendation will be made for resumption of the land under the CrownLands Resumption Ordinance, so that the disputed compensation can be determinedby a Compensation Board.Where no alteration in levels is indicated on the plan you may assumethe future road reconstruction will not result in any substantial variation fromlevels already existing. You should, however, consult the Highways Office atan early stage.Yours faithfully,for Director of Lands & Surveyc,c. C.B.S* (C.B.H* (C.E,T.E.(

7.1Appendix 10(July 77)MEMOFrom $ Chief Building Surveyor ( ) To : C.E.H. ( )Ref* s B.0.0*Chief Planning OfficerBate sIn accordance with the procedure for the surrender of portions ofprivate lots for public roads and lanes (approved by Eon* D.P.V. 31*7*53)I forward herewith a block plan showing a portion of a private lot f thesurrender of which to Government seems desirable.2* The owner has signified his willingness to surrender the land toGovernment free of charge*3« Would you please inform me whether, in your opinion, the surrenderof the land is desirable.for Chief Building Surveyor ( )

V.1Appendix 11(July 77)BOOOffice of the Building AuthorityPublic Works DepartmentHong Kong*Dear Sir/Madam/Gentlemen fI have received your signed undertaking dated »•,*••••••••••..•••••••relating to the proposed surrender to the Crown of a portion of the above lot(s)for use as part of a public scavenging lane* as indicated in red on the attachedblock plan*In accordance with the powers vested in me by Section 29(2) (b) of theBuildings Ordinance, I hereby give you notice that I intend to arrange for thenecessary surfacing, channelling and drainage works to be carried out by theChief Engineer, Highways ( )» Demand notes for the cost of these works willbe issued to you by these officers in due course»When the above works have been carried out and the provisions ofSection 29(7)(b)(i) of the Buildings Ordinance have been complied with, I shall,in accordance with the power vested in me by Section 29(7)(a), undertake thefurther maintenance of the portion of lane indicated in red on the block plan*Yours faithfully,pro Building Authorityc*c« D*L»S*C*E« Highways ( )

7.1Appendix 12(jtdy 77)MEMOFrom i C«E*H, ( ) To i Registrar General (L*0«)Ref.Tel* No,inTour Ref*inDate i dated *Subject iPlease note that Demand Note No,for the above work has been paid.forChief Engineer, Highways ( )c«c* D»L»S»

MJB.M gProm s D.L.S.fo f H.G.(L.O*)Ref* inTel* No* Your Ref* inDatedatedV.1Appendix 13(July 77)The lessee/a of the above has/have agreed to give a free surrender ofthe portion of the lane shown on the plan annexed hereto and the relevant undertakingis attached*2* Subject to payment for costs of road/drainage works will you pleasetake the surrender/s in due course and advise all concerned after such has/havebeen effected®3. By copy of this memo C*E.H* ( )'*is requested to advise you of thepayment as stated in paragraph 2 above*4* In order for me to prepare surrender plans, kindly designate the nextsection by completing and returning tear off strip below*c«c* C*E*H* () - with end*Tear herefor Director of Land SurveyorProm s R*G* (L*0*) To s D.L*S*Ref* inmTel*t vrHo*Your Ref* inDatedatedLot Ko*The section to be surrendered should be designated Section ««********•*«*,*.* *•*«*****»•*«•«• «* This has been noted in the register*Registrar General (Land Officer)

Appendix 14(July 77)Prom s D*L»Ref. inTel* No*Bate :ME M 0To s Registrar General (L*0*)Your Kef* indated :I forward herewith 2 Surrender plans and copies in connection withthe above.2* Please note that as a party wall betweenandstands partly on the area to be surrendered, threeseparate plans have been provided as compensation is involved* The planheadedrefers to the encumbered portion and I have thereforeincluded 5 extra copies of this plan for annexure to the Agreement to Surrender,The film copies of the surrender plan for this area should be retained by youuntil I inform you that the area is clear*3* Information regarding compensation payable will be supplied by theValuation Branch in due course*Director of Land Surveyorc*c*C.E.H. () - with plan

7.1Appendix 15(July 77)MEMOProm s D.L,S«Ref* inTel* No*Date iTo s Registrar General (L*0*)Your Ref* indated sI forward herewith Surrender plan(s) and copies in connection withthe above*2. Please note that as a party wall betweenandstands partly on the area to be surrendered* anAgreement to Surrender will be required before Surrender is taken* I havetherefore included 5 extra copies of this plan for amexure to this Agreement«3« The film copies of the Surrender plan "should be retained by youuntil I inform you that the area is clear.Director: of Land Surveyorc*c» G*B*S»C.E.H. () - with plan

Appendix 16(July 7?)MEMOi Registrar General (L.O*) fo s D.L.S.Ref* InTel. No.Yoi2r lef •Bate s dated :inAdvice No*Return Ho*onto $Please note that the above lot/s was/were surrendered to the Crownfree of cost/in return for compensation amountingfor the purpose of scavenging laae/road widening*2* The Deed of Surrender has been registered in the Land Office byMemorial No,p* Registrar General (Land Officer)c*c« D*S* for E*Director of Accounting ServicesD.U.S. (Staff Officer, Cleansing)G»B»o«C.E.H. ( )D. of A.

Appendix 1? - P*1(July _,77)MEMOProm i Colonial SecretariatHef. (25) in BL 31/5181/49 VITel. Ho* 25625Date s 15th January f 1964fo i Hon* Director of Public Works (6)Your Eef* indated iWorks Contingent on Deyelopme&tThis instruction replaces the instructions concerning the chargingof expenditure to the Works Contingent on Development Subhead in the PublicWorks Hon-Recurrent Head* *2* All Works Contingent on Development Programmes are subject to myapproval.3* The following types of work may be submitted in periodic programmesfor charging to the vote "Works Contingent on Development"*IThe foundations, surfacing, curbing and channelling of allextensions to public roads which Conform to an approvedlayout and which axe constructed to serve the followingtypes of property s(i)(ii)building erected on land purchased in a plannedarea, provided the Building Covenant has beenfulfilled!buildings erected by Government in a planned area}(iii) buildings erected on land granted free or on a tokenpayment provided the Building Covenant has beenfulfilled*IIIIIRoad formation where, exceptionally, sale conditions of landdo not require the purchaser to be responsible for the formationto planning levels of half the width of the road on which hisproperty fronts*The extensions of all sewers and stormwater drains which arelaid and conform to, an approved (town planning) layout to servethe types of development under (i), (ii) and (iii) of I.

V.1Appendix 1? - p«2(July 77)I? Except in the case of complete reconstruction* the widening of existingroads to conform to an approved road widening line, where opportunity forthe work to be done is given by the re-development of existing property*An approved road widening line for this purpose means sV(i)(ii)A road widening line approved by the Soad Widening Sub-Committeein the Secretariat, orA road widening line approved by D»P*W® which has previously beenendorsed by the Secretariat by approval to negotiate the purchaseof property for widening up to the line approved by B*P®¥*Approval to charge such road widenings to the vote Vorks contingent ondevelopment' 4 will not be given if it is considered that such work wouldjustify a separate non-rectirrent subhead*The enlarging of existing sewers and stonawaters drains which has beenrendered necessary by the redevelopment on a more intensive scale ofexisting property*VI The following are exceptions to the above general rules :Til(i)Roads in a town planned area which do not conform to the approvedlayout and which are constructed entirely for the benefit of theproperty owner are chargeable to ^Works executed on private account 1 *If land is purchased and buildings erected thereon at some considerabledistance from existing or foreseeable development, it is uaually laid downin the Sale Conditions that the purchaser shall be responsible for meetingthe cost s(i)(ii)of such road works as he may requirefof simple drainage connections to the ends of existing systems*Should it be decided subsequently that the intervening areas will bedeveloped and normal sized drains extended, then the difference betweenthe cost of the full extensions and that of the simple connections arechargeable to 'Works Contingent on Development 1 «4« If you require extra copies of this memorandum please let me know.Sd* (S.E. Alleyne)for Financial Secretary

7.1Appendix 17 - p*3(July 77)o.c. Aect. Gen.D. of A.D.C.H.T. (2)P.W.D. 4/957/63A.D./A.O.A.D./B.O.O.SoC.L. & S«C.E.D.V.C.E. Dev. OfficeA.L./E. & M.C.E.P.W.C.E.R.O. (W)C.E.S.O.(T.E.)D.D./WaterworksFor your information and necessary action.Sd. ( ¥.0. Lee )for D.P.W.17.1.64

Highways () DivisionWORKS CONTINGENT ON DEVELOPMENTPROGRAMME NO.I tern!No. ILot No*/Govt.Building Location Details of ProgressandDevelopmentDescription of WorksContingent onDevelopmentEstimatedCostRemarks

Reasons for Belay50UtilitiesworkingFormation notyet completedby developerAnticipatedCompletionDateIn hand¥.1Appendix 19(July 77)O•H^ -Pm•HProgressAnticipatedCommencementDateNot yetstartedBilledCompletedO

V.1Appendix 20(juLy 77)CHECK LIST - W.C. ON D. ITEM NO.1ActionPlans received from B»0«Q* or S,N*T.ByInitial Date Remarks2Check necessity for work & openproject file if necessaryA.E.3Consult with the appropriate T«E«Division and/or Drainage Works Divisionas necessaryA.E.4Prepare preliminary drawingsSEA(C)5Forecast start dateA.E.6B.U. on(i*e» 3 months before start date)Registry7Inspect site and check start dateA.E.8If work can start in 3 months timeprepare estimate and include inprogrammeA.E.9Finalise drawingsSEA(C)(For N.T. items,agree nontechnicaldetailswith D.O,)10Check estimate f drawings and submititem to S«E.E.11Check Form 61 and submit programmeto C.E.S.E.12Submit programme to G»H*E*(w)C.E.13On receipt of G,H.E.(W) f s approval,check finances and issue Works Orderor invite tendersE.14Enter details on progress reportE.15Raise standardnotices to utilitiesI.O.W.16Issue standard noticesE.17Report monthly progress on progressreport f ormsE.

P.W.D. 48REQUISITION FOR WORK TO BE CARRIED OUT BY THE7.1Appendix 21(July 77)- p.1PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT FOR A MEMBER OF THE PUBLICDaleTo:Chief Engineer (Highways), P.W.D.Division.connect-on with""* *" *"* >pedfled in the SchedU ' e be W tO be Carried Out'°Lot No.Addressi agree to pay to the Hong Kong Government the cost of the work involved including all Fees, Labour, Materialsand Departmental overhead charges within 14 days of the presentation of the demand note to be rendered by you.Schedule of Work RequiredNo. & SizeApprox. DateRequiredRemarks1. Drainage connections(a)Foul sewer connections.(b) Stormwater drain connections.2. Run ins.3. Repairs to damaged footpaths, etc.4. Surfacing and drainage of lanes, etc. tobe surrendered.5. Other works(a)(b)Plans have been approved by the Building Authority as follows:-Site FormationBuildingDrainageB.O.O. Ref.DateB.O.O. Ref.DateB.O.O. Ref.DatePlans showing the works required are attached.I ha-ve appointed Mr.as my authorized architect.SignatureName in block letters ..Telephone No.AddressINOTESPlans (to a scale of 50 ft. to an inch or larger) attached to this requisition should show details of all work required with all relevantlevels reduced to Principal Da tarn."» Requisition for work should normally be submitted after plans have been approved by the Building Authority and AT LEAST two months*" before work is required. When the works required are of ah extensive or complicated nature the requisition should be submitted wellin advance of the date they are required.3 Item 3 of the schedule above should be included in all cases where buildings abut onto public roads or lanes.4 A demand note covering the estimated cost of the works will be.j.issued to the applicant if the proposals are satisfactory.5 On receipt of notification of payment of the demand note and'''provided the site is clear and available to the P.W.D. contractor,applicant will be informed of the date on which work is to commence. If work does not commence on the stated date a requestfor explanation should be made to the Chief Engineer.

V.1Appendix 21 - p»2(July 77)FOE OFFICIAL USE ONLYA. Date received File Ref.DescriptionEstimate Works Order No. Actual Cost Works Completed!. Drainage connections(a) Foul sewer connections.(b} Stormwater drain connections.(

V.1Appendix 22 - p.1(July 77)1.TO2. Engineer3. i.o.w.4« Engineer5* Accounts6. Engineer i7- C.D.8* Engineer9* Engineer10. G.E.DRAINAGE WOBES11. I.O.W.12 . Engineer13* G«K*14. I.0.¥.15* Engineer16. I.O.W.17* Engineer18. G.R.19. i.o.w.20 EngineerWORKS OH PRIVATE ACCOUNT FBOCEDOHEP.W.Do 48 receivedFor approvalFor estimatesCHECK LISTACTI01Estimates for approvalEstimates approved.D*»«IssuedPrepare drawingsIssue B.H.Drawings prepared and attachedD.N. paidB.U. onfor action onIs site clear?to I.Q.V.Site obstructed. ObstructionBotice (Appendix 23) for signatureSend Obstruction Notice to ownerSite Clear Hotice receivedSite clearEst. commencement dateEst* completion dateNotice to Utilities (Appendix 26)for signatureNotice to owner (Appendix 24) forsignatureIssue ¥.0* Ho.for items¥.0. IssuedB.U* onfor action belowAre works completed ?in Schedule__ . to I.0,¥.Works completedNotification to owner (Appendix 25)for signatureFile Ref .SIG. DATE EEMAHKS

7.1Appendix 22 - p.2(July 77)21. G.R*TO22. G.H.ROAD WORKS23. I.O.V.24. G*R.25. I.O.W*26 « Engineer27* I.O.W.28* Engineer29- G*R*30. i.o.v.31 « Ersgineer32 * AccotmtsiCTIOSSend Drainage works completednotice to ownerB»U* onfor action belowIs site clear?(i to I.O»W,Send Obstruction Notice to ownerSite Clear notice receivedSite cleaxEst* commencement dateEst« completion dateDraft Notice to Utilities forsignature (if necessary)Issue ¥.0* Ho.for itemsW.0« issuedB.U. onfor action belowAre works completed ?Works completedin Seheduledto I.O.W.Please complete cost statementSIG. DATE REMARKS

¥.1Appendix 23(July 11)Our Ref • iTel. No. iHIGHWAYS (HIGHWAYS OFFICE) DIVISIONSir(s)/Madam(s),Account Ho*forNotification of your payment to the Treasury of the above Demand Notehas been received in this Division.2. I regret to inform you that when the representative of this Divisionarrived at the site on .....a................... he found that it was notpossible to carry out the following works :(a) Drainage Connections,(b) Run-ins,(c) Footpath/Land Surfacingdue to ^ obgtruction by (i) scaffolding,(ii) hoarding,(iii) building debris,(iv) utilities.(b) private drainage not ready for connection.(c) site formation not complete to require levels*3» Will you please inform me when the site will be available for my worksto proceed.Yours faithfully,c.c* The Architect,Mr.for Chief Engineer, Highways ( )

H.H.4.3V.1Appendix 24(July 77)Our Ref. sTel. No. :HIGHWAYS (HIGHWAYS OFFICE) DIVISIONSir(s)/Madam(s),Account No. for $Notification of your payment to the Treasury of the above Demand Notehas been received in this Division*20 Drainage connections and road works will commence on3« If works do not coicmence within 2 days of this date would you pleaseinform me.Yours faithfully,/ ^for Chief Engineer, Highways ( )c.c. The Architect,Mr*

V.1Appendix 25(July 11}Our Ref • sTel* No* sHIGHWAYS (HIGHWAYS OFFICE) DI7ISIOHSir(s)/Madara(s),Account Ho* for $Please note that the drainage works for the above were completedon *«••**«*•»•**.*«*««*•«*«**«**2* Please notify me when(a) the construction of run-in is required}(b) repairs to damaged road adjacent to the lotcan "be carried out*3* Street name plates may be fixed to the building**Yours faithfully,, sfor Chief Engineer, Hi^iways ( )c*c. C*B*S» ( )fhe Architect*Mr*delete as necessary

H.H.Appendix 26(July 77)HIGHWAYS (HIGHVJAYS OFFICE} DI7ISIOHTel. iBate tTo s Messrs * Hong Kong Telephone Co* Ltd.*Messrs* China Light & Power Co* Ltd* fMessrs* Hong Kong Electric Co* Ltd. fMessrs* Hong Kong & China G a ® Co* Ltd« fMessrs* Redif fusion (H*K*) Ltd* fMessrs* Cable & Wireless Ltd, fMessrs* Hong Kong Tramways Ltd**Dear Sirs fPlease note that road openings will "be made in the location indicatedbelow as follows iStreet * * ****•********,.**** *********************** «*«*Work scheduled to commence on «*«*«*««*«•«*«•***«*..******««««*««***•******«**Works scheduled to be completed on************* + *«*******«*»*»*»*•*«•»*Nature of works «»«**««•««»««*«««****«.**«***««*****««*«*«»*«»*»*•««*»Location plan attached/overleaf*2. Would you please inform me by return if you have any works to becarried out/before/in com junction with/after these works are caxried out.3, It is intended to reinstate the footpath/road surface immediately thedrainage works are completed and your co-operation is requested to ensure thatyour works are completed in good time*4* A Hoad Opening Permit will be required for your works.for C*E* Highways ( )*c*c* * * * *Biv* Supt* Police ( )D.S*/T. (H*K*/K,/N*T.)w*w*o*B* of F*S*G*A*(o/c Defence Works Group)o/c Royal SignalsArea Traffic Control Unit* delete where inapplicable

(July ??)2PRIVATE LOTS AIDLAMB ALLOCATIONS(See also Yol* II Chapter 3)2*1 INTRODUCTIONThe scope of this chapter Is to cover procedure in matters relatingto Private Lots or other Land Allocations in the following categories :(a) Private Development or Projectsi(b) Government Projects;(c) Prospecting and Mining Licences;(d) Permits*The Highways Works Divisions are responsible for matters relating toindividual lots, allocation of land for Government projects, prospectingand mining licenses, etc* in all areas except:(i) those where special arrangements are agreed betweenG.H«E« and G.C*E» (e*g» areas under the control ofC.E.D, & A.) } and,(ii) the New Towns and other Development Areas in theNew Territories*The procedure has been devised to avoid the duplication of filingsystems in these matters and to reduce the danger of conflicting advicebeing given by different Divisions especially to developers and AuthorisedPersons*

V.2.2.1(July 77)2*2 PROCEDURE2 * 2 * 1 (a) The Division/Office within whose area the lot/project is situatedwill open a file when first approached on the matter and will beresponsible for initiating any action required unless directedotherwise*(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)If specialist advice is required from another Division/Office orofficer f the Division f s/0ff ice f s file will be minuted to theappropriate officer*N*B»Cases which are obviously covered by standard rulingsneed NOT be referred and borderline cases should becleared at Engineer/Ass t* Engineer level by directconsultation* (See routing sheet Appendix 1 forfurther guidance)*Correspondence with other departments, P.W.D, offices LotOwners, A*B* etc* will normally be conducted by the Division/Office responsible for the lot/project^ except when it is agreedthat direct correspondence with specialist advisers would be moreappropriate*If other divisions receive correspondence direct t&ey shouldNOT copy these comments to the writer of the incoming correspondencebut only inform him that the comments have been forwarded to theDivision/Office responsible for the lot/project.Policy matters which may arise and conflict with divisional viewswithin H«0*/C.E,0. should be referred to the appropriate GovernmentEngineer by memo (if necessary enclosing the lot file)*If the responsibility for a particular area should change from oneDivision/Office, to another, then the lot files for that areashould be handed over accordingly*2,2*2 Hew Towns and Development Areas(a)Areas under the control of D* &. A* Division are shown hatched ondrawing No* DE? 11 3F and areas under investigation by Port WorksDivision axe shown on drawing Ho* P*5835C* These plans are held byeach Division/Section for inspection purposes* C.E.D. & A* andC«E«P»¥* are responsible for updating the plans and should beconsulted, as and when necessary, regarding lots etc* lying withinareas shown on the plans* (Cont«d.)(July 77)(b)If a lot or land allocation etc. is within the New Towns or otherDevelopment Areas where roads and drains are being provided by the N«T«D*D* or D* & A* Division* then- appropriate Office/Division shouldundertake all the responsibilities for matters relating to individuallots f allocation of land for Government projects etc* until such time asthe area is handed over to a Highways Works Division for maintenance*

(July 11}2.5 PRIVATEForms FGForms FG are circulated by C*L«S»0* or N»T»D«D« to(i) the appropriate Highways Works Division; or ?(ii) the New Territories Development Offices to obtaininformation and requirements in connection witha private lot to be developed or redeveloped®(a) Areas under Highways Works Divisions ? ControlForm FG must be circulated to the various officers in thecorrect sequence and action should be taken in accordance withDivisional Bouting Sheet at Appendix 1*The major responsibilities of the officers are sS.E.A* (Civil)Asst* EngineerEngineerSenior Engineer •-- Insertion of all informationregarding roads f drains, lotboundaries.Visit site and verification ofall road f drainage, lot andcatchwater information* Completionof Form FG in draft, preparationof sketch drawings and firm estimatesfor work to be done* (This mustinclude Departmental OverheadCharges as applicable*)Check drawings, estimates and suggestedclauses for Form FG* Liaise withCapital Works Engineer for anyconditions necessary in connectionwith work being planned or underconstruction* Submit comments andrecommendations to S*B* withclarification of ambiguities as aresult of comments from other officers*Ensure that all other parties concernedhave been asked to comment (SeeAppendix 1)»Complete Form FG and initial relevantclauses*Filing Clerk - Open andprepare file for routing etc*Duplicate remarks of S*E» and pass onto C*E*Chief Engineer - Peruse Form FG and sign*

Y»2»3»1 (Cont'd.)(July 77)The check list at Appendix 2 provides guidance with respect tothe main aspects normally covered by Form FG* Guidance Notes to assistin the preparation of Form ?G are given at Appendix 3«It is extremely important that various Divisions within C*E.O,/H«0«should be kept aware of proposals for development* Normally, adviceshould be sought from the following Divisions who should comment wherenecessary and who should also request the inclusion of necessary clausesin Form FG i(i)Traffic Engineering DivisionAdvice on the following main headings should berequested sHotel Sites (see Appendix 4)1Petrol Filling Stations?Schools|Cinemas|Hoad proposals in preliminary design stagejParking!Access}Corner Splays}Long Term Road Study proposals.(ii) Drainage Works DivisionAdvice on all aspects of foul and storm waterdrainage*(iii) Development and Airport DivisionAdvice on lots in areas under the control of C.E*D & A,(iv) Port Works DivisionAdvice on lots on proposed reclamations, marine lotsor lots within 100 metres of the waterfront*(b) . New Towns and other DevelopmentAreas in the jew TerritoriesThe procedure for dealing with Form KJ should be in accordancewith the following appendices ;Appendix 5Appendix 6-. Processing Land Development Proposals,Flow chart for New Town Development Offices}-• Processing Land Development Proposals,Flow Chart for New Town Development Branch}

?*2«3*1 (Cont f d«)(July 77)Appendix 7 - Land Development Proposals f Routing Sheet fAppendix 8 - Land Development Proposals f Check List*(c) Cost of i Diversion of Roads and DrainsThe estimated cost of diversions in respect of roads and drainsmust be quoted in Form FG whenever this work is to be carried out byGovernment as a charge to the lot owner* As the estimated cost ofthe works affects the premium paid for the lot, the estimate must bereasonably accurate* The estimate should be conditioned by a note"Subject to confirmation when final lease conditions are being drawnup 8 *,The estimated cost (which must include Departmental OverheadCharges - normally 20$) given in the final lease conditions is afixed sum, which is paid into a Government revenue account and cannotbe varied either up or down irrespective of the actual cost of theworks «(d)(a)(b)(c)Time for CirculationUnder normal circumstances no Division should require to retainForm KJ/Engineering Conditions for a period longer than 2 weeks* Ifproblems connected with a particular site make a Division likely toretain the Form FG/Engineering Conditions for longer than 2 weeks,C.L, & S*0* or N,T.D*D«, should be immediately informed by the Divisionconcerned*by Authorised .......PersonsIntroductionBequests and enquiries from Authorised Persons are generallyconfined to information connected with road and drainage works adjacentto* affecting, or likely to affect, development or re-development*Ho Known Proposals for Future Alteration to RoadsWhere the development or re-development adjoins an existing roadfor which there are no known proposals for any future alterationslikely to result in a change of the widths or levels currently existing,the A.P« should be informed that no change is contemplated and theexisting widths and levels may therefore be taken as correct fordesign purposes*Firm and Approved Proposals to RoadsWhere the development or re-development, adjoins a road for whichthere are firm and approved proposals for future changes likely toaffect the A*P* development proposals, all relevant information,abstracted from the appropriate fown Plan or approved layout plan,should be superimposed on a copy of the A*P« f s drawing and returned

Y»2*3»2 (Cont*d»)(July 77)(d)to Mm through the post,* Alternatively f a copy of the relevant portionof the appropriate Town Plan or approved layout plan should be forwardedto the A»P* Replies should follow the format shown at Appendix: 9*tentative Proposals to RoadsIn the case of a development or re-development likely to beaffected by future road or drainage works which are only tentative innature and for which no firm layout has been approved f the A«P« shouldnormally be invited to call and discuss his specific requirements withthe District Engineer concerned or one of the more senior officers ofthe Division^(e)(f)(g)Srainage^Infpraation ..... - ...LocalRequests for specific drainage information of a localised natureshould be met by indicating the required information (usually invertlevels and positions of drains, etc.) on the A*P* f s drawings . Wherethe A*P« does not forward the drawing he should be asked either to do soor to visit the office and obtain the information for himself «^ainage^JCgfogmation - GeneralWhere the request is for drainage information of a generalisednature involving a sizeable area* the A*P* should be invited to send arepresentative to the Division's office to extract such information ashe may require from the record drawings* Reduced levels of specificpoints on existing roads or footpaths should not normally be given*The A*P* should be advised to obtain these himself by survey from thenearest bench mark*CorrespondenceLetters giving information to the A«P« should be copied to B.O.Q.arid C.L. & S.Q* as appropriate*All correspondence with the A*P. should be copied to his client.2.3*3 BtOJDjt .Plans ...... . jjgd S ubmis s 1 ons(a)•' IntroductionAll building plans have to be either approved or disapproved bythe Building Authority within 60 days of receipt of the plans on firstsubmission* and within JO days on re-submission* It is necessarytherefore for Highways Office to process and return to B.Q.O. newbuilding plans and re-submitted building plans within 36 days and T7days respectively. The deadline is indicated in the covering memo from• B.0.0*

?« 2.3*3 (Cont s d)(July 7?)Only one set of building plans is forwarded by B.0*0*Additional plans for the Traffic Engineering Division shouldbe requested by the Works Division from the Authorised Persondirect*(b)The relevant Chief Engineer of the Works Division is the coordinatingoffice for Highways Office and is responsible for ensuringthat the act ions are completed on time* All correspondence should besigned by or on behalf of the Chief Engineer* All replies should bereturned directly to B*0*0* without routing through H*0* Headquartersunless a matter of policy is involved in which case the matter shouldbe submitted to H«Q* Headquarters in ample time*Action by Division(i)(ii)The E*A*(c) in charge should prepare a block plan indicatingexisting roads, drains, nullahs, etc* Sizes and invert levelsof existing drains together with road levels should be shownon this block plan*The Asst* Engineer should examine and comment on the proposeddetails* He should make provision for drainage extensions androad development at this stage if such are required*(iii) The Engineer should examine and, if satisfied that the blockplans and comments are in order, pass the comments to B*Q.O*Drainage comments should be made on standard Forms A & B atAppendix 10 and 11*(iv)(v)Complicated cases and matters of policy should be referred tothe Senior Engineer for his advice*Examination of building plans (roads) depend to a large extenton the requirements laid down in the Building (Private Streetsand Access Roads) Regulations* However, it is advisable torefer to existing standards and policies on matters pertainingto run-ins, sight lines, parking facilities, etc* beforefinalizing comments on the building plans*(c)(d)Run-insThe dimensions are given on the H*0. Standard Drawing Nos. H1,H2 and H3« The Highways Works Division Engineer should preparecomments after reference to existing established standards andpolicies in Tolume III of the Manual* The same procedure as laiddown for corner splays in Tol* V Chapter 1 should be followed*Parking and Turning SpaceGeneral parking standards and turning space requirements areshown on H*0* Standard Drawing Nos* 77-83 and Bos. 55-60 respectively*The same procedure as laid down for corner splays in Yol« V Chapter 1should be followed*

¥«2,5*3 (Cont'd*)(July 77)(e)(f)(g)Corner SitesWhen a comer site is developed or redeveloped f considerationshould be given to the provision of a comer splay* The same procedureas laid doici for corner splays in Vol« V f Chapter 1 should be followed,Sheet .PilingBequests for driving sheet piling outside lot boundaries shouldbe referred to G»L«1®Sheet piling may be driven so that the inner face coincides withthe lot boundary* Due to the depth of the web f the outer face may lieoutside the lot boundary* If left in situ the piles should be cut offafterwards by the developer to a depth of 2 m below the footpath orroad level«Bored Piles $ CaissonsLarge diameter bored piles, caissons or any other foundationstructures should be totally within the lot boundary*

(July 7?)2«4 GQj^MEKT PROJECTS2«4«1 General2*4*2Proposals for projects involving the allocation of land, i*e®Government buildings, sewage screening plants, reservoirs f etc* but notroad works f site formation, drainage or water main projects* should becirculated by the Project Architect or Engineer for coisment to all interestedparties® All Divisions contacted should forward a copy of their commentsto the Division responsible for the project as if it were a private lot*(a)(b)(c)These dociMents will be forwarded by C.L.S.O,/N.T.D«D. to theappropriate Highways Office Works Division or the New Town DevelopmentOffice.The procedure for dealing with Engineering Conditions for GovernmentProjects is similar to that for dealing with Form FG*Engineering Conditions must be signed "by the Senior Engineer andcountersigned by the Chief Engineer*

7*2*5(July 11)2*5 mOSPECglMG AIB MIIIIG LICENSES(a)(b)(c)Arrangements haTe been made for the Conffliissioner of Mines to addresscorrespondence to D»P»W« for the attention of S.E./Q, and theappropriate Highways Works Division* S«E./Q* should reply direct tothe Commissioner of Mines stating if the proposal is acceptable tothe Quarry Section* The appropriate Highways Works Division shouldreply direct to the Commissioner of Mines on all other aspects afterconsulting other interested Divisions*Mining Licenses should provide adequate general cover clauses formaking good damage and particular clauses regarding access f protectionof drainage f etc* as may be necessary in particular cases« The extentand duration of the licenses should take into account proposeddevelopment in the area*All proposals for new mining leases and renewals of leases should bereferred to the Quarry Section for comments* Procedure within theHighways Works Division should be in accordance with the DivisionalRouting Sheet (Appendix 1).2.6 PERMITS AMD SHORT-TERM TENANCIESproposals to grant permits and short-term tenancies will be referreddirect to the Highways Works Division concerned and should normally be dealtwith on similar lines to Engineering Conditions governing Government Projects,Expenditure of Government funds is not normally approved for the provisionof access and drainage to permit areas and care should be taken to ensurethat the permit conditions take this into account either by inclusion ofspecial conditions or by restrictions on the type of user*2*7 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIMCEA certificate of compliance with General and/or Special Conditions inconnection with lease of private lots should be issued when the conditionshave been satisfied* The standard form of memo is given at Appendix 12,

Amendnent Sheet Ko» 7Formation Requirements in Sales ConditionsThe following gives the general guidelines for the application andinterpretation of the Standard Form FG Clause 841 for the formation,requirements in Sales Conditions.•(a) The main purpose of this Clause is to require the developerto form the future public roads fronting his lot so thatbuilding/pedestrian traffic can be cairied thereon* WhetttM?the formation covers half or full width of the road dependswhether or not there will be developments on the ether side ofthe road* If the development is yej^Qremote, consideration canbe given to requiring full width formation subject to personalapproval of the Divisional Chief Engineer.(b) According to the Clause, D.P.W, has full discretion to stipulatethe standard and method of formation and surfacing so thatbuilding or main road and/or pedestrian traffic may be carriedthereon. However, the general requirement by Highways Officeof this clause is that developer should form the ff green area"to required Ieve3£ and provide temporary surfacing of an adequatestandard thereafter they should be re-delivered to Governmentwho will undertake the final surfacing including any necessarysubbase and lay storm water drains and sewers on Public WorksNon-recurrent vote "Works Contingent on Development 11 . For thispurpose, the terra '"'surface 11 is deemed to be interpreted as finalsurface- and therefore cu£ht to be deleted unless its inclusionhas been cautiously considered and approved by the DivisionalChief Engineer personally. In the latter case, to avoid ambiguityperhaps it may be worth adding "final 11 before "surface 11 in theClause.(c) Once the "surface 11 is deleted, however, "main road traffic" shouldalso be deleted from the Clause.(d) Similarly the "provision and construction of any bridges, tunnels,over-passes, under-passes, culverts, viaducts, flyovers, pavementsor such other structures" in the standard version should only beincluded, in part or in tote, in the Clause if they are required .for the formation of the green ar^a to take vehicular andpedestrian traffic. Culvert ing ci a stream course running acrossthe future road is a classical example* Under normal circumstance,however, any public storm water drains and sewers to be laid infuture public road should be constructed by government under theW.C, on D. vote.(c) It is emphasized again that there is basically no HighwaysOffice objection to including the final surfacing of futurepublicroad.-? and/or provision of drsinago system or any otherstructures in tho formation clause provided those are includedafter careful consideration.

Appendix 1 - p*1(July 77)FORM PG PROCEDUREDIVISIONAL ROUTING SHEETToAction RequiredActionedInit* & Date1. Piling Pile together with one copy of routing sheetClerk and B*U, with Check List and duplicate Form PG2. DrawingOffice3 * Engineer/A*E*Complete general section of Check List inpencil and show existing/proposed roads/sewers*channels f culvert* nullah f S*¥* drains streamcourses/mass transit, L*T.R*S* ajnd drainagereserve etc. on C.L. & S*0* ! s f HighwaysDivision's and N,T.A» f s (in case of N*T*Division) copies of plan*(a) Visit site to check accuracy of "blockplan and site conditions etc.(b) Complete Check Lists*(c) Draft duplicate Form PG/EngineeringConditions(d) Prepare drawings/estimates required*(e) Minute to C*E*T.E*/C*E.D*W./C*B.D. &C.E.P.W*/S.E,(Q)/G.E./M.T. if theiradvice is required*(f) Prepare draft memo if necessary toclarify situation for S*E. signature*(g) Delete C.E*0, or H*0. as appropriateon front cover*4* Check and complete Form PG5* DespatchClerk'(a) Complete reference on front cover*(b) Check document completed in accordancewith draft*6* C«E« For final checking and signature on cover "byC.E* personally or the officer actingtemporarily in his post*

V.2Appendix 1 - p.2(July 77)FOR ADVICEPLEASE ACTIOH BY MIKUTE 135 PILE(ENG-INEER/A.E. to delete those not required)To?• DespatchClerk8* C.E.T.E.9* C*E*D.W.10* C.E.D.& A*11. C.E.P.W.12. G.B./M.T.Action Required(b) Inform C»L* & S.O. by teax off chitFor your advice please* site is(a) Hotel site,(b) Petrol filling station site,(c) School site.(d) Cinema site.(e) Site affected by L.f.R.3. or other roadproposals in preliminary design stage.(f) Other non-standard case re. parking/access/corner splay.Special drainage problems are involved -please let me have your commentsWithin your area of interest - have you anycomments ?Within your area of interest - have you anycomments ?M*T. is affected - have you any comments ?ActionedInit. & Date

Appendix 2 - p«1(July 77)Form i F fG • /Engineering^ i ConditionCheck ListItem No*Remarks1* Plan is/is not in accordance with(a) Approved/Draft Statutory Plan (OutlineZoning Plan) Drawing No*(b) ApproTed/Braft Statutory Plan (OutlineDevelopment Plan) Braving No*(c) Approved/Braft Departmental Plan (OutlineDevelopment Plan) Drawing Mo*(d) Approved/Draft Departmental Plan (LayoutPlan) Drawing No®(e) Approved/Proposed Eoad Widening PlanDrawing No*Lot is affected by or in the vicinity of(a) L*T*B*S« proposals(b) Mass Transit proposals(c) Reclamation or Port Works Division proposals(d) Area affecting D & A Division(e) Hew/proposed road works shown on Brg* No.(f) Corner splays f parking or access proposalsIs there a footpath right of way/road f across oradjacent to the lot*(Form F*G* Clause No* refers)Can access be provided to the site ?(a) from existing public road fronting lot,(b) from proposed public road fronting lot tobe constructed as a charge to W*C* onD/P«V*P. Item/Lot Owner.(c) by a private right of way from existing/proposed public road*(d) Without affecting any trees*Is there sufficient space between the futurewidening line of the road and the lot boundaryto provide jEor a cutting/filling slope and thesewill/will not be affected by any building workswithin the lot ?Does the line of the right of way on the"Conditions of Sale Plan 11 comply with theBuilding Regulations for "Access loads".. ?

V.2Appendix 2 - p*2(July 77^Item Ho*8.9*10.11,12.13.Lot is/is not affected "by or in the vicinity ofDuplication of Sewers proposals•Are there any of the following across or adjacentto the lot that require to be diverted f culvertedor decked t(a) Sewer(b) Storm water drain(c) Channel or open drain(d) Nullah(e) Becked nullah(f) Culvertor underground drain(g) Stream course(Form F*G* Clause Ho* refers)N«B« Ho structure is permitted to be built overArterial nullahs without first obtainingP.W.D. Conference approval*Is a Drainage Reserve required ?Can a S*¥*D» connection be given to the lot ?(a) by extending/enlarging Government drain asa charge to W*C, on B/P.W.P, Item/Lot Owner(b) to stream course or sea(Form F.G* Clause Hos* refer)Can a sewer connection be given to the lot ?(a) by extending/enlarging existing sewer as acharge to ¥»C. on D/P«¥»P. Item/Lot Owner(b) by the construction of a suitable sewagetreatment facility as a charge to W.C. onD/P»W*P« item/Lot Owner(Form P«G, Clause Nos. refer)Is there a catchwater which may affect thedrainage of the site ?Is the installation of water-cooling airconditioningplant of large capacity possible orenvisaged ?Remarks

¥.2Appendix 2 - p.3(July 7?)Item Ko«Remarks14« Is the lot affected by or in the vicinity of(a) Electric cable or ducts etc*(b) Telephone cable or ducts etc*(c) Water mains f manholes etc*(d) Gas mains etc*(e) M»0*D« Cables etc*(f) Other Utilities15* Has site "been visited ?

Appendix 3 ~ P*1(July 7?)Notes on Form F*G« Clauses(2GA/4.Series)(* indicates clause carried into Crown Lease when issued)ItemItem InForm KJSections in connection with Hoadsand Drains ConsiderationClauseincludedClausenotincludedFORMATIQIFirst check on Formation Clausessiaggested by Estate Survey or , C»L« &722To "be included where a main arterialdrain crosses the area*Soads _agd^jteainage741(a) Is the developer required to formthe future road/roads ? Yes/No(b) Any additional formation requiredfor future road widening ? Yes/Ho45742743Always include - making good damage.Always include - dumping outside thelot.6*744Always include - stormwater shall beadequately dealt with*7*745Always include - damage to existingdrainage 9 watermains or Governmentproperty*8746Always include - drainage connections*Delete fl when laid ft if connectionreadily available.9*747Always include ~ f oundationsconstructed near drainage works*10*748To be included where it is not possibleto provide a sewer connection.11749To be included where it is not possibleto provide a sewer connection*12*75Qfo be included when the lot is to beused for industrial or similar purposes«

V.2Appendix 5 - p.277)(* indicates clause carried into Crown Lease when issued)ItemItem InForm PGSections in connection with Roadsand Brains ConsiderationClauseincludedClausenotincluded13 751(a) To be included where any drainagediversion is required* Thisclause is intended to allowGovernment to control the alignmentof an existing stream coursewithin £L_lot« ' It also preventsany riparian owner from sufferingloss of rights* Government to dowork at cost of owner to ensuresatisfactory standard* Sum to "befirm + 20fo overhead and supervisioncharges «H751(b) To be included where any streamcourse or nullah is to be permittedto flow through the lot afterfinalisation of the sale*15752To be used where a major water courserequires special consideration andalignment*16*753(a) Intended for special drainagerequirements(b) Where high standards (e.g* sizesof pipes) is wanted* This clauseand sub«HxLause (c) will be usedwhen required by ¥«¥*G,(c) This is required tinder BuildingOrdinance*17 754To be used where it is consideredeconomical for Government to providespecial facilities for several privatedevelopment lots* Sum to be firm*+ 20$ overhead and supervision charges*18 755fo be included where the extension isbeing laid to serve solely the purchaserSum to be firm -f 20$ overhead andsupervision charges*756To be included where a pathway crossesthe site*

¥.2Appendix 5 - P»3(July 77)(* indicates clause carried into Crown Lease when issued)ItemItem InForm PGSections in connection with Roads ;and Brains ConsiderationClauseincludedClausenotincluded20757To "be included where a pathway acrossthe site has to be diverted elsewhere*21*758To "be included where Government willcarry out any cutting or filling worksin the vicinity of the lot afterdevelopment has taken place*22759(a) fo be included for roads to beconstructed by grantee*(b) fo be included for drainageworks to be carried out byGovernment *23*|60Traffic Engineering Manual f Policy onEunins refers to ingress and egressfor this sort of case (refer to C.E*T*E* in dubious or important cases)*Miscellaneous24*781(b) To be included where a mainarterial drain crosses the area*25*786To be included where a right of wayis to be given*2?*787Must be included if grantee is toarrange for his own right of way*

Appendix 4 - p,1(July ?7)Hef. L/M H.O. 0794.071Highways OfficePublic ¥orks DepartmentHong Kong*for Processing ofProposals inrelation to erection of bona fide hotels1« Concessions may be granted under the Buildings Ordinance in respect ofthe erection of bona fide hotels* These Concessions are outlined in a CircularLetter dated 23*9*69 addressed by !>*?*¥„ as Building Authority to all AuthorisedArchitects and states briefly that the area reserved at ground level for parking floading/unloading, etc* will count as bonus for the purpose of calculations underthe Building Planning Hegulations* An extract of the actual text reads asfollows s ->f (i) It Is first necessary to decide the area to be(* See para» 3) reserved at ground level* for setting down fromvehicles and picking up hotel users? loading andunloading} waiting; vehicles and hotel lasers etc.Whatever area is finally agreed will be thesubject of a suitable document to be registeredat the Land Office}(ii) in order to arrive at the appropriate area f it Isnecessary to estimate the quantity of vehicularand passenger traffic to be generated by theproposed hotel and aim at removing this from thepublic streets* To assist in this, the appropriate(* See para* 2) traffic and transport engineer in the CivilEngineering Office* should be consulted at anearly stage* He should also be requested to adviseon height clearances, required loadings f andconnections to and from the public streets?(iii)based on (i) and (ii) above, the Building Authoritywill then consider modification of PlanningRegulation 22 to allow the agreed area to countfor bonus, i«e« although the area will not actuallybe dedicated to Government, it will be so regardedfor the purpose of calculating the bonus area*"2. P.G.B*S« has agreed to amend (ii) above by replacing lf traffic andtransport engineer in the Civil Engineering Office" by "Chief Engineer, HighwaysOffice 11 * (This is to bring the procedure into line with the general practice foxdealing with Authorized Architects.)

V.2Appendix 4 ~ p*2(July 77)3* To ensure uniformity of treatment f standards for parking and loading andunloading as contained in the Planning Report agreed by P*W*D* Land Conference on22*4*71 should be followed as a guide* All proposals involving possible hoteldevelopment, either from Authorised Architects f or from C.L, £ 8»0« (including FormF«G*) for lots on which bona fide hotels are or may be allowed should be referredto the appropriate T*E* Division for advice regarding parking and loading/unloadingrequirements»4« It will be noted that the concessions relate only to ground floor provisions fhowever f it is possible that traffic engineering requirements may well be met onfloors above or below the ground level* In such cases G.H.E«/T*T* will refer thematter to P.G.B.S* to obtain a ruling* C*E«T.E» in making his comments should thereforeconsider the traffic engineering provisions as a whole and not only thoseprovided at ground floor level*5. Once action in paras 2 and 3 has been completed, C»S*T.E« will then passthe file back to the relevant Highways Division and advise on the special conditionsto be imposed* (if there is likely to be any delay, the lot file will be returnedto the Highways Division pending completion of the above action)* The ChiefEngineer, Highways Division when replying to the Authorized Architect will copy hisreply to P»G«B.S* and C.E*T*E. The normal procedure will be followed in respect ofFoms P«G*6* In consultation with Government Structural Engineer, it has been decidedthat floors carrying vehicles should be designed for the following minimum loading :~(i) Areas to which private cars only have s 150 Ibs* per sq* ft*access by virtue of height restrictionsand for vehicles not exceeding 4 tens(ii) Covered areas to be used by coimercial : 80^ of H*A* loadingvehicles and tourist busesas per B*S* 153s Part3As 1954(iii) Uncovered areas where heavy vehicles : 80$ of H*A* loadingand fire appliances with extending as per B*S* 153sladders could operate Part 3A: 19547* The importance of requiring adequate facilities for parking and loading/unloading within hotel sites should be impressed upon all staff responsible in theprocessing of hotel development proposals* Wherever therefore, the minimumstandards as laid down in the planning report referred to in para* 3 are not met, thecase must be referred to G*E*E,/T»T*

¥.2Appendix 5(July 77)Brooeesing Land Development Proposals Flow Chartfor Hew Town Development OfficesIncoming CorrespondencefPrivate DevelopmentIs there a*New Town lot file ?iYesHoYesCall for, retain andincorporate in HewTown lot fileOpen lot fileC*P.O* (New Town)deals with planningaspect.G«E* (lew Town)Has C«E.H,/N*T* anengineering lot file ?Deal with engineeringaspect.C.P*Q. (lew Town)for further actionif required.1Government InstallationIs there a project file ?YesNo1Open project files1C,P.O* (New Town)deals with planningaspects» jC«B* (New Town)I *Call for, retain andincorporate in HewTown fileHas C*E*H*/$*T. anengineering projectfile ?Deal withIengineeringaspect*C.A. (N.T.D.)for comment.C*P.O« (New Town)for further actionif required*DespatchDespatch

7*2Appendix 6(July 77)Land Development Proposals Flow Chart for H»T» Development BranchAll correspondence to be directed to C.P,0. (lew Territories_ _ _ __ (Town Planning Office)Consult with S»P«0* (H*T.)(N.T.D.D.)Is the site within an area of interest toNoYesPass to G«E« (N,T,)IPrivate Bevel opment!Is there an NTB Lot file ?Government InstallationIs there a project file ?C.P.O.(N.T*) dealsin usual mannerles IHoYes 1 HoYesOpen lot fileiS.P.O. (K.T.)-*• deals withplanning aspectIS.E. (N.T.)*Has C*E,H,/N.T* anengineering lot file ?ICall for, retain& incorporate inN*T.D. lot file* ,Deal withengineering aspect.S.P.Q.(N.T.) for furtheraction if required*YesCall for, retain& incorporate inNew Town file*Open project fileIS.P.Q. (N.T.)deals withplanning aspectiS.E. (N.T.)iHas C.E«H»/N*T» anengineering project file ?Deal withengineering aspect4rC.A.(N*T.D*) forcommentDespatchDespatchS.P.O.(N.T«) for furtfraction if reftdred

Appendix 7 -(July 77)Land Development ProposalsRouting SheetToAction RequiredfictionedXnit*/DateRemarks1 * FillingClerkEnter in RegisterPile with Routing SheetCheck List, Duplicate FormP«G« etc. as appropriate•2» DrawingOffice(a) Mark on Lot Record Plan(b) Complete Check List in pencilas far as practicable*3« TownPlannerComplete Sections 1-4 of CheckList andComplete Planning SectionForm P*G*4. C.P.O* (a) Check and sign Planning SectionForm F«G*(b) Next Action s -7 if Area handed over toHighways Office5 if not handed over* Engineer (a) Yisit site f Check Plan SiteConditions, Progress ofContract Works etc*(b) Consult Consulting Engineers/C.E.D.W./C.E.P.W./S.E.(ft)/G*M.T*E. if their advicerequired*(c) Prepare Drawings/Estimates ifrequired*(d) Complete Check List and DraftForm F«G*(e) Draft covering memo ifrequired*Consult C.B.T.S*/M« only if majorprinciples axeinvolved*

Appendix 7 - P*2(July 77)Land DeTelopaent ProposalsRouting SheetAction Required(a) Check f complete and sign FormF*G» (cross check with C«P«Q«if required)(b) Follow up action required ?ActionedInit*/DateRemarksRefer to P.M* ifconsiderednecessary*YesNo(see 9)7* Despatch (a) Check all documents correctlycompleted*(b) Complete Refs« on Front Cover(c) Despatch 5 -After Action 4 withStandard memo lt X ltAfter Action 6 withStandard memo M Y M* C.P.O* To note Completed Action9. C.B. For Follow Up Action if indicatedin Action 6

Land ...........Development n ?Memos to be used vfaenAction b Hihwags^_0fficeAppendix 7 -(July 77)Memo > f X* fFrom :Form F,G* Ref *reThe site is in an area where s -(a) Engineering Action is being taken by C.E.H./N.T,(b) Planning Action is being taken by this Office*2* The Form F*G. has been forwarded to W.W.O. today markedfor onward transmission to C*E*H./N«T»c,c*for Project ManagerMemo "X., 1*po : B « 0 » / F r o mEngineering Conditions Ref*reThe site is in an area where : -(a) Engineering Action is being taken by C.E.H./H.T.(b) Planning Action is being taken by this Office*2* The Engineering Conditions have been forwarded to C*E.H*/N«f*for completion*c.c* C*E«H./H.T*W.W.O*for Project Manager

V.2Appendix 7 «• P*4(July 7?)Land Bevelogaent Proposals - ProcedureMeiaos to be used byMemo "Y"To i D»0»/,_ .____^mamm _. From : P«H*/Form P*G* Ref.reThe site is in an area where Engineering and PlanningAction is at present being taken by this Office*2* The Form F*G* has been forwarded to ¥.¥*()• for completionand rettarn to you.c.c. C.E.H./N.T.v.w.o.C.P.O. (N.f.)forMemofo : B«Q»/ Prom : P«M./Engineering Conditions Bef.ReThis site is in an area where Engineering and PlanningAction is at present being taken Toy this Office.2. The Engineering Conditions are returned herewith.c.c. C.E.B./N.T.V.W.O.for Project Manager

T.2Appendix 8 - p,1(July 77)Land Development ProposalsCheck List1* Area of ResponsjjgilitjjrClauseRemarksPlaraai^P.M.G.E.(K.T.)C.P.O.(HT)(TPO)Town Planning PlansEngineeringGr«E*(N«T«'} n* N * * / UC.E.H./N.T. [IDraftApprovedNumberBeing PreparedBeing RevisedoutlineLayout3* Compliance with TqwijPlan(a) Layout No Q Yes D(b) Land Use Ho Q Yes QIf Ho Planning Report to be preparedPiled at4* Site Affected by s -(a) L.T*R»S, ProposalsYes Ho[3 Q(b) Mass Transit Proposals Q Q(c) Other Public Works Q Qprojects (give Drg*No* and other Refs*in Remarks

Appendix 8 — p*2(July 77)Land Development ProposalsCheck List5* Existing Obstructions s -RoadStreamUtilities : -WaterTelephoneFootpathSWDGas(Show on Lot Plan)Access to SiteSewerO Electricity QOthers(a) Prom existing adjacent public road(b) Prom proposed adjacent public road i—i(due for completion) »—•(c) By right-of-way from existing/proposed public road D(d) Right-of-way on sale plan complieswith building regulations foraccess roads* As shown/amended(e) Restricted toClauseRemarks7« Diversions required (see 5)ServiceBy WhomEst, Cost8* FormationPartSiteRoad Res.Drain Res,SlopesSea WalljDev, 3y Govt*Snownon Plan

V.2Appendix 8 ~(July ??)Land Development ProposalsCheck List9«Connection can "be given to s -Existing S«W 0 B.ClauseRemarksNew/Enlarged S *¥*!)* const*. by

¥.2Appendix 9(July 77)Authorized ArchitectDear Sir,Lot No*Address ***,I refer to your letter of «*»««•««»«*»««.*******«*.a^**^***®*concerning the proposed building works at the above lot*2* There are proposals in existence for road improvements affectingyour client 1 s land as shown on the enclosed part print® The Director ofLands and Survey will approach you regarding this matter In the near future«3« Where no alteration in levels Is indicated on the plan you mayassume the future road reconstruction will not result In any substantialvariation from levels already existing*Yours faithfully.Chief Engineerc*c» D.P.W.

Y.2Appendix 10(July 77)Form AProm : C.E.H.Ref.To :Ref.DRAINAGE PLUSLot No* « €ArchitectAvailableDrainagePoul SewerPublic Private To be LaidStormwater DrainPublic Private To be Laid2* Comections(a) Connections can be made if plans are amended as detailed below and/or shown on the plans*(b) Drainage plans are not in order and should be amended as detailedbelow and/or shown on the plans*3* Amended _ Plans(a) Plans need not be referred back if amended as requested*(b) Please refer back amended plans before approval*4* Your file/set plans is returned herewith*Datefor C.E*H«Remarks :

Y.2Appendix 11(July 77)Form BProm sEef.C.E.H.To jRef.DSAI1AGE PLANSLot No* *«Architect1* AvailableDrainageFoul SewerPublic Private To Be LaidStormwater DrainPublic Private To Be Laid* Connections(a) Connections can be made as shown*(b) Drainage plans are in order as far,'as this office is concerned*« Your file/set plans is returned herewith.Datefor C*E»H.

Appendix 12(July 77)MEMOFrom i C.E.H* fo s C.L. & S.O.Ref. inTel. No. :Date sYotar Ref -Dated sin•*Conditions complied with«* Condition No* not complied with due toIt is confirmed that s* (i) any stuns payable by lessees for engineering workshave been paid$* (ii) if there is provision for D.P.W* to confirm acceptanceof any area as a public road, he has accepted thearea as a public road}* (iii) if there is provision for a lessee to construct aroad or path for the purposes of a right-of-way,such road or path has been constructed by thelessee*for Chief Engineer, Highways* Delete if inapplicablec«c* C»B»S*

¥.3.1(July 77)CHAPTER 3MAINTEMAIGE OF ROADS3.1 PUBLIC ROADS f FOOTWAYS AH n D iiii LAHES3.1*1In the absence of a statutory Highway Authority, powers forthe maintenance and cleanliness of roads* etc* exist only inwidespread legislation and effective operation is only possibleby satisfactory co-operation between Departments.The list shown below is a guide to some legislation relatingto maintenance and cleanliness of roads.(i) Placing telephone lines, cables and ducts -D*P.W. approves and prescribes conditions underthe Telephone Ordinance (see Vol. II Chapter 3).(ii) Telecommunication cables -Governor in Council or Postmaster General prescribesconditions to licence under the TelecommunicationsOrdinance.(iii) Tramway reserve -D.P.W. has power to control maintenance under theTramway Ordinance (see Vol. II Chapter 3).(iv) Excavations in Unleased Land -the Authority (D.P.tf.) may issue excavation permitsunder the Crown Land Ordinance (see Vol. II Chapter 3)

V.3.W(Cont f d)(July 77)(viii) Advertisements alongside roads -D.P»W. approves under the Advertisements By-lawsand Building Authority or Director of Eire Servicesensures safety under the Public Health and UrbanServices Ordinance* The Urban Council has power toremove offensive advertisements under the AdvertisementsBy-laws 9 (see Vol» II Chapter 3).(ix) Traffic signs -Commissioner for Transport (delegated to ChiefEngineer, Traffic Engineering) controls the erectionand delineation under the Road Traffic (Roads andSigns) and (Parking and Waiting) Regulations,(see Vol. Ill ).(x) Obstruction of. public places «"Lawful Authority 11 (Police) approves and prescribesconditions under the Summary Offences Ordinance. ThePolice re

(Aug* 78)3*1*2 GeneralAmentoent SheetAll public roads 9 footways and lanes, including all associatedstructures and drainage works, are maintained by the Highways WorksDivisions* Each Highways Works Division operates maintenancecontracts, and defects are repaired by the maintenance contractorswhen ordered to do so by the issue of a works order*The maintenance contractor also undertakes minor works such asresurfacing, minor reconstruction and minor improvements* Details ofprocedures for minor works are given in Volume ¥ Chapter %Difficulties often arise when a building has been demolished,damaging an adjacent footway, and repair is the responsibility ofthe lot owner* In such cases, an allocation warrant is issued to theHighways Works Division by the Buildings Ordinance Office under the"works executed on private account 11 subhead* The work is then doneby the Highways Works Division, who advises the actual cost oncompletion to the Buildings Ordinance Office for recovery, plusdepartmental overhead charges, from the lot owner*3*1*3 Works Orders (see also Vol» II Chapter 8)The following rules establish the procedure to be followed whenordering any work on the Maintenance Contractor :(a) The Engineer should s(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)ascertain that work can proceed;if necessary, obtain the agreement of PoliceTraffic Branch and Traffic Engineering Division?inform the various utility services of currentand impending works for the following if necessary:Eoads and Drainage Works - Appendix 6,Road Resurfacing - Appendix 7*Work for Developer - Appendix 85inform the Road Opening Co-ordinating committeeof the work to be carried out so that the utilityservices can be co-ordinated;require a works order to be prepared;pass the works order, unsigned, to theAccounts Section*

V*3*1*3 (Cont'd*)(Aug. 78)(b)(c)The Accounts Section should enter the financial commitmentin the ledger? endorse the duplicate, triplicate andquadruplicate copies of the works order signifyingacceptance of the commitment, and return the works orderto the Engineer for signature«The Sngineer/AoE* should arrange with S*T.O. (C) for thepreparation of the necessary working drawings. Usuallyk copies of these drawings are required, 2 for theContractor^ 1 for the I*0*W* and 1 for the file* Ifnotification to utility undertakings is necessary, 12 to14 copies of a key plan will be required*(d) The I.O.W* (or A.I.O.W,) should :(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)on receipt of the signed works order, raise thestandard form of notification to utilities(Appendix 9) for the Engineer f s signature, issuethe original works order to the Contractor andinstruct him to start work}arrange with S*S®Q*(E) for any necessary surveywork, instruct his works supervisor and ensure hemaintains the necessary site records (diary,progress record, etc*);inspect the site on the start date, record in thefile that work has commenced and endorse the filefor a b*u* on the scheduled date of completion;carry out regular inspections and, on the scheduledcompletion date, advise the Engineer of the situationgiving reasons for any delay;compile interim and final measurements on receiptof the abstract of measurements from the contractor,check and certify it, attach the triplicate worksorder certified as complete and pass to theAccounts Sections;pass the Record of Progress on the appropriatefile to the Engineer*(e)The Accounts Section should, on receipt of the bill fromthe Contractor, arrange for it to be checked andcertified for payment.Extensions of time for completion on any works order mayonly be granted within the terms of the contract and suchextensions must be the subject of a variation order*If any work is carried out for another Department or Office,the Engineer should advise the client when the work has beencompleted.

(Aug* 78)3*1*^ Surveys3«1*5 InspectionsA sample requisition for survey work is shown at Appendix 10*All public roads, footways, lanes and associated works shouldbe regularly inspected* Morks orders should be issued for therepair of any defects noted in the course of the inspections*Inspection reports should be made on the forms currently valid(Appendices 1*3?^ &nd 5) for record purposes* Inspections arenormally made by staff of the Highways Works Divisions*3*1*6 Inspections ofHighway structures should be regularly inspected in accordancewith the procedure outlined in H*0» Instruction No* 5/?8*

¥.3*2(Aug. 78)Amendment Sheet ¥.2/783*2 PRIVATE STREETS AND ACCESS HQJDS3*2.1 General jRespons^ijlitiesHighways Works Divisions carry out the responsibilities of theBuilding Authority with regard to ensuring the maintenance of thesurfacing, lighting and drainage of Private Streets (including lanes)and Access Roads under Section 28 and 29 of the Buildings Ordinance(Chapter 123 of the Laws of Hong Kong) f and also with regard to therecovery of costs thereby incurred under Section 33*3*2.2 AuthorityD.P.W. in his capacity as the Building Authority has authorisedthe Chief Engineer and Senior Engineers of the Highways WorksDivisions to act on his behalf in the administration of the BuildingsOrdinance as follows s(a)(b)3*2.3 Complaints,matters arising from Section 28 of the BuildingsOrdinance, in relation to the maintenance ofcombined drainage systems in private streets andprivate scavenging lanes;matters arising from Section 29 of the BuildingsOrdinance in relation to the maintenance ofprivate streets and private scavenging lanes}(c) matters arising from the provisions of Section 33of the Buildings Ordinance* (See also section 3*5)Complaints about the maintenance of private streets and accessroads generally originate from the Urban Services Department or ^members of the public, although some are initiated within the PublicWorks Department.On receipt of a complaint, the appropriate I.O.W* carries outan inspection and reports whether any action is needed. The U.S.D.proforma is then returned suitably endorsed, or in the case of acomplaint from a member of the public, a letter is sent gxvxng theresult of the inspection.

(Aug. 78)3*2*4 ^ocediire^^ for Work J.n ri Private ^StreetsIf work in a private street is considered to be necessaryfollowing a complaint and aa inspection, or for any other reasons,the following procedure should be used*(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)A decision should be made on whether the frontagersshould be ordered to carry out the work, as is thenormal practice, or if it should be done by theHighways (Works) Divisions*If work is to be done by Highways Office $ then the worksDivision should prepare a plan and estimate of cost®(Notes \tfork can only be carried out to the standard ofthe Building (Private Street and Access Road) Regulations).A memo should be sent to R*G* (Land Office) requestingthe names and addresses of the owners of the premisesinvolved*Apportion estimates between the frontagers based on thefrontages of the premises.Serve notices on the frontagers (specimen letter atAppendix 11) of intention to carry out work with estimatedcost including supervision charges at 2C$£, and theirapportioned share*A 14 day time period is permitted for receipt of objectionswhich should be acknowledged and dealt with*On completion of works, re-apportion the actual cost plussupervision charges* A further check on ownership shouldbe made*(h) Issue Demand Notes with covering letters (Appendix 12)*Demand Notes should follow as closely as possible thecompletion of the works*(i)(j)(k)If Demand Notes are not paid within two weeks allow afurther week for notification of payments to be receivedthen the file(s) should be passed to the R*G* (Land Office)for certificates and memorials to be prepared*When certificates and memorials are received from theR»G* the file(s) should be minuted to the BuildingAuthority (D.P*W*) to sign and date them*When signed, dated and returned from Building Authority,the file(s) should be passed back to the R»G* forregistration (if still unpaid)*

Y*3*2**f (Cont f d*)(Aug* 78)(1) When the cost has been registered against the title andif the Demand Note is still unpaid, one copy of thecertificate should be seat to the; owner by registeredpost* The file should then be passed to the LegalDepartment to recover the cost together with any interestwhich may have accrued* If the ownership changes afterthe^date of completion of works and before registrationagainst the title is completed, the cost may not beregistered against the title and the file should be passedimmediately to the Legal Department for the recovery ofthe cost.(m)After payment (if cost has been registered) the file(s)should be passed to the R*G. to prepare memorial ofsatisfaction*(n) When memorial of satisfaction is received from the R*G. ,the file(s) should be minuted to the Building Authority(D.P.W*) to sign and date.(o)When signed, dated and returned by the Building Authoritythe file(s) should be passed back to the JUG* forregistration.Note3*2*5 Procedure for Work, .in Access .RoadsJ Where it is decided that frontagers should begiven the opportunity of doing the work themselvesthen the specimen letter at Appendix 11 shouldNOT be sent} instead the specimen letter shown atAppendix 13 should be used. If repairs are notthen affected the letter at Appendix 11 should bedespatched and thereafter the procedure as setout above ((f) to (o)) should be followed*If work is considered necessary in an "access road 11 , theprocedure to be followed is the same as for "private streets**except for the following J(a)(b)the specimen letter at Appendix 13 should be sent offin the first instance, to be followed by a secondletter (Appendix 11) if lot owners fail to take actionjapportionment should be based on lot areas*3.2*6 Procedure - Street Lighting and Private DrainageThese will be dealt with in a similar manner to "privatestreets 11 *

V.3.2.7(AUK. 78)3*2.7 Correspondence — Notices and Ordersf\liotices or Orders to a person who may not live in the streetor road to be dealt with, should be addressed as follows ;e*g» Mr* IP Wing-on (Owner 1/5> snare of No, 9 xShan Terrace, Hong Kong)9 9 Ha Tau Wei Eoad fKowloon,3.2.8 Decisions ........and. AppealsDecisions made on behalf of the Building Authority may besubject to appeal under Part VI of the Buildings Ordinance* Inreaching decisions it is therefore necessary to consider fully whatthe Building Authority's powers are, and the implications ofSection 28 and 29 of the Buildings Ordinance » It is also necessaryto be able to show that the Building Authority's powers have beenexercised in a reasonable manner.3.2.9 Transfer, of maintenance responsibility to GovernmentIn general , Government will only assume responsibility formaintenance of private streets and drains if *(a)(b)they have been constructed to an acceptable standard;and,there is clear and adequate access to the street orlane*

¥.3.3(July 77)3-3(a) The T railway reserve comprises the area of pavement "betweenthe rails aad ? a double track Is Iaid 9 not more than1*5 a apart t the area between the two tracks f and so muchof the pavement as extends 0*5 22 from the miming edge of thetable ! of each railo felt II Chapter 3)*Maintenance of the reserve is the responsibility of theTramway Company and the powers to ensure adequate maintenanceunder the Tramway Ordinance is delegated by D.P*¥. to ChiefEngineer, Highways (H.K.) Division*(b) Tram shelters are constructed by Government at the cost of theTramway Company , (see Section 8«3 Work By and For OthersVol. II )• *he cost of installation of all lamps are met bythe Company f< but the electricity charges are shared equallybetween the Company and Government.The Highways Division is responsible for the maintenance ofthe structure f and removal of unauthorised advertising materialand other writing. The B. & M. Office is responsible for thelamp fittings and the U.S.D. is responsible for cleaning andclearing rubbish from the roofs*Prior to effecting any repairs to the shelter, the Engineershould determine whether the shelter must first be closed tothe public* If this is 'the case s then with the advice ofthe Traffic Engineering Branch, he should arrange with theTramway Company for the temporary resiting of the stop andinform C. for T 0 accordingly*Where repairs are necessitated by a traffic accident, theprocedure in Chapter 8 of Volume II relating to damage toGovernment property should be followed*

¥.3.4(July 77)3*4 BUS TERMINI AID SHELTERSGovernment is statutorily responsible for providing parkingand turn-around facilities at bus route termini. The bus companiesare responsible for keeping the termini clean, and for removingoil deposits from pavement surfaces.The bus companies are responsible for providing and maintainingcanteen and latrine facilities for their employees are requiredby the Commissioner for Transport* Such facilities are normallyrequired at termini, and* together with other requirements ofthe bus companies such as regulators f * offices, may be constructedby Government as works on private account at the bus companiesexpense.Termini are designed and constructed by the Highways WorksDivision, who may either include the works on private account withtheir termini works or arrange for the Architectural Office tocarry them out.3.4.2 Bus Stops and SheltersThe bus companies are statutorily responsible for providingand maintaining bus-stop canopies, shelters and queue railings asrequired by the Commissioner for Transport. TO ensure uniformity,such installations are constructed and maintained by the HighwaysWorks Divisions as works on private account at the bus companiesexpense.The provision and maintenance of bus- stop lighting,signs and poles, including the payment of electricity charges isundertaken by the bus companies themselves.Cleanliness of bus-stops and bus-bays, including theremoval of rubbish from bus-shelter roofs, is the responsibilityof the Urban Services Department. The removal of unauthorisedadvertising from bus-shelters is considered to be maintenance andas such a responsibility of the Highways Works Divisions.3*4*3 Departmental Overhead ChargesDepartmental overhead charges for works in connection withbus services are made at the following notes:Bus-stop shelters, canopies and queue railsCanteens, latrines, regulators' officesand all other works on private account .... ........... 20$3.4.4 Repair ,Qf a,cc j.d.csntal,,..Where repairs to shelters are occasioned by traffic accidents,the procedure in Chapter 8 of Vol." II relating to damage toGovernment property should :b© followed.

V.3.5(July 77)3.5 MARKETS AND HAWKER BAZAARS3«5«1Markets are normally constructed by Architectural Office onland allocated to U*S.D« and the maintenance of surfaces anddrainage within the area is the responsibility of A.O*In the case of hawker bazaars or stalls any new work requiredwill be initiated by U*S 0 D* who will ask the Highways Divisionfor an estimate of cost and will provide the necessary funds fromthe "Minor Works in Hawker Bazaars 11 vote* The D. U.S. and theappropriate Assistant Director* U.S.D. have authority to approveprojects under this sub-head up to a limit of $30,000. (C.S. memo(24) in BL 1/3801/64 dated 22nd December 1969 refers). New worksestimated to cost more than $30,000 must be included as a separateitem in the Public Works Programme.Routine maintenance of carriageways and footways occupied byhawkers is the responsibility of the Highways Divisions, the costbeing chargeable to the appropriate maintenance vote.

V.3.6(July 77)3.6 TRAFFIC AIDS3.6.1The implementation of traffic aids is governed by theRoad Traffic Ordinance and related Regulations . The table atAppendix 14 gives brief information on relevant enactments,the authority and the officers to whom the authority has beendelegated,Prior to the execution of any site work under the RoadTraffic Ordinance and related Regulations, the Engineer shouldensure that the appropriate authority has been obtained. If indoubt, the latest edition of the Road Traffic Ordinance should bereferred to for clarification*In connection with the delegated authorities shown inAppendix 14, it should be noted that the person to whom theauthority is delegated cannot in turn further delegate thisauthority* Request Forms therefore* for any site work in connectionwith the exercise of these powers should be signed only by theperson so delegated.3«6»2The erection, removal or re-siting of traffic signs and thepainting, re-painting or removal of road markings is the responsibilityof the Highways Divisions and is carried out on receiptof a works request form (Appendix 15) from the Traffic %gineeringDivisions*The routine maintenance of traffic aids e.g. repair and replacementof damaged traffic signs, cleaning of signs etc*, is theresponsibility of the Highways Divisions who carry out themaintenance on their own initiative or on receipt of an inspectionreport (Appendix 16) from the Traffic Engineering Division*Where repairs to traffic aids are necessitated by trafficaccidents, the procedure in Chapter 8 of Vol. II relating todamage to Government property should be followed.The Traffic Engineering Division operate a term contract forthe manufacture and refurbishing of traffic signs, and control theTraffic Engineering Works vote for pedestrian and vehicular aids.

¥.3*6.3(July 77)3.6.3 Pmgj^x^^The procedure for the erection of traffic signs and delineationof road markings under Regulations 3t 5 and 7 of the Road Traffic(Roads and Si^ns) Regulations, and Regulations 4, 5 d) and of theRoad Traffic (Parking and Waiting) Regulations is as described below:(a) Proposals which do not include mandatory signs affectingtrunk or primary routes will normally only have to be clearedby the Engineer (T«E.) concerned with S.S.P./T.M. eitherverbally or in writing before putting up the requests, thoughon occasions, a press notice release to inform the publicmay also be required*(b) In the case of proposals which include mandatory signsaffecting trunk or primary routes, the Engineer (T.B.) concernedis responsible for ensuring that the following conditionsare complied with:(i)(ii)(iii)the proposals have been agreed with the Commissionerfor Transport and S.S.P./T.M.;the proposals have been endorsed by the TransportAdvisory Committee (if appropriate);any effects on public transport operations have beenagreed with the company concerned;(iv)a press notice/release to inform the public isarranged* (see sub-section 3 •6.8).(c) In respect of each request, 5 copies of the works requestform (Appendix 15) are to be raised by the Engineer (T*E. )concerned. These should first be passed to the Senior Engineerwho, upon satisfying himself that the request is in order,should initial and forward them to C.E.T.E. for signature*(d) Four copies of the form signed by C.E.T.E. together with 2copies of the relevant drawings/ sketches should then be sentto the appropriate Highways Divisions, while one copy is retainecin the T.E. file.(e) Upon completion of the work, Highways Division should completePart II of the form and return 3 copies (normally withoutdrawings) to the T.E. Division.

77)3-6.4 PrpcdurC. for T., is the authority for bus stops under the RoadTraffic (Taxis, Public Omnibuses - 9 Public Light Buses and PublicCars) Regulations . The procedure for the erection of bus stopsigns is as given below.(a) After the location of a permanent bus stop is proposed,a joint site visit is held between representatives of thePolice (Traffic Branch) the relevant Bus Company, theTransport Department, and the Traffic Engineering Division(Highways Office), to establish the best siting from t* 1 ®point of view of the passengers and with respect to thegeneral traffic flow. Recommendations in the TrafficEngineering Manual in this respect should be used as a guide.(b) The need for queue rails/ shelters should be considered atthe same time.(c) A drawing/ sketch should then be prepared by the T.E. Divisionand sent under C.E.T.E.'s signature for confirmation byall parties concerned.(d) C. for T. then authorises C.E.T.E. to establish the stop*(e) A drawing/ sketch is forwarded by C.E.T.E. to HighwaysDivision with a request for the work to be carried out tothe account of the relevant Bus Company.(f) Having completed the work and entered the details in theappropriate records, Highways Division should inform T.E.Division with copies to C. for T. and C.P. (C.S.O./T.)(2 copies) for their records.(g) T.E. Division should then up-date their records.

V.3.6.5(July 77)3.6.5 PrQced^r^ fpr Signs ^ndJJaaMjMjp^iji CQ.nnec.tiflnjlthC, for T. is the authority for taxi stands under the RoadTraffic (Taxis* Public Omnibuses , Public Light Buses and PublicCars) Regulations*The procedure for the marking out of taxi stands is asgiven below.(a) The proposal for a taxi stand is passed to the Transport; Department for consideration in the first instance.(b) Having been satisfied that the need for the standexists* the Transport Department will request C.E.T.E.to draw up, in consultation with the appropriateChief Staff Inspector/TM (Police Traffic H.Q. ), theproposals showing in detail the signs and markings -?required.(c)(d)The drawing/ sketch is sent to C. for T. and theStaff Officer/TM (Police Traffic H.Q.) (2 copies) fortheir agreement.C. for T. then authorises C.E.T.E. to carry out thework and the procedure is as for(c) , (d) and (e) ofsub-section 3«6.3*3.6.6 Procedure for ^ecjifla, ..........of _jjjgns for Temporary Car ParksC. for T. is the authority for the designation anddelineation at temporary car parks under the Road Traffic (TemporaryCar Parks) Regulations.The procedure for erection of signs for temporary car parksis as given below.(a) The site intended for use as a temporary car park isallocated by C.L.S.O. with the approval of P.tf.D.Conference as necessary.(b)The layout of the temporary car park with entrance andexit signing arrangement is prepared by the TrafficEngineering Division and circulated to the Staff Officer/TM (Police Traffic H.Q.), C. for T., C.L.S.O., HighwaysDivision , D.U.S. and other interested Departments foragreement.(c) The finalised layout is submitted to the TransportAdvisory Committee for endorsement.(d) C. for T. then designates the temporary car park bynotification published in the Gazette and authorisesC.E.T.E. to erect any necessary signs.(e) r he procedure is then as for (c), (d) and (e) of subsection3*6.3*

V.3*6*7(July 773*6,7 J?l!iMI§,4]^^The authority for the establishment of zebra crossingshas been delegated to C*S*T*E* by B«P«W* The procedure is asgiven below.(a) Suggestions for zebra crossings from any source shouldbe passed to T»E« Division*(b) I.E. Division checks if the crossing Is warranted andif so» the most appropriate type of control*(c) The proposal for the zebra crossing, either as a separateitem or incorporated into a road/traffic improvementschedule, is agreed with C. for T. f the Staff Officer/TM (Police Traffic H.Q.) and other interested Departments,(d) If the crossing forms part of a road/traffic improvement,the scheme may be submitted to the Transport AdvisoryCommittee for consideration and endorsement* Isolatedinstallations would not normally however be referredto the Committee.(e) The procedure is then as for (c), (d) and (e) of subsection3.6.3.3*6*8 Issue Jif Pre^s Nqtice/Pre^g ReleasePress notices/releases regarding traffic arrangementsare issued by C. for T,Draft press notices/releases should be sent to the TransportDepartment for processing at least five days before the dateon which it is to be published. A sketch/ drawing showing theproposed traffic arrangements should be attached to the draft,if applicable,

V.3.7(July 77)3.7 STREET MJHNITUSB3*7.1 Safft-fcy; Fences Pl^The need for, and location of, safety fences, pedestrianguardrail s , etc. is established by the Traffic EngineeringDivisions in liaison with C. for T. f C.P* and D. of P.S.The work is carried out by the Highways Divisions. Funds arecontrolled by the Highways Divisions* the cost being chargedto the lf Maintenance and Minor Improvements to Roads, Pavementsand Associated Installations 11 vote.The cost of guardrails in front of cinemas, etc. is normallyborne by the developer, work being carried out by HighwaysDivisions as "Works on Private Account".Routine maintenance of all safety fences and guardrailsis the responsibility of the Highways Divisions, the costbeing charged to the "Maintenance and Minor Improvements toRoads, Pavements and Associated Installations 11 vote.Where repairs are necessitated by traffic accidents, theprocedure in Chapter 8 of Vol. II relating to damage toGovernment property should be followed.3.7.2 Street N^e, PlatesThe erection of street and village name plates is theresponsibility of the Highways Divisions.Erection and/or repairs are carried outs(a) when a new street name is gazetted; or,(b) when defects are revealed by routine inspection,or are reported; or,(c) when the Secretary, Urban Council, requests anamendment to existing plates; or,(d) when S.N.T. requests the erection or amendment.Although the Buildings Ordinance confers powers to fix platesto private buildings, the Engineer of the Highways Divisionmust always advise the owner prior to fixing the plates. Wherecorner sites are developed or re-developed, Engineers must arrangefor the temporary fixing of street name plates while developmentis in hand and for the permanent fixing on completion.

(July 77)3.8 CI^£gANCE .........OF ^OBSTRUCTIONS3«8*1 Crown ...........Land .......... - .....J§eggral3«8*2 CrownIn an attempt to effect some control on the indiscriminateand illegal dumping of refuse and other materials on Crown Land ithas been decided that the C»B*0» and H*0* as detailed in para. 3*8*2should organise the inspection and removal of such materials fromhillsides and other semi-»rurtl areas f where the existence of illegaldumps constitutes a danger of washout into, and subsequent blockingof drainage system®(i)(ii)Routine inspections of roads , drainage systems andnatural watercourses by H.O* staff will be expandedto include areas of hillsides which are accessibleto lorries and where illegal dumping is likely.Routine inspections of reclamation in Hong KongIsland and the Mainland by C*E.O* staff prior tothe land being handed over to the Crown Landsand Survey Office*(iii) All staff will, at all times, be alert to theproblem of illegal dumping and will take actionas set out herewith*(iv)Where illegal dumps are discovered, officers inthe respective office will arrange for theirremoval charging the cost as follows *«>(a) Dumps on land formed and scheduled fordevelopment - "Maintenance, minoralterations and improvements (Formedland)"(b) Dumps on unformed land (e.g* hillsides*etc.) - "Maintenance and preparation ofCrown Land"(c) Dumps on reclamation in Hong Kong Islandprior to the land being handed over tothe Crown Lands & Survey Office ~"Maintenance of Seawalls, Piers andDumps"Action ByH,0.E.Q* toobtain fundsfromC*L« & S*0+C*£*Q*

V»3«8.2 (Cont'd*)(July f 77)(d) Dumps on reclamation in the Mainlandprior to the land being handed over tothe Crown Lands & Survey Office -"Maintenance and operation ©f publicdumps and reclamations 11Action byC*E*0*(e) Dumps on reclamation already handedover to the Crown Lands & Survey Office(as for (a)}Authority for charging the costs in (b) iscontained in C«S*«s (25) in BL V3181/68 dated 1stApril, 1969 and funds will be made available byC.L* & S*0* for (b) above*(v)(vi)An officer who actually witnesses illegaldumping taking place, should inform theDivisional Superintendent of Police, givingdetails in respect of vehicle number, location,time and date, etc* However, it should be notedthat the owner of the vehicle has no obligationto supply the Police with the particulars of thedriver of his vehicle* Therefore, the drivercannot be prosecuted for illegal dumping underthe Summary Offences Ordinance unless personalidentity of the driver can be given* Never the-*less, efforts should be made to ascertain thename of the contractor or firm responsible andto pursue the matter by direct correspondence.If the dumping is carried out by a contractorwho is on the list of P»W*D* Approved Contractors,in addition to advising the Divisional Superintendentof Police, the contractor will be requiredto remove the dump at his own expense* If no actionis taken by the contractor, the Principal GovernmentHighway or Civil Engineer must be informed so thatconsideration can be given to having the contractor'sname removed from the list*3*8*3 Crown Lands ~ S-mamaryThe problem of illegal dumping and of illegaloccupation of Crown Land is a complex one, but it isthe duty of all officers to do what is practicable toalleviate the situation.

77)3«8« l * Obetructigns ...........on ..........Public Hoads*, Footways ..... ṫ............etc*Cases often arise where building contractors cause obstructionby depositing materials on roads and footitfays and such cases shouldbe reported to the Buildings Ordinance Office and the Police*If obstruction is caused by contractors employed on a C*E*0*or H*0« project, action must be taken under the terms of the contract*When a private street is obstructed by fallen trees, bouldersor debris and access for emergency services such as fi3© appliancesand ambulances is precluded, the street must be considered as dangerousunder the Buildings Ordinance* Clearance must be effected by theHighways Division, the cost being recovered later*

..(July 77)3«9 UTILm |TRMCHES AHD EXCA7ATION PBMITS3*9*1 GeneralAny opening mad® by any party other than P.V.D. must beauthorized by a valid Excavation Permit (see P.V.D. H.O. 16,Appendix 18)* The conditions under which an Excavation Permitis issued are attached at Appendix 19.Applications for Excavation Permits are made on form P.W.D.K.O. 16 accompanied by 3 copies of the relevant plans and must besubmitted at least two weeks before work is commenced.Applications for extensions of the validity period of a permitshould be made on form P.W.D. H.O. 17 (Appendix 20).3*9.2 Procedure (on receipt of applications)(a) The clerk allots numbers to the permits, records them in aPermit Book and passes them to the appropriate I.O.W.(b) The I.O.W. checks for any opening restrictions.openings will not be permitted:(i)(ii)Normallyin a carriageway constructed or reconstructed within theprevious 5 years (Appendix 17)?in a carriageway resurfaced within the past yeax unlessthe Highways Superintendent is satisfied that the needfor the opening could not have been anticipated and thatthere is no practicable alternative.(c) The I.O.W. checks against current road works programmes andpasses the permits to the appropriate Highways Superintendent.(d) The Highways Superintendent should then proceed as outlinedbelow.(i) Check and sign the Permit. If the proposed road openingis likely to affect traffic, he should discuss the trafficarrangements to be made with the Transport Department,Traffic Police, Traffic Engineering Division and theapplicant. This may be done directly or through the RoadOpening Co-ordinating Committee meetings held monthly.The agreed arrangement can be put on the Permit as aspecial condition or may be covered separately by aletter. Press notices may be arranged for issue by C. for T«(ii)Where necessary, the Highways Superintendent shouldjprovide information on main drains and sewers crossingthe line of the proposed opening.

.3*9«2 (Cont'd.)(ill) He should advise applicants of any co-ordination required.(iv)He should make recommendations to the Chief Engineer to permitopenings in restricted roads providing the applicant has givenadequate reasons*(e)(v)He should then pass the Excavation Permit to the Permit clerk.The duties of the permit clerk are:(i)(ii)to record the dates of. issue and expiry of the Permit?to send the original and a copy of the Conditions of Permittogether with 2 "blank copies of the Reinstatement Notice - FormP.¥«D* H.O. 24 (Appendix 21 ) to the applicant;(iii) to send the triplicate copy of the Permit to the DivisionalSuperintendent of Police (Traffic);(f)(iv)to file the duplicate copy of the Permit.On receipt of the Reinstatement Notice from the applicant, the permitclerk should record the date and pass it to the I.O.V.(g)The I.O.W. should arrange for reinstatement.Each opening and reinstatement must be frequently inspected to ensurethat the conditions of Permit are complied with and that reinstatement isproperly performed.On completion of reinstatement and measurement the faired bill,together with the Reinstatement Notice, should be passed to the HighwaysSuperintendent for checking a#d signature and then to the Accounts Sectionfor paylisting. The Reinstatement Notice and the plans should be detachedand filed for record*In cases where inspection has revealed that an opening is ready forreinstatement but that the Reinstatement Notice has not been submitted bythe permittee, the reinstatement should be ordered by memo (Appendix 22).Emergency openings may be made without a permit but verbal consentmust first be obtained from the Highways Superintendent. Where the work islikely to affect traffic, the appropriate Divisional Superintendent ofPolice (Traffic) must also be informed by the applicant. An application fora covering permit must be made subsequently. In emergency openings involvingroad closure, the Police have authority to close roads for 48 hours withoutgiving notice, (see Tol» II, Chapter j)*Contractors bills submitted for checking and for payment must beaccompanied by P.W.D. H.O. 24, fully completed and signed by the HighwaysSuperintendent and I.O.W.

¥.3*10(July 77)3.10 MAINTENANCE OF MILITARY IHSTALLAflOUS3.10.1 RoadsMaintenance of all roads which were previously the responsibilityof the Ministry of Public Building and Works (M.P.B.W.)including jeep tracks are now the responsibility of A.O. On arequest from A.O., Highways Office will assist as out-lined below,(a) Large areas of flexible pavementsHighways Division will carry out the work at therequest of A.O. who will provide the necessary funds.(b) (i) On public roads:(ii)3.10.2 Drainage WorksA.O. will apply for the necessary ExcavationPermit f carry out all trench works including backfillingand temporary surfacing* Highways Divisionwill carry out the final reinstatement,On non-public military roads:A.O. will carry out all works including reinstatementusing its maintenance contractor, but, if an extensivearea of flexible pavement is involved, Highways Divisionwill carry out the reinstatement work at the request ofA.O, who will provide the necessary funds.Sewers, main stozmwater drains and nullahs in roads anddrainage reserves will be the responsibility of C.E.O. and thecosts of maintenance will be charged to funds controlled by C.E.O.All other drains and manholes, and surface channels outsideroad and drainage reserves will be the responsibility of A.O. andthe costs of maintenance will be charged to funds controlled by A.O.For sewage treatment plants, A.O. may request C.E.O. to carryout remedial works and improvements when the works involved arebeyond their capability. Funds will be provided by A.O.3.10.3 Military Areas at Kai Tak AirportWithin the area occupied by the l.A.F., maintenance of allroads, taxiway and other hardstandings will be the responsibilityof A.O. However, C.E.O. must be consulted for areas used by aircraftin view of the heavy loadings involved.

V.3.10.4(July 77)3*10«4 Bailey... BridgesBridges outside camp areas t i«e« 9 on public roads, will "bemaintained and funded by H*0« Those within the camps will bemaintained by A*0e who will carry out painting and minor repairs,Major repairs will be carried out by H,0. at the request of A.O.who will provide the necessary funds*

¥.3*11(July ??)3.11 ESTABLISBHE1TS | A1B 'MAI3STEHAHCE OF CAR PARKS3*11.1 Multi-storey Car ParksMulti-storey car parks are built and maintained "by ArchitecturalOff ice | management is by the - Transport Department.3*11.2 Open Air Carjtotes.The three types of open-air car parks are:(a) chargeable - these are gazetted under the Road Traffic(Temporary Car Parks) Regulations and aremanaged by the Transport Department;(b) metered; and s(c)free.Capital costs may be provided from a specific item in thePublic Works Programme f the Motor loads and Bridges MinorImprovements Vote or the Roads Maintenance Vote.Maintenance works are normally carried out by the HighwaysDivision as a charge to the Roads Maintenance Vote.3*11*3 Car Parks within Government CompoundsMaintenance is the responsibility of Architectural Officewith assistance from Highways divisions if requested.

¥,3.12(July 7?)3«12 MAIHTENANCE OF ROADS WITHIH PROJECT SITES | MAHAGED BY CONSULTANTS3«12*1 General Principle(a) Full Possession of SiteAs soon as the Consultants 1 contractor has takenpossession of the Site for commencement of the contract theproject Resident Engineer takes over the general maintenanceresponsibilities of the roads within the project site. TheR.E. is also responsible for all construction activitiesoccurring on the site including works by utility undertakers.(b) Partial Possession of SiteIf the works programme makes it possible that only partof the Site is required in the early stages of the contract andthat the remainder of the Site can be used by the public for aperiod of not less than six months t then maintenance of thatremaining portion will continue to be undertaken by the WorksDivision. This partial responsibility in respect of maintenanceshould only be agreed when it is absolutely sure that therewill be no construction activities within the 6 months periodand when the areas can be conveniently defined e*g. half widthof a dual carriageway or sections of a long stretch of road*The areas of responsibilities should be clearly marked out ona drawing and agreed by the C.E.H./C.M. and C*F* of the WorksDivision,(c) The Role of Resident EngineerDuring the contract period, the R*E. is generally maderesponsible for all maintenance works which should be carriedout whenever possible by the project contractor* Complaintson works occurring within the project site should be directedto the R.E. for action. The main object of making the R.E.the "responsible" person or "co-ordinator" is to centralisecontrol and minimise the number of contractors working on thesame site.(d) FundsThere should be some provisions of funds in the projectvote for the maintenance of existing roads during the contractperiod* If maintenance funds are not available in the projectvote the C.E.H./C.M. may request funds from the Works Divisionor from other appropriate parties* It is considered thatnormally the cost of maintenance is minimal compared withthe cost of the project*

V.3.12.2(July 77)3«12,2 Implementation of Maintenance Works(a) ObstructionsThe R»E* is responsible for ensuring that the roads arecleared of obstructions and should contact relevant GovernmentDepartments and Offices for any necessary action.(b) Road : SurfacesThe R*Ea is responsible for upkeeping the existing roadsin a satisfactory condition* He should arrange for the projectcontractor to carry out repairs to all damage to existingroad surfaces*The "R*E« may request the assistance of the V/orks Divisionsfor patching potholes by the road gangs.(c) Street Furniture & Road MarkingThe R.E. is the co-ordinator for ensuring existingstreet furniture and road markings are in a satisfactorycondition.For normal maintenance of traffic signs, fencing, roadmarkings etc*, and damage to them by traffic accidents 9 theR.E. should notify the Works Division who will arrange worksto be carried out by the maintenance contractor and/orpainting gangs.For maintenance of temporary traffic signs, guarding andlighting and alterations to existing furniture, the R.E. shouldarrange for the project contractor to carry out works asnecessary*For repairs to bollards and traffic light signals theR.E. should contact the E. & M, Office direct.(d) Trench WorksThe R.E. should exercise full control on trench worksin conjunction with roadworks. Normally excavation permitsare not required for trench works within the contract site.If trench works have to be carried out in advance of roadworksand require temporary reinstatement, this should be done bythe utility undertakers 1 contractor*If trench openings have to be made after completion ofroadworks and prior to handing over to the Works Division, theR.E. may impose such conditions as are deemed necessary inrespect of reinstatements and costs involved. The utilityundertakers may be requested to apply for excavation permitsat the discretion of the R.E. and, in that case, reinstatementwork will be done by the Works Division's Trench Contractor.

¥.3*12.2 (Cont'd.)(July 77)(e) Road drainsThe R.E. should ensure that all existing drains withinthe project site function properly« For main drains f eitheropen or underground f serving outside areas f which pass throughor under the project site the maintenance responsibility continuesto rest with the Works Division and the maintenance workwill be carried out by the Works Division in consultation withthe R.E.The R.E. may request the assistance of the Works Divisionfor carrying out special drain clearance works by the sewergangs.

(July 77)3*13 mMTMMCE .........WORK .........IN .........LOW COST ........HOPSING ESTATES, ........AND ............IH1In the absence of an overall policy to determine theresponsibility for the maintenance of roads and drains withinestates, each area is treated on its own merits and agreed uponby the Chief Maintenance Surveyor, Housing Department, and theChief Engineer of the relevant Highways Office Works Division*

3J4DAKGEROTJS BOULDERS(July 77)As a result of storms or natural erosion, boulders on slopesoften become unstable and constitute a danger to the public. Suchboulders, discovered either by routine inspection or indicated byreports from any source should be reported to the district I.O.W.who should inspect and proceed as out-lined below.(a) Advise B.0.0. if the boulder is on private land.(b) Advise A.O. if the boulder is within the curtilage of the sitesof Government buildings.(c) (i) If the boulder is on Crown land its removal should beundertaken by the maintenance contractor.(ii) If the boulder is on Crown land and blasting is required,the I.O.W. should advise the appropriate Quarry Manager.Quarry staff should only be employed on that part of thework which requires their special skills and all otherwork, e.g. stonebreaking, loading, transport, etc., shouldbe done by the maintenance contractor and supervised andmeasured by the district I.O.V.

(July 77)3. 1 5 FALLEN TREESRemoval of fallen trees is the responsibility of the HighwaysDivisions but assistance is readily available from the Agricultureand Fisheries Department and the Urban Services Department.a private street is blocked by fallen trees or otherdebris such that emergency vehicles such as fire • appliances orambulances cannot gain access* the street must be considereddangerous and clearance must be effected by the P.W.D. with assistancefrom A. & P. Department and U*S,D* f the cost being recoveredlater if possible. Recovery of costs see Section 29(b) of theBuildings Ordinance Cap* 125* (see Vol. II Chapter 3)«

(July 77)3« '6 MAINTENANCE OF CEMETERIESMaintenance of buildings in public cemeteries is theresponsibility of A*0* Funds are provided by A.O, from the"Maintenance of Cemeteries" vote*The Highways Divisions, however, are directly responsible for:(a) the maintenance of roads, drains, footpaths andburial terraces in public cemeteries; and,(b) the extension of public cemeteries*All costs are charged to the "Maintenance and Extension ofCemeteries 11 vote controlled by C,E.H,/N.T.

y.3Appendix 1 - p*l(July 77)Road Inspection Report(To be completed half-yearly for each road)RoadFile Ho.Section "betweenCarriageway type : rigid/flexibl e Footway (andside) R/F, Footway ( side) R/F*Inspected "byDate s Dsite of last inspectionObservationsCarriageway1J5Oo0)•a •HmCD3 CQfrs 430oCarriageway1 j>D0)*a •H&4* O0

Appendix 1 - p»2(July 77)RemarksRecommendationsList all necessary repair work*ItemTotal Estimated Cost : $(For detailed estimate see ( ) in Pile No )Reportedly : ........... * ...........1,0. W./A. I.OJf ./Foreman/Date : *.*«.*,»,***•....«..**"/forks Order Ho * .»*•«.«»«• issued on »»«*••»»*«••****«**••.Engineer/I. O.W./A.I.O.W./Date : «,*.*completed on-....«..,..,•••„»•fotal cost $ ......^.............4**I^neer7iI6IwI7A*i*'O.H.Pate : ..*.......

iBridgeInspection ReportElyover(To "be completed annually for each structure)V.3Appendix 2 - p. 1(July 77)Structure No.Structure over/underOverall lengthInspected byRoadOverall widthiateObservationsFile No.1?ypeC *wayDate oflastwidthinspectionUnderminingSettlement (check by levels)Deflection (check by levels)SlidingCrackingDisintegrationMasonryBearingsWearing surfaceExpansion jointsKerbsWaterproofingDrainageGuard railingsFencingAbutment s/wal 1- - -• -. -.- xPiers/ColumnsXXxf ^Xc xXX\/XX XxCQ$3 AX1£•8

PointV.3Appendix 2 - p.2(July 77)LocationRecord of LevelsI^vel (+ P.D.)T|his report Last reportRecommendat ionsList all necessary repair work of whatever natiireItemTotal Estimated Cost :(For detailed estimate, see ( ) in Pile No* ...«,)Reported "by :Works Order No* *».****«»»* issued onI.O.W./A.I*O.W./Foreman/Dfcte jftorks completed onTotal cost $DateDate :1 certify that to the "best of my knowledge this structtireis in a safe and satisfactory condition.Date :Senior Engineer/

File No*Inspected by :Designation :•*»*•••

V.3Appendix 3 - P«2(July 11}RemarksRecommendationsList all necessary repair work of whatever natureItemTotal Estimated Cost ;s(For detailed estimate f see ( ) in Pile No ...... )Reported by :Works Order No* **.»»»•**.•»•******•»** issued onI.O.¥./A. I.O.W./Foreman/Date :Works completed on »*»*.*»»»***»»•«••* 4Engineer/I. 0*W,/A*I*0*W*/Date :_Engineer/I.O.M./A.I.O.W./Date ..:^^^^^^

V.3Appendix 4 — P*l(July 77)File No*Tide HapInspection ReportSluice Gate(To be completed armually for each installation)Inspected byDesignationssDate : Time :Tide Condition : High/Mid-tide/LowLocation and Size(Name the location and size of each Tide Flap and Sluice Gateinspected or locate them on a free-hand sketch plan below*Number the Tide Flaps and Sluice Gates)ObservationsInsertSluice identifying numbers of Tide ilap f- Gate inspectedFrameworkSupportsSliding grooveHingesHooksOther defectsGheck ( ) the above observations to indicate *OK f or 'none 1 ,For items requiring explanations, mark with a circle ""with anumber inserted to refer to the corresponding remark listed overleaf•Give location of defect and amplify remarks with sketches orseparate sheets when necessary*Record remarks and recommendations on reverse*

Appendix 4 ~ P*2(July 77)RemarksRecommendationsList all necessary repair work of whatever natureItemTotal Estimated Cost : 1 $(For detailed estimate, see ( ) in Pile No ..)I.O.W./A.I»0*W./Foreman/Date :Works Order No* «.....*.«...»,». issued on*•»*•••••*••».«•«»..•*•«Date :Works completed on ••••••••••••••

Appendix 5 - P»l(July 11}Retaining Mall Inspection Report(To be completed annually for each structure)Structure Uo«Structure above/belowOverall lengthInspected byRoadMax* height»DatePile No«TypeMin* heightDate lastinspected1ObservationT orwO 23•d o*p. t m£1CD&! gH 1 io oH-CftJi1

Appendix 5 ~ P«2(July 77)ftecommendationstist all necessary repair work of whatever natureItemTotal Estimated Cost :(For detailed estimate see ( ) in File No* ....«».)Reported by : ........*I.O.W./A. I.O.W./Foreman/Bate : ». » *•Works Order No*issued on• •..••*.. . . ..... •*•«... ».* •/* • • • •/* •Bngineer/I.O.W./A.I.O.W./Bate * •».*.•»•••*..*»••••»•**Works completed onTotal cost $ ......Engineer/I.O.W./A* I.O.W./Bate : ***••*•*»»•»**»»•**•**

V.3Appendix 6 - p*l(July 77) %Ref. No. HIGHWAYS ( ) DIVISIONTel* No.Date iGentlemen |Roads & Drainage lorks - H*K*/K*/H«f*Eg^^On the reverse of this form arid/or as shown on the attached copy ofdrawingare particulars of impending road and drainage works*The dates of commencement and completion are forecast as accurately aspresent factors allow "but cannot "be accepted as "binding as circumstancesmay change®2» My intention in this communication is to give you an opportunityof phasing your new construction to fit in with my road and drainage workswith the minimum of inconvenience to the general public®3« There is a duplicate copy of the drawing attached to this letter*Will you kindly complete the reverse side of the form and return it togetherwith the duplicate copy of the drawing within 21. days with details of allworks which you intend to perform in the carriageways, footpaths or vergesof the roads in question and the estimated time required for completion ofthese works »4» You should complete laying utility services f mains, ducts includingadjustment to manhole covers etc* to suit the level of the road/footpathsurface in the area prior to commencement of the road works if possible*No application for Excavation Permit at the location stated overleaf will "berequired* However f application for Excavation Permit to open up footpath/lane/carriageway "beyond the area stated overleaf should "be submitted in theusual manner and regulations governing the issue of such permit are stillapplicable*5, You are particularly requested to note that, except in specialcases where very good reason can "be shown, it is not intended to issuepermits for openings in the carriageways of the newly reconstructed roadsfor a period of five years from the time of completion* You are thereforenow advised to consider the provision of tapping points under the footpathsin areas where additional connections are likely to "be required*Yours faithfully ffor Chief Engineer, Highways ( )

V.3Appendix 6 - p.2(July 77)ROAD AND iM^i| HAQg i WORKS.Date ofDate of.Location Commencement Completion DescriptionNoteTo : Chief Engineer, Highways ( )I acknowledge receipt of your latest notification ofcurrent and impending road and drainage works datedRef«and wish to take this opportunity ofinforming you that(l do not envisage any work in the roads in question or in(adjacent road or,* (I intend to take the opportunity which your road and drainage works(programme allows me of executing the under-mentioned work*Estimated time requiredLocation for completion of works Description* Strike out whichever does not apply*Date •*•«««*»**«**»*****«*•***** Signature *,lame of Company «»»**»**••**»*•**«** *«

V.3Appendix 6 ~ p*3(July 77)DISTRIBUTION sChina Light & Power Go*, Ltd*Hong Kong Electric Co*, Ltd.Hong Kong Telephone Co*, Ltd*Hong Kong & China Gas Go*, Ltd*Rediffusion (H.X.) Ltd* (2)Cable and Wireless Ltd* (2)H*K. Tramways Ltd*Waterworks Office (3)G*A* (o/c Defence Works Group) (2)Commander, Royal Signals (1)0«C* Island Troop, 27 Signal Regiment, British Forces Post Office 10*C* f K f Troop, 27 Signal Regiment, British Forces Post Office 1c*c. D. of F*S» (2)C*E.T,E* (H*K*/M*)District Supt ./Traffic (HJt*/K*/N.T*)Div. Supt* Police ( )Mv* Insp* (Traffic) ( )C*L* & S«0«U*S«D« (cleansing) H*K*/K*/U*T*(2)(2)

¥.3Appendix 7 ~P»1(July 77)Gentlemen,Highways (Date sImpending Resurfacing, of Roads - H*K*/K*/N*T.) DivisionOn the reverse of this form are particulars of impendingresurfacing of roads® The dates of commencement and completion areforecast as accurately as present factors allow but cannot be acceptedas binding as circumstances may change*My intention in this communication is to give you an opportunityof phasing your renewals, repairs or new construction to fit in with myroad work with the minimum of inconvenience to the general public*There is a duplicate copy attached to this letter. Will youkindly complete the reverse side of same and return it within 21 dayswith details of all works which you intend to perform in the carriageways,footpaths of the roads in question* Since traffic diversions on theseroads may be necessary, I should also appreciate information of other worksyou intend to carry out simultaneously in adjacent roads*You are particularly requested to note that, except in specialcases where very good reason can be shown, it is not intended to issuepermits for openings in the carriageways of the newly resurfaced roadsfor a period of one year from the time of completion« You are thereforenow advised to consider the provision of tapping points under the footpathsin areas where additional connections are likely to be required*Yours faithfully,Distribution :China Light & Power Co*, Ltd* (2) c»c«H.K* Electric Co., Ltd* (2)H*K* Telephone Co* Ltd* (2)H»K* & China Gas Co*, Ltd* (2)Rediffusion H*K* Ltd. (2)Cable & Wireless Ltd. (2)H.K* Tramways Ltd*Waterworks Office (3)G*A. (o/c Defence Works Group)Commander Royal Signal d)O.C. Island Troop, 27, Signal Regiment,British Forces Post Office (2)O.C* 'K 1 Troop, 2? Signal Regiment,British Forces Post Office 1 (2)for Chief Engineer, Highways/D* of F*S. (2)C.E.T*E* (H.K*/M*)District Supt./Traffic (H*K*/K/N3?)Div* Supt* PoliceDiv* Insp. (Traffic) ( )U*S*D* (Cleansing) H.K*/K./N*T*C*L* & S*0*H.S.

Appendix 7 -p«2(July 77)ROADS WORKSNOTIFICATIOH TO UTILITY COMPANIESDate ofDate ofCormencement Completion DescriptionNote %To: Chief Engineer, Highways ( )I acknowledge receipt of your latest notification of currentand impending road works datedRef•and wish to take this opportunity of informing you that(I do not envisage any work in the roads in question or in(adjacent road or f*(I intend to take the opportunity which your road work(programme allows me of executing the under-mentioned work*Estimated time requiredLocation for completion of works Description* Strike out whichever does not apply*Date *»****•******«+****«*****•«*•Signature ••••••••••••••••••••••»

Appendix 8(July 7?)R@f * Highways ( } DivisionTel. No*Date sTo : China Light & Power Co* f Ltd,,H.K. Electric Co** Ltd*Hong Kong Telephone Co* f Ltd.Hong Kong & China Gas Co* f Ltd,Rediffusion (H*K*) Ltd*Waterworks Office (3)Cable & Wireless Ltd,.G»A* (o/c Defence Works Group)O.C* 252 Sigs* Sqn«, Victoria BarracksO.C* 253 Sigs« Sqn* Osborn BarracksO.C* Island Troop f 2? Signal Regiment, British Forces Post Office 1O.C. *K f Troop f 27 Signal Begiraent, British Forces Post Office 1Gentlemen*An application has been made by the developer for the abovesite for the reconstruction of the adjacent footpath/side and backscavenging lane/carriageway* It is our intention to commence thiswork three weeks after the date of this letter*You are requested to take the necessary action to ensure thatutility services to this buildings and any other supply mains, ducts,etc, which require routing through these areas are laid prior to thisdate, including adjustment to manhole cover, etc, to suit the level ofthe road/footpath surface. Opening of the footpath/lane/carriageway atthis site within the area of reconstruction is authorised by this letterand will enable you to put work in hand now* Application for ExcavationPermit should be submitted in the normal manner and regulations governingthe issue of such permit are still applicable*Should any delay be foreseen, you are requested to contactthe respective District Engineer as soon as possible*Yours faithfully,c.c» DeveloperD. of F.S*C.L. & S.O*C.E*I.E» (H.K./M.)TJ.S.D. (Cleansing) H.K./K./N.T.for Chief Engineer Highways (

Tel.To : China Light & Power Co. f Ltd*Hong Kong Electric Co® $ Ltd®Hong Kong Telephone Co^f Ltd®Hong Kong & China Gas Co* f Ltd*Redif fusion (H.K.) Ltd®Cable & Wireless Ltd.,Hong Kong Tramways Ltd.Waterworks Office (3)Gentlemen,HIGHWAYS (Date sV.3Appendix 9(July 77)) DIVISION,Please note that road opneings will be made in the locationindicated below as follows :Street •««***« «*»*«»•»»« .....»«••..••*.«».«««.«««.•Works scheduled to commence on «*»*«»«••*».*

HIGHWAYS OFFICEAppendix 10(July 77)Survey Job No«To:IThrough L*S*r_ r _^_ m(to be completed in duplicate)Name ©f Project ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••«Contract/File No * *** P«¥«P* Item No*(Please delete as appropriate)1* DETAIL SURVEY* Initial/ Interim/ Final/ Levels2* SETTING OUT or CHECKING Horizontal/ Vertical/ Drainage3* EARTHWORK QUANTITIES Estimate/ Interim/ Final4* AS BUILT SURVEY / DRAINAGE RECORD / MOVEMENT SURVEY5. OTHER / PLEASE DISCUSSDESCRIPTION & SKETCHScale of drawing to be: «»«««.««*«««« signed i *•«,Contour interval to be: «»*«»»»»««««» appointment;PRIORITY; Normal/ Urgent by ** «»To s S*A»(B*) f Mr* «»»»***««»»*««»» Instriactionss-Through: S,A»(E*)I Mr.Survey Completed on *»*****«*««****«»» Field Book No* »»«Computation Folder No* *««***********•To : E/AE ***** »*Plan No*Quantities :-Setting out pegs shown to :«-.Remarks :-Plan Completed ondate / /signed ***«* 4L * s

V..3Appendix 11(July 77)REGISTERED Highways ( ) Division,Public Works Department,Kef.Tel. No.Dear Sir/Madam,Defective Road/Lane atA recent inspection of the above mentioned road/lane shows itto be in a defective condition*In accordance with the powers vested in me by Section 29 ofthe Buildings Ordinance, I hereby give you notice of my intention tohave this road/lane repaired at a very early date*The total estimated cost of the work is 8.Anappointment of cost between the respective frontagers will be made in duecourse and demand notes in respect of these apportioned costs issued. Ianticipate your share of the cost to be $approximately.Your attention is drawn to the provisions of Section 29 &&d 33of the Buildings Ordinance.Yours faithfully,pro BuildingAuthority

¥.3Appendix 12(July 77)REGISTERED Highways ( ) Division,Public Works Department,Ref.Tel. No*Dear Sir/Madam,Defective Boad/Lane atFurther to my letter datedI enclose herewith aDemand Note No* for $ being the actualcost of repairs to the defective road/lane at the above location foryour early settlement*I wish to add for your information that should you fail tosettle the Demand Note within 3 weeks of the date of this letter actionwill then be taken under Section 33 of the Buildings Ordinance which,inter alia, provides for a surcharge of 10# per annum to be imposed(Section 33 is shown overleaf)*Yours faithfully,pro Building Authority

v.3Appendix 13(July 77)Kef.Tel. No.Highways () DivisionDear Sir/Madam,Defective Road/Lane atA recent inspection of the above-mentioned road/lane shows itto be in a defective condition*In accordance with the powers vested in me under Section 29 ofthe Buildings Ordinance, you are hereby requested to have this road/lanerepaired at an early date. I am also to inform you that should you failto effect the necessary repairs within a reasonable time I may causerepairs to be carried out and the cost charged to you and other frontagersof the lot in equal shares*lour attention is drawn to the provisions of Section 29 and 33of the Buildings Ordinance.Yours faithfully,pro Building Authority

EnactmentRoad Traffic OrdinanceS.15SubjectRegulation of speeds anderection of speed limitsigns.AuthorityC. for T.DelegatedtoG.H.E./T.MRemarksRoad Traffic (Parkingand Waiting?".-Regulations(2) &Designation of on-streetparkingC* for T. P.G.H.E.G.H.E./T&TC «i^*T*E»Temporary power for a maximum of ^8 hours onany one occasion is also delegated to allPolice officers of and above the rank ofSuperintendent in the Police Traffic Branchso that they may establish temjgorgurgr parkingfor special functions and occasions*Designation of on-streetparking for fire brigadevehicles and otherprivileged vehicles.C. for DittoH.B(l) f (

EnactmentRoad Traffic (Roadsand Signs)RegulationsSubjectAuthorityDelegatedtoRemarksW >

Enactment Subject Authority DelegatedtoRoad Traffic (TaxisPublic Omnibuses«Public Light Busesand Public Cars)RegulationsRemarksR.131415R»39AiEstablishment of Taxi stands C* for T«Revoke or amend taxi standsDesignation of P«L.B» standsC. for T.C* for T.Temporary power under Regulation 13 f 15 f 16(5)and 39A for a maximum period of ^f8 hours or^any one occasion has been delegated to alljPolice officers of and above the rank ofSuperintendent in the Police TrafficRoad Traffic (Lightingad fQuarQing of RoadRegulationsAll matters arising fromadministration of theRegulationsC.P.W*P.G.H.E.Road Traffic (RoadCrossing!) RegulationsAll matters arising fromadministration of theRegulationsUnder Regulation 9t the Commissioner ofPolice retains his function of authorisingroad crossing patrols*Road Traffic (Roadsand Signs) Regulations3, 5,i7i 15. 16and 1?Erection of Signs,illumination of signs froad markings, closure ofroadsC. for T, D.C.A. Within the boundaries of the Airport onlyas defined by the Hong Kong Airport(Regulations) Ordinance, Cap* 292a*hi&

SIC2TS AND MAfigING WOBK HEQUESI! FORMAppendix 15(July 77)Prom : Traffic Engineering (H.K./M.)* !Ib : C.E.H.(H.K./K./N.T.)*(5)~w/drg.(3)Pile fief,No, Bequest Bef, Mb,Drawing No,T.E. Sketch No,Site of Works tC Description of Works s——7-**""*«»""««fc««WR«fcJUfc^4iHMiMfc(to) fbad Markings :g*»(a) ira^asediblt your allocation for (i) the whole work»««««..««««.*««.»•*«»»*.®®®®*«««*»e*«««»*»««*«««o«««««««« for(i) the whole work (ii)Ebr farther details please contact««6.»«.9*»««4«««««*««« \if nec€(Tel.Bo. )c.c.s- C« for T* with drg«C.P«/C*S.O*/T*T* (2) with drg*C.E*T,T.S. with drg.Chief Draftsman, T.B. (H.K./M.)*Bile s T*E*H*/T«E*M.* Date s / '/From 5 C.B.H.(H.K./fc.^f«0?0* So S C.B.T.B. (H.K./M.)* « « (4)The above mentioned work was completed on .........«««.«.««.

SIGNS JSP MABKDjaS ~ M INSPECTION REPORTApt>endix 16(July 77)Prom I C.E.T.B, ( ) To : C.E./H.K./K«/ N « T *Pile Ref. No*Tel. No*Location 2Brief Description of Defects to "be Rectified(a) Traffic Signs :("fa) Road Markings :RemarksFor Chief Engineer,Traffic Engineering/Bate : / /

V.3Appendix 17(July 11)Ref. No*Highways () DivisionGentlemen,Your recent application as listed above involves road openingson roads subject to the -year restriction period* I should "begrateful if you would %(1) consider whether or not an alternative location orrouting can be found, or(2) give supporting reasons as to i^hy the work or servicesnow proposed could not be provided or foreseen at thetime of the road construction*The period of restriction will expire in _ years m0s«Tours faithfully,for Chief Engineer, Highways/

OA&os&~Whltc paperIE* -paper— (Retained by Authority)/ Watf pap*^-(For Divisional Supt. of Police, Traffic)ggfe c * jixms5jiig±^ffiQuadruplicate— Ptak paper—CRetained by Applicant)DateNo.Appendix 18(July 77)Part III of Crown Land Ordinance 1972 — ;ft-fc;— ;Section I g _ ggEXCAVATION PERMIT NO. .....................Application is hereby made under Section 8 of the Crown Land Ordinance to excavate trenches in the public thoroughfare knownasas shown in the attached plan for the purpose ofWe undertake to observe the conditions accompanying this permit. :£^l]^!l£The proposed duration and approximate size(s) of the excavation(s) are as follows: —ItemCommencementDate»x a mDuration ofroad excavationLength Width Depthhi carriageway /footpath/s lane*in carriageway /footpath/s lane*in carriageway/footpath/s lane*in carriageway/footpath/s lane*in carriageway/footpath/s lane*For further information please contact Mr(in block letters)the person in charge of the work at telephone No or Mr (in block letters).Contractors representative ofCo. at telephone No^£ (W1E««B) *»: ®l&o* Delete whichever is inapplicable.*|*jj|;^;^^^.p[^Name of UtilityOFFICIAL USE • & ft £ » F1 fll SSection H H Zl H$To applicant. Ifc $ B! A •In exercise of the authority vested in me, permission is hereby given for you to make the excavation(s) described above subject tothe conditions accompanying this permit. This permit expires onFor information |S ^ 58 31 *I.O.W.—Renewal Form attached Jj Box to be ticked when Renewal Form is receive^for Director of Public Works^^^^ - i& "^J C ft IT DSection IHH HOFFICIAL USE * ft* »//em Reinstatement Notice received Reinstatement completedP.W.D. H.O. 16 (12/74)

Appendix 19 ~ p*1(July 77)CONDITIONS OF PERMITr \ ^ ^. tion to ^ conditions set out in this permit, the Permittee shall comply with all the relevant provisions of thecrown Land Ordinance, 1972, and the provisions of any other legislation relating to the work covered by this Permit.2. A photo copy of this permit must be displayed or made available on the site of each opening for inspection by a PoliceOfficer or other authorized person.3. Any or all pipes, cables, ducts, manhole covers, valve boxes or any other constructions or installations necessary forthe use of the said pipes etc. installed in connection with the work in this excavation permit shall be adjusted, realigned orremoved, at no expense to Government, whenever required by the Authority.4. The pipes, cables, ducts etc. shall be laid at such a depth as to give a minimum cover of 1 foot 6 inches beneath thesurface of footpaths, but in main traffic arteries or bus routes, the minimum cover will be 3 feet or such other depth as maybe approved in writing by the Authority. In special circumstances, where in the opinion of the Authority damage to or a faultin the service is likely to cause damage -to the road or adjoining property, the Authority may require special precaution to betaken at the time the service is laid. All such pipes, cables, ducts etc. are laid entirely at the risk of the Permittee.5. No excavation shall be opened for a length exceeding 300 feet at one time except with the written permission of theAuthority, who may impose such additional conditions as he sees fit.6. If the excavation is within 15 feet of any tree, the Director of Urban Services must be informed prior to excavation.7. In the case of excavation in the carriageway along building frontages over 50 feet in length and over 2 feet in width,metal plates or other suitable means should be supplied by the Permittee so as to provide a minimum of one 8 feet wide crossingper 100 feet or excavation, or as required by the Authority. Fire hydrants and their valves must be kept clear at all times.8. No excavated material shall be stacked on either side of the trench to a width greater 'than 1/3 the height plus 2/3the width of the trench. Notwithstanding the provision of the above regulation the Permittee shall ensure that the material excavatedfrom the trench shall be placed in such a manner as to interfere as little as possible with the passage of any personsor vehicles. Stop boards or other suitable means shall be provided to prevent any excavated material from spreading outsidethe specified area. Where in the opinion of the Authority, the excavated material is causing undue obstruction to the free flowof vehicular or pedestrian traffic, he may order the permittee to remove, within a specified period of time, such material fromthe site, failing which the Authority may remove such material at the cost of the permittee.9. All plant and equipment used by the Permittee for the works shall be effectively "sound-reduced" by means of silencers,mufflers, accoustic linings or screens, to a noise level acceptable to the Authority, provided that this condition may be relaxedin the case of emergency works. No work under this permit may be carried out between the hours of 11 p.m. and 6 a.m.unless the work has been authorized by means of a night work permit issued under the Summary Offences (Night Work) Regulations1972.10. During the whole -time the area is occupied by him, the permittee shall keep the area in a tidy and clean conditionand free of litter and rubbish as required by the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance, Cap. 132, and to the satisfactionof the Authority who has the right to enter such area and remove any excavation material or other materials at the cost ofthe permittee when deemed necessary.11. Every excavation backfilled with earth shall be filled in layers not exceeding 9 inches in depth before ramming andeach layer shall be watered where necessary and thoroughly consolidated with a power rammer, vibrating plate or vibratingroller. All surplus excavated materials shall be removed off site immediately the trench opening has been backfilled failing whichthe Authority may cause the materials to be removed at the Permittee's expense.12. On completion of backfilling the Permittee must immediately inform the Authority that the excavation is ready forreinstatement by submitting a Reinstatement Notice (in duplicate), or in the case of an urgent reinstatement by telephone in thefirst instance, followed by the Reinstatement Notice as soon as possible. Should such notification not be given within 3 daysof the backfilling being completed, or should an excavation remain open for more than 7 days without being worked on andwithout any good reason having been given and accepted, then the right is reserved to reinstate or backfill the excavation at thePermittee's sole expense without reference to him.13. Reinstatement of the road and/or footpath will be carried out by the Authority at the cost of the Permittee. Inthe event of subsidence occurring in an excavation after it has been reinstated by the Authority and within 12 months of suchreinstatement, further reinstatement will be carried out and the cost charged to the Permittee, unless the cause is beyond thePermittee's control.14. The Permittee shall pay to Government on demand the cost (including the usual Government supervision charge) of anyrepairs carried out to adjacent carriageways or footpaths made necessary as a result of works carried out under this permit.15. The permittee shall be fully responsible for the maintenance of each excavation and shall maintain the filling thereofto road level to the satisfaction of the Authority until he has notified the Authority in writing that -the excavation(s) are readyfor reinstatement and a period of not exceeding 7 days has lapsed between the giving of such notification and the commencementof the reinstatement. During the time an excavation is open and when it is not being actually worked on for more than7 days with acceptable reasons, excavations less than 2 feet in width must be covered over by metal plates or other suitablemeans to the satisfaction of the Authority.16. The Permittee shall indemnify and keep indemnified the Government for any damage or accident to any person, propertyor thing occurring as a consequence of the excavation(s) made by him or of works in connection therewith during theperiod of the works including the period during which he is responsible for the backfilling and maintenance thereof as set outabove.17 Every excavation and obstruction on a road or footpath shall be adequately enclosed by barriers and warning lightsand traffic signals shall be provided where necessary for the safety of vehicular traffic and pedestrians and the area shall be clearlymarked by night with efficient red lights in accordance with the laws of Hong Kong and in particular with the Road Traffic(Lighting & Guarding of Roadworks) Regulations. The name of the Permittee's company must be displayed on a prominentnotice board in letters at least 3 inches high both in English and Chinese characters.

Appendix 19 - p«2(July 77)18. The Permittee shall notify the Divisional Superintendent of Police, Traffic, in writing 7 days before he intends to makean opening except that in an emergency this condition may be waived and notification given as soon as practicable. All suchnotifications are to include a plan to a reasonable scale showing the size and extent of the opening to be made, unless such aplan has been submitted previously.19. Work must be carried out as expeditiously as possible. This permit expires on the date specified in Section II of thispermit and unless extended by the Authority—4or which adequate reasons must be given—-the excavation must be backfilled by thattime. Excavation made without a valid permit may result in prosecution under section 8(4) of the Ordinance under which apenalty of five thousand dollars and six months* imprisonment may be imposed.20. The Permittee shall be responsible for seeing that each of the bodies listed below receives prior notification of hisintention to open the road—viz: —Hong Kong Island:—Hong Kong Electric Co. Ltd.Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd.Hong Kong & China Gas Co. Ltd.Hong Kong Tramways Ltd.Rediffusion (H.K.) Ltd.Divisional Superintendent of Police, Traffic,Hong Kong Island.Cable & Wireless Ltd.District Fire Officer, Hong Kong Island.Water Authority, P.W.D.Officer Commanding, Systems Troop, 1 Squadron,27, Signal Regiment, Victoria Barracks, Hong Kong.Mainland: —China Light & Power Co. Ltd.Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd.Hong Kong & China Gas Co. Ltd.Divisional Superintendent of Police, Traffic, Kowloon or N.T.District Fire Officer, Kowloon or N.T.Rediffusion (HJC.) Ltd.Water Authority, P.W.D.Officer Commanding Kowloon Signal Troop, 253 SignalSquadron, Osbora BarracksCable & Wireless Ltd. (for Kai Tak Airport only).21. The Authority may impose in writing at any time any additional requirements which he deems necessary and shouldbe complied with by the Permittee.22. In the event of contravention of any of -these conditions or additional conditions, this Permit may be cancelled forthwithwithout compensation.A0DIH0NAI, CONDITIONS

V.3Appendix 19 — p. 3(July 77)C-)C-3CH)5E°C 3£ )C * )C -b )C A )C ^L )C-O)o »c--) mmmm, •C-=DC-E3)C-3BOC— fcO

7.3Appendix 1977)* »*!»8B««2a±«iKH«lHeH C— ^c ** ).*R&WC-n)in

IE*lic,* wjsw— (Reeamed by Authority)ft fe ( A )Triplicate— u$ht blue uflj?*^-(For Dl^ioual Swpt. of Police, Tkaffic)- mm& cpaper— (Retained by Applicant)Part HI ©f Crow® Lund Ordinance 1972Ser/aJ No.IS it:Date7.3Appendix 20(July 77). „ ¥ Section IEXTENSION: OF EXCAVATION PERMITPermit NoIn accordance with Section 8(3) of the Crown Land Ordinance I hereby apply for extension of Excavationfor the excavation(s) in the public thoroughfare known asThe proposed period of extension is as follows and my reasons are given overleaf.•Item5@1.c-o2.Proposed periodof extension m tn m m.'fk Length K m width m $£ Depth S£ ft m & •in carriageway/footpath/s lane*«*ff*fi/frA^/^Sin carriageway/footpath/s lane*3.CH)4.CEO5.C3£)in carriageway/footpath/s lane*«^f*Ji/ffA»/««in carriageway/footpath/s lane*«E*?f*«l/ffAK/«*in carriageway/footpath/s lane*«^f*at/ffAK/«*(Signed)JVowe of UtilityUndertaking ...* Delete whichever is not applicable.Section IIOFFICIAL USETo applicant,tt * K A:In exercise of the authority vested in me, Excavation Permit Noextended tois herebysubject to the same conditions as stipulated therein.(Signed)for Director of Public Worksft??)DateP.W.D. H.O. 17 (12/74)

Duplicate—re/tow paper—{Retained by Authority*-B* Hfe C AftA«»)Triplicate—Pink paper—(Retained by Applicant)REINSTATEMENT NOTICE* a n SB «ma& •Order No.V.3Appendix 2177)Fait ITo C.E.H. (H.K.)(Kin.)' ^-1 •)3.y( re?J«l;/ Atl/Sf^^®[^SiX§S]! ffi^^^fl^IilSSExcavation Permit No*Please reinstate trenches as follows: —TayfeKiSEft fILocationSizes0) in carriageway/footpath/side lane.*(2) in carriageway/footpath/side lane.*(3) in carriageway/footpath/side lane.*(4) IB carriageway/footpath/side lane.*(5) in carriageway/footpath/side lane.*Please note that the above trenches have been backfilled and temporary reinstatement carried out.*Please inform this office of the actual costs of the reinstatement in due course.of UtilityUndertaking* Delete whichever is not applicable. ^^^f^^T^l^SI -*)Fart IIOFFICIAL USEFOR HIGHWAYS DIVISION, F.W.D. USE ONLY.To Trench Contractor,3ft « *S « tt ffi:Please reinstate the trenches as shown in (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) above and complete the work by,...., 19 .Highways Superintendentmmm^mme»: * **""I certify the above was completed on 19F.W.B. H.O. 24 (2/75)Inspector of WorksI I—*•» *tSc pi 3W> JIPl *W* R B

7,3Appendix 22(July 77)Prom s Highways SuperintendentRef. %To tTrench ContractorContractExcavation Permit No*Please reinstate the trench at the following location and completethe work "byA reinstatement order for the work will follow in due course,location sfor Highways Superintendent


First published in September 1971 asCivil Engineering ManualVolume V RoadsChapter 4 Design of Highway StructuresRevised in March 1979Revised in November 1983 asCivil Engineering ManualVolume V RoadsChapter 4 Design of Highway Structuresand Railway BridgesFebruary 1989January 1991January 1992General revisionLoads revisedWind load on covered footbridgesadded and temperature effectsrevised

Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)CHAPTER 4DESIGN OF HIGHWAY STRUCTURES AND RAILWAY BRIDGES4.1 INTRODUCTION4.2 LOADS4.1.1 Scope4.1.2 DefinitionCONTENTS4.1.3 Limit state design4.1.4 Permissible stress design4.1.5 Railway bridges4.2.1 General4.2.1.1 Carriageway4.2.1.2 Notional lanes4.2.2 Combination of forces4.2.3 Wind load4.2.3.1 Bridges with spans less than 100 m4.2.3.2 Bridges with any span greater than100 m4.2.3.3 Covered footbridges4.2.4 Temperature effects4.2.4.1 General4.2.4.2 Effective bridge temperatures4. Adjustment for thickness ofsurfacing4. Adjustment for height above meansea level4. Range of effective bridgetemperature4.2.4.3 Temperature difference4. Adjustment for thickness ofsurfacing4. Application with effective bridgetemperatures4.2.4.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion4.2.5 Effects of shrinkage and creep4.2.6 Earthquake forces

4.2.7 Collision loads4.2.7.1 Highway overbridges4.2.7.2 Railway overbridgesAmendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.) Bridges over navigation channels4.2.8 Parapet loadings4.2.9 Loads on railway overbridges from electricalsupply equipment4.2.10 Live loadings4.2.10.1 Type HA loading4. Nominal uniformly distributed load4.2.10.2 HA lane factors4.2.10.3 Types HA and HB loading combined4.2.11 Footbridge and subway covers4.2.12 Dynamic effects4.2.12.1 Aerodynamic effects4.2.12.2 Highway bridges4.2.12.3 Footbridges4.2.13 Dead load and superimposed dead load4.3 DESIGN OF STEEL BRIDGES4.3.1 General4.3.2 Specialist structural steelwork contractors4.3.3 Non-destructive testing of welds4.3.4 Hot formed structural hollow sections4.4 DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES4.4.1 General4.4.1.1 Design standards4.4.1.2 Cracking4.4.1.3 Concrete cover to reinforcement4.4.2 Material properties4.4.2.1 Differences between British andHong Kong concretes4.4.2.2 Elastic modulus of concrete4.4.2.3 Strength of concrete4.4.2.4 Shrinkage of concrete Creep of concreteAmendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.) Coefficient of thermal expansion ofconcrete4.4.2.7 Strength of steel reinforcement4.4.3 Early thermal movement4.4.4 Prestressing4.4.4.1 Grade of concrete for prestressingwork4.4.4.2 Post-tensioning systems4.4.4.3 Specialist prestressing contractors4.4.4.4 Secondary moments and shear4.5 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES4.6 SPECIFICATION FOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - STEEL4.7 SPECIFICATION FOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - CONCRETE;REINFORCEMENT AND PRESTRESSING TENDONS4.8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - CONCRETE;REINFORCEMENT AND PRESTRESSING TENDONS4 . 9 BEARINGS4.9.1 General4.9.2 Operational requirements4.9.3 Classification of bearings4.9.4 Schedule of bearings4.9.5 Choice of proprietary bearings4.9.6 Testing4.9.7 Compressive stiffness of elastomeric laminatedbearings4.9.8 Design of fixings for bridge bearings4.10 FATIGUE

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)4.11 EXPANSION JOINTS4.11.1 General4.11.1.1 Movements4.11.1.2 Selection of joint type4.11.2 Proprietary expansion joints4.11.3 Traffic loading on expansion joints4.11.4 Loading of structure by strain of expansionjoint4.11.5 Waterproofing4.11.6 Properties and specification of proprietaryexpansion joints4.11.6.1 Properties4.11.6.2 Specification4.11.7 Choice of proprietary expansion joints4.11.8 Design of expansion joint installation4.11.9 Avoidance of joint restraint4,12 FOOTBRIDGES AND SUBWAYS4.12.1 General4.12.2 Covers4.12.3 Stairways4.12.4 Ramps4.12.5 Landings4.12.6 Changes in direction4.12.7 Dimensions4.12.8 Parapets and handrails4.12 . 9 Drainage

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)4.12.10 Lighting4.12.11 Escalators4.12.11.1 Provision of escalators4.12.11.2 Physical properties4.12.11.3 External applications4.12.11.4 Inspection and surveillance4.12.12 Finishes4.12.13 Waterproofing subway4.12.14 Pillar box4.13 FOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTRUCTURES4.13.1 General4.13.2 Specialist piling contractors4.13.3 Piling downdrag4.13.4 Caissons4.13.4.1 General4.13.4.2 Hand—dug caissons4.13.4.3 Machine—drilled caissons4.13.5 Railway bridge substructure4.13.6 Hydraulic effects4.13.6.1 Effects to be considered4.13.6.2 Pressure due to currents4.13.6.3 Scour4.13.6.4 Backwater effects4.13.6.5 Effects of waterborne traffic

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)4.14 HEADROOM4.14.1 General requirements4.14*2 Measurement of headroom4.14.3 Compensation for vertical curvature4.14.4 Compensation for deflection of structure4.14.5 Compensation for signal and other installations4.14.6 Tramway and light rail transit overbridges4.14.7 Railway overbridges4.15 PARAPETS4.15.1 General4.15.2 Parapet groups4.15.3 Parapet heights4.15.4 Design details4.15.4.1 Projections4.15.4.2 Divided structures4.15.4.3 Materials4.15.5 Metal parapets4.15.5.1 Design requirements4.15.5.2 Corrosion4.15.5.3 Elongation4.15.5.4 Post spacing4.15.5.5 Strength of longitudinal rails4.15.5.6 Strength of posts4.15.5.7 Fixings

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)4.15.6 Reinforced concrete parapets4.15.6.1 Design requirements4.15.6.2 Concrete grade4.15.6.3 Reinforcement4.15.6.4 Plinths4.15.6.5 Longitudinal effects4.15.7 P.I parapets4.15.8 P. 2 parapets4.15.9 P.3 parapets4.15.10 P.4 parapets4.15.11 Parapets for highway structures4.15.12 Sight distances4.15.13. Railway over and under-bridge walkways andparapets4.15.13.1 High containment parapets4 .15.13.2 Overbridge parapets4.15.13.3 Underbridge walkways and parapets4.16 STORMWATER DRAINAGE4.16.1 General4.16.2 Pipes and pipe layout4.16.2.1 Minimum diameter4.16.2.2 Material4.16.2.3 Layout4.16.3 Movement j o int s4.16.4 Intakes4.16.5 Outlets

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)4.17 AESTHETICS4.17.1 General4.17.2 Principles4.17.3 Form'4.17.4Proportion4.17.5 Harmony4.17.6 Scale4.17.7 Expression of function4.17.8 Visual stability4.17.9 Rhythm and rhyme4.17.10 Light and shade4.17.11 Texture4.17.12 Colour4.17.13 Illusion4.17.14 Long term appearance4.17.15 The Advisory Committee on the Appearance ofBridges and Associated Structures (ACABAS)4.18 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS4.18.1 General4.18.2 Running surface4.18.3 Service life4.18.3.1 Access for inspection andmaintenance4.18.3.2 Maintenance accommodation4.18.3.3 Spare parts4.18.4 Safety circuits for bridges over navigablechannels4.19 REFERENCES

Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb)4.17.1 Aesthetic concepts and consideration4.17.2 Simple beam bridge4.17.3 Arch bridge over Chatham Road carrying Fat KwongStreet4.17.4 Cable-stayed footbridge over Cotton Tree Drive4.17.5 Dimensions governing proportion4.17.6 Failure of two-dimensional drawing to indicate bulk4.17.7 Footbridge across Queen's Road East near Wah YanCollege4.17.8 Scale4.17.9 Expression of function - smoothness of flow4.17.10 Vandalized form - poor expression of function4.17.11 Expression of function - place of descent4.17.12 Expression of function - stability4.17.13 Visual instability arising from the use oftrapezoidal supports4.17.14 Visual instability due to unresolved duality4.17.15 Illusion of sag due to central support4.17.16 Footbridge at Lai Chi Kok Interchange - centrecolumn and peak produces an unsatisfactory droopingeffect4.17.17 Rhythm and rhyme4.17.18 Ap Lei Chau Bridge - poor rhythm4.17.19 Island Eastern Corridor viaduct - good rhythm4.17.20 Texture4.17.21 Long term appearance - wash-water staining4.17.22 Long term appearance

Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)TABLES4.2.1 Wind velocities4.2.2 Dynamic pressure head4.2.3 Exposure to wind4.2.3.1 Dynamic pressure head q and q 14.2.4 Drag and lift coefficients for covered footbridge4.2.5 Effective bridge temperature4.2.6 Adjustment to effective bridge temperature for decksurfacing.4.2.7 Type HA uniformly distributed load4.2.8 HA lane factors4.2.9 Continuous structures dynamic response4.2.10 Collision loads on supports of bridges over highways4.2.11 Collision loads on bridge superstructures overhighways4.2.12 Application of collision loads on different types ofbridge decks4.4.1 Conditions of exposure for cracking and cover4.4.2 Elastic modulus of concrete4.4.3 Creep investigation4.9.1 Classification of bearings4.14.1 Headroom4.14.2 Horizontal clearance4.14.3 Compensation for vertical curvature4.15.1 Parapet groups4.15.2 Parapet heights4.15.3 Strength of metal parapet components4.15.4 Strength of reinforced concrete parapets4.15.5 Dimensions for Group P. 1 parapets4.15.6 Dimensions for Group P. 2 parapets4.16.1 PVC drain pipes

Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)APPENDICES4.2.1 Comparison of mean winds in tropical cyclones4.2.2 Natural frequency and acceleration4.2.3 Wind loads for bridges with spans exceeding 100 m4.2.4 Proposed amendments to BD 37/88 Appendix A (BS 5400: Part 2) clauses 6.8 and Temperature difference for various surfacing depths.4.4.1 Shrinkage of concrete4.4.2 Creep of concrete4.9.1 Bridge bearing Schedule4.11.1 Schedule of expansion joint4.13.1 Design of abutments and piled foundations4.15.1 Standard parapets for highway structures4.15.2 Design of high containment parapets for railwayoverbridges4.17.1 The Advisory Committee on the Appearance of Bridgesand Associated Structures

Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)FIGURES4.2.1 Typical section of decks and roofs modelled in windtunnel tests.4.2.2 Temperature difference for different types ofconstruction.4.2.3 Loading curve for HA UDL4.2.4 Type HA and HB highway loading in combination4.4.1 Gain of strength of concrete4.4.2 Shrinkage reinforcement coefficient4.4.3 Steel ratio for thermal crack control4.4.4 Test results concrete shrinkage4.4.5.1 )) ) Concrete creep) )4.11 Joint movement4.13.1 Silt factor for estimating scour4.13.2 Bearing pressure4.13.3 Sliding4.13.4 Overturning4.13.5 Vertical piles4.13.6 Raking piles4.15.1 Dimensions of Group P.I parapets4.15.2 Dimensions of Group P.2 parapets4.15.3 Vehicle parapet with concrete barrier fence profile4.15.4 Dimensions of Group P.4 high containment parapets4.15.5 Parapet impact4.15.6 Parapet impact angle4.15.7 Parapet impact force

V.4.1Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)CHAPTER 4DESIGN OF HIGHWAY STRUCTURES AND RAILWAY BRIDGES4.1 INTRODUCTION4.1.1 ScopeThis chapter deals with the design of highwaystructures and railway bridges. The structures coveredinclude overbridges, flyovers, underpasses f footbridges,cycle-bridges, subways and gantries.4,1.2 DefinitionA highway structure is a structure intended tocarry highway vehicles or pedestrians over, under or througha physical obstruction or hazard, and may be a bridge, aflyover, a viaduct, an underpass or a subway.A railway bridge may be an underbridge or anoverbridge.A railway underbridge is a structure intended tocarry railway track and the locomotives and rolling stockusing it over or through a physical obstruction or hazard.A railway overbridge is a structure intended tocarry vehicles, pedestrians or services over one or morerailway tracks. A railway overbridge may be a highwaystructure.A culvert is a drainage structure designed as aclosed conduit for conveying stormwater from one side of ahighway or railway track to the other. A culvert exceeding2 m in span or diameter corresponds to a small bridge, andshould be treated as a highway structure or railway bridge.A drainage conduit or nullah forming part of a more extensivedrainage system which incidentally passes under a highway orrailway track at a point or points along its route is adrainage structure, and for the purposes of this chapter isregarded as neither a highway structure nor a railway bridge.A wall designed to hold soil or rock in position isan earth—retaining structure. A wall designed to act as anabutment to a highway structure or railway bridge, or tosupport an approach to a highway structure or railway bridge,although in itself an earth—retaining structure, should betreated as part of a highway structure or railway bridge.

V.4.1.3Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)4.1.3 Limit state designHighway structures and railway bridges shouldnormally be designed on the basis of the limit statephilosophy contained in BS 5400 - Steel, Concrete andComposite Bridges. However the provisions of some parts of BS5400 are not relevant to Hong Kong conditions, and for these,the recommendations of this Chapter, or other appropriatecriteria, should be substituted.All undated references to BS 5400 refer to thecurrent edition except, BS 5400 : Part 2 which shall be aspublished in Appendix A to the United Kingdom Department ofTransport Departmental Standard BD 37/ Permissible stress designPermissible stress design methods may be used forthe design of highway structures. To ensure that such methodsare compatible with normal methods and that proper allowanceis made for conditions peculiar to Hong Kong, the prioragreement of CHE/Str. should be obtained to a statement ofdesign methods and assumptions for any highway structuresdesigned by permissible stress methods.4.1.5 Railway bridgesBefore the design of any highway structure crossinga railway track, or of any railway underbridge, is commenced,the requirements of the appropriate railway authority shouldbe ascertained. Preliminary and detailed drawings, withcalculations if required, should be referred to theappropriate railway authority for comments. The approval ofthe appropriate railway authority should be obtained beforeany work is undertaken.In the absence of specific comment, the contents ofthis Chapter should be deemed to apply to railway over - andunder-bridges as well as to highway structures.

V.4.2Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)4.2 LOADSBritish Standard Institute Committee has reviewedBS 5400 : Part 2 : 1978 and has agreed to a series of majoramendments.In August 1989, the United Kingdom Department ofTransport issued a Departmental Standard BD 37/88, Loads forHighway Bridges. This Standard contains a full compositeversion of BS 5400 : Part 2 incorporating all the agreedrevisions and intended to be applicable to traffic andenvironmental conditions in the United Kingdom and is notnecessarily appropriate for Hong Kong.In April 1990, Hong Kong Government employed Flint& Neill Partnership as consultants to undertake an overallreview of the Highway loading in Hong Kong taking intoaccount BD 37/88. The consultants recommendations within theframe work of BD 37/88 are now incorporated in this manual.4.2.1 GeneralHighway structures and railway bridges should bedesigned for the loads and forces, and combinations of loadsand forces, specified in BS 5400 : Part 2, published asAppendix A to the United Kingdom Department of TransportDepartmental Standard BD 37/88, except where modified by thischapter. Where Hong Kong conditions differ from theconditions described in BS 5400 : Part 2, loads and forcesappropriate to Hong Kong as described in this chapter shouldbe used instead.For superimposed dead load, the following valuesof YfL should be substituted for the values recommended inBS 5400 : Part 2 : 5.2.2.ULSSLSdeck surfacing 1.75 1.20other loads 1.50 1.00The value of y fL for dead load imposed by decksurfacing may be reduced to 1.5 for the ULS if it isabsolutely certain that the thickness (and hence the weight)of the surfacing will not be increased during the life of thebridge, e.g. where open texture friction course is alwaysmilled off before retreatment. Further reduction of thesevalues will not be permitted.The recommendations of BS 5400 : Part 2 clauses3.2.9.1 and should be replaced by the followingclauses and 4,2.1.2 respectively to suit carriagewaysin Hong Kong.

V. No. V-l/91 (Jan.) CarriagewayFor the purposes of this standard, that part ofthe running surface which includes all traffic lanes, hardshoulders and marginal strips. The carriageway width is thewidth between raised kerbs. In the absence of raised kerbs,it is the width between concrete barriers and/or metalparapets, less the amount of set-back required for thesebarriers. This set-back measured from the traffic face (atrunning surface level) of each barrier should be taken as0.5m on the off-side. On the near—side, the set back shallbe taken as 0.5m or the width of the marginal strip whicheveris the greater subject to a maximum set-back of 1.0m. Thecarriageway width shall be measured in a direction at rightangles to the line of the raised kerbs, lane marks and edgemarkings (eg: For a typical dual 3 lane Urban trunk road withmedian barriers having a traffic lane width of 11.0m, 1.0mmarginal strip on near-side and 0.5m marginal strip onoff—side, the carriageway width for the purpose ofclause 3.2.9 of BS 5400 : Part 2 will be 11.0m (11.0 + 1.04- 0.5 - 1.0 - 0.5), assuming no raised kerbs). Notional lanesCarriageway widths of 5.00m or more. Notionallanes shall be taken to be not less than 2.50m wide. Wherethe number of notional lanes exceeds two, their individualwidths should be not more than 3.67m. The carriageway shallbe divided into an integral number of notional lanes havingequal widths as follows:Carriageway width m5.00 up to and including 7.50 2above 7.50 up to and including 11.01 3above 11.01 up to and including 14.68 4above 14.68 up to and including 18.35 5above 18.35 up to and including 22.02 6Number ofnotional lanes

V.4.2.2Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)4.2.2 Combination of forcesThe combination of forces specified in BS 5400 :Part 2 : Loads should be considered.To allow for the possibility of earthquakes, anadditional combination should also be considered comprisingthe permanent loads f the seismic force described inclause 4.2.6 and the live load utilised in deriving theseismic force. The partial load factors of combination 2should be used for the permanent loads and the live load.The partial load factors given in clause 4.2.6 should be usedfor seismic force.4.2.3 Wind loadThe provisions for wind load in BS 5400 : Part 2are based on wind gust speeds derived from British records.The recommendations of clause 5.3.2 of BS 5400 :Part 2 regarding wind gust speed consequently cannot be used,and must be replaced by recommendations based on Hong Kongconditions.Table 4.2.1 gives details supplied by the RoyalObservatory of maximum hourly wind and gust velocities forWaglan Island/ which is exposed to south-easterly winds witha long fetch over open sea, and for the Royal Observatoryitself. The Royal Observatory figures are for the periodbefore the surrounding area became built-up, and arerepresentative of an exposed urban location.The maximum gust velocity is related to thedynamic pressure head by the expressionq - 613 x 10~ 6 v c 2where q = dynamic pressure head (kN/m 2 )v c = maximum gust velocity (m/s) .This expression gives a value of 3.8 kN/m 2 for the dynamicpressure head corresponding to the maximum gust velocity of79 m/s for a 120—year return period at an exposed location,obtained by interpolating from the values for Waglan Islandin Table 4.2.1.For bridges with any spans greater than 100m theprovisions of clause should be followed. In allother cases the simpler requirements of clause aredeemed adequate. A designer experiencing difficulty indeciding on an appropriate degree of exposure for aparticular site should consult CHE/Str for advice.

V. No. V-l/91 (Jan.)TABLE 4.2.1WIND VELOCITIESLOCATIONRETURNPERIOD(Years)MAXIMUM HOURLYWIND VELOCITYKnotsm/sMAXIMUM GUSTVELOCITYKnotsm/sWaglan501002008594103444853137151165717885RoyalObservatory501002008087954145501331461586875814.2.3.1 Bridges with spans less than 100mTable 4.2.2 gives values of dynamic pressure headto be used for design proposes in Hong Kong for bridges whosemaximum span is less than 100m. The values given for"sheltered locations" were in general use before the need forhigher values at exposed locations was appreciated. As theprobability is low of much traffic being present at gustvelocities exceeding 44 m/sec, the corresponding dynamicpressure head of 1.2 kN/m 2 may be used for the loaded stateat all locations.The values of dynamic pressure head to be used forthe unloaded state at locations of intermediate exposure areto be interpolated, by the use of engineering judgement,between the extremes given for sheltered and exposedlocations in Table 4.2.2. To aid designers in choosingsuitable values, descriptions and examples of typicallocations are given in Table 4.2.3.Values of dynamic pressure head derived fromTable 4.2.2 should be used to determine the nominaltransverse, longitudinal and vertical wind loads describedin clauses 5.3.3, 5.3.4 and 5.3.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2.In all other respects, the provisions ofsection 5,3 of BS 5400 : Part 2 regarding wind load shouldbe followed for structures with spans of 100m and less. Bridges with any span greater than 100mFor bridges with any span greater than 100m, therequirements of Appendix 4.2.3 should be used.

Amendments No. V-2/84 (March)TABLE 4.2.2SHELTERED LOCATIONDYNAMIC PRESSURE HEADEXPOSED LOCATIONSTRUCTURELOADED(kN/m 2 )STRUCTUREUNLOADED(kN/m 2 )STRUCTURELOADED(kN/m 2 )STRUCTUREUNLOADED(kN/m 2 ) 4.2.3EXPOSURE TO WINDDegreeofExposureDescriptionExampleDynamicpressurehead(kN/m 2 )Sheltered by surroundingbuildings and/or topographyNormal exposureElevated situation; notsheltered by buildings ortopographyExposed to north-easterlyor south—easterly windsacross open seaKowloon ParkDrive FlyoverCastle RoadFlyoverTai Po RoadInterchangeAp Lei ChauBridge2.52.;3.33.8

V. No. V-l/92 (Jan.)4*2*3.3 Covered footbridgesFoot and cycle-track bridges are mentionedseveral times in the wind load section of BS 5400: Part2, but only in respect of uncovered bridges* Hong KongGovernment policy requires all footbridges either to becovered, or to be designed so that covers can be addedsubsequently. The provisions for wind loading in BS 5400: Part 2 are not therefore relevant to Hong Kongfootbridges, and must be replaced by recommendationsgiven below.Wind tunnel tests have been carried out on arange of designs typical of Hong Kong covered footbridgesas shown in Figure 4.2.1 to determine suitable wind loadcoefficients for design purposes.Details of the test designs, and results of thetests, are given in the reports entitled "AerodynamicLoads on Covered Footbridges" by British MaritimeTechnology* The reports include values of drag and liftcoefficients for decks with roof and for roof only,covering the full range of designs at angles of windinclination (a) varying between ±20° to the horizontal*Footbridges resembling the test designs asshown in Figure 4.2.1 should be designed to resist windloads derived from values of drag and lift coefficientstaken from Tables 4.2.4a and 4.2.4b. The coefficientsgiven in the tables are the most unfavourable valuesbetween wind inclination of ±5° because normal turbulencewill cause wind inclination to vary between these angles.Where sidelong ground is concerned, the coefficients forangles of inclination corresponding to the fall of theground should be taken from Tables 4.2.4c and 4.2*4d, andused as design values if greater than the coefficientsfor ±5°.For footbridges with shapes differing widelyfrom the test designs, advice should be sought fromaerodynamic specialists*A stairway model was included among the windtunnel tests. The stairway model test results indicatethat the wind forces acting on a stairway may be greaterthan those acting on the adjacent mainspan. Values ofC D = 1.2 x mainspan value given in Tables 4.2.4 a-d,and C L - +1.7 or -1.1should accordingly be used for the design of stairways.The longitudinal wind load is also significant forstairways and should be allowed for using a value of C s =2.35,where C s =

V. No. V-l/92 (Jan.)Ramps will similarly experience wind forcesgreater than those acting on the adjacent mainspan. Thevalues recommended above for stairways should also beused for ramps.The definition of the notationsA! are given in BS 5400: Part 2.C D , C L , g andC s = Coefficient of longitudinal load actinghorizontally on stairway or ramp.P L = Nominal longitudinal wind load actinghorizontally.For stairways and ramps, the area A 3 as definedin Clause 5.3.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2 to obtain thevertical wind load, shall be the inclined area of thedeck.

1. DECKS2. ROOFSTHE 3-Om DECK GEOMETRIES THE 4-5mi 20(400) *^ (3000) U500)SLAB DECKi i . i-jM'56) | \£0(800) \ /DECK GEOMETRIESSLAB DECK{| 20(400). tr~150 ^i •""(4500) If..(3000) 1 T *J 75 4 • *-' ..•""•--'"!600200) \" .""" "" i ,1 \HioodH ' [»-150(3000)SPINE BEAM DECK ^P1MTHE 3-0 m ROOF GEOMETRIESEBEAM DECKTHE 4-5 m ROOF GEOMETRIES1(20) 6(120) 1(20) 6(120)u t * u 1 *T 5(ioo)— ~*J|*~ T I5(100)—Ik- f150225M(3000)" (4500)SHEET ROOFSHEET ROOF5(100) . 5(100) II] i i 20(400) I 1M I k .^___ r . j iOOGO)SLAB ROOF"'I225(4500)JSLAB ROOFy 20(400)snooiHK" ^{5(100)•T (200"Pl f*"— — -ZP* — ' — ~*^ ~*1p|tOO) j "^*| h*~UOO)t*v **^2^~~* \ "^ "'••^•N^ I 1T Ttf %!?;««, iWitzU***5(100) -tpt 5 00,* ^0 ! 4 f 4225 . 1 T ^^ (3000) H I 1 5 h (45oo) ^i 'VAULT ROOF WITH FACIA BEAMSlOISLOPF-^, r-15 RAFTERS OF f^ST 10% CIQPF— ,10 % SLOPED wrrH 6{100) x u 10% SLOPE—-vPITCHES OF \6(120) ^^ ^80^ t3i{2680) , 6(120) ^?°*\j py, i *4 —rr^" 11 " 'u i USp^oi J ii|(1 ° 0) VAULT ROOF WITH FACIA BEAMSp15 RAFTERS OF POSTWIDTH SOQOlxU4(80) ETCHES OFm^fJL ' " * ncr 4- in 1:p —~-z^=n&*)QUnoo)"^3^ f t^jU-5.,00) * 60f -225'" (3000) "" '* W500JDUO -PITCH RpQFDUO-PITCH ROOFNOTES: 1. DIMENSIONS MODEL SCALE mm.2. EQUIVALENT FULL SCALE DIMENSIONS IN BRACKETS.3. BOTH SHEET ROOF AND SLAB ROOF ARE CLASSIFIED AS FLATROOF.FIGURE 4.2.1TYPICAL SECTION OFDECKS AND ROOFSMODELLED IN WIND TUNNEL TE$TS

Table 4.2.4a Drag Coefficient CD for Covered Footbridge -5° < a < +5°Drag Coefficient CDfor Deck with Rooffor Roof onlyDeck TypeRoof TypeFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofSlab2. BeamBeam and Slab1. Girder2.01.5, \Spine Beam } with Solid ParapetBeam and Slab ISlab with Full Live Load1. : 1. The transverse wind load on deck and parapet shall be the transverse windload on deck with roof minus the transverse wind load on roof only.2. Refer BS 5400 : Part 2 for calculation of transverse wind load.Table 4.2.4b Lift Coefficient CL for Covered Footbridge -5° < a < +5°Lift Coefficient CLfor Deck with Rooffor Deck onlyfor Roof onlyDeck TypeRoof TypeFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofSlabTruss Girder-fl.4-0.7+1.1-0.6+1.1-0.6-0.9-0.8+0.2-1.0+1.4-0.2+1.0+1.2Slab 1Spine Beam } with Solid ParapetBeam and Slab jSlab with Full Live Load+1.2.+ 1.0+1.1+0.3-0.1+0.3-0.1+0.5-0.1+0.9+0.7+0.6Spine BeamBeam and Slab+2.1+ 1.7+2.0+0.8+0.7+0.7-0.1+1.2+0.9+1.3Notes : 1. CL positive = upward wind load, negative = downward wind load2. For deck-roof combination with both positive and negative CL, bothdownward and upward wind load cases have to be considered. Otherwise,either upward ( positive CL ) or downward ( negative CL ) wind load is tobe considered.3. Refer BS 5400 : Part 2 for calculation of vertical wind load.

Table 4.2.4cDrag Coefficient CD for Covered Footbridge-20° < a < -5° & +5° < a < +20°Drag Coefficient CDfor Deck with Rooffor RoofonlyDeck TypeRoof TypeFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofFlatRoofVaultRoofDuopitchRoofSlab2. BeamBeam and Slab1. GirderSlab 1Spine Beam } with Solid ParapetBeam and Slab JSlab with Full Live Load2.02.1———--1.83.0————Notes : 1. The transverse wind load on deck and parapet shall be the transverse windload on deck with roof minus the transverse wind load on roof only.2. Refer BS 5400 : Part 2 for calculation of transverse wind load.— Test results not available.Table 4.2.4dLift Coefficient CLDeck TypeSlabSpine BeamBeam-and-SlabTruss GirderLift Coefficient CL for Covered Footbridge-20° < a < -5° & +5° < a < +20°Roof TypeSlab 1Spine Beam } with Solid ParapetBeam and Slab jSlab with Full Live Loadfor Deck with RoofFlatRoof-1.84-2,1»2.1+1.8-1,4+1.7-1.0+1.8VaultRoof-1.7+2.1-1.5+ 1.8——DuopitchRoof-1.7+2.0-2.1+1.7——for Deck onlyFlatRoof-0.7+0.9-1.2+0.9+0.6-0.7-0.1+1.4VaultRoof-0.6+0.9-1.1+0.7——DuopitchRoof-0.9+1.0-1.3+0.8——for Roof onlyFlatRoof-1.1+1.2-1.1+1.1-0.9+0.7-0.9+0.4VaultRoof-1.1+1.2-1.1+1.2——DuopitchRoof-0.8+1.0-0.8+1.0——Notes: 1. CL positive = upward wind load; negative = downward wind load2. Refer BS 5400 : Part 2 for calculation of vertical wind load.— Test results not available.

V.4.2.4Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)4.2.4 Temperature effectsWhile the general recommendations of Section5.4, BS 5400:Part 2 are valid for all highway structuresand railway bridges, those recommendations which relateto particular environmental effects and materialproperties are specific to United Kingdom conditions.Recommendations given in clauses 5.4.1 to 5.4.6 of BS5400:Part 2 including Figure 9, Tables 10, 11 & 12 andAppendix C consequently cannot be used and should bereplaced by the following recommendations formulated forHong Kong conditions. GeneralDaily and seasonal fluctuations in shade airtemperature, solar radiation, re-radiation, etc, causethe following :(a) Changes in the effective temperature of abridge superstructure which, in turn, govern itsmovement.The effective temperature is a theoreticaltemperature calculated by weighting and addingtemperatures measured at various levels within thesuperstructure. The weighting is in the ratio of thearea of cross-section at the various levels to the totalarea of cross-section of the superstructure. Over aperiod of time, there will be a minimum, a maximum, anda range of effective bridge temperature, resulting inloads and/or load effects within the superstructure dueto :(1) restraint of associated expansion orcontraction by the form of construction ( eg portalframe, arch, flexible pier, elastomeric bearings)referred to as temperature restraint; and(2) friction at roller or sliding bearings wherethe form of the structure permits associatedexpansion and contraction, referred to as frictionalbearing restraint.(b) Difference in temperature between the topsurface and other levels in the superstructure. Theseare referred to as temperature differences and theyresult in loads and/or load effects within thesuperstructure. Effective bridge temperaturesV. No. V-l/92 (Jan.)Values of basic effective bridge temperaturesshould be obtained from Table 4.2.5 for superstructureGroups 1 to 4. Basic effective temperatures appropriateto a return period of 120 years should be used except forthe cases given below.Basic effective bridge temperatures appropriateto a return period of 50 years may be used for :(i) foot/cycle track bridges,(ii) carriageway joints and similar equipmentlikely to be replaced during the life of thestructure,(iii) erection loading. Adjustment for thickness of surfacingThe effective bridge temperatures are dependenton the depth of surfacing on the bridge deck, and thevalues given in Table 4.2.5 assume surfacing depths of 40mm for Groups 1 and 2 and 100 mm for Groups 3 and 4.Where the depth of surfacing differs from these values,the minimum and maximum effective bridge temperaturesshould be adjusted by the amounts given in Table Adjustment for height above mean sea levelThe values of effective temperature given inTable 4.2.5 shall be adjusted for height above mean sealevel by subtracting 0.5°C per 100 m height for minimumeffective temperatures and 1.0°C per 100 m height formaximum effective temperatures. Range of effective bridge temperatureIn determining load effects due to temperaturerestraint, the effective bridge temperature at the timethe structure is effectively restrained shall be taken asdatum in calculating expansion up to the maximumeffective bridge temperature and contraction down to theminimum effective bridge temperature. Temperature differenceEffects of temperature differences within thesuperstructure should be derived from the data given inFigure 4.2.2.Positive temperature differences occur whenconditions are such that solar radiation and othereffects cause a gain in heat through the top surface ofthe superstructure. Conversely, reverse temperaturedifferences occur when conditions are such that heat islost from the top surface of the bridge deck as a resultof re-radiation and other effects.

V. No. V-l/92 (Jan.) Adjustment for thickness of surfacingTemperature differences are sensitive to thethickness of surfacing, and the data given in Figure4.2.2 assume depths of 40 mm for Groups 1 and 2 and 100mm for Groups 3 and 4. The values for other depths ofsurfacing are given in Appendix Application with effective bridge temperaturesMaximum positive temperature differences shallbe considered to coexist with effective bridgetemperatures at above 25°C (Groups 1 and 2) and 15°C(Groups 3 and 4) . Maximum reverse temperaturedifferences shall be considered to coexist with effectivebridge temperatures up to 8°C below the maximum forGroups 1 and 2, up to 4°C below the maximum for Group 3,and up to 2°C below the maximum for Group Coefficient of thermal expansionFor the purpose of calculating temperatureeffects, the coefficients of thermal expansion shall betaken as 12xlO" 6 /°C for structural steel and 9xlO"V°C forconcrete.4.2.5 Effects of shrinkage and creepSection 5.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2 refers to theneed to take into account the effects of shrinkage orcreep in concrete, and similar sources of strain.The recommendations of BS 5400 in respect ofshrinkage and creep in concrete are not suitable for usein Hong Kong. Reference should be made to clauses4.4.2.4 and for amplification with regard to HongKong conditions.



Comparison of Mean Winds in Tropical CyclonesV,4Appendix 4.2.1 - p. 1(November, 1983)Hourly Mean Winds from different stations were plottedagainst simultaneous hourly mean winds recorded at Waglan Islandwhile No. 3 or higher signals were hoisted. Regression equationswere then obtained expressing the mean hourly wind at the variousstations in terms of the mean hourly wind at Waglan Island. In theequations that follow, f W' is Waglan Island, 'RO' is RoyalObservatory, ' GI' is Green Island, f SF f is Star Ferry, 'CD 7 A' isCape D'Aguilar, ' TC' is Tate's Cairn, 'Kt f is the SE end of Kaitakrunway, ' CC' is Cheung Chau and 'KP' is King's Park. The firstsuffix indicates the direction of the wind and the second the periodfrom which the data was extracted.= 0.50W +3.1= 0.54W + 0.6= 0.50W - 2.3CC 'N(70~74) = 0.72W +2.4CC, •5(70-74) = 0.97W - 4.6= 0.76W - 0.6= 0.15W +5.7W (70-74)= 0.87W - 2.2S (70-74)= 0.66W - 4.7KP N(71 _ 74)- 0.59W - 1.5= 0.71W +3.1KP S (71-74)= 0.61W - 0.7J E(60-62)= 0.76W + 0.4= 0.46W + 3.6^E(67-69)-'E (70-74)= 0.36W +5.3= 0.58W -1.7KP W ni-74) = 0.64 W + 3.8CD'A E(71 _ 74) - 0.61W - 1.3= 0.99W +4.6Kt= 0.50W +1.0TC N(70-74)CD / A N(71 _ 74) = 0.75W - 0.8 E(73-74)= 0.53W +5.7= 0.94W 4-1.1= 0.85W - 0.2s (70-74) = 0.78W + 1.7= 0.06W +5.7= 0.86W 4-1.3E (72-74) = 0.62W +3.4Kt N(73-74) = 0.14W +8.2= 0.56W + 2.1

V.4Appendix 4.2.1 — p. 2(November, 1983)These regression equations show that northerly winds arealmost as strong at Tate's Cairn as they are at Waglan Islandwhereas at Kaitak, at the Royal Observatory and at the Star Ferrythey are very much lighter. Cheung Chau is almost as well exposedas Waglan Island to southerly winds. It is interesting to see thedecrease in winds at Royal Observatory around 1962 as tall buildingswere developed at the vicinity. It is also rather surprising thateasterly winds at Cape D'Aguilar are less than 0.61 times as strongas those at Waglan Island.

L. SUPERSTRUCTURESNATURAL FREQUENCY AND ACCELERATION1.1 Natural frequencyV.4Appendix 4 . 2 .-2 - p . 1Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)The natural frequency referred to throughoutthis Appendix is the fundamental natural frequency of thesimplest vibration mode.The natural frequency of a loaded beam may bedetermined from the expression_ 947U 2Lf wY-dxJof L wJowherew = one or more uniformly distributed loads;W = one or more point loads; andY = deflection : inside the summation sign Yrepresents deflection at the loadposition.For simply supported structures fpinned ends, this reduces toor simple beams withf =2L2where£ = elastic modulus;I = second moment of area (including anyverges, parapets or other componentswhich may contribute to the stiffness ofthe section);W d = dead load per unit length; andSiVjt/L = total live load on structure divided bythe span.For continuous structures, the naturalfrequency may be found from the expressionW d 4-where C is a constant depending on span configuration andmode of vibration. If L 2 is the longer span of a two— spanstructure or the centre span of a symmetrical three— spanstructure, values of C are as given in Table 4.2.9.

V.4Appendix 4 . 2 . 2 : - p . 2Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)TABLE 4.2.9 CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES DYNAMIC RESPONSETwo-span continuous structureSpan ratio L X /L 2 1 0.85C mode 11.57 1.9L xL20.6 0.40.2 02 2 .1 2.2 2.5C mode 22.535.26.87.3 8Three-span symmetricalcontinuousstructureL!= L 3 L 2Span ratio L X /L 210.750.50.30C mode 11.572.12.42. 653.5C mode continuous structures, the C values for thesecond vibration mode are very close to those of thefirst mode, especially when the spans are of similarlengths. Under such circumstances, contributions fromthe second and higher modes may not be negligible, andthis is the reason why continuous structures oftenvibrate noticeably. Accordingly, designers shouldsuitably adjust the calculated acceleration from thefirst vibration mode so as to cover contributions fromthe higher modes.For other less common bridge configurations,the reference of R.D. Blevins may be useful incalculating the natural frequencies of vibration.1.2 Vertical accelerationThe maximum vertical acceleration imposed ona footbridge superstructure by a pedestrian walking alongthe footbridge should be checked in accordance withAppendix B of BS 5400 : Part 2 if the natural frequencyof the footbridge superstructure is less than 5 Hz.The maximum vertical acceleration caused by acontinuous stream of pedestrians hurrying along thefootbridge should also be checked, as described below, ifthe natural frequency is less than 5 Hz.In neither case should the maximum verticalacceleration of the footbridge superstructure exceed avalue of O.sVf m/s 2 , where f is the natural frequency.A continuous stream of pedestrians crossing afootbridge may be considered as a moving continuous loadon a simply supported beam, with the maximum verticalacceleration given by

V.4Appendix 4.2.2 - p. 3Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)5W cl iz 2 V 2 L 2768 El(inwhere V = velocity (in m/s) (taken as 3 m/s forcontinuous stream of pedestrians);L = span of superstructure (in m) :W sl = unit live load on superstructure (in kN/m) ;E = elastic modulus (in kN/m 2 ) ; andI = second moment of area of superstructure(in m 4 ) .For the case of a single pedestrian, thenatural frequency should be calculated for the unloadedbridge, but the presence of the live load should be takeninto account in calculating the natural frequency for themoving continuous load case.I. COLUMNS2.1 Natural frequencyIf the self-weight of a footbridge column isneglected, and the column is considered as a freestandingcantilever with a concentrated mass,corresponding to the footbridge superstructure, at thetop, the natural frequency of the column in a directiontransverse to the span of the footbridge may bedetermined from the expressionf = _!.•(-MI x 10 3 ) T -(l- 4MSrfj2 x ID' 3 ) T (in Hz)27T MH 3 Ti 2 EIwhere M — concentrated mass of superstructure (in Kg) ,g = acceleration due to gravity ( = 9.81 m/s 2 ),E = elastic modulus (in kN/m 2 ),J = second moment of area of column transverse tolongitudinal axis of footbridge (in m 4 ) ,H = column height (in m, measured from soffit ofsuperstructure or bottom of bearing, to top ofpile cap in soft fill or surrounding groundlevel if paved, as appropriate).

V.4r , Appendix 4 . 2 . 2 - p . 4 ,Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)and M*g x 1CT 3 = W 3 L S = (W sd + W s] ] L 5W s — unit load of superstructure (in kN/m) ,W sd = unit dead load of superstructure (in kN/m) ,W sl = unit live load of superstructure (in kN/m) ,L s = length of superstructure supported by column(in m)For a non—uniform free-standing cantilevercolumn, the following approximate expression may beused :-i jr -f = — ( — X 10 3 ) 2271 Mwhere K = stiffness at top of column (in kN/m)2 , 2 Transverse accelerationTransverse oscillation of a footbridge may beexcited by a couple forming when the pedestriansconstituting the live load fail to balance one another oneach side of a column. The frequency of such an out ofbalance couple is likely to be low, and for designpurposes can be taken as 1 Hz. On this basis, thetransverse acceleration may be calculated from theexpression25W S ,LJ3 i , ,- —- '-m/s 'where B = width of footbridge (in m) ,f = natural frequency of column (in Hz) .andW sl , L sf M and H are defined previously.The transverse acceleration thus found shouldnot exceed 0.15 m/s 2 .

1. GeneralWIND LOADS FOR BRIDGES WITH SPANS EXCEEDING 100MV.4Appendix 4.2.3 — p. 1Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)For bridges with spans exceeding 100m due accountshould be taken of the loaded length under consideration andthe height of the structure above ground. Due to thelikelihood of wind loading governing the design of certaincomponents higher load factors y fL are required to account forthe wind climate of Hong Kong.1.1 Maximum Dynamic Pressure q for Sites in Exposed TerrainFor bridges with spans exceeding 100m in exposedterrain the dynamic pressure head, q, should be obtained fromTable DYNAMIC PRESSURE HEAD q AND q' (kN/m 2 )Heightabovegroundlevel (m)20Dynamic pressure q appropriate tohorizontal wind loaded lengths (m)10020040060010002000Hourlywind speeddynamicpressure q' .01.3504. .71004. . 1 For locations which are less exposed, as described inTable 4.2.3 of this Manual according to the degree ofexposure, the values q and q' given above may be factoredaccording to the degree of exposure as follows :Degree of exposureFactor of q and q 710.72 0.834 0.91.0

V.4Appendix 4.2.3 — p. 2Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)Note 2Note 3Note 4The horizontal wind loaded length should be that giving themost severe effect. Where there is only one adverse area(see Clause 3.2.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2) for the element orstructure under consideration, the wind loaded length isthe base length of the adverse area. Where there is morethan one adverse area, as for continuous construction, themaximum effect should be determined by consideration of anyone adverse area or a combination of adverse areas, usingthe wind dynamic pressure appropriate to the base length orthe total combined base lengths. The remaining adverseareas, if any, and the relieving areas, are subjected towind having a dynamic pressure as specified in 1.2 of thisAppendix for bridges without live load and in 1.4 of thisAppendix for bridges with live load.Where the bridge is located at or near the top of a cliffor a steep escarpment the dynamic pressure should befactored by (S^2 where S x is a topographical factor definedin 1.13 of this Appendix.The height of vertical elements such as piers and towersshould be divided into units in accordance with the heightsgiven in column 1 of Table and the dynamic pressureshould be derived from the centroid of each unit.1.2 Minimum Dynamic Pressure q' on Relieving Areas of BridgesWithout Live LoadWhere wind on any part of a bridge or element givesrelief to the member under consideration, the effectivecoexistent value of minimum dynamic pressure on the partsaffording relief should be taken from Table as theappropriate hourly wind speed dynamic pressure q' .1.3 Maximum Dynamic Pressure q on Bridge with Live LoadThe maximum dynamic pressure, q, on those parts ofthe bridge or its elements on which the application of windloading increases the effect being considered shall be takenas :(a) For highway and foot/cycle track bridges :q = 1.2 x qk/qko kN/m 2but not less than q'where : q^ is the dynamic pressure obtained formTable appropriate to the height ofthe bridge and the loaded length underconsideration.q 20 is the dynamic pressure obtained fromTable appropriate to the height ofthe bridge and a loaded length of 20m.is given in Table appropriate tothe height of the bridge.q f

(b)For railway bridgesV.4Appendix 4..2,-3 — p. 3Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)q is the dynamic pressure obtained from Table to the height of the bridge and the loadedlength under consideration.1.4 Minimum Dynamic Pressure q f on Reliving Areas of Bridges WithLive LoadWhere wind on any part of a bridge or element givesrelief to the member under consideration, the effectivecoexistent value of dynamic pressure q' on the parts affordingrelief should be taken as :1.2 x q'/q kN/m 2where q f and q are obtained from Table appropriate tothe height of the bridge and the loaded length underconsideration.1.5 Nominal Transverse Wind LoadThe nominal transverse wind load P t (in N) should betaken as acting at the centroids of the appropriate areas andhorizontally unless local conditions change the direction ofthe wind, and should be derived from :P t = q A! C Dwhere q is the dynamic pressure head obtained from 1.1 to 1.4of this Appendix.A x is the area defined in BS 5400clause 2C D is the drag coefficient defined in BS 5400 : Part 2clauses to Nominal Longitudinal Wind LoadThe nominal longitudinal wind load P L (in N) shouldbe derived in accordance with BS 5400 : Part 2 clause 5.3.4using the appropriate value of q for superstructures with orwithout live load being adopted as obtained from 1.1 or 1.3 ofthis Appendix.1.7 Nominal Vertical Wind LoadThe nominal vertical wind load P v (in N) should bederived in accordance with BS 5400 : Part 2 clause 5.3.5 usingthe appropriate value of q for superstructures with or withoutlive load being adopted as obtained from 1.1 or 1.3 of thisAppendix.1.8 Load CombinationsThe load combinations specified in BS 5400clause 5.3.6 should be considered.Part 2

V.4Appendix 4.2.3 - p. 4Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)L.9 Design Loadsfollows :For design loads the factor y fL should be taken asWind considered with : For the For theultimate serviceabilitylimit state limit state1.10 Overturning Effects(a) erection 1.2 1.0(b) dead load plus 1.9 1.1superimposed deadload only, and formembers primarilyresisting wind loads(c) appropriate 1.2 1.0combination 2 loads(d) relieving effects of 1.0 1.0windWhere overturning effects are being investigated thewind load should also be considered in combination withvertical traffic live load. Where the vertical traffic liveload has a relieving effect, this load should be limited to onenotional lane or to one track only, and should have thefollowing value :on highway bridges, not more than 6kN/m of bridge;on railway bridges, not more than 12kN/m of bridge.1.11 Load Factor for Relieving Vertical Live LoadFor live load producing a relieving effect, y fL forboth ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state shouldbe taken as Aerodynamic EffectsConsideration should be given to wind excitedoscillations and the guidance provided in the Draft BritishDesign Rules should be followed.1.13 Topographic EffectsTo account for topographic effects factor S x shouldbe determined in accordance with the provisions of CP3 ChapterV Part 2 Appendix D (1986 Amendment) .

V. 4Appendix 4.2.4 - p. 1Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)1. PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO BD 37/88 APPENDIX A (BS 5400CLAUSES 6.8 AND 7.2PART 2)6.8.1 Nominal load on supportsThe nominal loads are given in Table 4.2.10together with their direction and height of application,and shall be considered as acting horizontally on bridgesupports. Supports shall be capable of resisting themain and residual load components acting simultaneously.Loads normal to the carriageway shall be consideredseparately from loads parallel to the carriageway.TABLE 4.2.10 COLLISION LOADS ON SUPPORTS OFBRIDGES OVER HIGHWAYSLoad normalto thecarriagewaybelow(kN)Loadparallel tothecarriagewaybelow(kN)Point ofapplication onbridge supportMain loadcomponent500(160)1000(160)At the most severepoint between0 .75m and 1 . 5mabove carriagewaylevel .Residualloadcomponent250(140)500(140)At the most severepoint between 1mand 3m abovecarriageway level .Note : Figures within brackets are applicable forlightweight structures (see Clause 6.8.5) .6.8.2 Nominal load on superstructuresThe nominal loads are given in Table 4.2.11together with their direction of application. The loadnormal to the carriageway shall be considered separatelyfrom the load parallel to the carriageway. The loadsshall be considered to act as point loads on the bridgesuperstructure in any direction between the horizontaland vertical. The load shall be applied to the bridgesoffit, thus precluding a downward vertical application.Given that the plane of the soffit may follow asuperelevated or non-planar form, the load can have anoutward or inward application. For the design oflightweight structures, such as footbridges, the reducednominal loads shown within brackets in Table 4.2.11shall be used.

V.4Appendix 4.2.4 - p. 2Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)TABLE 4.2,11 COLLISION LOADS ON BRIDGESUPERSTRUCTURES OVER HIGHWAYSLoad normal tothe carriagewaybelow(kN)250(50)Load parallel tothe carriagewaybelow(kN)500(50)Point of applicationon bridge superstructureOn the soffit in anyinclination betweenthe horizontal andthe (upward) vertical6.8.3 Associated nominal primary live loadNo primary live load is required to beconsidered on the bridge.6.8.4 Load combinationVehicle collision loads on supports and onsuperstructures shall be considered separately, incombination 4 only, and need not be taken as coexistentwith other secondary live loads.6.8.5 Design loadFor all elements excepting elastomericbearings, the effects due to vehicle collision loads onsupports and on superstructures need only be consideredat the ultimate limit state. The y £L to be applied tothe nominal loads shall have a value of 1.50.The design loads shall be applicable for globaleffects only i.e. local effects at the point of impactare to be ignored.For the design of lightweight structures, suchas footbridges, the supports shall be designed to thereduced main load and residual load components shownwithin brackets in Table 4.2.10.For elastomeric bearings, the effects due tovehicle collision loads on supports and onsuperstructures should be only considered at theserviceability limit state. The y fL to be applied to thenominal loads shall have -a value of 1.0.

V.4Appendix, 4.2.4 — p. 3Amendment No'. V-l / 91 (Jan.)7.2 Vehicle collision loads for foot/cycle track bridgesupports and superstructures.The vehicle collision loads specified in clause 6.8shall be considered in the design of foot/cycle trackbridges.2. COLLISION OF HEAVY GOODS VEHICLES WITH BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURESADVICE ON THE APPLICATION OF THE REVISED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS2.1 The intention behind the new requirements relating tothe collision of heavy goods vehicles with bridgesuperstructures is that the overall structural integrityof the bridge should be maintained following an Impactbut that local damage to a part of the bridge deck canbe accepted.2.2 In applying the requirements checks should be madeagainst the following three criteria as appropriate : —(a) The bridge deck must not lift or slide off Itsbearings.(b) In the case of bridge decks with a number ofcarrying members e.g. beam and slab type decks f thestructure as a whole must not collapse with any oneof the carrying members being assumed to havefailed; alternatively individual members can bechecked for failure as at (c).(c) In the case of bridge decks with a single carryingmember e.g. spine beams, local failure or damage ofelements (e.g. webs or flanges) or of joints betweenelements may be allowed but the structure as a wholemust not collapse.2.3 For bridge decks with a small number of beams orgirders, the designer may choose to include the reducedcontribution of an individual damaged beam rather thanassume it to be ineffective. This is also applicable toparts of voided slabs.2.4 All designs checks are to be carried out at the ultimatelimit state only (ie. no checks at the serviceabilitylimit state).2.5 The applicability of the various checks to differenttypes of bridge decks is described in Table 4.2*12.

V.4Appendix 4.2.4- p\ 4Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)TABLE 4.2.12 APPLICATION OF COLLISION LOADS ON DIFFERENTTYPES OF BRIDGE DECKSType of deckCheck foroverallstability at ULSCheck forprogressivefailure at ULSafter removingelements whoseload bearingcapacity wouldbe directlyimpairedCheck localeffects at ULSSlabApplicableNot applicableNot applicableVoided SlabApplicableApplicable .Remove portionof web and/orflange which maybe renderedineffective .Not applicablein general butmay be usedoptionally.Beam andSlab orplategirders andslabApplicableApplicable .Remove beam orgirder which maybe struck (notnecessarily theouter member) .Not applicablein general butmay be usedoptionally.Other typesincludingspine beamsor deckswith smallnumber ofbeams orcellsApplicableNot applicableApplicable

V.4.2.6(November, 1983)4.2.6 Earthcruake forcesAlthough the risk of a major earthquake occurringclose to Hong Kong is small, seismicity records for southernGuangdong show a recurrence period of about 400 years for anearthquake of magnitude 6 or above. The possibility of suchan earthquake occurring must accordingly be considered. TheGuangdong records indicate that structures built in Hong Kongto withstand ground accelerations of 0.07 g would probablyhave survived all the earthquakes recorded in Guangdong since288 A.D. Highway structures and railway bridges should bedesigned to withstand seismic forces corresponding toaccelerations of this magnitude.Allowance for seismic effects should be made bymeans of the equationV = CWwhere V = nominal seismic force;C = seismic coefficient assumed to be0.05; andW = total vertical load comprising(i)(ii)the permanent vertical loads;andeither(a) for highway structures,1/3 type HA loading on onenotional lane in eachdirection; or(b) for railway bridges, typeRU loading on one railwaytrack.The nominal seismic force should be multiplied bypartial load factors of 1.00 for the serviceability limitstate and 1.40 for the ultimate limit state to obtain thedesign seismic forces. The design seismic force for theultimate limit state will thus correspond with the figuresuggested by the Guangdong records. The ultimate limit statehas more relevance to earthquakes than has the serviceabilitylimit state.The design seismic force should be appliedsuccessively longitudinally and transversely at footing leveland to the superstructure, making four loading conditions tobe considered in all.

V.4.2.6 (Cont'd)(Noveitiber / 1983)Statical treatment of seismic effects is adequatefor short span structures r but may result in uneconomicallylarge loadings for long span structures. Dynamic seismicanalysis should accordingly be considered for structures ofmore than 100 m span.Seismic forces occurring during major earthquakesoften cause the superstructures of bridges to slip sidewaysoff their supporting substructures. Consideration should begiven to this possibility, and if necessary physicalrestraints should be provided to prevent any such sidewaysmovement.

V.4 .2.7Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)4.2.7 Collision Loads4.2.7.1 Highway overbridgesUnited Kingdom, Department of Transport hasproposed amendments to BD 37/88 Appendix A (BS 5400 : Part2) clauses 6.8 and 7.2 resulting from the incorporation ofHeavy Goods Vehicle collision forces for highway structures.The collision loads on supports of bridges and bridgesuperstructures over highways have now been substantiallyincreased. The proposed amendments as given in Appendix4.2.4 shall be used for the design of highway structures.Supports exposed to possible vehicle collisionsshould be protected by metal or concrete barrier fences.Gantry supports should be designed to resist anominal load of 50 kN acting in the worst possible directionand at the worst height up to 3000 mm above the adjacentcarriageway. Railway overbridgesThe potential collision loading on a bridge overa railway track is many times any of the loadings given in4.2.7.1. Effective protection of supports against derailmentcollisions is accordingly difficult. Clause 4.13.5 containsrecommendations concerning not only the collision loadingsfor which allowance should be made but also other means bywhich the severity of collision effects may be ameliorated. Bridges over navigation channelsBridge piers situated in navigation channels maybe subjected to ship collision loadings . The magnitude andform of such collision loadings depend so much on thelocation of the bridge and the nature of the shipping usingthe navigation channel that specific guidance cannot begiven, but the possibility of ship collisions should alwaysbe considered at the design stage and appropriate protectionprovided. Clauses 4.18.4 and also deal with shipcollisions.4.2.8Parapet loadingLoads transmitted by vehicle collisions withparapets to structural elements supporting parapets shouldbe dealt with as described in section 6.7 of BS 5400Part 2.Vehicle parapets and vehicle pedestrian parapetsshould be designed in accordance with the requirements ofsection 4.15 of this chapter.Railway overbridge parapets should be designed toresist the loads described in clause 4.15.13 of this chapter.Pedestrian parapets should be designed to resistthe loads described in clause 7.1.2 of BS 5400 : Part 2.

V.4.2.10Amendment No. V-l/91 . (Jan.)4.2.9 Loads on railway overbridges from electrical supply equipmentA bridge crossing a railway track may be requiredto carry overhead electrical supply equipment. Referenceshould be made to the appropriate railway authority for theextra loading to be carried.4.2.10 Live loadingHighway structures and their elements should bedesigned to resist type HA loading, or type HA loadingcombined with type HB loading, whichever is more severe inits effects. Generally 45 units of type HB loading shouldbe used, but for the serviceability limit state, 25 units oftype HB loading may be used when calculating crack widths inreinforced concrete, and when investigating limitations onflexural tensile stresses in prestressed concrete under loadcombination 1.Highway structures spanning less than 15 metressituated on rural roads other than trunk or main roads shouldbe designed for type HA loading only.Where special considerations indicate that alesser live load would be appropriate, the agreement ofCHE/Str to its use must first be obtained.Traffic flows, representative of those predictedto use heavily trafficked commercial routes in Hong Kong ataround the year 2011, have been mathematically simulated andstatistically analysed in order to determine characteristic(1 in 2400 chance of exceedence in a year) live load effectswhich can arise on bridge structures.It has been found that it is justifiable to useBS 5400 : Part 2, published as Appendix A to the UnitedKingdom Department of Transport Departmental StandardBD 37/88 as the basis for Hong Kong bridge loading, withamendments to suit Hong Kong traffic types as necessary.The recommendations of BS 5400 : Part 2clauses 6.2, 6.2.1 including Table 13 and Figure 10 regardingtype HA loading and clauses, 6.4.2 including Table 14and Figure 13, regarding the application of type HA loadingconsequently cannot be used, and should be replaced by thefollowing requirements based on Hong Kong conditions. Type HA loading(replaces clause 6.2 of BS 5400 : Part 2)Type HA loading consists of a uniformlydistributed load (see and a knife edge load (seeclause 6.2.2 of BS 5400 : Part 2) combined, or of a singlewheel load (see clause 6.2.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2)

V. Mo. V-l / 91 (Jan.) Types HA and HB loading combined(replaces clause 6.4.2 of BS 5400 : Part 2)Types HA and HB loading shall be combined andapplied as follows :-(a)Type HA loading shall be applied to the notionallanes of the carriageway in accordance withclause 6.4.1 of BS 5400 : Part 2 modified as givenin (b) below.(b) Type HB loading shall occupy any transverseposition on the carriageway / either wholly withinone notional lane or straddling two or morenotional lanes.Where the HB vehicle lies wholly within thenotional lane (eg Figure 4.2.4(1) or where the HB vehiclelies partially within a notional lane and the remaining widthof the lane, measured from the side of the HB vehicle to theedge of the notional lane, is less than 2.5 metres (eg Figure4.2.4(2) (a) ) f type HB loading is assumed to displace part ofthe HA loading in the lane or straddled lanes it occupies.No other live loading shall be considered for 25 metres infront of the leading axle to 25 metres behind the rear axleof the HB vehicle. The remainder of the loaded length of thelane or lanes thus occupied by the HB vehicle shall be loadedwith HA DDL only; HA KEL shall be omitted. The intensity ofthe HA UDL in these lanes shall be appropriate to the loadedlength that includes the total length displaced by the typeHB loading with the front and rear 25 metre clear spaces*Where the HB vehicle lies partially within anotional lane and the remaining width of the lane, measuredfrom the side of the HB vehicle to the far edge of thenotional lane, is greater than or equal to 2,5 metres(eg Figure 4.2.4(2) (b) ) , the HA UDL loading in the lane shallremain, the HA KEL shall be omitted.Only one HB vehicle shall be considered on any onesuperstructure or on any substructure supporting two or moresuperstructures.Figure 4.2.4 (replaces Figure 13 of BS 5400 :Part 2) illustrates typical configurations of type HA loadingin combination with type HB loading.

(1) HB vehicle within one notional lane Amendment No. V-1/91(Jan.)Loaded length for intensity of HA UDLin lane containing HB vehicle25mOverall vehiclefenqth for axle i 25 mSpacing havingmost severe effect^_Lane loadingsare interchangeablefor most severe effect:^xHAUDl|No loadingP£#HS vehicle 1^51No (coding£ p axHAUOLjj:-• ^ £,x HA -'•• ' • ' • • • • - • ' • • •''•'-'•'.;; ' ; -'>'^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ p,xHA\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \J^ NO LOADING ON ISOLATED FftRTS OF CENTRAL RESERVE FOR GLOBAL ANALYSISNotionaljanes ineach carriageway12) HB.vehicle straddling two notional lanesfa)Loaded length for intensity of HA UDLin tone containing HB vehicleOr vice-versa25 rnOverall vehicle(enqth for axleSpacing havingmost severe effect25mOr vice-versaLnne loadingsare interchangeablefor most severe effectNo loading T~ feoffiHB vehicleffg^No loadingJ f^xHA UDL jJj^xHAUDLP.* HANO LOADING ON ISOLATED PARTS OF CENTRAL RESERVE FOR GLOBAL ANALYSISNotionaltones ineach carriageway(b).Lane loadingsare interchangeable2.5 m\\x\\ \\\\ \\No loadingNO LOADING ON tSOUTEDf PARTS OF CENTRAL RESERVEANo loading|p n xHAUOLFOR GLOBAL ANALYSIS11 1 125mOverall vehiclelength for axle 25 m 'spacing havingmost severe effectNotional(ones ineach carriageway__loaded length for intensity of HA UDLin lane containing HB vehicleNOTE : clause for the value of the HA lanefactor (B) to be taken for each lane.The overall length and width of the HB vehicle shall beas specified in clause 6.3.1 of BS 5400 : Part 2.Unless otherwise stated, type HA loading includes bothuniformly distributed loading (UDL) and knife edgeloading (KEL).See clause 6.4.1 of BS 5400 : Part 2 for loaded lengthto be taken in each lane.FIGURE 4.2.4TYPE HA AND HB HIGHWAY LOADING IN COMBINATION

AmendmentNo. V-1/91 (Jan.)LLJ5crtOh-ooIDozLLJQ§oro LLLUa:IDoozQroLUttI>Oa.(NM) 3NV1 dOM QV01

V. No. V-l/91 (Jan.) HA lane factors(replaces clause of BS 5400 Part 2)The HA UDL and KEL shall be multiplied by theappropriate factors from Table 4.2.8 (replaces Table 14 ofBS 5400 : Part 2) before being applied to the notional lanesindicated.Where the carriageway has a single notional laneas specified In clause of BS 5400 : Part 2, the HAUDL and KEL shall be applied to a lane width of 2.50m. Theloading of the remainder of the carriageway width shall betaken as 5 kN/m 2 .TABLE 4.2.8 HA LANE FACTORSNumber of laneson bridgeNFirstlanefactorB!Second lanelanefactorB 2Third &Subsequentlanes factorBnN < >= 1 The lane factors from Table 4.2.8 applyirrespective of the width of the notional trafficlane.Note 2N shall be used to determine which set of HA lanefactors is to be applied. The value of N is to betaken as the total number of notional lanes on thebridge (this shall include all the lanes for dualcarriageway roads) except that for a bridgecarrying one way traffic only, the value of Nshall be taken as twice the number of notionallanes on the bridge.Note 3 Where one carriageway carries three or morenotional lanes, one of the lanes, when consideredas a third or subsequent lane, shall be leftwithout load. (i.e. its lane factors shall be 0.0)

V. No. V-l/91 (Jan.) Nominal uniformly distributed load (UDL)(replaces clause 6.2.1 of BS 5400 : Part 2)For loaded lengths up to and Including 70m, theUDL, expressed in kN per linear metre of notional lane, shallbe derived from the equation,W = 400 x (1/L)°- 67and for loaded lengths In excess of 70m but less than 1400mthe UDL shall be derived from the equationW = 44 x (1/L)°- 15where L is the loaded length (in m) and W is the load permetre of notional lane (In kN).14.85kN/m.For loaded lengths above 1400m, the UDL shall beValues of the load per linear metre of notionallane are given in Table 4.2.7 (replaces Table 13 of BS 5400 :Part 2) and the loading curve illustrated in Figure 4.2.3(replaces Figure 10 of BS 5400 : Part 2)

Amendment No. V-l/91 (Jan.)LoadedLengthm246810121416182023262932353841444750TABLE 4.2.7LoadkN/m251.4158.0120.499.385.575.768.362.457.753.748.945.141. 939.236.935.033.231.730.329.1TYPE HA UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADLoadedLengthm5560657075808590100110120130150170190220250280310340LoadkN/m27.325.724.423.223.022.822.622.422.121.721.521.220.820.420.019.619.218.918.618.4LoadedLengthm37041045049053057062067073079085091098010501130121013001400LoadkN/m18.117.817.617.417.217.016.816.616.416.216.015.815.715.515.315.215.114.85NOTE :Generally, the loaded length for the member underconsideration shall be the full base length of the adverse area (seeclause 3.2.5 of BS 5400 : Part 2). Where there is more than oneadverse area, as for example in continuous construction, the maximumeffect should be determined by consideration of the adverse area orcombination of adverse areas using the loading appropriate to the fullbase length or the sum of the full base lengths of any combination ofthe adverse areas selected. Where the influence line has a cuspedprofile and lies wholly within a triangle joining the extremities ofits base to its maximum ordinate, the base length shall be taken astwice the area under the influence line divided by the maximum ordinate(see figure 11 of BS 5400 : Part 2) .

4.2.11Footbridge and subway coversV.4.2.11Amendment No. V-l/89 (Feb.)Covers should be designed to withstand all theappropriate permanent, temporary and transient loadsdescribed in BS 5400 : Part 2. In addition, covers shouldbe designed to resist a live load of 0.5 kN/m 2 , which shallbe considered as a secondary live load in conjunction withthe other loads and partial load factors appropriate tocombination 4 . No other primary or secondary live loads needbe considered.4.2.12 Dynamic effects4.2.12.1 Aerodynamic effectsThe possibility of wind-excited oscillationsoccurring should be considered, and due allowance made fortheir effects. If necessary, aerodynamic effects should beinvestigated by testing. Flexible structures such assuspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges and sign gantriesare particularly susceptible. Highway bridgesDynamic effects on highway bridges are usuallydeemed to be covered by the allowance for impact included inlive loadings. However, although such considerations may besufficient structurally, the possibility of highway usersbeing adversely affected should also be considered.Complaints about the liveliness of highway structures havebeen made in Hong Kong as a result of the occupants oftraffic stalled in one lane of a structure being subjectedto oscillations caused by traffic moving in a neighbouringlane. Similar situations could recur at any time under theconditions prevailing in Hong Kong.Highway structures oscillate in sympathy withpassing vehicles oscillating on their suspensions as a resultof road surface irregularities. The worst oscillations occurwhen the natural frequency of a structure lies within therange of forcing frequencies imposed by passing traffic.Such forcing frequencies generally range between2 Hz and 5 Hz. Highway structures should accordingly bedesigned so that as far as possible their natural frequencieslie outside this range.

V., 1983) FootbridgesPedestrians can be adversely affected by thedynamic behaviour of footbridges. To avoid unpleasantvibrations. the natural frequencies of footbridgesuperstructures and columns should if possible exceed 5 Hz.If the natural frequency of a footbridgesuperstructure or column is less than 5 Hz, the maximumacceleration should be limited to an acceptable value.Columns should only be used if their natural frequenciesexceed 2 Hz transversely and 1 Hz longitudinally.Appendix 4.2.2 gives guidance on the calculationof natural frequencies and accelerations, and quotesacceptable values for accelerations.The possibility of a group of small boys, or otherpedestrians, deliberately causing a footbridge to oscillateresonantly should be borne in mind. Footbridge bearingsshould be designed to allow for this possibility, andprestressed concrete beams should be provided with sufficientuntensioned reinforcement to resist a reversal of 10% of thestatic live load bending moment. Guides should be providedwhere necessary to prevent any tendency for a superstructureto bounce off its bearings.4.2.13 Dead load and superimposed dead loadIn assessing dead load, the weight of concreteshould be taken as not less than 24.5 kN/m 3 . If thestructural concrete of the deck of a structure is to be usedas the running surface, the assessment of dead load shouldInclude allowance for a minimum extra thickness of 25 mm ofconcrete.If the running surface is to consist of asphalt,the assessment of superimposed dead load should includeallowance for a minimum thickness of 100 mm of asphalticsurfacing material.The values of dead load and superimposed dead loadassumed for preliminary design purposes should be carefullychecked against the final values, when known, and ifnecessary, the calculations should be appropriately amended.

CHAPTER 4Y*4*1(Ifoveniber, 1983)DESIGN OF HIGHWAY STRUCTURESAMD RAILWAY BRIDGES4.1 IKTBDDUCTION4«1.1 ScopeThis chapter deals with the design of highwaystructuresand railway "bridges* The structures coveredinclude overbridges, underbridges, flyovers, underpasses,footbridges, cyclabridges, subways and gantries*A highway structure is a structure intended tocarry highway vehicles or predestrians over, under orthrough a physical obstruction or hazard, and may be abridge, a flyover, a viaduct, an underpass or a subway*A railway bridge may be an underbridge or an overbridge*A railway underbridge is a structure intended tocarry railway track and the locomotives and rolling stockusing it over or through a physical obstruction or hazard*A railway overbridge is a structure intended tocarry vehicles, pedestrians or services over one or more railwaytracks* A railway overbridge may be a highway structure*A culvert is a drainage structure designed as aclosed conduit for conveying stormwater from one side of ahighway or railway track to the other. A culvert exceeding 2 min span or diameter corresponds to a small "bridge, and shouldbe treated as a highway structure or railway "bridge, A drainageconduit or nullah forming part of a more extensive drainagesystem which incidentally passes under a highway or railwaytrack at a point or points along its route is a drainagestructure, and is neither a highway structure nor a railwaybridge*A wall designed to hold soil or rock in positionis an earth-retaining structure* A wall designed to actas an abutment to a highway structure or railway bridge, orto support an approach to a highway structure or railwaybridge, although in itself an earth-retaining structure, shouldbe treated as part of a highway structure or railway bridge*, 1983)Highway structures and railway bridges should noraally"be designed on the basis of the limit state philosophy containedin BS 5400 - Steel f Concrete and Composite Bridges® - The provisionsof all parts of BS 5400 relevant to Hong Kong GO Editions should befollowed* Wiere BS 5400 is not relevant to Hong Kong conditions,the recommendations of this Chapter f ©r ©ther appropriatecriteria f should be substituted*4«1«3 £§isii^All undated references t© BS 5400 refer to the1978 edition.Permissible stress design methods may be used for thedesign of highway structures* To ensure that such methods arecompatible with noztnal methods and that proper allowance is madefor conditions peculiar to Hong Kong f the prior agreement ofG*E.H*/Str* D« should be obtained to a statement of designmethods and assumptions for any highway structure designed bypermissible stress met hod s«4«1*4Before the design of any highway structure crossing arailway track f ©r ©f any railway underbridge, is c0mmenced fthe requirements ©f the appropriate railway authority shouldbe ascertained* Preliminary and detailed drawings f with .calculations if required t should be referred to the appropriaterailway authority for comment g» The approval of the appropriaterailway authority should be obtained before any work is undertaken*In the absence of specific comment f the contents ofthis Chapter should be deemed to apply to railway ©ver- andundeivbridges as well as to highway structua?es«

4.2 LOADS . •4*2«1 GeneralHighway structures should "be designed for theloads and forces 5 3,nd combinations of loads and forces ?specified in BS 5400 s Part 2 9 wherever these areapplicable to Hong Kong* Where Hong Kong conditionsdiffer from the conditions do scribed in \B3 5400 :Part 2 p loads and forces appropriate to Hong Kongshould "be used instead*For superimposed dead Ioad 2 the followingvalues of ftf^ should bo substituted for the valuesrecommended in BS 5400 s part 2 s 5*2,-2UISSISdock surfacing 1*75 1.20other loads 1oO 1.00For the loads arising from differentialsettlement as described in BS 5400 g Part 2 § 5«£?the following values of ?fj ( should "be takenUIS SLS •1.20 1eOOFor collision loads on the supports of highwaystructures and on the structural eleinents supportingparapets $ the following values of ^fj^ should besubstituted for the values recommended in BS 5400 §Part 2 s 6.3.4 and 6.9*4SIB1.50 1*20

V.4.2.2Amendments ITo d V-3/854»2» 2 COS& ^JJ£S^LJ[S£9^The combinations of forces specified in BS 5400 sPart 2 g Loads should be considered^ •For combination 5 5 BS 5400 s Part 2 s 4*4*5requires that the permanent loads should bo consideredacting together with loads due to friction at triebearings (or horizontal shear in tho case of elastoraericbearings). To ensure that the greatest disturbing effecton the supports of a structure is not neglected?combination 5 should aisc be considered with the additionof the (overturning) horizontal live load described inBS 5400 % part 2 g 5,6 together with the appropriatevortical livo load*To allow for the possibility of earthquakes?an additional combination should also "be consideredcomprising the per..aanent loadso the seismic forcedescribed in paragraph 4»2 a 6 and the live load utilisedutilised in deriving the seismic force e The partialload factors of combination 2 should be used for thepermanent loads and the live load* The partial loadfactors {^iv^n in paragraph 4=2 0 6 should be used forthe seismic forceo4»2«3 l^ind^lqadThe provisions for wind load in BS 5400 g Part 2are based on wind ^ust speeds derived from British records.The recommendations cf paragraph 5*3*2 ofBS 5400 s part 2 regarding wind ^ust speed consequentlycannot be usecL 5 said must be replaced by recommendationsbased on Song Kong conditions«Table 4«2 0 1 gives details supplied by thoRoyal Observatory of rnazimuiu hourly wind and gust velocitiesfor ¥aglan Island? which is exposed to south-easterlywinds with a long fetch OVBX open sea 5 and for the Roj^alObsorvatory itself c The Eoyal Obsorvator/ figures are forthe poriod bofore the surrounding- area became built«up sand are representative of an exposed urban location^

V.4.2.3 (Cont'd)Fo, V T 3/S5The maziiiium gust velocity is related to thedynamic pressure head byq = 513 s 10where q = dynamic pressure head (tiT/in a )jv c = maximum gust 'velocity (ra/s)*This expression ;::ivas a value of 3«8 l^^/nf for thedynaaiic pressure head corresponding to the maximumgust velocity of 79 W® ^° r a 120-year return periodat an exposod location^ obtained "!qy interpolatingfrom the valuos for ¥aglan Island in Ta"blo 4*2*1*Ta'blo 4o2o2 gives valuos. of dynamic pressurehead to bo used for design purposes in Song Kongo Thevalues given for "sheltered location" 7 ^rore in generaluse before the need for higher values at exposedlocations was appreciated* As the probability islew of n-uch traffic being present at gust velocitiesexceeding 44 ]Tl //^ "^° corresponding dynamic pressurehead of 1*2 l?2T/ia may. be used for the loaded state at alllocations*The values of dynamic pressure head to be usedfor the "unloaded state ait locations of intermedia/toexposure are to be interpolated^ "ly the use of engineering 1juclgementj between the extremes given for sheltered andexposed locations in Table 4 •2.2* To aid designers inchoosing suitable values? descriptions and examples oftypical locations are given in Table 4«2«3o A designeresperienciiig- difficulty in deciding- on an appropriatevalue of dynamic pressure head for a particular locationshould consult CHE/Str« for ad vice 0Values of cLjnamic pressure head derived fromu?able 4o2» 2, should bo used to determine the nominaltransverse 5longitudinal and. vortical wind loads describedin paragraphs 5o3o3 5 5*3»4 cllf^ 5«3«5 of 3S 5400 s Part 2 0In all other respects^ the provisions ofsection 5»3 of 333 5400 s part 2 regardazig wind load shouldbe followed for structures with spans of 100 ni and less,Work on the Lantau H 1 ijced 'Crossing has indicatedthat higher values of Tffj^ than tho values givan in BS 5400part 2 nis^r be appropriate because of tho differentcharacteristics of ejctreuie ^ust voice it ies of Hong' Kong 1winds* A value of ?ff£ = 1«9 i& suggested for the ultimatelimit state« 8peci£tl consideration should accordingly "begiven to the value of %fi to be used for structures mtlispans exceeding 100 m 0

Amendments !To» V-3/85 (July)4« 2*4*1 Hong ICong conditionsThe recommendations cf section 5*4 of BS 5400 sPart 2 relate to temperature effects under Britishconditions and require mod if ic at ion for use in Eong KL value of 9 z 10""° per °C should "be used forthe coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete incalculating temperature effects instead cf the values£ iron, -in BS 5400 .The daily and seasonal fluctuations intemperatures effects differ in Eong Eong from thoseexperienced in Britain, temperature variationsaro well documented qf the Royal Observatory "buttemperature differences arc still "being, investigated*4« 2«4« 2 Temperature variationsi"'he Royal Observatory- values for miniaiua andliiaxiiuUiii, Siia-do t3t;iporatur3s c»T3 oonsidsred to "berepresentative of Hong- Long ccnditionse For a 120-yearreturn period; these values areiriaxiuiuoi 36*3 % Cminimuia 0*1 Calthough structures themselves are to bedesigned for a 120-year return period, BS 5400 suggeststhat for erection^ and for replaceable components^ a' 50-l.-"®cir return period is adsquate 0 The correspondingvalues to "be taken for a 50-jsar roturn period aremaxiinuin ' 34»5 °C• minimum 2.1 °C'Ihe Royal Observatoi^' values should be adjustedfor height in the manner described in clause 5-4.2.2 ofBS 5400 g Part 2.The values of minimuia and maximum effectivebridge temperatures {,ivBii in Table 4o2



Amendments Ho* V-2/84 (Iferch)LOCATIONTABLE 4.2.1RETURNPERIOD(y«ara)MAXIMUM HOURLTWIND VELOCITYKnotsWIND VELOCITIESm/sMAXIMUM GUSTVELOCmKnotsm/sWaglan501002008594103444853137151165717885RoyalObservatory50100200808795414550133146158687581TABLE 4.2.2SHELTERED LOCATIONB7HAMIC PRESSURE HEADEXPOSED LOCATIONSTRUCTURELOADEDSTRUCTUREUNLOADEDSTRUCTURELOADEDSTRUCTUREUNLOADED(kN/ffl 2 )(kN/rf)(kN/rf )(kN/rf ) 4*2.3EXPOSURE TO WINDDegreeofExposureDescriptionExampleDynandLopressure^1H*L*}1Sheltered by sur round ing buildings and/or topographyKowloon ParkDrive Flyover2*52Hbrmal exposureCastle JfeadFlyover2.83Elevated situation; not sheltered bybuildings or topographyTai Po IbadInterchange3.34Exposed to north-easterly or southeasterlywinds across open seaAp Lei Gh«uBridge3.8

V, 4*2*4*3(!fevember f 1983)4*2®4®3 Temperature differenceBecause the Bong Kong climate varies from theBritish climate t temperature differences have been thoughtto vary similarly y and in oilier to quantify the variations fa temperature measuring system has "been installed at TexacoBoad Hyover in Tsuen Wan* Alt hough sufficient resultsare not yet available for proper analysis, preliminaryindications are that f contrary to expectations! the recommendationsof clause 5*4»5 of BS 5400 i Part 2 are broadly applicable to EbngKbng f ajnd they should accordingly be used* ELgtxre 4«2»1 shows theranges of temperature difference experienced at Texaco Jtead in aspell of warm weather and a spell of cool weather 9 and illustrateshow the results correspond cjuite closely with the recommendationsof Hgure 9 of BS 5400 s Part 2 for Group 4 superstructures.4*2®4®4 Surface temperaturesDuring the period from February 1979 "to Januarythe Boyal Observatory recorded the surface temperatures of aplain concrete slab and an asphalt-surfaced slab t togetherwith the corresponding values of air temperature and globalsolar radiation* The monthly mean values recorded then aregiven in Table 4®2«6 t together with the extreme values*


TABLE A 9 64.^.0SDBPACE TEMPERATURES OP PLAIN ANDASPHALT-SUEPACED CONCRETE SLABSMONTHMONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE OPASPHALTC°c)CONCRETE(°c)AIR(°c)GLOBALSOLARRADIATION(MJ/mYhr.)MAX.MIN.MAX.KEN.MAX.MIN.MAX.MIN.FEB. «79MAR.APR.MAYJUN.JUL.AUG.SEP.OCT.NOV.DEC.JAN. "8034.026.633.836.241.849-539.741.149.035.933.428.517.718.521.424.827.429.126.725.823.019.215.314.828.624.831.132.337.444.036.438.543.131.228.825.517.218.220.723.626.428.326.525.722.118.014.814.620.620.323.425.728.831.329.228.727.822.721.018.417.518.420.623.825.827.726.925.722.518.516.715.31.501.101.641.672.182.861.872.283.021.842.011.57«~-~-«.--«._. -~.EXTREME VALUESASPHALTCONCRETESURFACE TEMPERATUREMAXIMUMMINIMUM57. FROM AIRTEMPERATUREABOVEBELOW+25.1-2.8+18.2-3.3, 1983)4*2®5Section 5*5 of BS 5400 : Part 2 refer® to theneed to take into • account the effects of shrinkage orcreep in concrete 9 and similar source® of strain*The recommendations of BS 5400 la respect ofshrinkage and creep in concrete are not suitable foruse in Hong Kong* Beference should be made to paragraphs44,4.2*4 and'4*4*2*5 for amplification with regard toKong conditions*

4«2«6f 1983)Although the risk of a major earthquakeoccurring close to Hong Koag is small t seisraicityrecords for southern Guangdong show a recurrenceperiod of about 400 year© for aa earthquake of magnitude6 or above* The possibility of such an earthquakeoccurring must accordingly be considered* TheGuangdong records indicate that structures built inHbaag Kong to withstand ground accelerations of 0*0? gwould probably have survived -®11 the earthquake §3recorded in Guangdong since 288 A«D* Highways structuresand. railway bridges should be designed to withstandgeismic forces corresponding to accelerations of thismagnitude®Allowance for seismic effects should be made bymeans of the equationf m CWwhere V » nominal seismic force;C m seismic coefficient assumed tobe Oi,05j aaadM m total vertical load comprising(i)(ii)the permanent verticalloads; andeither(a) for highway structures,1/3 typ© H A loading onone notional lane i&each direction; or(b) for railway bridgts ftype BU loading onone railway track*The nominal seismic force should be multipliedby partial load factors of 1«00 for the serviceabilitylimit state and 1*40 for the ultimate limit state toobtain the design seismic forces. The design seismicforce for the tttimate limit state will thus correspond withthe figure suggested by the Guangdong records* The ultimatelimit state has more relevance to earthquakes than has theserviceability limit state*The design seismic force should be appliedsuccessively longitudinally and transversely at footinglevel and to the superstructure! making four loadingconditions to be considered in all*

V»4,2«6 (Cont'd)(Nbvember f 1983)Statical treatment of sal ami o effects i®adequate for short span structures! but may resultin uneconomically large loadings for long spanstructures* %namio seiwaic analysis should" accordinglybe considered for structures of more than 100 m span®Seimxc forces occurring during major earthquakesoften cause the superstructures of bridges to slip sidewaysoff their supporting substructures* Consideration shouldbe given to this possibility* and if necessary physicalrestraints should be provided to prevent any such sidewaysmovement»

4-2.7V.4.2.7(November, 1983) Highway overt ridgesThe space limitations and undisciplinedtraffic conditions of Hong Kong make the probabilityof vehicles colliding with highway structures higherthan in Britain, ^he intensity of population inHong Kong makes the effects of such collisionspotentially worse* Stricter design conditions shouldaccordingly be observed, particularly for footbridges,and the following requirements supersede sections 6*9and 7.1.4 of BS 5400 : Part 2.Although the severity of a collision cannotbe forecast precisely, and the location of astructure inevitably affects choice of design form,every superstructure should as far as possible bedesigned not to collapse under dead load after acollision.The supports of highway structures, includingfootbridges, exposed to possible vehicle collisionsshould be designed to resist a nominal main collisionload of 160 kN acting horizontally at a height of 750 mmabove the carriageway and a nominal residual collisionload of 140 kN acting horizontally at the height between1000 — 3000 mm above the carriageway producing the worsteffect. The main and residual collision loads shouldbe taken as acting simultaneously in the directionproducing the worst effect.All supports within 30 m of the carriagewayshould be considered vulnerable unless the potentialpath of a vehicle leaving the carriageway is obstructedby a permanent obstacle capable of resisting the specifiedcollision loads, or by permanent features such asembankments that would unfailingly halt an errant vehicle*Supports exposed to possible vehicle collisionsshould he protected by metal or concrete barrier fences*Consideration should be given during thedesign process to any particular circumstances thatmay constrain the direction or reduce the magnitude ofthe specified collision loads. Appropriate allowanceshould be made for such circum stances*

*1 (Cont'd)Amendments Ho. V-2/84 (March)Gantry supports should be designed toresist a nominal load of 50 kN acting in the worstpossible direction and at the worst height up to3000 mm above the adjacent carriageway.All superstructures with a headroom lessthan 5500 mm should be designed to resist a nominalload of 50 kN acting in the worst direction betweenhorizontal and upward vertical at the point on thesoffit causing the most severe effect*Collision loads should be considered assecondary live loads in combination 4 only. Noother secondary live loads need be considered*Partial load factors of 1«20 for theserviceability limit state and 1.50 for the ultimatelimit state should be applied to nominal loads toobtain design loads, in accordance with 4»2.1.4*2.7*2 Railway overbridgesThe potential collision loading on a bridgeover a railway track is many times any of the loadingsgiven in 4*2.7*1. Effective protection of supportsagainst derailment collisions is accordingly difficult*Paragraph 4«13*5 contains recommendations concerningnot only the collision loadings for which allowanceshould be made but also other means by which theseverity of collision effects may be ameliorated.4*2.7*3 Bridges over navigation channelsBridge piers situated in navigation channelsmay be subjected to ship collision loadings. Themagnitude and form of such collision loadings dependsso much on the location of the bridge and the nature ofthe shipping using the navigation channel that specificguidance cannot be given, but the possibility of shipcollisions should always be considered at the design stageand appropriate protection provided. Paragraphs 4,18.4 and4* 13*6.5 also deal with ship collisions*4.2.8 Parapet loadingsLoads transmitted by vehicle collisions withparapets to structural elements supporting parapetsshould be dealt with as described in section 6.8 ofBS 5400 : Part 2.Vehicle parapets and vehicle pedestrian parapetsshould be designed in accordance with the requirements ofsection 4.15 of this chapter.Railway overbridge parapets should be designed toresist the loads described in paragraph 4.15.13 of thischapter.

7*4*2*8(Nbvember f 1983)Pedestrian parapet® should be designed toresist the loads described in paragraph 7»1*2 ofBS 5400 s Part 2*4*2*9 IdSijiiljLJisJi.J^4«2«10 M£^A bridge crossing a railway track may be requiredto carry overhead electrical supply equipment* Referenceshould b@ made to the appropriate railway authority forthe extra loading to be carried *Highway structures and railway bridges shouldgenerally be designed to resist the live load® describedin sections 6 f 7 and 8 of BS 5400 : Part 2*Type HA loading as described in section 6*2 ofBS 5400 s Part 2 has been founl in Britain to underestimatethe effect of traffic loading as loaded length increases*Insufficient information is available aboutHong Kong traffic loadings for suitable design loadingsfor longer loaded lengths to be recommended* Individtialconsideration should accordingly be given to thedesirability of increasing the design loadings describedin section 6,2 of BS 5400 : Part 2 for spans exceeding100 iuHighway structures should generally bedesigned to withstand type HA loading and 45 units oftype HB loading* Highway structures spavining less than15 metres situated on rural roads other than trunk ormain roads should be designed for type HA loading only*Where special considerations indicate that a lesser liveload would be appropriate, the agreement of C*E«H»/&tr» 3>*to its use should first be obtained*

(November, 1983)Covers should "be designed to withstand allthe appropriate pemanent^ i^iporary and transientloads described in BS 5400 t Part 2® In addition^covers should be designed to resist a live load of0*5 kl/in 2 | which shall be considered as a secondarylive load in conjimction with the other loads andpartial load factors appropriate to combination 4®No other primary or secondary live loads need beconsidered®4*2»124*2*12*1 Aerodynamic effectsThe possibility of wind-excited oscillation®occurring should be considered f and due allowancemade for their effects* If necessary , aerodynamiceffects should be investigated by testing* Flexiblestructures such as suspension bridges, cable-stayedbridges and sign gantries are particularly susceptible*4*2*12*2 Highway bridge®Dynamic effects on highway bridges are usuallydeemed to be covered by the allowance for impactincluded in live loadings* However t although suchconsiderations may be sufficient structurally! thepossibility of highway users being adversely affectedshould also be considered* Complaints about theliveliness of highway structures have been made inHong Kong as a result of the occupants of trafficstalled in one lane of a structure being subjectedto oscillations caused by traffic moving in aneighbouring lane* Similar situations could recurat any time under the conditions prevailing in BongKong*Highway structures oscillate in sympathy withpassing vehicles oscillating on their suspensions asa result of road surface irregularities* The worstoscillations occur when the natural frequency of astructure lies within the range of forcing frequenciesimposed by passing traffic*Such forcing frequencies generally raiagebetween 2 Ha and 5 HJS* Highway structures shouldaccordingly be designed so that as far as possibletheir natural frequencies lie outside this range,

4*2«12«3V*4»2*12*3(November, 1983)Pedestrians can be adversely affected by thedynamic behaviour of footbridges® To avoid unpleasantvibrations § the natural frequencies of footbridgesuperstructures aad columns should if possible exceed5 Hz*If the natural frequency of a footbridgesuperstructure or column in less than 5 Hz, the maximumacceleration should be limited to an acceptable value*Columns should only be used if their natural frequenciesexceed 2 Ez transversely and 1 Hz longitudinal ly*Appendix 4*2*2 gives guidance on the calculationof natural frequencies and accelerations, and quotesacceptable values for accelerations.The possibility of a group of small boys, orother pedestrians, deliberately causing a footbridge tooscillate resonantly should be borne in mind* Jbotbridgebearings should be designed to allow for this possibility,and prestressed concrete beams should be provided withsufficient untensioned reinforcement to resist a reversalof 10$ of the static live load bending moment. Guidesshould be provided where necessary to prevent any tendencyfor a superstructure to bounce off its bearings*4*2*13 Pj>fi ASM!In assessing dead load, the weight of concreteshould be taken as not less than 24*5 kN/m 3 » If thestructural concrete of the deck of a structure is to beused as the running surface, the assessment of dead loadshould include allowance for a minimum extra thickness of25 mm of concrete*If the running surface is to consist of asphalt fthe assessment of superimposed dead load should includeallowance for a minimum thickness of 100 mm of asphalt icsurfacing material*The values of dead load and superimposed deadload assumed for preliminary design purposes should becarefully checked against the final values, when known,and, if necessary, the calculations should be appropriatelyamended*

of Mean Minds inV.4Appendix 4«2.1 - p« f(Ifovember, 1983)Hourly Mean Minds from different stations were plotted againstsimultaneous hourly mean winds recorded at Waglan Island while Mb* 3or higher signals were hoisted. Regression equations were thenobtained expressing the mean hourly wind at the various stations interms of the mean hourly wind at Wagland Island. In the equationsthat follow, *W f is Waglan Island, 'KQ* i s Boyal Observatory, 'GPis Green Island, f SF« is Star Perry,f GD«A f is Cape D'Aguilar,'TC« is Tate f s Cairn f 'Kt 1 is the SB end of Kaitak runway,S CC 9 isCheung Chau and I KP I is King's Park. The first suffix indicates thedirection of the wind and the second the period from which the datawas extracted.°- 50W + 3 ' 1 CC N(70-74) - °-72W + 2.40.62 -3CC S(70-74) " °' 97W ~ 4 ' 6GC E( 7 o-74) - °^6v ~ °' 6^(70-74) " °' 15W + 5 ' 7 CC W(70-74) " °' 87W - 2 ' 2^SCTCWW) " °' 66W " 4 ' 7 ^(71-74) - °-59W - 1.5^(53-55) " °« 71W + 3-1 "8(71-74) " °* 61W - °' 7^(60-62) - °* 76W + °« 4 "1(71-74) " °' 46W + 3 ' 6B °l(67-69) * °- 36W + 5 ' 3 KP w(71-74) "BO K70-74) " °'5 8W - 1 « 7 a * t V71-74) " °ED w(70-7 4 ) " °-5° w + 1 «°TC X7(V74) - °'GI N(7>-74) - °' 53W + 5 - 7 TC S(70-74) " °' 94W +G1 E (7>74) ' °- 85H - °' 2SP N(72-74) " °-° 6W * 5 * 7SF E(72-74) " °- 62W * 3 - 4T °s(70-74)T °W(70-74)K %(7>74) ' °- 14W0)1 V71-74) - °' 75W - °' 8

V.4Appendix 4«2«1 - p*(Bovember, 1983)These regression equations show that Ifortherly windsare almost as strong at Tate s s Cairn as they are at WaglanIsland whereas at Kaitak f at the loyal Observatory and at theStar Periy they are very much lighter* Cheung Ghau is almostas well exposed as Waglan Island to southerly winds* It isinteresting to see the decrease in winds at Ibyal Observatoryaround 1962 as tall buildings were developed at the vicinity*It is also rather surprising that easterly winds at CapeD'Aguilar are less than 0«61 times as strong as those atWaglan Island*

1. SUPERSTRUCTURES1.1Appendix 4*2*2 ~ p«1NATURAL FREQUENCY AND ACCELERATION ^vemb@r > 1983)The natural frequency referred to throughout thisAppendix is the fundamental natural frequency of the simplestvibration mode*The natural frequency of a loaded beam may bedetermined from the expression47r*.wherew « one or more •uniformly distributed loads;W m one or more point loads? andT m deflection s inside the summation sign Trepresents deflection at the load position*5br simply supported structures, or simple beams with pinnedends $ this reduces towhereE « elastic modulusjI m second moment of area (including anyverges, parapets or other componentswhich may contribute to the stiffnessof the section)}w,» dead load per unit length} and£W 1 /L m total live load on structure divided bythe span*Ibr continuous structures, the natural frequency maybe found from the expressionwhere C is a constant depending on span configuration andmode of vibration* If L p is the longer span of a two-spanstructure or the centre span of a symmetrical three-span structure,values of C are as given in Table 4*2*7*

V.4Appendix 4,2.2 - p.2(Kbvember, 1983)TABLE 4.2,7CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES DYNAMIC RESPONSETwo-span continuous structure L 1 L*Span ratio I^/LpC mode 1C mode 21 0.85 0.6 0,4 0.2 01.57 1.9 2 2*1 2.2 2.52*5 3 5.2 6.8 7.3 8Three-span symmetrical continuous structure L 1 « L^LSpan ratio L 1 /LpC mode 1C mode 21 0.75 0.5 0.3 01.57 2.1 2.4 2.65 3.52 3.5 6.3 7.9 9.7Ibr continuous structures, the C values forthe second vibration mode are very close to those ofthe first mode, especially when the spans are ofsimilar lengths. Under such circumstances, contributionsfrom the second and higher modes may not be negligible,and this is the reason why continuous structures oftenvibrate noticeably* Accordingly, designers shouldsuitably adjust the calculated acceleration from thefirst vibration mode so as to cover contributionsfrom the higher modes.Ibr other less common bridge configurations,the reference of R.D. Blevins may be useful incalculating the natural frequencies of vibration.

SJ»7*4Appendix 4«2.2 ~ p*31*2 Jadaifialu-aasslaj;^^ (November f 1983)The maxlmijm vertical acceleration imposed on afootbridge suporrtraoture "by a pedestrian walking along thefootbridge should be checked in accordance with Appendix Cof BS 5400 s Part 2 § 1978 if the natural frequency of thefootbridge superstructure is less than 5 Bss«The majdmsm vertical acceleration caused by acontinuous stream of pedestrians hurrying along the footbrigeshould also be checked f as described below f if the naturalfrequency is less than 5 Hz®In neither case should the maximum vertical accelerationof the footbridge superstructure exceed a value of Q^/ffm/^ 9where f is the natural frequency*A continuous stream of pedestrians crossing a footbridgemay be considered as a moving continuous load on a simply supportedbeam 9 with the maximtun vertical acceleration given bywhereV m velocity (in m/s) (taken as 3 m/s for a continuousstream of pedestrians) |L m span of superstructure (in m)}M • unit live load on super structure (in kN/m);Em elastic modulus (in kN/m £ ); andI m secoxsl moment of area of superstructure (in nT%Sbr the case of a single pedestrian, the naturalfrequency should be calculated for the unloaded bridge, butthe presence of the live load should be taken into accountin calculating the natural frequency for the moving continuousload case«

V.42, COLUMNS Appendix 4*2*2 - p*4(November, 1983)If the self-weight of a footbridge column is neglect ed tand the column is considered as a free-standing cantilever witha concentrated mass f corresponding to the footbridge superstructure!at the top* the natural frequency of the column in a directiontransverse to 1?he span of the footbridge may be determined fromthe expressf1 . ( » x 1(f )* . ( , . 4jU£. x 10-3)* (in^ ffi? HEXwhereM » concentrated mass of super st ruct ure (in Kg) fg m acceleration due to gravity ( m 9«81 H*/^2)?E m elastic modulus (in kl/nf ) 9I m second moment of area of column transverse tolongitudinal axis of footbridge (in m 4 ) 9H m column height (in m f measured from soffit ofsuperstructure or bottom of bearing, to top ofpile cap in soft fill or surrounding groundlevel if paved f as appropriate)*where W m unit load of superstructure (in kN/m),sW , m unit dead load of superstructure (in kN/rn),W 1 m unit live load of superstructure (in kN/m) y8JLL m length of superstructure supported by column (in m)93Ibr a noiMiniform free-standing cantilever column fthe following approximate expression may be used t-f.where X « stiffness at top of column (in

2*2 nT,£,^ffiAppendix 4*2.2 - p*5(November, 1983)Transverse oscillation of a footbridge may be excitedby a oouple forming when the pedestrians constituting thelive load fail to balance one another on each side of a column*The frequency of such an out of balance couple is likely to below, and for design purposes can be taken as 1 Hz« On thisbasis, the transverse acceleration may be calculated from theexpression25W .L B 1whereandB « width of footbridge (in m),f m natural frequency of column (in Hz) ,W n , L , M and H are defined previously.si sThe transverse acceleration thus found should notexceed 0,15

Appendix 4.2.5Amendment No* V-l/92 (Jan*)Temperature difference T for various surfacing depthsThe values of T given in Figure 4.2.2 are for 40 con surfacingdepths for Groups 1 and 2 and 100 mm surfacing depths for Groups3 and 4. For other depths of surfacing, the values given In thefollowing tables may be used.Values of T for groups 1 and 2 Values of T for group 4Surfacingthicknessmmunsurfaced2040Positive temperaturedifferenceT,*c393633T a*c212019T,*C8121!T

DESIGN OP STEEL BRIDGES(November, 1983)4*3*1 General^Steel highway structures and railway bridgesshould be designed in accordance with the requirementsof BS 5400 : Part 3 Code of Practice for Design ofSteel Bridges in so far as its recommendations areapplicable to Bong Kong conditions*5br conditions peculiar to 'Song Kong, therecommendations of this Chapter, or other appropriatecriteria t should be followed®4*3*2 ..^efi^y^4*3*3Structural steelwork should be fabricated anderected by specialist contractors in the "Structural Steelwork"category of the Lands and Works List of Suppliers and SpecialistContractors for Materials and Works. The specialist contractorscurrently listed are given at Appendix 4*3*Specialist contractors may be employed either asmain contractors for projects consisting predominantlyof structural steelwork, or as sub-contractors to maincontractors for projects with a structural steel content*Main contractors engaged on projects involvingstructural steelwork should either themselves beregistered as specialist contractors in the "StructuralSteelwork" category, or should be required to engage oneof the specialist contractors registered in this category,in the manner described in Volume II Chapter 5 Appendix 5for prestressed concrete, to carry out the structural steelwork*Welding of structural steelwork should be subjectto nondestructive testing in the form of radiographic orultrasonic inspection and interpret at ion* Specialiststructural steelwork contractors should "be required toarrange for all structurally important welds to be subjectedto nonr-destructive testing by a testing specialist in theappropriate sub-category of the "Specialized MaintenanceOperations for Highway Structures" category of the Landsand Works List,

V.4Appendix 4-3Amendments No* V-2/84 (March)LIST OP APPROVED SUPPLIERS OP MATERIALS AMDSPECIALIST CONTRACTORS FOR PUBLIC WORKSSTRUCTURAL STEELWORKSpecialist Contractors1. Argos Engineering and Heavy Industries Co. Ltd.(successor to Chung Wah Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd.)2. Hong Kong Shipyard Ltd.5« McConnell Dowell Constructors Ltd.4* The Redpath Dorman Long Joint Venture5* Shing Fat Higineering and Machinery Works6. Steel Structures (division of The Pressure Piling Co. (HK) Ltd.)7* Wang Tak Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd.8. UniStress Ltd.9* Universal Dockyard, Ltd.10. Chun Kee Ehgineering & Construction Co., Ltd.11. Tian San Construction Co., Ltd.12. International Combustion HUD Ltd.

V.4.4Amendment No-,. V-1/91 (Jan.)4.4 DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES4.4 .1 General4.4.1.1 Design Standards.Concrete highway structures and railway bridgesshould be designed in accordance with the requirements ofBS 5400 : Part 4 : Code of Practice for Design of ConcreteBridges in so far as these are applicable to Hong Kong. Forconditions peculiar to Hong Kong, the recommendations of thisChapter, or other appropriate criteria, should be followed. CrackingFor the serviceability limit state of cracking :(a)(b)reinforced concrete structures or structuralelements should be designed so that designcrack widths do not exceed the values givenin Table 4-4.1; andfor the flexural tensile stress limitationsin prestressed concrete as described inBS 5400 : Part 4 : 4.2.2(b), only Class 2category will be permitted for loadcombinations 2 to Concrete cover to reinforcementConcrete cover to reinforcement should be providedin accordance with Table 4.4.1 (instead of therecommendations of BS 5400 : Part 4) for the envisagedconditions of exposure.In choosing the nominal cover for a structure, thepossibility of the specified cover not being provided inpractice should be borne in mind. The reinforcement of HongKong bridges has on several occasions apparently sufferedcorrosion because of insufficient cover. In Britain, asurvey found inadequate cover on a number of bridges; wallswere found to have suffered more than soffits, with standarddeviations of cover averaging 15.1 mm for the former and 6.4mm for the latter. Allowance should accordingly be made forimperfections of similar magnitudes in choosing values ofnominal cover.

TABLE 4.4.1CONDITIONS OF EXPOSURECONDITIONS OF EXPOSURE FOR CRACKING AND COVERDESIGNCRACKWIDTH(mm)30NOMINAL COVER (mm)CONCRETE GRADE4045and overModerate(1) Above ground level and fully shelteredagainst rain or sea-water spray e.g.0.25353025(a)surfaces protected by water-proofmembrane(b)internal surfaces(2) Concrete permanently under water with apH > 4.5itff!fflSevere(1) Exposed to driving rain0.20403530(2) Subject to alternate wetting and dryinge.g.(a)bridge deck soffitsff1?fff!fr ®fDt£*(b)buried parts including underside ofstructure resting on layer ofblinding concrete not less than 50 mmthickaso

4*4*2(November, 1983)4.4*2*1 Bifferences between British and Hong Kong concretesThe properties of Hong Kong concretes differfrom the properties given in BS 5400 s Part 4 forBritish concretes t probably because of the qualitiesof the local aggregate and the properties of the locallyavailable cement*Recommendations concerning suitable valuesfor use in Bong Kong are given later in this sectionfor various properties* Other concrete propertiesmentioned in BS 5400 s Part 4 way also have differentvalues in Hong Kbng t and the possibility should beborne in mind during design*The shape of the stress-strain curve givenin Figure 1 of BS 5400 s Part 4 is generally applicableto Hong Kong f but the slope of the initial tangentshould be adjusted to 5®0 x ^ftw/tfm to allow for thedifference in elastic modulus.4.4«2.2 Elastic modulusValues for the modulus of elasticity ofconcrete are significantly lower in Hong Kong than inBritain. The values used for design purposes diouldbe taken from Table 4*4®2 rather than selected fromthe values for the short term elastic modulus givenin Table 2 of BS 5400* The modulus of elasticityreferred to in Table 4*4»2 is the static modulusdescribed in BS 1881,4.4*2.3 StrengthConcrete gains strength at early ages morerapidly in Hong Kong than in Britain. After 28 days,the rate of gain of strength is lower in Hong Kongthan in Britain.Tables 3 and 19 of BS 5400 : Part 4 shouldaccordingly not be used in Hong Kong. Figure 4*4»1|giving (fn/f28) ft^e ^atio of strength at any time f n fto 28-day strength) against time, should be usedinstead*

TABLE 4.4.2Characteristicstrength at ageconsidered (MPa)2025304045505560ELASTIC MODULUS OP OONCEEPEModulus of elasticity(MPa)18 90020 20021 70024 ooo26 00027 40028 80030 200


4*4*2*4 Shrinkage(Ifevember, 1983)Shrinkage is the decrease in size thatoccurs over a long period as the water in concretedries out*Dimensional changes in concrete membersresulting from shrinkage not only affect the stressesin statically indeterminate structuree f but alsocontribute to loss of prestrass in prestress®d concretestructures® The design of such structures should makeallowance for the effects of shrinkage*Shrinkage has irreversible and reversiblecomponents® Irreversible shrinkage is caused by theconcrete setting and drying out® Heversible volumechanges occur when the moisture content of the concretevaries with the ambient relative humidity®Shrinkage is also affected by the compositionof the concrete, the size of the member under considerationand the amount of longitudinal reinforcement in the member*Details of the various factors affecting shrinkageare given in Appendix C of BS 5400 : Part 4*Experience has shown that the amount ofshrinkage to be anticipated in long Kong is greater thanthe amount likely to occur in Britain^ so the recommendationsof BS 5400 should be modified for Hong Kong use*Appendix C of BS 5400 : Part 4 states that theshrinkage strain at any instant is given byAcsm ILKTJ cIeK.3in micro strains**where allowance is made byKT for relative humidity $Kfor concrete composition fK for effective thickness, ande *K. for time®JExperiments described in reference (6) conductedon 100 x 100 x 500 prisms of Grade 45 concrete at relativehumidities of 7Q% to 100$ indicate that, using the sameexpression for Bong long oonditions f shrinkage should beestimated fromwhere C »4*0, andIBE. 9 E t K and K. are as defined inI* o e 3Appealix C of BS 5400 : Part 4.

7*4*4*2*4 (Cbnt'd)(November| 1983)The shrinkage to be expected over aninterval of time should be taken as the differencebetween the shrinkages calculated for the beginningand the end of the interval. This is particularlyimportant for prestressing applications, sinceprestress can only be transferred after some shrinkagehas occurred*Shrinkage is greatly reduced by the presenceof reinforcement* The values derived from the foregoingexpression which are for plain concrete, should bemultiplied by the reinforcement coefficientf k f toobtain the corresponding values for reinforced s concrete«The reinforcement coefficient is given byk «swherep m steel ratiocm modular ratioFigure 4*4*2 gives values of f k f in graphical formfor various concrete grades and steel ratios*Further information on shrinkage is givenin Appendix 4*4*1«

3)oc;om•Hmm ajo mo mo(AXm mTIID o mmommREINFORCEMENT COEFFICIENT Ks

4*4*2*5 Creep(Nbvember f 1983)Concrete tinder sustained loading defcra® withtime* Th® deformation which occurs is known as creep*Such deformations not only affect the stresses instatically indeterminate structures but also contributeto the loss of prestress in prestressed concretestructures* In addition f the horizontal movementoccurring in prestressed concrete raemberg as a resultof creep can significantly affect the design of bearingsand joints. Allowance should accordingly be made forthe effects of creep*Details of the various factors affecting creepare given in Appendix C of BS 5400 $ Part 4 andrecommendations for the allowance to be made for creepdeformation are given in clause 7*8*2*5 of BS 5400 sPart 4* These vary significantly from each other* Creeptests on Hong Kong concrete described in reference (6)have shown that the recommendations given in Appendix Cof BS 5400 : Part 4 a^e more appropriate to Hong Kongconditions and should be followed*The final creep deformation to be anticipatedaccording to the theory of linear creep is given by theexpressionfc Awherefc • constant concrete stress tEpg m 28 day value of concrete secant modulus*$ m creep factor*The value of the creep factor is given by theexpressionELKTL mKcKeK.3where the f k f coefficients are as defined inAppendix G of BS 5400 : Part 4*Creep is reduced by the presence of reinforcementin the same way as shrinkage. The values derived for Afrom the foregoing are for plain concrete, and shouldbe multiplied by the reinforcement coefficientf k fdescribed in 4*4*2*4 ani Figure 4*4*2 to obtain tnecorresponding values for reinforced concrete*Rirther information on creep is given inAppendix 4*4*2*

4«4«2*6 Coefficient of thermal expansion7*4*4*2*6(November, 1983)falues of the coefficient of thermal e:xpansionare given in BS 5400 at Part 2 s clause 5*4*6 and Part 4 sclause 5«3«2*1 for concretes made from differentaggregates*Tests have shown that a value of 9 x 10~6perC is appropriate for use in Hong Kong and this valueshould be used instead of the values given in BS 5400.


¥.4.4*4M A * n x 4 (November, 1983)404*44*4*4*1 Grade of concrete for prentressing woricIn Bong Kong, the production of concretewith a strength consistently exceeding 45 ^^ iadifficult^ Unless unusually strict control canbe relied upon f the strongest concrete used forprestressed design should accordingly be limited toGrade 45* Concrete for prestressing work shouldas far as possible be confined to Grades 30 f 40 and 45®If concrete stronger than Grade 45 isparticularly required :-(a) site mixing should be specified;(b)a designed mix should be used;(c) close supervision of batching, mixing. and placing should be ensured; and(d)the strength and compliance controlmeasures described in BS 5400 : Part 7should be strictly enforced^4*4*4*2 Post-tensioning systemsYarious proprietary post-tensioning systemsare available in Hong Kong* Post««4ensioning systemsregarded as acceptable are listed in Appendix 4*4*3*TO avoid any suggestion that the choice of a proprietarypost-tensioning system might be influenced by other thanengineering considerations! trade names should not beincluded in specifications or drawings* Instead f generalprestressing requirements should be given in the contractdociunents, and the main contractor should be required tosubaait detailed proposals to the Engineer for approvalshowing how one of the acceptable proprietary post-tensioningsystems may be used to apply the required prestressing forceaSuch general requirements may include y asappropriate, any or all of the following :-(a)(b)number, location and profile ofprestressing tendons;number of wires, strands or bars pertendon;(c) siae and type of wire, strand or bar(stasadard, high-strength^ compacted;normal or low relaxation)}(d)anchorag® type (dead-end, coupling orst r@ ssingM&nd) i

V«4«4*4.2 (Gont'd)(November, 1983)(e) order of applying prestressiug forceto tendons;(f) prestressing force; and(g) ducting and grouting requirements*The contract documents should make clearwhether the value of prestressing force includes lossesdue to(a) relaxation of steelj(b) elastic deformation of concrete}(c)shrinkage and creep of concrete;(d) friction and wobble,giving where appropriate details of any assumption made$and also making clear whether allowance should be madefor anchorage and jack losses®Consideration must be given at the designstage to the practicability of fitting one or otherof the acceptable proprietary post—tensioning systemsinto the work being designed, so that the posttensioningspecialists are not set an impossible t&sk*End-block reinforcement depends on the type of anchorageused, and so should not be detailed, but, again,consideration should be given at the design stage tolikely requirements« The proposals submitted by themain contractor must accordingly include end-blockreinforcement details, which should be designed inaccordance with the requirements of BS 5400 s Part 4»The foregoing restrictions do not, of course,apply to pretensioned concrete, which can be detailedin general terms*4*4,4,3 Specialist prestressing contractorsThe Lands and Works List of Suppliers andSpecialist Contractors for Materials and Works containstwo categories for prestressed concrete*One of these categories, entitled PrestressedConcrete Units, covers the supply of precast prestressedconcrete units manufactured in the supplier's ownoff-site premises* Althoiagh originally intended forpretensioned units f post-tensioned units can also besupplied. Precast prestressed piles, beams, railwaysleepers and the like should only be obtained fromsuppliers registered in this categoiy*

Y*4*4*4*3 (Qont'd)(November, 1983)The second categoiy t entitled PrestrassedConcrete Construction, covers oi>~site prestressingwork* Main contractors engaged on projects involvingprestressed concrete should either themselves beregistered as specialist contractors in this category,or should be required to engage one of the specialistcontractors registered in this category as describedin Volume II Chapter 5 Appendix 5 "to carry out theprestressing works*4*4.4*4 Shear due to prestressing tendonThe vertical component of the prestressingforce in a tendon produces a shear force in themember* This shear force may be taken asVp « P sin 04«4«4«5 Secondary momentswhere P « prestressing force in tendond « inclination of tendon to thehroizontal?p m shear due to force in tendonat the point under considerationThe redistribution of elastically derivedmoments for ultimate limit state analysis is permittedwithin certain limits by IS 5400 : Part 4*Secondary, or parasitic f moments in indeterminatestructures, which are not lost under conditions ofpartial redistribution, should be included in any suchanalysis with a partial load factor of 1*0*Secondazy moments in indeterminate structuresinduce reactions at intermediate supports which areadditional to those generated by dead and live loads*These reactions give rise to shear forces which mustbe taken into account when determiaaing the total shearforce at any point in such a structure*

7*4Appendix 4»4»1 - p»1(November f 1983)SHRIHKAGE OF CONCRETEBecause experience showed that the allowance made forshrinkage in British codes was insufficient for Hong Kong conditions fexperiments were made f in conjunction with creep test ing, to determinesuitable values for use in Hong Kong designs* The experiments havebeen described by Ghai (6)® Erfcracts from the results are shown onFigure 4«4«4»Figure 4®4«4 indicates that the gross shrinkage strain to"be anticipated in Hong Kong is about four times the recommendationsgiven in Appendix C of BS 5400 $ Part 4.

Appendix &.4.1-P21000800VDO600o»0u 40 °i/l20010 20 50 100Age of Concrete (Days)200 500 1000FIGURE 4,4.4.-CONCRETE SHRINKAGE AFTER 7 DAYS OF AGEAT EXPOSURE TO R.H. 70%-80%

CREEP OF CONCRSTEAppendix 4«4*2 - p.1(November 1 1983)Creep tests were carried out to determine whether creepoccurring in Hong Kong differed significantly from the recommendationsof British codes and f if so, to recommend suitable values for use inHong Kong*The tests have been described by Ghai (6)* Details of thespecimens tested are given in Table 4* 4^3* and extracts from theresults are shown on Figure 4«4»5*1 to 4«4«5*3«Figures 4«4*5«1 "to 4« 4*5*3 indicate that the creep factorvaries greatly between concretes from different sources* Factorsnot described in BS 5400 such as the use of additives and the initialcuring also significantly influence creep deformation* Nevertheless!the recommendations of Appendix C of BS 5400 s Part 4 give reasonableestimates of the creep deformation and prestress losses to be anticipatedfor Hong Kong concrete*

TABLE 4.4.3CHEEP INVESTIGATIONDetails oftest specimensApLeiChauBridgeHillBo adflyoverSet 1iSet 2PHD LaboratorySet 3Set 4WaiLipStreetInterchangeconcrete grade45/2045/2045/2045/2045/2045/2045/20concrete compositioncementkg/nrChampion460GI524GI460GI4605R4605R460ai500aggregate2010finesMBQ927343446SOQ970244405MBQ927343446MBQ927343446MBQ927343446MBQ927343446CKLQ740370510total kg/m1716161917161716171617161620admixture1/nr2.622Daratard1.048Daratard2.622Daratard2.622Daratard1.500748MEwater 1/m197202197197197197200aggregate/cement ratiowater/cement3.730.433.20.393.730.433.730.433.730.433.730.433.240.40loading stressMPa13.413.212.12512.913.5513.955.7, 9.9loading agedays7877778, 17

Appendix 4.4.2-P210 SO 100 200Time after loading (Days)500 1000FIGURE CREEP AT EXPOSURE TO R.H.70%-80%AGE OF LOADING :7 DAYS

Appendix 4.4.2-P37 10 20 50 100 200Time after loading (Days)500 10FIGURE 4.43,2-CONCRETE CREEP AT EXPOSURE TO R.H.70%~80%AGE OF LOADING: 17 DAYS

Appendix 4.4,2 - P4P.W.O. LAB. SAMPLEP.W.O. LAB. SAMPLESIP.W.D. LAB. SAMPLEP.W.O. LAB. SAMPLES50 100 200Timt afttr loading (Days)500 1000FIGURE 4,4.5,3-CONCRETE CREEP AT EXPOSURE TO R.H. 100%AGE AT LOADING : 7 DAYS

7*4POST-TENSIONING SYST3MSAppendix 4® 4* 3(November, 1983)The post-tensioning systems listed below are regarded as acceptablefor use in the construction of highway structures and railway bridges*SYSTEM MANUFACTURER LOCAL AGENTBBRVProceq SA f Switzerland.Intrusion - Prepaid;(Par East) Ltd,OCLCCL Systems Ltd., England,CCL Systems Ear EastLtd,DYWIDAODyckerhoff & Widraann AG,Germany*Dyckerhoff & Widmann AG«(or DSI Par East Ltd.)MACALLOYMcCalls Special Products fEngland*None at present,PSCPSC Freyssinet Ltd* fEngland*Franki PSC Ltd,STRESSTHKConmar Corporation^Calif., U.S.A*Sfcresstek (B.K*) Ltd,STRONGHOLDStronghold PrestressingLtd., England.None at preseirfciVSLVSL Prestressing Fty,Ltd., Australia(or Switzerland).YSL Engineers (H,K,) Ltd,

4*5 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES7.4*5(vember, 1983)Composite highway structures should be designedin accordance with the requirements of BS 5400 s Part 5 «Code of Practice for Design of Composite Bridges* Jbrcoiiditions peculiar to Hong Kong s the recommendations ofthis Chapter f or other appropriate sources^ should befollowed«4.6 SPECIFICATION FDR MATERIALS AND WORKMAJNSHIP - STEELStructural steelwork should be fabricated inaccordance with the requirements of BS 5400 : Part 6Specification for Materials and Workmanship — Steelin so far as its recommendations are appropriate to HongKong conditions*Where Hong Kong specifications or conditionsdiffer from the requirements or conditions described inBS 5400 9 adjustments appropriate to Hong Kong should be made»4.7 SPECIFICATION TOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - CONCRETE :REINFORCEMENT AND PRESTRESSING TENDONS4.8 RECOMMENDATIONS TOR MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - CONCRETE 5REIHTORCiMENT AND PEESTRESSING TENDONSBS 5400 i Parts 7 and 8 should be followed in so faras they are applicable to Hong Kong, Where Hong Kongspecifications or conditions differ from the requirements orconditions described in BS 5400 f adjustments appropriate toHong Kong should be made*

4.9 BBABINGS (November, 1983)4*9*1 Gener^4*9*2Highway structures and railway bridgesflex, expand and contract * Bearings should be provifedat appropriate locations to enable such movements totake place freely and without damage to the structures*They should be positioned to minimize out of balanceforces*The design and installation of bearingsshould follow the recommendations of BS 5400 s Part 9»1Code of Practice for Design of Bearings and BS 5400 :Part 9«2 Specification for Materials, Manufacture andInstallation of Bearings respectively in so far asthese recommendations are appropriate to Hong Kongconditions*The possibility that any bearing may need tobe replaced during the lifetime of a bridge must berecognised* Provision should be made in the design forthe removal and replacement of any bearing should thisbecome necessary*Where access to bearings would otherwise bedifficult or impossible f special arrangements shouldbe included in the design to enable access to beobtained. Sufficient space should be provided forbearings to be properly inspected and maintained*Bearings should be detailed so that dirt andrubbish do not accumulate around them, and so that theycan easily be cleaned* They should be detailed so thatmoisture cannot stand in their vicinity but will insteaddrain away elsewhere* In this connection, reference shouldbe made to ?*4*11*5*4*9*3 Cl a^s. sf j( ffipat .JMany proprietary brands of bearing are availablecommercially* However, trade names should not be includedin specifications or drawings, to avoid any suggestionthat the choice of a proprietary bearing might be influencedby other than engineering considerations* Bearing requirementsshould be given in general terms, using the classificationgiven in Table 4*9*1 as an aid to specifying.4*9*4 ^phedu^ e, of.A schedule of bearings should be prepared for allcontracts covering highway struct ures and railway bridgesfor which bearings are required* Such a schedule shoulddetail the number and performance requirements for eachclass and type of beaming required for the contract* Aspecimen schedule is given at Appendix 4*9*2*

4«9*5«(November f 1983)The contractor should submit to the Engineerfor approval full details and calculations for theproprietary "bearings he proposes to use® The detailsprovided should fully describe and illustrate installationof the proposed "bearings in the structure®The contractors choice should be limited toproprietary bearings offered by suppliers in the"Bearings for Highway Structures 11 category of theLands and Works List of Suppliers and SpecialistContractors for Materials and Works* Suppliers in thiscategory are listed in Appendix 4®9®1® Details of someof the bearings they can supply are given in Appendix4*9«3© Other bearings from the manufacturers representedby the listed suppliers are acceptable subject tosatisfactoiy test results©Applications from other suppliers forinclusion in the sf Bearings tf category should be passedto G.E«H*/Str* D* for processing*It should be noted that bearings which do notcomply with BS 5400 s Parts 9*1 and 9*2 in all respectsmay be acceptable provided they comply with anotheracceptable national standard*4*9*6 TestingAll laminated elastomeric bearings shouldbe tested for stiffness in compression and shear*All bearings other than elastomeric bearings should betested with a vertical proof load and a horizontalproof load* Other testing should be carried out on ascale appropriate to the particular circumstances.The number of elastomeric bearings ordered fora project should be sufficient to allow for all kindsof testing, including destructive tests*

TABLE *f.9.1ROTATIONCLASSCLASSIFICATION OF BEARINGSTRANSLATIONCLASSBEARINGC"'jASS12rotationail roundrotationabout oneaxis only1.11.21* onedirectiontranslationin alldirectionsnotranslationtranslationperpendicularto rotationalaxistranslationparallelto rotationalaxistranslationin alldirectionso— ~o-4-1-3.30riLf1.^1.3-^*f.^ rockerpotfixed elastomericsphericalcompound cylindricalconstrained. pointroctRer Kiinine 1constrained pot slidingconstrained elastomericconstrained sphericalslidingconstrained compoundcylindrical ^free point,.rocRer slidingfee pot slidingfree elastomericfr$e sphericalslidingfree compoundcylindricalline rockercylindricalfixed elastomericpotspheri calrollerrocRerconst rained.slidinglineconstrained cylindricalJslidingconstrainedslidingpotslidingconstrained sphericalcylindrical sliding;Co n strained IJLikerocker slidingconstrained potslidingconst rained sphericalslidingconstrained rollerslidingfree rockerslidincrfree. cylindricalR 1 iningfree pot?Xi dJLucfree sphericalsliding3no rotation3translationin onedirection3gtiid® - novertical load

Y.4vember.LANDS AND WORKS LIST OP SUPPLIERS AND SPECIALICCHTRACTORS TOR MATERIALS AKD WORKS* x83)**'BEARINGS FOR HIGHVJAY STRUCTURESSuppliersCLASS I1,2.3.4* BEARINGSCCL Systems Par East Ltd.Oilman and Co.Instrusion-Prepakt (Par East) Ltd.Rrariki PSC Ltd.VSL Engineers (HK) Ltd,Engineering K & K (HK) Ltd.M.A.N. - B & W (HK) Ltd.W.R. Grace (HK) Ltd.CLASS IIROCKER/ROLLER BEARINGS1. CCL Systems Par East Ltd.2. Intrusionr-Prepakt (Par East) Ltd.3. Pranki PSC Ltd.'4.VSL Engineers (HK) Ltd.5. M.A.N. - B & w (HK) Ltd.6. W.R. Grace (HK) Ltd.CLASS IIIELASTOMERIC BEARIMJS1. CCL Systems Par East Ltd,2. Oilman and Go.3. Intrusion-Prepakt (Par East) Ltd,4. Pranki PSC Ltd.5. VSL Engineers (HK) Ltd.6. QIC Distributors Ltd.7. Engineering K.K. (HK) Ltd.8. M.A.N. - B & W (HK) Ltd.9. W.R. Grace (HK) Ltd.

AppemSix 4.9.2SCHEDULE OF BEARINGSname of structure or other referenceclassification symbol of bearingreference number or mark of bearingnumber of bearings requiredseating materialallowable averageseating pressure (MPa)upper facelower faceupper facelower faceSLSTILSSLSULSloadingtranslationrotationitemSLSULSshrinkacreepprestreirreversiblereversibleIrreversiblereversibletemperaturevariationsdead loadtransientloadsmaxminmaxmingess*-maxmin-p5*kNkNkNkNmmmmnunmmradradradverticallongitudinalhorizontaltransverseallowabledeflectiontransient loadstransiem j loads plusdeaa loac1 creep *mmmmmaximum allowable force onsupport due to translationkNmaximum allowable moment onsupport due to rotationklfa

PROPRIETARY BEARINGS AVAILABLE PROM SUPFLI3RS ON THE LANDS AND WORKS LISTv.4Appendix 4»9»3(Mbvember, 1983)SUPPLIERCCL SystemsPar EastLtd.Oilmanand Co*Intrusior>-Prepakt£|

4*10 FATIGUE(November, 1983)The recommendations of BS 5400 : Part 10 Code ofPractice for Fatigue should be followed in so far as theyare appropriate to Bong Kong conditions®The fatigue loading spectrum of BS 5400 : Part 10is onerous and full compliance with it may under some circumstancesbe uneconomic* In such cases f C»E*H»/Str® D® should be consultedregarding relaxation of the full requirements*

4*11*5(Mbvember f 1983)Unsealed joint© enable stormwater topenetrate into the superstructures! "bearings t piersand abutments of highway structures and railway"bridges* Although stormwater penetration in Hong Kongis not so serious as in temperate climates f wherestoirawater carries snow-dispersing chemicals intostructures with highly deleterious effects, suchpenetration is undesirable as it causes corrosionof ferrous bearing components and produces anundesirable appearance.Stormwater penetration through expansionjoints may be dealt with in three ways(i)(ii)(iii)a proprietary expansion jointdesigned so that the completedinstallation is watertight maybe chosen (although in practicesuch joints are always liableto leak, and some means of drainageshould accordingly always be provided)}a proprietary expansion joint whichallows the passage of stormwater maybe used in conjunction with a drainagelayer or channel added to catchstormwater aid divert it to thedrainage system; orthe structure may be designed sothat stormwater can pass freelythrough the expansion joint to becollected on the piers and abutmentsand diverted to the drainage systemwithout accumulating round bearingsor staining visible surfaces*A conscious decision should be made at the design stageas to which of these possibilities is to be followed.Stormwater draining through track ballast ontorailway underb ridges must be collected and led away*Hot only should joints be carefully sealed, but inaddition a substantial heavy duty waterproof membraneshould be applied to the bridge deck* The waterproofmerabrance should be continued across the deck endsand taken down behind the ballast walls, with drainsto collect and remove water running down the membrane*The membrane should be suitably protected againstdamage by track ballast*

«(Hbveniber, 1983)4« 11 ® 6 Ps^iier'^^ SjEBSBSSfifl4«11«6*1 PropertiesProprietary expansion joints selected foruse on highway structures and railway bridges shouldhave the following properties :-(a)the movement range should be equalto or slightly greater than theanticipated movements}(b) inspection and maintenance should beeasy to carry out, and parts liableto wear should be easily replaceable;(c)surfaces exposed at road level shouldbe treated to prevent skidding;(d) the riding quality of the surroundingroad surface should not be impaired j(e) the passage of vehicular traffic shouldnot cause undue noise or vibration;(f)on all purpose roads, footbridges andcycleways the passage of pedestrians for cyclists, as appropriate f shouldnot be impeded*4*11» &•2 SpecificationIn addition to specifying in detail therequirements for the properties listed above,joint specifications should inter alia alsoinclude(a)the maximum allowable gap opening forriding comfort;(b) the limiting force that the joint mayexert on the structure; and(c) the minimum size of holdings-downbolt to be provided•

(Nbvember f 1983)Trade names for proprletaiy expansion jointsshould as far as possible be excluded from specif i oat ionsand drawings to avoid any suggestion that their choicemight be influenced by other than engineering considerations*Proprietary expansion joints should be obtainedfrom suppliers on the Lands and Works List of Suppliersand Specialist Contractors for Materials and Works*Responsibility for the installation of proprietaryexpansion joints should be explicitly assigned tothe supplier, with the main contractor providingattendance only*Proprietary expansion joints should beselected by one of the following methods* Either(a) tenders should be called from suppliers onthe Lands and Works List and the mostsuitable tender selected by the appropriateprocedure; supply and installation of theselected joints should then be includedin the main contract as a Prime Go&fc Sumand the main contractor required to enterinto a formal sub-contract with the selectedsupplier as a Nominated Sub-contractor; thesupplier should be expressly required toinstall the selected joints while the maincontractor only provides attendance j or talternatively!(b) the main contractor should be required tosubmit detailed proposals to the Engineerfor approval based on the use of aproprietary expansion joint supplied bya supplier on the Lands and Works List}the main contractor's proposals shouldallow for the proprietary expansion jointto be installed by the supplier while themain contractor provides only attendance*Suppliers in the "Expansion Joint 1 * category ofthe Lands and Works List are given in Appendix 4*11 «1«Acceptable proprietary expansion joints and their mainmechanical properties are lisrted in Appendix 4*11«2»Other proprietary expansion joints may only be usedwith the prior approval of C*E*H«/Str« B«

(Sbvember, 1983)Experience has shown that the installation ofmovement joints aid proprietary expansion joints is atleast as important as f and possibly more important than tthe design of the joint itself* The practice of leavinginstallation of proprietary expansion joints to maincontractors has proved to be very unsatisfactory f andresponsibility for installation should'now always beassigned to suppliers® Failure on the part of suppliersfully to accept responsibility for installing theirjoints satisfactorily should be reported to C*E«H®/Str. D«so that consideration can be given to removing suchsuppliers from the Lands and Works List«Installation of most proprietary expansion jointsconsists of several operations f including(a) preparation of seating;(b) installation of holding down arrangements;(c) provision of bedding;(d) fixing of joint;(e) provision of backing^Execution of mo^t of these operations can "bemade more effective if at the design stage thought isgiven to accessibility! working space and so on®Ebtpansion joint installations are usually made at theends of concrete members, where simplicity of formworkproduces better results than more complex arrangements*Hooks and bends of reinforcement tend to be concentratedat such points by designers f more from lack of thoughtthan necessity; the possibility of "bond and anchorageconsiderations permitting reinforcement t® be stoppedoff'well away from an expansion joint installation shouldaways be investigated, because many expansion jointfailures have arisen through holdings-down bolts notbeing properly accommodated among unnecessarily congestedunderlying reinforcement« The vertical faces ofrecesses in concrete decks for expansion joints shouldpreferably be foiraed by saw cutting*

(November, 1983)4® 11 ® 9 JffiQJiA^^^Much unsightly cracking has occurred on highwaystructures as a result of expansion joint8 f and otherkinds of movement joint a 9 too f "being disguised by fillingwith mortar or other undatable substances® Such joints fof course| cannot accept the movements they were providedto accommodate t and cracking or spelling is the inevitableresult• The reason for this practice is evidently afeeling that open joints are unsightly; however fcracks and spalling are undoubtedly more unsightly®Care should be taken in detailing all types of joint sfiratly, to allow them to move without restraint f and,secondly f to emphasise their function f thus removing anytemptation to mortar them up®


4*11 EXPANSI01 JOIMTS7*4.11(November, 1983)4*11*1 Movements4* 1 1 * 2Highway structures undergo dimensionalchanges as a result of temperature changes* shrinkage,creep and the application of prestress* Live loadscause bearings to deflect and rotate f and bearingscan also produce movements if carriageways are inclined*The resulting movements, which are illustrated inFigure 4«11* should be deteztnined at the design stageand provision should be made for such movements totake place freely without damage to the structures*Jbr movements of up to about + 5 mm, afilled joint sealed with a suitable sealant shouldnormally be used. Careful detailing of such jointsis necessary to ensure that the filler does notfall out, leaving the sealant unsupported* Carefulspecification is also advisable to ensure not onlythat suitable materials are used but also to provideadequate guidance on installation, as poor workmanshipwill inevitably lead to an unsatisfactory joint*At the design stage, it should be borne in mind thatsuch joints, although permitting movement, stilltransmit a certain proportion of the full elasticload from one structural component to the next*fbr larger movements a proprietary expansionjoint is usually necessary*A large variety of proprietary expansionjoints is now available* Care should be takento ensure(i)(ii)(iii)that an expansion joint inherentlysuitable for the required locationis chosen;that the design of the structure iscapable of accommodating the expansionjoint selected; andthat the installation is carried outso that the properties of the selectedexpansion joint are fully exploited*Experience has shown that correct installation ofproprietary expansion joints is essential for satisfactoryperformance*

V«4*11*2 (Cont'd)(November, 1983)A tendency by one particular proprietary expansionjoint to noisiness tinder traffic has "been ascribed by themanufacturer to overestimation of shrinkage and creepmovements 9 which re suite in the joint being constantlyunder compression aaad bowing upward® after installation*The movement to be expected should accordingly beestimated with the greatest possible accuracy} in thisparticular applicaticn f ovea>»estimation is not on thesafe side* A slight downward tilt of the mountings 9so that the joint sags under compression rather thanhogs, is reported to reduce this particular problem*4«11«3 ffj^f JLs ...... teiflftJjK HifliM .....^JRW^-Q^Expansion joints should be able to carry thesame live loads as the structures of which they areparts* Jbr structures designed to carry the liveloadings described in BS 5400 : Part 2 t expansion jointsshould be capable of withstanding the following loads feither separately or in combination(i) vertically $ two 112*5 kN wheel loads,1000 mm apart, each spread over acontact area giving an average pressureof 1 MPa, applied so as to give theworst possible effectj(ii)horizontally : a traction force of75 kN per lineal metre of expansionjoint acting at road level*No exrtra allowance need be made for impact* The holdingdownand fixing arrangements should also be capable ofresisting these loads* Holding-down bolts and studsshould always be 1 6 mm diameter or bigger*4*11*4 IfQ-ffA.i^ of structureAs expansion joints open and close under theinfluence of temperature changes, shrinkage and so on,the proprietary components covering such joints may bestrained, depending on their design, and forces maybe transmitted to the supporting structures*Allowance should be made at the design stage for suchforces* Examples are given in Appendix 4*11*2 of the forcesclaimed bj Manufacturers to arise as a resrult of strain oftheir products* Representative values should be selectedfrom Appendix 4*11 .2 for design purposes* The limitingforce that a joinct may exert on the supporting structureshould be included in the specification, but for designpurposes a value of at least 20 kN/m should be assumed*

V.4Appendix 4«11«1(November, 1983)LANDS AMD WORKS LIST OP SUPPLIERS AMD SPECIALISTCONTRACTORS TOR MATERIALS AND WORKSEXPANSION JOINTS TOR HIGHWAYSTRUCTURESSun-pliers1, GCL Systems Par East Ltd,2. Chung Hing Engineers Ltd,3* Dyckerhoff and Widmann AG. (also known as Dywidag SystemsInternational Par East Ltd,)4* Expandite - Interswiss Ltd,5, Pranki PSC Ltd.6, VSL Engineers (HK) Ltd,7, w on^ Pu & Co., Ltd,8, W.R. Grace (HK) Ltd,

W.R. Gr a ce (HK) Ltd.CCL Systems Par East Ltd.SupplierWat son?-BowmanCCL-CIPECManufacturerI£VJfl&fc VJIvovQf\5-4£totovovo *toWaboflex-SRVJF1^toOCM&ONVJI'i to *VJIitoU1O*ON02 02 02t 'fe 1* * 0VJI*>voCD^o\$vjn*VJI33ONto^So^03—JbVJI—4— s,VO^So1s8ONIDON8SOVJIfcO3comb11£-£>8s3Svsg*to8ro0g*SOD0tooBCDO&§ODtoVJION0«±toothed5o§O5 oto to O oODO o600'£>9"^aON0O0'? vjniVJI?VJI-AtoVJItoVJI•4^S-4VJItoVJIto*UJiyVJIto*VJItoVJl•J,4^Typeor seriesReferencenumberMaximumjointopening(mm)Minimumjointopening(mm)Movementrange(mm)Limitingforce transmittedtostructure(kN/m)02 TJ3Sh3 *dKB3*3 h?t« H^ 02to M3 ^M £§ssA e/2«S^>r» r*D3 B *§*^K^*^t4*^w$

\Chung King Engineers Ltd.ACMEMSBSs 8 —A,vo$OSroI8Ov^n^^§o\001$VQ&UlOV£>|8—J1S18O\-J^1S?»§~fc81Ji^e°OgtoI°OsooaVJIto«Trojan12aOI00sOSnegligibleSupplierManufacturerTypeseriesReferencenumberMaximum jointopening(mm)Minimum jointopening(mm)Movementrange(mm)Limitingforce transmittedtostructure(kN/m)©toto

Byckerhoff and Widmann AG(Bymdag Systems International Far East Ltd.)SupplierB.3* BroimManufacturerBelastiflex-SMiI!8Delastiflex-RCI88§8Belastinex-SLi 1C/2^T!st*Delastine x -DLvo1CMvs1f*IOvsDelastiflex-DL1iIiorseriesReferencenumberIii111•l•^u>oovou*Os«\^0^"B-*oON»&Oou»_JbU11|1f3 oIiONCM^U1V/iON00roUloroVJt1 O^i\>\J}00fOVJ1FO ONrof^CjlONruUlOvofOU1Maximumjointopening(mot)Minimumjointopening(mm)• I0roONb5roVJT0-A-4 ONHIroVJlvo0-AUl^ONCDfcVJ10)ONODOJVJ1vo^ACMroCMON00Movementrange(mm)^^^e.M^^^I

Ebcpandite-InterswissLtd.Dyckerhoff and Widmann AG(Bywidag Systems International Par East Ltd.)SupplierGeneralTireInternationalD*S« BrownManufacturerTransflexBel astifl ex-MTDelastiflex-CPDelastiflex-LMTypeorseriesi*oii8$o Tf8ii18Referencenumber8 0ON~*8OO— Vf\>VSO***UlVJI^U;O00VDU»ONON4^UJVJl^^SSU/oCD\DU^ON^iv^^f\>1•0I1ON1la1iroVJlMaximumjointopening(mm)Minimumjointopening(mm)Movementrange(mm)

Franki PSC LtdVfong Pa & Company Ltd.SupplierPSCStructural Accessories Inc.ManufacturerFT series(N - noimal)(S - skew)MaOnflexTypeor Series19— ^jUlON1~-4UluiI •—••4Ulro-A3—*>lUl_hOsI--4\JlONUl1*~*4VJ!VJ1a•-av^iVjlVi^T^J?»fUJ°1UlONU1«A o o - A ^ A ^ i ^ ^ o,O U » O O O O D V O oo^IMinimumjointopening(mm)MovementRange(mm)Limitingforce transmittedtostructure\j£- N/ITl } /fr•Qg?i ^ij^ H«O* -t!SrCD ®"* ^—A tooo sCn

VSL Engineers(HK) Ltd.HonelHbnel•3-*VJlONONVJlvoJ,V0cf-0J»a— i.VJlVJl1tvocfO£>4*•3_88oo8oVOcfOo•*ONvo— fcVJl®stvocfoo4^OSCDOroVJlVJl1&vocfos4^ON00VJIVJIVJlfevocfOo-*ONONroVJlVJlfeo &VOchoo4^ONVJlVJlS|&V*0c*-O+4*ONVJl0§^voCfOfeOSu*VJlVJIrov^V0c4*0sONDO—A,voVJlUPVJl~&^*voo+i^OS—VX—A0oooo*VOci-O+*Kooo«ai>kJlct>OO^MaurerD seriesR8-VJlVJlUJVJl§3t308&VJl•fe*I o ONVJlVJlt38«0fe3OVJlvoVJlrou*VJlu*3§ O VJl~ iOroos31VJlVJlrost*sruvo o o-Aooo35iVJlVJlttSs4^o•fRO--3 O OOSooc4-o4-UiVJl>B—AVJl--3VJIf-4,VJIc*-O•froSupplierManufacturerTypeor seriesReferencenumberMaximumjointopening(mm)Minimumjointopening(mm)Movementrange(mm)Limitingforce trans-.mitted tostructure(kN/m)ON

V4.12Amendment No. 7-4/85 (Sept*).4.12 FOOTBRIDaOjS AED SUBjflJS4.12.1 General4*12 0 2 CoversFootbridges and pedestrian subways should "be sitedon direct pedestrian routes wherever possible., Their useshould not involve lengthy detours or unnecessary climbing oAccessibility for the disabled is an importantconsideration and provisions should be made for highwaycrossing facilities to be used by the disabled as well asthe able-bodied o This consideration should be taken intoaccount at both the planning and detailed design stages inaccordance with the standards set outThe planning and layout design of pedestriancrossing facilities are normally carried out by the TransportDepartment 2 which is also responsible for the circulation ofthe general layouts and subsequent inclusion of these projectsas items in /Category C of the Public ITorks Programme 0 Closeliaison with the traffic engineers at detailed design stagewill ensure that consistent standards of prevision aremaintained,*Reference should also be made to the currentTransport Planning & Design Kaiiual (issued by TransportDepartment) for information concerning capacities andsimilar details*Covers should bo provided for all new permanentfacilities for pedestrian grade-separation* Footbridges^elevated walkways*, their associated ramps and stairways? andramps and stairways serving pedestrian subways should all becoveredcIf the provision of a footbridge cover appears tobe inappropriate for- any reason^ permission not to provide acover must be obtained from Lands and ¥orks Conference oAllowance must in any case be made in the design for theprovision of a cover at a later date*Covers should be designed to resist the loading'sspecified in paragraph 4»2o11oCovers need not be provided for ramps designedexclusively for cycles*4«12«3 StairwaysStairs to permanent footbridges 5 elovatod walkwaysand pedestrian subways should have solid risers*

V4.12Amendment No. ¥-4/85 (Sept.)Risers should be riot more than 150 mm high. . Onlyin vexy exceptional circumstances where spaoe is limited andthere IB an alternative safe and convenient route for thedisabled in the vicinity may this dimension be exceeded 9 andeven then no risers should be more than 165 mm high*Treads should preferably not be less than 280 raniwide 3 but this dimension may be reduced to 250 mm if space islimitedoValues chosen for riser height 'R f! T f should satisfy the relationshipssand tread width2R + T = 580 to 600T x R = 42000 to 45000The tread width ? T ! is the net tread width or1 going 5 * . Riser faces nia^y be inclined? but the extra treadwidth gained should not be included in the -value of f T ! «The number of risers in a flight should prefer-ablynot exceed 12 9 but may be increased to 16 if space is limited*4.12.4'Ramps should in general be provided as well asstairways at all pedestrian structures. They may be omittedonly in the vicinity of an at-grade crossing 'or anotheradequate, rasped crossing 1 and such omission should always bebased on sound economic ? structural.or aesthetic reasons*If the provision of ramps to a footbridge orsubway appears to be inappropriate for any reason 3 permissionfor not providing them should be obtained from Lands and WorksConference* This should be done as early as possible ?preferably when the project is in Category C of,the PublicWorks Programme. However? in cases where the omission oframps can be kuowa or justified only after detailedinvestigation 9 then submission to Lands and Tforks Conferencefor not providing the ramps may be made at Category B stageprior to upgrading to Category AB ? i»e 0 at the sta^e when thegeneral layout of the footbridge or subway is being finalisedoPedestrian ramp gradients . should preferably be Q.jfowhich is the steepest gradient negotiable by a person in awheelchair -without assistance;, and they should not be steeperthan 1C^ under normal oircuastanceso Exceptionallyj toavoid the use of stepped ramps? steeper gradients of up to12$ say be used in short lengths where space is restricted*The centre line gradient of circular ramps should neverexceed 10$. Ramps steeper than 10$ must hare landings atvertical intervals of not more than 3500 1x13% and landingsshould be provided at similar intervals on less steep rampswherever space and other considerations permit*

V4.12Amendment l N Io« ¥-4/85 (Sept.)Cycle ramp gradients should preferably not be steeperthan 4%i "but may "be increased to Q%> if space is limited*Stepped ramps should, "be avoided as far as possibleand may only "be provided where space considerations make theprovision of unstepped ramps difficult or impossible* Riserheights should, not be more than 120 mm on stepped rampso Theeffective gradient of a stepped, ramp should preferably not besteeper than 14$ but may be increased to 16/& if space is limited*Experience indicates that the provision of tractionstrips is not preferred, even on steep ramps 3 and the use of anon-slip ;> surf ace will bo more acceptable * ¥here 'tractionstrips have to bo usod 3 these should be depressed* Embossedtraction strips should be avoided*4»12 & 5 • LandingsA user should be able to traverse a stairway landingin two comfortable stridcso A stairway landing length ofbetween 1500 - 1800 mm will enable most people to do this*Stairway landings may be reduced to a minimum of 1000 mm ifspace is limitedeThe length of ramp landings should preferably be notless than 2000 mm but may be reduced, to 1300 mm where spaoe islimited*The width of a landing should be not less thra thewidth of the widest stairway or ramp leading to ito4«12»6 Changes in directionThe corner formed, by a change in direction shouldbe curved to the greatest radius that is economicallyacceptable« Pedestrian conflicts will thereby be reducedand feelings of insecurity eased* The.- latter is particularlyimportant in subways., -where pedestrians tend to feel vulnerable5and in'consequence'subway corners should'" be designed to givea minimum person-to-person visibility of not less than 4000 mm*4*12*7 .Dimensions • •. • ' •Headroom should bo provided in accordance with therequirements of section 4«14oFootbridges? ramps and stairways should not normallybe less than 2000 mm wide* Subways should not normally be lessthan 3000 mm video4*12*8 Parapets and^handrailsParapets should "bo designed in accordance with therequirements of section 4*15« ..-They may be either solid or

V4.12Amendment No* ¥-4/85 (Sept.)in the form of railings, as described in section 9*4*3*2 of Chapter 9*to miich reference should "be made*Solid parapets should be used around subway ramps andstairways wherever the possibility exists of passing traffic splashingstormwater through parapet railings into the subway,. Solid parapetsshould toe used with discretion? however.? as excessive use can producean unpleasant sensation of confinement 5 particularly with narrow rampsand stairways.4«12«9 DrainageParapets should be 1100 mm hi^> uieasured from the surfaceof the adjoining footway*Consideration should be given to the provision of centralhandrails on stairways 4000 mm wide or more*Handrails should "be provided on both sides of all ramps andstairways at 850-1000 mm above nosing? floor or landing level* Atlandings? handrails should extend horizontally not less than 300 mmbeyond the first and last nosings of every flight of stops or beyondthe ends of a ramp. In cross section? handrail should provide aproper grip of 40 nisi to 50 mm diameter 0Handrails should as far as possible be fabricated fromcorrosion-resistant material^ preferably stainless steel.Subway floors should be cambered to fall at about 37° toeach side and should fall to one end at not less than 0 0 67>o« Gulleysand slotted channels should be provided at appropriate points to catchstormwater entering subways,? and convey it to the nearby stormwaterdrainage system? if necessary vis, a pump-house provided for thepurposeo The heads of all stairways and ramps should be raised 150 mmabove surrounding ground level to prevent the entry of stormwater*4012*10 LightingLight fittings should "be as inaccessible as possible compatiblewith maintenance requirements* Lamps in subways should be mounted inrecesses provided in ceilings or tops of walls*Lighting schemes for pedestrian structures are normallydesigned "by the Lighting Division*, a,nd approved "by the Electrical andMechanical Services Department*? who are responsible "for maintenanceupon completion,4*12.11 Escalators4*12*11*1 Provision of escalatorsBecause escalators are costly 5 their use for ascent onlyshould be considered in the first instance.Studies indicate that an ascending escalator 1020 mm wideand 6000 mm travel height would need to be used by 1540Q persons perday to provide time savings equivalent in value : to the costs ofinstallation and maintenance. For descending escalators? at leastfour times this figure would be required.

7,4*12*11*1 (Cont'd)mu • • *. •, a. (Nbvanber, 1983)The provision of escalators osm enhance tfieutilisation of grade separated pedestrian facilities*However, the most important consideration governingutilisation of such facilities is location in relationto pedestrian desire lines©4« 12*11*2 Physical propertiesis 30°.The normal angle of inclination for escalatorsThe speed range of escalators in common useranges from 0,5m/s to 0*75m/s*The capacity of an escalator with a speed of0«6m/s is about 130 persons per metre width per minute*This is about 75$ of the capacity claimed "by manufacturers,and about twice the capacity of a stairway of similar width.4*12* 11.* 3 External applicationsEscalators which are exposed to the elementsneed more careful planning than escalators for internaluse*includeAdditional features required for external use(i)(ii)43(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)(vii)deeper anodising of aluminiumcomponents;watertight floor pans;air heaters on trusses;stainless steel fastenings;cabinet for controller;double varnish impregnation ofelectrical windings;neoprene covered multicore cables forelectrical connections*Experience has shown that flooding of externalescalator pits can, be a troublesome problem, and drainageof such pits should be designed with particular care*The provision of covers may be justified.

?»4«12*11*4(November, 1983)4*12*11*4 Inspection and surveillanceExperience has also shown that escalatorinstallations must be inspected frequently if lengthyinterruptions of service are to be avoided* Rapidmaintenance attention should be available when interruptionsoccur* These needs should be borne in mind when theprovision of escalators at pedestrian grade separationsis being considered, as the installation of specialsurveillance measures such as GOT? or remote faultindicators may be justified*4*12*12 FinishesSurfaces adjacent to users of pedestrianstructures should normally be given an appropriatefinish, and not left as bare concrete*Subway walls should normally be tiled, toprovide good light reflection and to discouragevandalism, filed surfaces should stop at least 50 mni abovefloors and from external arrises, with the tile edgesprotected with a suitable hard material*Ceilings and the pedestrian faces of parapetwalls or beams may be tiled, or treated with suitabledurable proprietary finishes*iloor finishes should be chosen to give adequateslip resistance* Particular attention should be paid tothe slip resistance of rampsj steep ramps may need to beprovided with ribbing or nonr-slip strips*Stair treads should be provided withnosings, special nosing tiles or nonr-slip strips* Mb singsshould be made conspicuous by the use of contrastingcolours, or other means, so as to be clearly visible,particular at night*The need for handrails to be of corrosion?-resistant material, preferably stainless steel, hasalready been mentioned in clause 4«12«8* Othercomponents and fittings should also be made fromdurable, corrosionr-resistant material*

V*4*13(November, 1983)4*13 TOUNDATIONS AND SUBSTHJCTUBES4*13*1 General4*13*2 .3lli^^The contents of section 10*1 of BS 5400 sPart 1 concerning the applicability of limit statedesign to foundations should be noted®The calculated "bearing capacity of afoussdation should "be at least three times greaterthan the worst combination of xaominal loads to foecarried*Some simple rules for the design of abutmentsand piled foundations are given at Appendix 4*13»1*These may be used in the absence of a more rigorousanalysis*Specialist contractors in the "Piling 11categoiy of the Lands and Works List of ApprovedSuppliers of Materials and Specialist Contractors forpublic works may be employed either as main contractorsfor projects where the piling works involved form byfar the greater part of the contract or as subcontractorsto main contractors (by way of a formalsub-contract) for projects with a piling content*In the latter case, the piling works mayalso be carried out by the main contractor himselfprovided that at tender stage he can establish thathe has or will have readily available, the capacity andresourcesi the experience and expertise and the plantand equipment required to carry out the work satisfactoryIn each case the arrangements are to be in accordance withthe details set out in Vol II, Chapter 5t Appendix 5paragraph 1 - "Eipeciali&t Contractors and Suppliers"(Amendments Mb* II - 15/83)Some piling contractors use specialisedmethod or designs, with features particularly suitedto certain sites* To enable advantage to be taken of suchfeatures, project engineers should normally include theirown piling designs in the teller documents, but shouldalso include details of the forces and moments to beresisted by the piles and invite alternative designsin the manner described in Volume II Chapter 5 Appendix 5tparagraph 2* Tenderers submitting alternative designsshould be asked to price both designs so that anyfinancial benefits are easily recognisable*

4.13»3 Piling dpmdrag7,4-13.3(November, 1983)In Bong Kbng f where reclamations oftenoverlie compressible marine muds, the phenomenonof "dowadrag 11 or "negative skin friction' 1 may occur fwhen the weight of the surrounding soil is transferredto Hie piles as consolidation takes place* Allowanceshould be made for the extra loads on piles arisingfrom this effect* A method for evaluating downdragforces under Bong Kong conditions is given in one ofthe references at the end of this chapter*4.13.44,13.4.1 GeneralThe term "caisson 11 is used by foundationengineers to mean a bored-and-cast— in*-place pile formedby sinking a shaft of 800 mm or more in diameter intothe 'ground and filling the shaft with concrete* Caissonsare extensively used in Hong Kong to overcome problemsarising from restricted access, heavy loadings,restrictions on noise and vibration*. difficult terrainand marine or riverine locations,4»13»4«2 Hand-dug caissonsIn Bong Kong, the term "hand-dtig caisson 11 isrecognized to mean a large diameter pile formed bysinking a vertical shaft by hand-digging, placing anin-situ concrete lining and subsequently filling theshaft with concrete, which may be plain or reinforced*!Ehe Hbng Kong Institute of Engineers haspublished guidance notes covering the broad principlesof the design and construction of hand-dug caissons,4.13,4*3 Machine-drilled caissonsVarious boring or drilling machines are nowavailable to supplement hand digging as a means ofsinking caissons. Such machines are generally equippedto insert casing in the course of the boring operationand they usually have casings-extraction facilities*Caissons can also be installed without casing bydrilling through bentonite slurry*

4* 13» 5 JteiJIJPULJfeiSlfiLM M iBMibfifcP^^V.4.13.5(November, 1983)The potential loading from a derailed traincolliding with the substructure of a bridge crossinga railway track is very large* To design a supportcapable of successfully withstanding such a loadingis very difficult* Nevertheless} "because of thepotentially disastrous consequences f considerationshould always be given to ways of alleviating the effectsof such a collision*The best defence is to site the supports ofhighway - and pedestrian«overbridges well away fromthe railway track| preferably at least 5 metres fromthe centre line of the nearest track*If space limitations make remote siting ofsupports impossible, the following precautions shouldbe observed s-(i)(ii)Supports should be continuousrather than composed of discretecolumns*Supports should not be pin-jointedat both top and bottom*(iii) Support ends should be "cut-water* 1shaped to deflect derailed trains*(iv)(v)A solid plinth should be providedaround individual columns to a heightof 1000 mm above the adjacent raillevel, with "cut-water 11 shaped endsto deflect derailed trains*To ensure a reasonable robustnesssupports should be designed towithstand without collapse a nominal pointload of 1000 kN in the case of highwaybridges, and 500 kN in the case offootbridges, acting horizontally inany direction at a height of 1200 mmabove the adjacent rail level inconjunction with the permanent loadsand partial load factors specified incombination 4 of Table 1 of BS 5400 :Part 2.

¥«4*13*5 (Cont'd)(November, 1983)(vi)(vii)Superstructures of highway bridgeson supports composed of discrete columnsshould be designed so that the removalof one individual column will notlead to the collapse of the remainderunder the permanent loads andappropriate primary loads of combination1 of Table 1 of BS 5400 : Part 2.The effect of a derailed train collidingwith a footbridge support should beconsidered* The form of constructionchosen should minimise the possibilityof collapse in such a case* Suspendedspans should not be used* Simplysupportedspans, stairways and rampsshould be positively connected to thesupports by means of bars, bolts orother devices capable of transferringloads*Kailway underbridges should be provided withballast walls at approaches, high enough and long enoughto prevent ballast from falling on to abutments and wingwalls® The ends of wing walls will normally adjoin theboundary of the railway, when they should be at least2 metres high above the adjoining' pavement level®4«13»6*1 Effects to be consideredConsideration should be given to the effects of(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)pressure due to currents;hydrostatic pressure}scourjbackwater; andwaterborne traffic*If a structure is exposed to the sea, the effects of waveaction should also be considered*4«13*»6*2 Pressure due to currentsHhe intensity of pressure on a pierparallel to the direction of a current of water is givenby (Cont'd)(November, 1983)whereP . K W^2g) orsP « 5K V* x 10" 4 MPaSV m velocity of current at pointconsidered in m/s4*13*6*3 ScourK m shape factor, taken ass1*5 for square— ended piers1.25 for trestle piers0*66 for circular piers or semicircularcutwaters0*5 - 0*9 for triangular cutwatersW m density of water (1000 kg/m 3 )g * acceleration due to gravity (9»81 mThe depth of scour to be anticipated maybe estimated from the expressiond . 0*473 \whered m depth below highest flood level in mQ m flood discharge in m 8 /sf • silt factor for representative particlesize of bed material taken fromFigure 4*13*1Km waterway factor, taken as1.27 for straight reach1.50 for moderate bend1.75 fo r severe bend2 for right angle bend2*75 for upstream end of guide bank*

4«13*6.4 Backwater effectsV*4*13.6.4Amendments No. V-2/84 (March)5br a bridge crossing a river or atrearn fconsideration should "be given to the backwater effectsproduced by the highway or railway crossing restrictingthe flow of water. Backwater can cause floodingupstream of the crossing and f in addition f theincreased velocity of the stream, and its turbulence,can cause scour sufficient to endanger the bridgestructure*Guidance on the analysis of backwatereffects has been published in reference (14) by theU.S* Department of Transport at ion*4«13«6*5 Effects of waterborne trafficThe design of piers for bridges over navigationchannels should include consideration of protectionagainst ship collision*In general| such protection is costly,and the risk involved should be carefully analysedand weighed against the possibility of protectingthe lives of bridge users by means such as thosedescribed in 4* 18*4*

lPARTICLE ! SIZE mm//^7f""""1"Tl>ooTI*4J(/)•"»»•>z5Q031T]g4*B^33mpeS** 0LA ^** n *'*••""•i}••'•{/i(7)T| ^j**-- ^*^§— n u>0 -30ISJ(A)< DcDJ01G>-O 0O OK) "< ^ ~ " ~ "_ 5 _ .._._..... —!„_o o o o o ob b b b bb.°5 N _ ^__MIlffiMl^: = — :':: t\: = ----z^ =OO35 ^ - -- ^ ,_ ,. , _ , , . - - -S ^ ** I«;;-~— ii::::~:-::: :: E::E. p__--EEEEEEE;EE:^EEE^hp o P p oo*- In o* "*3 "ot> io -* i\> (*>L^^^ \ |"_ .. . L L . _^L. ^s*::::: s ~:_:::: t ::::::-? fcs._ [[_..__Bllk- f i _ .::5 Sii. ft= I : : — EEENl!!! Ill*- tn o» -J »tDO- L - J^CDtoO: : : : ~ H

1.1*1 Bearing pressureV.4Appendix 4.13.1 - P»1 ,(Ifovember, 1983) -DESIGN OP ABUTMENTS AND PILED IDUHDAOJIONSThe distribution of pressure on an abutment baseas shown in Figure 4*13*2 is given byf . £ + M t " A± Zwheref » bearing pressureA » area of basem d X 1 for unit lengthZ m section modulus» d £ /6 for unit length¥ m total vertical loade M eccentricity of W fromcentre line of baseTo avoid uplift e should be limited to d/6.1.2 SlidingThe following relation should be satisfied forthe ultimate limit state for the situation shown inFigure 4*13«3wherejiM > 3H/2\i m coefficient of friction t with values betweenconcrete andclay of 0.2sand of 0*4gravel of 0.4H m sum of horizontal design loadsW m sum of vertical design loadsA partial load factor of 1 should be applied to the nominalloads to obtain the design loada

1»3 Overturning2» Piledv.4Appendix 4*13»1 - P*2(Mbvember, 1983)The following relation should be satisfied forthe ultimate limit state for the situation shown inSlgure 4»13«4» against overturning about AWx > 3Hy/2where x, y are as shown in figure 4® 13® 3W, H are as beforeA partial load factor of 1 should be applied to thenominal loads to obtain the design loads*2*1 Vertical .. .pil es,Bbr the situation shown in KLgure 4«13«5t theload on pile A is given bywhereP A m H/N ± We^/fia?W « total vertical loadN m number of pilesem distance of W from centreof gravity of pile groupS 3T m 3T . -f 3^ 4- xi 4- «««»*»*«««The loads on piles B and C may be determined similarly*2.2 Raking pilesHorizontal loads may be resisted by raking piles.The angle of rake reqruired may be obtained by a forcediagram as shown in $±gax® 4«13*6» Piles should not beraked at more than 1 in 4«


Y.4*14(November, 1983)4*14 HEADBOOM4*14*1 5silg£^JESfl3A^Headroom should "be provided in accordancewith liable 4.14,1*The headroom to "be provided is theeffective headroom after compensation for verticalcurvature and deflection as described in 4® 14® 3 and4*14«4«The headroom specified for new constructionincludes an allowance of 100 mm for subsequentresurfacii3g* Maintained headroom includes no suchallowance, and must be preserved indefinitelywithout any encroachment from resurfacing*The specified headroom should be providedover the widths prescribed for horizontal clearancein Table 4«14«2 (taken from current TransportDepartment standards), as well as over carriagewaysand hard strips or shoulders*Structures are often subjected to collisionimpacts from ovexvheight passing vehicles, andin spite of the requirements of 4*2«7*1f the provisionof more headroom than the minimum values given inTable 4*14*1 should be seriously considered if thiscan be done without undue difficulty*4.14*2 Measurement of headroomHeadroom should in general be measuredvertically* In cases where the combined crossfalland longitudinal gradient under a structure exceeds 4$iheadroom should be measured at right angles to theroad surface at the point of minimum clearance*Headroom should be measured from the lowestpoint of the overhead structure* The lowest pointshould be taken as the lowest lighting firfcure, sign,signal or similar protrusion rather than the lowestpart of the overhead structure itself*

TABXE 4.14»1HEADROOMTYPE OFSTRUCTUREUSEDBYNEWCONSTHUCflOiMAINTAINEDHEADROOMSHUOverbridgesTunnelsVehicularunderpasses"PpQ t^i d gesSign gantriesVehiclesVehicles5500 desiraHe* 5100 minimum~6GOO desircd.6* 5500 minimum50005*K)0PedestriansubwaysEnclosedfootbridgesPedestrians23m2500Length< 23m ^ 23m2300 2500Cycle subwaysCyclists25002500TramwayoverbridgesTrams61006100* structures with mininram headroom are regularly struck by vehicles.TABIE ^.14.2HORIZONTAL CLEARANCEDESIGNSPEEDkm/h5060and7080HEIGHTOFOBSTRUCTIONfflffl< 3000> 3000^ 3000^3000anyMINIMUM WHERE CROSSFALL SLOPESTOWARDS OBSTRUCTION AT :-3t 2.5*(OR AWAY)mm500500MINIMUMWX&60010001000^

4,14«3 fempjeqsat;Lop, fo r. vertical_Amendments No* V-2/84 (March)Where the vertical alignment of a roadforms a sag under a structure, the headroom shouldbe increased in accordance with Table 4*14«3» Thesag radius is the mean radius of vertical curvatureover a 25 m chord length measured along the carriageway.4.14*4 Compensation for deflection of structureAllowance should be made for the effect ofdead load deflection on headroom design. In addition,the headroom provided should be increased to allowfor the maximum deflection that can occur at midspandue to live load.4*14*5 Compensation for signal and other install at fonpAt locations where signals, lighting andother equipment related to operational service areto be installed, suitable albwance should be madein the headroom design. Such installationsshould never be permitted to intrude into theheadroom provided.4.14.6 Tramway .an£ liaht rail transit overbridgesAlthough Table 4«14»1 gives a value of6100 mm for the headroom to be presided over t rajntracks, this figure, which refers to the Hong KongTramways Company's double—deck trams, is given forgeneral guidance only. A figure of 6000 mm has beenquoted as suitable headroom for LET tracks, but thisagain should only be used for general guidance*The appropriate authority should always be consultedas to the precise headroom to be provided under ahighway structure crossing a tramway or a LET track*4.14.7 Railway overbridgesWherever a highway structure crosses arailway track, the appropriate railway authoritiesshould be consulted as to the precise horizontal andvertical clearances to be provided.All pedestrian and vehicular overbridgesacross the KGE should "he designed to give a minimumof 7 metres clearance above highest rail level so asto avoid any interference with the overhead, energysupply equipment.

TABLE 4.14.3SAGRADIUSm^. 1000100012001500200030006000>6000COMPENSATION FOR VERTICAL CURVATUREADDITIONALHEADROOMram100807055452525 _

4.15 PARAPETSV.4.15(November, 1983)4*15«1A parapet is a structural component installedalong the side of a bridge or other structure to preventvehicles or pedestrians falling off* Other termsdescriptive of either form (e.g« parapet wall fparapet railing) or purpose (e*g« pedestrian parapet fvehicle parapet) may be added*Parapets are basically of three kinds , viz -(a) vehicle parapets, designed to restrainvehicles only from leaving a structure;(b) vehicle pedestrian parapet s f designedto restrain both vehicles and pedestriansfrom leaving a structure; and(c) pedestrian parapets, designed toprevent pedestrians leaving a structure,As well as preventing vehicles and pedestrainsleaving a structure, parapets may have other purposessuch as(a)to shield something below from view;(b) to reduce noise pollution; and(c) to prevent splash from stormwater,or other missiles, reaching the areabelow.In such cases, solid parapets are usuallypreferable to open parapets*4*15*2 Parapet groupsParapets are classified for design purposesinto the four groups given in Table 4*15*1* Thesegroups do not correspond exactly to the groups inreference (16), which details British practice*Although reference may be made to British requirementsif amplification is required, in cases where therequirements of this Chapter differ from Britishpractice, the former should be given preference asbeing more appropriate to Hong Kong conditions*4»15*3 Parapet heightsParapet heights should not be less than thedimensions given in Table 4*15*2* Height should bemeasured from the adjoining paved surface to thetop of the parapet. Parapets higher than the dimensionsgiven in Table 4«1 5.2 should be provided wherever specialcircumstances require a greater height,

TABLE 4,15,1PARAPET GSQUPSGROUPP. 1APPLICATIONVehicle parapets for limited access roads, capable ofrestraining vehicles of up to 1*5 tonnes travellingat 120 Km/h and 20° incidence*P. 2Vehicle or vehicle pedestrian parapets for all-purposeroads f capable of restraining vehicles of up to1«5 tonnes travelling at 80 Km/h and 20° incidence*P* 3Pedestrian parapets capable of withstandinghorizontal loads of 1.4 kN/ra acting at a height ofone metre above the adjoining footway •P. 4High containment parapets for high risk locations fcapable of restraining vehicles of up to 24 tonnestravelling at 50 km/h and 20° incidence.TABLE 4.15.2PARAPET HEIGHTSGBOUPAPPLICATIONHEIGHT mmP. 1P. 2normal vehicle parapetsnormal vehicle andvehicle pedestrian parapets11001100P. 3railway foot~o verb ridge andunderbridge walkway parapetsother footbridges15001100P. 4high containment parapets forrailway overbridges and otherhigh risk locations.1500

4*15«4 BesignV.4«15*4(ifovember, 1983)4«15«4«1 ProjectionsParapets should have traffic faces free ofall projections. Longitudinal rails should be placedon the traffic side of their supporting posts, aiadpresent a smooth face to traffic*4*15*4*2 Divided structure®Parapets should not normally be provided"between the parallel decks of divided highway structures.The intervening voids should be covered with slabs orgrids designed to carry HA loading. If the divider"between the carriageways of the approaches is in theform of a concrete profile barrier, however, it shouldbe continued across the structures too.4*15*4*3* MaterialsParapets may be constructed of steel saluminium alloy, reinforced concrete or combinationsof these materials.4*15«5 Metal parapets4*15*5*1 Design requirementsDesign requirements for metal parapetsare given below and in Table 4«15»3* CorrosionSevere corrosion of steel parapets has beenexperienced in Hong Kong. In some cases, the corrosionhas been so severe that individual steel members havebeen completely eaten away. The causes of suchcorrosion appear to include(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)inadequate treatment of sitewelds, which are often neitherground flat nor given the fullpaint treat ement provided elsewhere;faulty detailing, which allowsstormwater to stand rather thandrain awayjomission or faulty execution ofseals to hollow sections;inadequate initial paint treatment j andinadequate maintenance*

V.4.15*5*2 (Con-fa)(Mbvember, 1983)Corrosion on the scale experienced createssuch expensive and troublesome maintenance problemsthat at one time the use of steel parapets wasdiscouraged and the use of altuninium alloy parapetswas advocated instead.Since then, facilities for hot dip gdvanisinghave become available, and the use of hot dip galvanisedsteel for parapets is now acceptable* Even so, careshould be exercised in detailing and specifying* Steelparapets should be detailed so that they can be hotdip galvanised properly and so that they can beerected without damaging the galvanising* Steelcomponents should be hot dip galvanised in accordancewith BS 729 to a minimum average mass coating of600 g/m* after fabrication* Methods of making goodinvoluntarily damaged galvanising should be specifiedin detail* Steel hollow sections should be sealedwherever this can be done without affecting thegalvanising process. If venting is necessary,thevents should be effectively sealed immediatelyafter galvanising,Non-ferrous components, particularly ofaltuninium alloy, should not normally be subjectto corrosion, but if nox>~ferrous components are usedwith steel fixings insulation must be provided toprevent galvanic corrosion* Aluminium holding-downbolts should "he coated with epoxy paint orsimilarly protected before being cast into concrete*To ensure a reasonable resistance to corrosion,or any other form of chemical attack, metal membersshould have the following minimum thickness -sealed steel hollow sectionsunsealed steel sectionsnon-ferrous sections4 ^5 3«2 mm4.15.5* 3 ElongationMetal for parapet members should have aminimum elongation at fracture of 10$* Post spacingThe span between posts of a continuouslongitudinal rail should not exceed 4000 mm*4*15»5*5 Strength of longitudinal railsThe product of the plastic modulus aboutthe vertical arts aid the characteristic strength ofa longitudinal rail should not be less than theappropriate value given in Table 4*15«5«

V.4«15*5*5 (Cbnt'd)(November, 1983)The plastic beaading strength of aloxagitudinal rail about the horizontal axis shouldbe not less than 50$ of that about the verticalaxis*Expansion joints should be as strong asthe rail in beiiding and at least 75$ as strongin tension* Posts should be provided within 750 niraof each side of expansion joints designed formovements of 50 ^^ or morej such joints need nottransmit tension*4*15*5*6 Strength of postsThe product of the plastic modulus aboutan axis parallel to the parapet and the characteristicstrength should equal or exceed the moment induced bythe expropriate transverse force *F f from Table 4«15»3acting on the logitudinal rail producing the worsteffect*The strength in the longitudinal directionshould, in the case of an end post, be equal to thetransverse strength, and, in the case of an intermediatepost, be at least 1/8 of the transversestrength.Post bases should be strong enough toensure that the posts themselves will fail beforethe bases*4*15*5*7 HxingsA post deck fixing should have an elasticmoment of resistance about either axis at least 50$greater than the appropriate maximum fully plasticmoment of the post*Hail to post fixings should be as strong asthe longitudinal strength of the post.

TABLE 4.15*3CriterionSTRENGTH OF METAL PARAPET COMPONENTSParapet groupP. 1 P* 2Product of plastic modulusof longitudinal rail andcharacteristic strength (kNn)8,3 L/n 4*15 L/nTransverse force f F fapplied to po&ts(kN)50 25L Bt distance "between post centre lines in metresn • number of effective longitudinal members(A reinforced concrete plinth at least 300 mmhigh and capable of resisting a horizontaltransverse force of F/n at its top edge shouldbe considered as an effective longitudinalmember*)

4«15«6 Reinfproed i .£onoret e £arap_et _s¥.4*15*6(November, 1983)4*15«6»1 Design requirementsDesign requirements for reinforced concreteparapets are given below and in Table 4*15*4*4*15*6*2 Concrete gradeConcrete should be Grade 30 or stronger*4«15*6*3 ReinforcementDistribution steel amotintingto 50$ of themain reinforcement should be provided in both traffic andouter faces* The minimum cover to any reinforcementshould be 40 mm*4-15*6*4 PlinthsPlinths should be provided under metalparapets at least 75ramhigher than the adjoiningpaved surface in rural areas and at least 300 mmhigher in urban areas*The bottom edge of a plinth should lie in theplane of the traffic face* The front face should be inthis plane but may be inclined at up to 1 in 12 awayfrom the traffic up to a maximum of 25 mm*A plinth should be sufficiently strong towithstand moments and shears developed at post fixings*A plinth more than 300 mm high can be considered aneffective longitudinal member if it can support ahorizontal transverse force of P/n kN (see Table 4«15*3)applied to its top edge in addition to the forcesinduced by the posts*Plinths of precast sections should be fixedto the deck so as to be able to withstand the postfixing moment plus 150$ of the moment induced by F/nwhere appropriate*4*15*6*5 Longitudinal effectsEeinforced concrete parapets should normallybe designed from considerations of tran0verse resistanceonly*. Consideration of a parapet as a longitudinalstructural member, although stiffening the edge of thestructure, introduces complications that outweigh thebenefits in most cases* Joints should accordingly beprovided to prevent longitudinal structural action*

4*15*77*4*15.7(November, 1983)Parapets in Group P,1 may consist ofreinforced concrete walls or at least two effectivelongitudinal members* The limiting dimensions forGroup P« 1 parapets are given in Table 4*15*5 &ndFigure 4*15*1*A parapet corresponding in shape to a profiledconcrete barrier fence is often desirable* Such aparapet is illustrated in ilgure 4*15*3* No kerb shouldbe provided between parapet and carriageway s but a hardstrip is desirable*4*15*8Parapets in Group P* 2 may consist ofreinforced concrete walls 9 at least two effectivelongitudinal members or two effective longitudinalmembers connected by vertical members* Thelimiting dimensions for Group P« 2 parapets aregiven in Table 4*15*6 aisd ELgure 4*15*2*A parapet corresponding in shape to aprofiled concrete barrier fence may also be usedparticularly for limited access roads* Such aparapet is illustrated in figure 4*15«3* No kerbshould be provided between parapet and carriageway,but a hard strip is desirable.4*15*9 P* 3 parapets4*15*1°4*15*11Pedestrian parapets in Group P* 3 should bedesigned to resist the loading given in Table 4*15*1*High containment parapets in Group P» 4should consist of reinforced concrete walls designedto the strength requirements of Table 4*15*4 and to thedimensions given in, Jlgure 4*15*4* The top of the parapetshould be shaped to prevent anybody walking on the topof high containment parapets located on general purposeroads. On limited access roads, different shapes ormetal top rails may be used«In an attempt to limit the maintenance problemsarising from the proliferation of parapet designs,Chapter 9 requires that only th© standard designs listedtherein should be used, unless the approval of C*E*H*/gtr*Hcan be obtained for laori-standard designs. The standarddesigns approved for use are repeated in Appendix 4*15*1*The outer f notfc-traffic, profile of concrete parapets maybe altered to suit the bridge architecture*

4*15.12 Sight ,digtanoea7.4*15.12(November, 1983)Sight distances are measured for designpurposes from a point 1,050 m above the carriageway,A possibility therefore exists that the provision ofshorter sight distances could sometimes be justifiedon the grounds that motorists can see through certaintypes of parapets* However, visibility through aparapet is liable to be obscured and distorted, andcan thus not be relied upon, A parapet of any kindshould accordingly always be treated as opaquefor purposes of sight distance design,4*15*13»1 High containment parapetsRailway vehicular overbridges should be providedwith high containment parapets. Normally Group P* 4parapets are acceptable, but at certain locations,especially where vehicles can impinge on parapetswith large angles of incidence, higher standards maybe necessary. The design procedure given inAppendix 4*15«2 should be followed in such cases*4«15*13»2 Overb ridge parapetsOverbridge parapets should have a minimumheight of 1500 mm measured from the ad joining pavedsurface. They should erbend to a point not less than8 ra from the centre line of the nearest track,measured at right angles to the track,Parapet copings should be shaped to thatpersons cannot walk on them,Inner and outer parapet faces should besmooth and without hand- or foot- holds*In considering the height of railwayoverbridge parapets, the policy of London Transportmay be noted, whereby parapets of 1800 - 2000 mmare provided on the grounds that little vandalism orinterference occurs if people are unaware of theexistence of a nearby railway,4»15*13«3 Underb ridge walkways and parapetsEailway underbridges should be providedon each side with a concrete plinth at least 300 mmabove rail level in height,Underbridges carrying two or more railwaytracks should be provided with 1 m wide walkways onboth sides, Underbridges carrying only one railwaytrack should be provided with only one such walkway,

V*4«15«13 (Cont'd)(November, 1983)IrJhere a walkway is provided* a parapetrailing should be fixed to the plinth with aminimum height of 1500 mm above the adjoiningwalkway surface. The posts should be demountable tand the post fixings should have a moment of resistanceat least 50$ greater than the plastic moment of theposts| to ensure that the posts suffer damage beforetheir fixings in an accident* Parapets should otherwisecorrespond to Group P* 3 parapets*

TABLESTRENGTH OF BKEMFDJRCED CONCRETE PARAPETSITEMCRITERIONmininrum ultimate momentof resistance againstvertical bending at base(reinforcement at trafficface).minimum ultimate momentof resistance againsthorizontal bending(reinforcement at outerface),minimum ultimatehorizontal transverseshear resistance.minimum ultimatetransverse shear load to betransferred sfc connectedvertical joints betweenlengths of in situ parapetor precast panels.PARAPET GROUPP. 1 P. 2 P* 425 kMn/m 12.5 kffin/m 125 klfa/m12.5 kHm/m 6.25 kMta/m 62.5 kHa/m86 kN/im 43 kN/m 220 kN/m66 kN 33 kN 165 kNminimum ultimate momentof resistance ofanchorage at base ofprecast panel.37«5 kMa/m18.7 kNm/mminimum thickness- top- bottom100 mm180 mm100 ram150 mm250 mm430 mmMOTES(1) A parapet consists of end sections extending 3 IB from the ends of theparapet, or on each side of an unconnected vertical joint, andintermediate sections extending between the end sections.(2) The minimum ultimate moment of resistance against vertical bending(item 1) for end sections shall be 33$ greater than the values forintermediate sections given in the table.(3) The base of a parapet refers to a horizontal section not more than300 mm above or below the adjoining paved surface*(4) The minimum ultimate moment of resistance against vertcial bending shallreduce linearly from the base to zero at the top of the parapet *(5) Distribution steel amoxinting to 50# of the main reinforcement required_ for Items 1 and 2 shall be provided in the respective faces*

TABLE 4.15.5DIMENSIONS FOR GBOUP P. 1 PARAPETSDimension Description Max ManClear distance between longitudinal membersor between top of plinth and longitudinalmember above. The dimension is notnecessarily constant within the barrier*300Distance between traffic face of parapetarid front face of supporting post at itsaase, at whatever height the base may be*150Distance between front face of metallongitudinal member, or top edge ofplinth, and traffic face of parapet.1 * Plinth

TABLE 4«15«6DIMENSIONS FOR GBDUP P. 2 PARAPETSDimensionDescriptionMax*Min*aClear distance between longitudinal membersor between top of plinth and longitudinalmember above*b!• Vehicle parapet2* Vehicle pedestrian parapetDistance between traffic face ofparapet and front face of supporting postat its base, at whatever height the base may be300100---100dfOverall depth of longitudinal member.Height of centre line of main longitudinalmember above adjoining paved surface.-68550535SHeight of plinth above adjoining paved surface*1* Vehicle parapet2* Vehicle pedestrian parapet3007575hHeight of top of upper longitudinal memberabove adjoining paved surface*M1100kHeight of centre-line of lowest effectivemember*see f a f300PDistance between front faces of verticalin?-fill members and longitudinal members*500Dimensions in millimetresThis table refers to Figure 4*15*2





7.4Appendix 4*15*1(November, 1983)STANDARD PARAPETS JOE HIGHWAY STHJCTURES1* group ...... P« .(a)Reinforced concrete parapets with steel or aluminiumtop rails to Drawing Nos* SSQ 64 or SSD 86. Thedetailed design of the reinforced concrete parapets dependsupon the design of the structure y but the parapet is consideredto "be standard if the traffic profile conforms to the dimensionsgiven on the current version of Drawing No. SSD 63«(b) Steel parapets to Drawing No. SSD 22.(c) Aluminium parapets to Drawing No. SSD 23*2. Grout) P. 2 ......ffajffiqe.t s(a) Steel parapets to Drawing No. SSD 22.(b) Aluminium parapets to Drawing No* SSD 24.(c)Reinforced concrete parapets with steel or aluminiumtop rails to 'Drawing Nos. SSD 64 , SSD 86 or SSQ 89.The detailed design of the reinforced concrete parapetsdtpeads upon the design of the structure f but the parapet isconsidered to be standard if the traffic profile conformsto the dimensions given on the current version of Drawing Kb.SSD 63*3« QrotiD P» 3 Parapet E(a) Steel parapets corresponding to Type 1, 2 and 3 Railings illustratedin Chapter 9«(b) Steal parapets to Drawing No. SSD 56/002.(c)Reinforced concrete parapets with or without single metaltop rails 1100 mm high measured from the surface of theadjoining footway*4. Group P. 4 Parapets(a)Reinforced concrete high containment parapets with thetraffic profile conforming to the dimensions given on thecurrent version of Drawing No. SSD 63*

7*4Appendix 4*15*2 - p«1(November, 1983)DESIGN OP HIGH CONTAIMEHT PARAPETS FOR RAILWAY 07EKBRIDQES1* ContainmentAt certain locations, especially where vehicles canimpinge on parapets with large angles of incidence, the designof Group P» 4 Mgh containment parapets should be checked againstthe geometry of the site to ensure that containment will "beachieved*One of the heaviest and most concentrated vehiclescommonly in use in Hong Kong is the concrete mixer/transportertruck* In the absence of more precise requirements f such atruck should be used for design purposes.2« Parapet^..jyapaot. forceThe impact force exerted on a parapet by an impingingvehicle may be obtained by multiplying the mass of the vehicleby the following expression for lateral deceleration(v sin a) 22 (o sin ft 4- b (cos 0 - 1) + a)where v «* vehicle velocityft m impact angleb a lateral position of vehicle c.g»c m longitudinal position of vehicle c«g«a » sum of vehicle crumpling and parapetdeflectionas shown in Figure 4*15*5*

V.4Appendix 4*15*2 - p*2(November, 1983)The impact angle at which an impinging vehiclestrikes a parapet may "be considered asa „ -1 R- (w/2 4- a)^ » COS *"" ....... m ....... ...... ' ...... *rgf '* ...... • ......... -—*—Itwhere R«* minimum overturning radiusof vehicleas shown in Figure 4*15*6»w/2 « half lane widtha « distance from lane to parapetThe minimum radius which a vehicle may followwithout overturning is given roughly byMgb . M^h/Rwhere h «* height of vehicle e.g.Typically,R .f h fis about 1.1 times f b f , givingas a representative value.The expression for impact angle 'ft* given aboverelates to a straight road layout* Different considerations applyto a curved road layout* However, the magnitude of the impact forceto be considered obviously depends to a great extent on geometricallayotrk, and the layout of roads on railway overbridges shouldaccordingly be carefully considered to minimize impact forcesas far as possible. In this connect ion f the provision ofsafety or barrier fences may be justified to ensure thaterrant vehicles are guided in such a way as to make highimpact angles impossible. The use of concrete profile barrierfence along the central reserves of dual carriageway roads onrailway overbridges is recommended. In no case, however, shouldthe value of impact angle used for design purposes be less than20°.

¥.4Appendix 4«15*2 - p*34* Vehicle load (November, 1983)A representative mixer truck used in Hong Kongis the Nissan TO 6 x 2 mixer/transporter* Assumisagvalues of v m 50 km/h and z « 300 mm, the nominal impactforce exerted by a Nissan TO 6 x 2 on a parapet isshown on Figure 4«15»7 for various impact angles* Inno case, however, should the value of nominal impact forceused for design purposes be less than 5°The height at which the impact force acts ona parapet depends on the geometry of both vehicle andparapet. In no case t however, should the height assumedfor design purposes be less than 1000 mm*Partial load factors of 1*00 and 1*25 shouldbe applied to the nominal impact forces to obtain thedesign impact loads for the serviceability and ultimatelimit states respectively*

¥.4Appendix 4*15*2 - p«4(November, 1983)FIGURE 4.15.5PARAPET IMPACTFIGURE 4.15.6PARAPET IMPACT ANGLE6050CDo? 30oa ?g210I! i i i i r i i ( M T I TFIGURE 4.15.7NOMINAL IMPACT FORCE { kN }PARAPET IMPACTFORCE

4.16 STOKMWATER DRAINAGE7.4.16(November, 1983)4.16.1 generalStormwater drainage installations have oftengiven trouble* The main reasons have been(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)small diameter pipes, which havebecome blocked}changes of direction in pipe runs,which have become blocked;inadequate provision for clearingblockages; andthin-walled pipes broken by pressureof wet concrete, or incompletely sealedpipe joints through which cement grouthas entered during construction, so thatpipes have been blocked permanentlybefore they have ever functioned.In addition f intakes and outlets have often performeddi sappo intingly.To avoid future trouble, the followingprecautions should be observed*4*16.2 Pipes andpipe layout4.16*2*1 Minimum diameterDrain pipes less than 150 mm in diameterbecome blocked very easily. Only pipes of 150 mmor more should be used for stormwater drainageinstallations.4.16.2*2 MaterialDrain pipes should normally be of rigid orunplasticized PVC, unless some good reason makes theuse of an alternative material desirable. PVC drainpipes are light, easy to instal and cheap* They havegood flow characteristics* A wide range of specialfittings is available* Damage is easy to repair, andP7C does not corrode or otherwise deteriorate underconditions normally associated with highway structuresand railway bridges* PVG drain pipes should complywith BS 4660, JIS K-6741, or a comparable acceptablenational standard, and have dimensions similar tothose given in Table 4.16.1.


?.4»l6«2*2(Cont*d)(November, 1983)Joints in PVC drain pipes may takethe form of either(i)(ii)elastomer^c sealing ring jointassemblies, orsolvent welded joint assemblies*4-16.2.3 LayoutDrainage layouts should be consideredat the preliminary design stage so that a suitablescheme for an inconspicuous pipe layout can beworked out and incorporated in the design from thestart* All general arrangement drawings shouldinclude drainage proposals®Drain pipes should be installed with asfew chaisges of direction as possible. Where changesof direction are unavoidable, an inspection chamber,inspection cover, rodding eye or other means ofaccess should be provided so that a blockage can becleared easily if one occurs*The effect of this requirement isvirtually to prohibit the use of bends, whichshould be used only where a change of directioncannot be accomplished by other means, and thenonly with easily replaceable external pipework.Snail changes in direction may often beachieved by using pipes with elastorneric sealing ringjoint assemblies*Pipework is often constructed inside superstructuresand columns on the grounds that beingintrinsically inelegant it spoils the appearanceof any structure to which it is attached. Such internalpipework is, however,(a) liable to damage duringconstruction;(b) difficult to ublock if it becomesblocked in service; and(c) impossible to alter if operationalrequirements change,Erternal pipework should accordingly be used asnormal practice, unless some particular reasonmakes internal pipework desirable. If any internalpipework is used, particular care should be takento provide comprehensive rodding access.

Because PVC pipework is light,internal pipework can easily "be displaced ordamaged during concreting, when cement grout orconcrete can enter and "block the pipe permanentlyso that it never functions* ibr this reason,particular care should be taken to ensure that PVCpipework to be cast into concrete is firmly andrigidly fixed within the formwork before concretingstarts*4*16.3 Movement^ ^ joints*3 (Cont'd)! 1983)As a general principle f pipework should avoidmovement joints or cress them without physical connection*Hhere pipework crosses a movement joint,provision must be made for the pipe to move in sympathywith the structure*Horizontal or near^horizontal pipework crossinga movement joint may be connected by a sleeved or flexibleconnection across the joint*Vertical | or neaiwertical , pipework crossingfrom a deck to a column may also be connected by meansof a flexible connection. Preferably the pipe should bebroken, with the upper pipe discharging into a hopperhead at the top of the column downpipe big enough toaccommodate both the anticipated discharge and theanticipated movements* Flexible connections areunlikely to last as long as the rest of the structure,and must therefore be accessible and replaceable, ifused. Their short life makes their use undesirable,they should be avoided as far as possible.

¥.4*16*4(Jfovember* 1983)vf' yCity Services Department strongly recommendsthat all new stormwater intakes on highway -structuresshould be provided with sumps f which can be cleanedquickly and effectively by mechanical means* Previousstunpless designs have proved difficult to clean f withthe result that pipework leading from them has becomeblocked, causing troublesome overflows during storms.Stormwater intakes should accordingly beprovided with sumps at least 400 mm deep in future*This requirement will often imply a greater constructiondepth than would be required from purely structuralconsiderations | and may necessitate the provision offascias and string courses to screen or disguise drainageinstallations*With short structures f stormwater intakescan usually be located in the approaches* thusavoiding the need to provide sufficient constructiondepth for sumps*Stomwater intakes should have a grating inthe plane of the carriageway and a side inlet overflowweir behind it, so that if the horizontal grating isblocked by plastic bags the vertical inlet can stilloperate*Sags on viaducts are prone to flooding whenintakes are blocked by rubbish carried to them bystormwater* Emergency outlets should accordingly beprovided at all sags to discharge floodwater reliably,oven if inconveniently f under such conditions*4.16*5 OutletsStructural drainage systems should dischargeatmospherically from an above-ground outlet into ahopper with a grated cover leading to a nearby stormwaterdrain,Outlets discharging underground directly intoa manhole or drain are very prone to blockages and shouldnot be used,

V.4.17Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17 AESTHETICS4.17.1 GeneralWe are all influenced to a greater or lesser extent by thevisual quality of our surroundings. Bridges and similar structuresare usually large artefacts with long service lives and situated wherethey are regularly seen by many people. Good appearance is thereforea functional requirement for such structures.Good appearance is not simply a matter of elegance in thestructure itself, however, since it will finally be viewed as anelement in a broader scene and will look well only if it isappropriate to its setting. The total harmony of the structure withits setting is fundamental to all good design.The effects that the construction of a structure and itssubsequent usage might have on the local environment should also beconsidered and steps should be taken at the design stage to ensurethat any changes brought about are the most fitting that can bedevised in the circumstances.Formerly, bridges were largely built of materials strong incompression but relatively weak in tension. They tended to be verystable visually because they were perceived to be built from theground up. The introduction of steel and both reinforced andprestressed concrete, although greatly increasing the opportunitiesfor innovative designs, has at the same time increased the scope fordesigns that are visually unsatisfactory. The need has accordinglyincreased for engineers to acquaint themselves thoroughly with theaesthetics of structures, and to apply the principles involved withthe same care and diligence normally devoted to the engineeringaspects of design.The appearance of a bridge or other engineering structure inits proposed final setting should be carefully considered at thepreliminary design stage, when sufficient drawings and other visualaids should be prepared to enable the designer himself to appreciatethe complete visual composition. The design should be developed, withthe assistance of aids such as simple models and photo-montagetechniques, until a satisfactory appearance is confirmed.

V.4.17.2Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.2 PrinciplesCertain concepts and considerations are generally acceptedas fundamental in assessing the appearance of a structure such as abridge. The inter-relationship between these concepts andconsiderations is illustrated by the word-diagram given in Figure4.17.1.The terms used in this word-diagram represent a basiclanguage of visual aesthetics. They must be properly understood ifthe appearance of designs is to be adequately considered anddiscussed.Note that FORM and PROPORTION are shown directly above eachother in the Figure because they cat* define any basic object which, inpure isolation, need not involve HARMONY or SCALE. These latter termsare also natural partners in that they are both concerned with thedialogue or relationship between several things. The other items inthe word-diagram, in lower case lettering, represent some of the moreimportant considerations which derive from or influence the four mainfactors, more or less according to their proximity on theword-diagram.Some aspects of these topics are briefly discussed in thefollowing paragraphs with particular reference to highway structures.4.17.3 FormForm, which is defined in the Concise Oxford Dictionary as11shape, arrangement of parts, visible aspect ", may beconsidered as "broadly perceived shape. 11 It is thus the essentialfactor affecting the appearance of all structures and of paramountimportance in determining whether a structure will grace or spoil itssetting.Traditional bridge forms include beam, arch and cable as theprincipal structural modes. These are illustrated in figures 4.17.2,4.17.3 and 4.17.4. There are many variations of these basic forms,such as girders, trusses, cantilevers, towers and so on, embracing awhole range of shapes. For long structures, horizontal and verticalcurvatures add further dimensions to the total impression of form.The choice of form is an essential prelude to any design,and should be seen to be appropriate to the function and situation ofthe structure. The form chosen will depend on whether the structurecrosses a waterway, a road or a valley, and where its supports can beeconomically founded, among other factors.Particular aspects of form are discussed in relation to"expression of function 11 and other associated terms below.

HARMONYexpression offunctionvisual stabilitytexture, colourlight and shadeillusionrhymerhythmPROPORTION'SCALEroFIGURE 4.17.1AESTHETIC CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONStoooUich-1VJ

Amendments No. V-2/85 ( July )FIGURE 4.17.2Simple beam bridgeFIGURE 4.17.3Arch bridge overChatham Road carryingFai Kwong StreetFIGURE 4.17.4Cable-stayed footbridgeover Cotton Tree Drive

V.4.17.4Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.4 Propor t ionProportion may be defined as the scheme of dimensionalratios that will produce a desirable form or assembly of associatedforms.The proportions of a structure strongly influence itscharacter. For example, exaggerated height, as in churcharchitecture, can induce an air of reverence or awe. There are,however, limits to the range of acceptable distortions, and certaindimensional ratios are widely accepted as being more pleasing thanothers.The celebrated "golden ratio 11 A:B = B:(A+B) (that is1:1.618) is a rectangular ratio known for its pleasing effect. It hasbeen widely used to define the proportions of anything from windows towhole buildings. Unfortunately, such simple ratios have littlerelevance to more complex arrangements of shapes, and good design cannever result solely from the application of mathematical formulaewithout the influence of a creative imagination and a sensitive feelfor what is good.ratios ofThe principal proportions of a bridge are governedpier height to spanwidth to spansuperstructure depth to span,by theusing the dimensions shown in Figure 4.17.5.In the final analysis the designer must acquaint himself with theeffect on proportion of varying these ratios by personal observation.Constant careful observation of things that look right or wrong in theeveryday scene is the real key to good judgement in such matters.Where there is an 'assembly of associated forms 1 , proportionis * as much concerned with appropriate relationships between them aswith their individual proportions. A poorly proportioned structuremay have components which appear too light or too heavy for theirapparent role, leading to suggestions of structural deficiency,imbalance or lack of stability. Typically such errors result fromreliance upon two-dimensional drawings only. For example, a sectionthrough a typical column and deck will give a completely differentimpression of proportion to the real thing, as may be seen in Figure4.17.6, where the great area of the underside of the bridge is moreapparent as perspective comes into play.The total configuration of a three-dimensional object, suchas a bridge, is difficult if not impossible to appreciate from twodimensional drawings and the use of scale models to verify initialconcepts is a virtual necessity for all but the simplest of designs.Perspective effects can be imitated with the use of simple miniperiscopedevices made from cardboard tubes and mirrors if desired.



V.4.17.5Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.5 HarmonyA harmonious relationship exists between a number of thingswhen they complement each other so that their combined effect is morepleasing than their separate contributions.The achievement of harmony in adding a structure to alandscape or townscape would at first sight seem to be complicatedbecause of the interplay of diverse shapes and colours in thesurroundings, many of which are beyond the control of the bridgedesigner. The problem is simplified, however, if only the moresignificant scenic elements are considered and if the number of novelfeatures is kept to a manageable minimum by repeating selected shapes,colours or textures already present in the scene.A structure should present a stable, simple and elegantappearance harmonising with the surrounding landscape or townscape.This means that there must be no discordant features and some, atleast, of the structure's attributes, such as form, rhythm and colour,should blend in a positive way with corresponding importantcharacteristics in the surroundings.Harmony is less easily illustrated than its opposite,discord. Discord is shown in Figure 4.17.7 depicting the footbridgeacross Queen's Road East near Wah Yan College. This footbridge wasdesigned to re-use steel sections from a temporary flyover, and inconsequence its components are inappropriately sized and awkwardlyshaped. The surrounding area contains public buildings and woodedslopes, in which the footbridge constitutes a very discordantelement. The footbridge was designed for cheapness, and indeed costvery much less than the original estimate, but its appearance is notin harmony with its surroundings.FIGURE 4.17.7 Footbridge across Queen's Road East nearWah Yan College.

V.4.17.6Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.6 ScaleThe quality of scale has been described as one of the mostpotent tools in the art of juxtaposition of scenic elements. Scaleis, of course, concerned with size relationships, but in terms ofvisual effect, it also has much to do with relative extravagance orexaggeration in the choice of dimensional detail.For example, a retaining wall with its surface subdividedinto large, bold panels will suggest a larger 'scale* than asimilar sized wall with a more discreet texture as shown in Figure4.17.8; similarly, although the size of a bridge is largely dictatedby the required deck width and span limits, considerable variations inapparent scale can be achieved by choosing solid parapets instead ofopen ones, and by selecting multiple slender columns rather thansingle massive supports.Where a large structure can be viewed as a whole, itssuccessful integration will depend very much upon its relationshipwith other scenic elements of similar scale, such as any adjacentbuilding groups, major topographical features or the road itself.Where a structure is likely to be viewed at close quarters,the scale and texture of its component parts become more important,and their relationship with correspondingly smaller local featureswill require greater attention.By virtue of its large size, a bridge will invariably be asignificant element in the scene and, more often than not, it willneed to be 'scaled down 1 if it is not to dominate its setting. Forthis reason it is frequently necessary to design urban bridges with asslender a profile as can reasonably be achieved.

Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)Texture, pattern andscale are closelyrelated.the wall shown left issmaller than thatshown in the picturebelow, but the patternof panelling is large,increasing its apparentscale.large wall but withsmall scale texture isless obtrusive than ifit were divided intolarge panels.FIGURE 4.17.8SCALE

V.4.17.7Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.7 Expression of FunctionThe whole purpose of a highway bridge is to conduct trafficover an obstacle, and this function can best be expressed by a smooth,flowing appearance. Aspects of this function are illustrated inFigure 4*17.9. Highway curvature is indeed one of the bridgedesigner's greatest allies in the achievement of appropriate visualform, when given sympathetic structural treatment. The unattractiveappearance produced by constructing a sharply curved bridge with aseries of straight beams may be noted as an example of the oppositeeffect, illustrated in Figure 4.17.10.In general, function should be clearly expressed usingminimum means, for example as shown in Figure 4.17.11. However, tomodify or even disguise purely functional details or proportions whereappearances are thereby improved is quite proper, provided this doesnot lead to confusion or contradiction in the overall structuralstatement. Functional details such as bearings and joints cansometimes be concealed with advantage, and dimensions derived frompurely structural considerations can be adjusted to improve line andproportion.In principle, there should be no contradiction betweenexternal form and internal function. Each part of a structure shouldbe seen to be clearly capable of fulfilling its apparent role even ifits form is modified by other considerations. For example, a columnwhich derives its stability entirely by fixity at the base should notbe designed with a narrow base and excessive flare towards the top, asthis would apparently contradict its function. However, provided thecolumn base is given reasonably robust dimensions to expresssufficient fixity at that level there would be no objection to anincrease in width towards the top, particularly where thismodification is utilised for the better positioning of bearings.Figure 4.17.12 illustrates these points.


Amendments No.V-2/85 ( July )FIGURE 4.17.10VANDALIZED FORMPOOR EXPRESSION OF FUNCTIONCurvature is one of the bridgedesigner's best allies. Todestroy curvature for thesake of easy design is toseriously compromise theachievement.FIGURE 4.17.11EXPRESSION OF FUNCTIONPLACE OF DESCENTThe tilted wall indicatesthis is a place to descendinto the pedestrian subway


V.4.17.8Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.8 Visual StabilityFor visual stability, particularly when viewed from apassing vehicle, a bridge requires a sufficient measure ofverticality. The apparent inclination of sloping supports may changefrom different angles of view, giving the impression that decks areslipping off, or piers falling over, as the observer travels by.Other inclined members can intensify the effect. Even when viewedfrom a static viewpoint, trapezoidal supports used on a long curvingbridge can give the impression of varying in shape or tilting atdifferent angles. This effect is illustrated in Figure 4.17.13.Inclined members are not inherently visually unstable, but designersmust be aware of the visually unpleasant possibilities attendant ontheir use.An even number of superstructure modules is often held togive rise to what is known as unresolved duality, which is akin tovisual instability in that such arrangements tend to lack composureand unity, as illustrated in Figure 4.17.14. In a twin-arched bridge,for instance, the eye will wobble from one centre-line to the other,so that a feeling of restlessness is produced.Another unhappy effect is produced when a central piercoincides with the highest point of a bridge superstructure, so thatthe deck seems to droop away from that point, as illustrated inFigures 4.17.15 and 4.17.16. The effect is not only of loss of unitybut is also similar to placing a column under the mid-point of anarch, which is self-supporting, and therefore associated withcontradiction of function. There is an evident need for a structureto look not only stable, but also reasonably logical if it is toplease the eye.




¥.4*194.19 EEPEfiENCES (November ,1983)1. Clause 4*2.6Lau, R* Seismicity of Hong Kong* TechnicalMote No* 33® Royal Observatory, Bong Kong*1972.2. Clause 4*2*4Peterson, P* Extreme temperatures in Hong Kong*Technical Mote Nb« 22© loyal Observatory,Hong Kong* June 1976®3* Clause 4*2*12Tung, H.S*S* and Wong, K.W*4. Appendix 4*2*24*1 Salmon, E.H.4*2 Warburton, G*B«Shatin Race course footbridge and theproposed design of footbridge supports*Bong Kong Engineer* Hong Kong. March 1983*Materials and Structures 9 Chapter XIElastic vibrations and critical speeds*Longmans, Green* London, 1946*The Dynamical Behaviour of Structures*Pergamon Press* Oxford, 1964*4*3 Csagoly, P*P* f Campbell, T.I* and Agarwal, A.C* Bridge4*4 Blevins, Robert D.4.5 Thomson, William T*4*6 Leonard, D*R*Vibration Study* Eeport No. RR 181*Ministr3^ of Transportation andCommunications, Ontario, Canada, 1972*Bbrmulas for Natural Frequency and lodeShape. Van Nostrsusd, Reinhold. 1979«Theory of Vibration with Applications*Prentice, Hall* 1972*Human Tolerance Levels for BridgeVibrations* Road Research LaboratoryReport 34* Crowthorne, 1966*

¥.4*19*4.7(November^ 983)4.7 Blanchard t J* f Davis f B*L* f an! Smith s J*W«Design Criteria and Analysis forDynamic Loading of Bridges. Symposiumon Itynamic Behaviour of Bridges. 1977*4.8 Timoshenko, S. and Young f D*H* VibrationProblems in Engineering4*9 Fryba, L.Clause 4*4*2Bowman, S.A«W*McGraw ? Hill. New York. 1955.Vibration of Solids and Structurestonder Moving Loads. MoordhoffInternational Publishing* 1972.Movement of concrete.Hong Kong. July 1980.Hong Kong Engineer*6. Clause 4.4.2*4Chai, John S.V.7. Clause 4.4*205Concrete Society.8. Clause 4«4*3Harrison, T.H.Investigation into shrinkage and creepof concrete in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Engineer.Hong Kong. tfevember 1980*The creep of structural concrete*Technical Paper No. 101. London. 1974*Early-age thermal crack control in concrete*CIRIA Report 91. Construction IndustryResearch and Infoimation Association*London* 1981*

Clause 4*4*4Catchick, B.K,V*4«19»9(November,1983)Prestress analysis for continuous beams}some developments in the equivalentload, method* The Structural Engineer*London* June 1978* - AddendumThe Structural Engineer* London*December 1979*10. Clause 4*11*110.1 Lee, D*J*10*2 Ministry of Transport11. Section 4*12The theory and practice of bearingsand expansion joints for bridges* Cementand Concrete Association. London* 1971 •Technical Memorandum (Bridges) Ho* BE 6*Expansion joints for use in highway bridgedecks* London* 1967*11.1 P«W*D« Conference* Serial P*W.D*C* 1205 -The Provision of Goers for PedestrianBridges and Elevated Walkways includingany approach steps and/or ramps* PublicWorks Department, Hong Kong* 16th February1978* Restricted*11*2 P«W*D. Conference* Serial P*W.D.C* 1423-Provision of Covers for fbotbridges*Public Works Department, Hong Kong.2nd November 1978. Restricted*11»3 Department of Transport* Departmental StandardTD/2/78* Pedestrian Subways i Layout andDimensions* Department of Transport,London* July 1978*11*4 Public Works Departmental Technical Circular Mb* 3/79Provision of Covers for Jbotbridges*Public Works Department f Hong Kong*16th February 1979*11*5 Traffic and Transport Survey Division Data RecordWarrants for Escalators at PedestriansSbotbridges* Transport Department, Hong Kong*March 1983.

12* Clause 4*13*3V.4*19*12(November, 1983)Bowman 9 S*A«W*13* Clause 4«13*4Estimation of downdrag forces onendbearing piles under Hong Kongconditions. Hong Kong Engineer*Hong Kong. September 19?8»Hong Kong Institution of Engineers14* Clause 4.13*613*1 Bradley j Joseph N,13*2 Leslie, J»A*15" Appendix 4*13*2Guidance notes on hairUdug caissons*Hong Kong, April 1981*Hydraulics of bridge waterways*U*S* Department of Transport at ion«Bridge Piers - Design for Protectionagainst Ship Collision* Paper deliveredat Conference on Concrete Bridges*Singapore* August 1982*15*1 Davisson, M.T. and Bbbinson, K*E*15*2 Tomlinson, M*T*15*3 Borrns, B»Bending and buckling of partiallyembedded piles*Pile design and construction practice,Viewpoint Publications. Cement andConcrete Association*The lateral resistance of piles incohesionless soils* Journal of theSoil Mechanics Division, Am* Soc* C*E.,Yol 90, Ho* SM3. May, 1964*

15*4 GENESIS (November, 1983)15.5 IGL 2900 SeriesPile program 3D/1*Erame analysis programs*15.6 Reese, L*C* and Matlock f H*15.7 Poulos, H*G*Hbrsf-dimensional solutions for laterallyloadedpiles with soil modulus assumedproportional to depth® Proc* 8th TexasConf* on Soil Mechanics and IbundationEngineering* Austin f Texas* 195^*Behaviour of laterally-loaded pilesI - singleII - pile groupsIII — socketted piles15*8 Poulos, H*G, aiad Davis 9 E»H*15*9 Meyerhof, G,Q.Pile foundation analysis and design*Bearing capacity and settlement ofpile foundations*15*10 Building (Construction) Regulations 1975* Bong Kong*15»11 jftmerican Society of Civil Engineers*Rock engineering for foundations sound slopes*15*12 Department of Transport* Program PGBDUP HEGB/B/7*Suite of Bridge Design and AnalysisPrograms* Highway Engineering ComputerBranch* London*.15*13 Endicott, L*J*16* Section 4»15Site Investigation for Underground Construction*Proc, Conference on Mass Transportation inAsia* Hong Kong* 1980*Department of Transport* Technical Memorandtam (Bridges)Kb. BE 5* Technical Memorandum on theDesign of Highway Bridge Parapets* London*1982*

17« Clause 4.15*6V*4*19*17(Kbvember, 1983)17.1 Highways Office, Structural Design Division*Design Iota STR 3. The Design ofCantilever Slabs for Highway Structures®Hong Kong* February 1978®17.2 Ghai, J«S«V* and Bownan, S*A*W«18* Section 4*17The Design of Concrete Bridge Parapets©Hong Kong Engineer* Hong Kong*January 1983*18*1 Ministry of Transport* The Appearance of Bridges,edition* HMSO f London* 1969«18*2 Allan, B,J«18*3 Murray, J*Some notes on significance of form in "bridgeengineering* Proc« ICE, Part 1 y Volume 60.London* February 1976* -Discussion*Proc* ICE, Part 1 , Volume 60* London*August 1976*Visual aspects of mot orway "bridges*Proc* IECj Part 1 f Volume 70* London*November 1981* - Discussion* Proc* ICE,Part 1, Volume 72* London* November 1982*18*4 Cement and Concrete Association* The appearance ofconcrete highway structures* C« and C.A*London.18*5 State of California, Department of Transportation,Bridge Department* Manual of Bridge DesignPractice, 3rd edition - Aesthetics inBridge Design*18*6 Potyondy, Julius G*Aesthetic Problems in ContemporaryConcrete Bridge Design, Paper SP23-2,ELrst International Symposium onConcrete Bridge Design* AmericanConcrete Institute* Detroit*

V.4.19.18Amendment No. V-l/92 (Jan.)18. Section 4.17 (Cont n d)18.7 G. Cullen. Townscape. The Architectural Press.18.8 R.M. Tiller. Concrete Footbridges. C. & C.A.18.9 M. Gage. Guide to Exposd Concrete Finishes.The Architectural Press.18.10 Tiller & Ward. Concrete Finishes for HighwayStructures.C. & C.A.18.11 Fritz Leonhardt. Bridges : Aesthetics and Design.The Architectural Press : London. 1983.18.12 ICE. The Aesthetic Aspect of Civil EngineeringDesign.London 1945.19. Clause 4.219.1 Department of TransportDepartmental Standard BD 37/88 : Loads for HighwayBridges. August 1989.19.2 Flint & Neill PartnershipReport on proposed Highway Bridge Vehicular DesignLoading, Wind Loading and Temperature Effects forHong Kong. December 1990.19.3 Flint & Neill PartnershipHighway Bridge Thermal Loading in Hong Kong -Final Report. August 1991.19.4 A.M. Elliott and N.J. Cherry.Aerodynamic Loads on Covered Footbridges*British Maritime Technology. February 1989.19.5 A.M. Elliott and N.J. Cherry.An Addendum to Aerodynamic Load on CoveredFootbridges.British Maritime Technology. October 1989.19.6 A.M. Elliott and N.J. Cherry.Aerodynamic Loads on covered Footbridges -Duo-pitch Roof Geometries.British Maritime Technology. May 1990.

V.4.17.9Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.9 Rhythm and RhymeRhythm is concerned with the organisation of repetitivefeatures, which should as far as possible be both uniform and simple.Repetitive features should also relate to other rhythmic details inthe vicinity. Thus the spans of a viaduct or multi-span bridge shouldbe equal, or follow a constant rhythmic pattern such as a constantspan-to-height ratio. If, as often happens, a road viaduct follows asimilar route to a railway viaduct, the appearance of both will beenhanced if the later structure follows the span rhythm of theearlier.A common arrangement, occurring locally at both Ap Lei ChauBridge, shown in Figure 4.17.18, and the Taipa crossing at Macau, isfor a number of short approach spans to lead up to a single longernavigation span, usually with shorter anchor spans on each side. Suchan arrangement rarely presents a satisfactory appearance because thenavigation span is long enough to break the structure's rhythm withoutbeing big enough to dominate the whole concept.The illustration of "Rhythm 11 in Figure 4.17.17 represents a19th century railway viaduct, many of which, no doubt because ofconstruction methods current at the time, presented a verysatisfactory rhythmic appearance. Good rhythm has also been achievedat the Island Eastern Corridor, illustrated in Figure 4.17.19, wherein spite of varying span lengths, the use of strong, skilful detailinghas resulted in a satisfying appearance.Rhyme, or "likeness tempered with difference 1 ' requires thatclosely related repetitive forms should be compatible. Theillustration of "Rhyme" in Figure 4.17.17 is an idealised Romanaqueduct, with the arches of the higher tiers sub-dividing regularlythe arch spans of the lower tiers, and thus visually "rhyming" withthem. A common fault with inexperienced designers is to overlook theneed for rhyming so that, say, the columns of a footbridge roof do not"rhyme" (that is, follow a span multiple) with the columns of the mainstructure, or the posts of the parapet railings do not "rhyme" withthe roof columns.Neglect of proper rhythm and rhyme makes an irregular,confused impression on the observer who feels instinctively thatanything so ill-organised as the structure he is observing cannotperform effectively. Conversely the orderly appearance of arhythmically designed structure, whose components rhyme in disciplinedfashion, conveys a comforting impression of strength and efficiency. No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.10 Light and ShadeThe proportions of edge-beams, cantilevers and parapetsshould be chosen so that the shadows thrown by them onto thestructural elements below emphasize the form of the structure, and donot cause either the structural elements or the shadows themselves toappear disjointed or mis-shapen.The valuable contrasting effect of light and shade tends tobe less pronounced in Hong Kong than in higher latitudes where shadowsare longer and there is a lower relative intensity of reflectedlight. The use of white cement or different textures may sometimes beappropriate to give equivalent emphasis.4.17.11 TextureSurface texture can have a significant effect on appearancesand should always be carefully selected. Different textures may beused in combination on the same structure in order to modify apparentproportions, to provide contrast and interest, or to emphasize thedifferent roles of structural components such as abutments andsuperstructure as shown in Figure 4.17.20.Large areas of smooth, fair-faced concrete should be avoidedsince such areas are not only difficult to form without blemishes, butalso tend to emphasize rather than conceal any minor defects.Furthermore they weather badly. Such surfaces could instead by madeless insipid by treating them with grooving (strategically planned tocoincide with construction joints if present), ribbing or texturing.Broken-ribbing has the advantage of making graffiti-writingand bill-posting difficult; simple off-the-form ribbing is cheap andrelatively effective in many situations; bush-hammering is suitablefor relatively narrow surfaces, such as parapets, but is expensiveand sensitive to concrete defects; exposed aggregate textures, whetherby wash-and-brush or sand-blasting techniques require careful controlof concrete quality and aggregate content for uniformity, and are bestif used on precast cladding panels rather than on large cast-in-placeareas. Special mould linings in rubber or other materials can giveinteresting results. The weathering of textured surfaces and theaction of rain washing dust over surfaces, or of fungi growing on dampareas, will have a great influence on long term appearances and mustbe carefully considered in relation to each unique situation.Concrete textures can rarely be forecast accurately at thedrawing board, and the designer should always consider the need forcontrolled pre-construction experiments on site (not merely fixedsamples for approval) so that he can vary the precise specification toachieve the most suitable results by trial and error, pavingparticular attention to techniques at joints and corners.


Amendments No. V-2/85(July)FIGURE 4.17.18Ap Lei Chau Bridgepoor rhythmFIGURE 4.17.19Island Eastern Corridorviaduct-good rhythmFIGURE 4.17.20TEXTUREVarious textures addvisual interest, can helpto define differentfunctional elementssuch as the smoothdeck,rugged abutmentshown here.

V. 4.17.12Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)4.17.12 ColourWhatever the original appearance of OPC concrete, and atearly ages it can be startlingly bright, it weathers quite quickly toa relatively unobtrusive tone. Since being unobtrusive helps to makea bridge visually acceptable, under normal circumstances structuralconcrete should not be coloured, either by painting or by the use ofintegral pigments. This has t the added benefit of avoiding anunnecessary maintenance commitment.There is rather more justification for the use of colours onfootbridges, particularly where they are roofed or where they areentirely or largely made of steel. Subdued colours, chosen to blendwith the surroundings, are generally best and this is particularly soin rural settings. Different tones of the same basic colour can beused with advantage to clarify form, perhaps for example by definingthe main structure in one colour and non-structural railings inanother.Bright colours are occasionally suitable in locations suchas sombre urban areas, and playgrounds or schools. In such cases,strong colours such as yellows and reds may be used. Otherwise thetemptation to use bright colours should be resisted. The idea thatgreen is a natural colour corresponding to vegetation is an assumptionto be treated with caution because of the wide range of hues and tintsavailable, many of which are unpleasantly obtrusive in the presence ofnatural vegetation. This particularly applies to green paint with toomuch blue in it, because natural greens seldom contain much blue (withsome notable exceptions among the conifers and eucalypts for example).Where an unobtrusive green is required to blend withvegetation, one of the green-yellow hues such as 12C39, 10C35, 10D45or 12D45 of BS5252F is likely to prove acceptable.4.17.13 IllusionIllusion can interfere with visual perception and, if thedesigner is to avoid unexpected distortions in the appearance of hisstructures, he must study these effects and plan to overcome them.Illusion is perhaps the greatest obstacle to the formation of preciserules of proportion, and is one of the main considerations dictatingthe need to examine scale models of intended structures.The solution often lies in what may be termed'counter-illusion 1 , which is the deliberate distortion of form tooppose anticipated adverse effects caused by the primary illusion.For example, a well known illusion is that long horizontal spansappear to sag, and the necessary counter-illusion is created by givingthe span a deliberate upward camber. Figures 4.17.15 and 4.17.16 showanother illusion of apparent sag. Vertical walls often appear to leanoutwards at the top, and they can be given a slight batter to offsetthis illusion. Such measures are legitimate architectural devices :the purpose of the entasis or swelling on classical columns is tocounter the illusion of narrowing which tends to occur near mid-heightin a row of parallel sided shafts under certain lighting conditions.On a simuler note, a subway set at a gradient and emergingthrough an angled headwall will appear to have a distorted profile and

V.4.17.13 (Cont'd)Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)the solution is to level off before the exit or use a strictlyperpendicular head-wall.The designer should be aware of illusion, either to exploitor counteract its effects in the interests of good design.4.17.14 Long term appearanceEvery effort should be made to ensure that attractivestructures remain so for the whole of their useful lives. This can beachieved by using durable materials which will weather well and notdeteriorate significantly with time. Less durable materials, if usedat all, should be confined to components which can be readilyreplaced.Sensible detailing to reduce the chance of subsequentspoiling of surfaces by natural staining, accidental damage ordeliberate vandalism is essential to good long-term appearance.Near-horizontal surfaces likely to gather dust in dry weather shouldbe sloped to direct wash-off away from vulnerable faces. Jointsshould be carefully designed and executed to prevent leakage, andprecautions should be taken to limit any staining which might ensueif, despite these precautions, leakage should occur. Figures 4.17.21and 4,17.22 show some examples of the effect of good and bad detailingon long-term appearance.Finally, of course, the initial and long term appearance ofstructures will be greatly enhanced by, and is indeed largelydependent upon, sound, carefully supervised construction practice anda systematic programme of regular maintenance thereafter.4.17.15 The Advisory Committee on the Appearance ofBridges andAssociated Structures (ACABAS)The ACABAS has been set up to enquire into the visualmerits, general amenity value and related environmental factors of allproposals to construct bridges and associated structures over, under,on or adjacent to public roads in the Territory.The designs of all such structures should be approved byACABAS before construction. Submissions to ACABAS should as far aspossible be made at the preliminary design stage, to avoid effortbeing wasted on the detailed design of an unsatisfactory concept.Full details of ACABAS, including its terms of reference andits membership are given in Lands and Works Branch Technical CircularNo. 7/84, which is reproduced in Appendix 4.17.1Experience since promulgation of the circular has shown thatphoto-montages are very effective for illustrating the finalappearance of a bridge in relation to its surroundings. ThereforeACABAS now accepts appropriate photo-montages instead of perspectiveviews or models as required by the circular.When repairs or alterations are proposed that willsignificantly affect the appearance of an existing bridge orassociated structure, details of the proposal should be submitted toACABAS for approval prior to implementation.

Amendments No. V-2/85 { July)FIGURE A.17.21LONG TERM APPEARANCEWASH-WATER STAINING• drip-lines interruptedat higher level• no drip-lines at soffit>W//y/y/^^/ /'/ /1^nz: «...NOWIDEAL• support hammer-headswith no drip forms.• leak jointsNOW//////////////////IDEAL• drip groove too small• leaky jointsr—larger dripprecautionarydrip-lineSOLUTION

Amendments No. V-2/85 ( July )FIGURE 4.17.22LONG TERM APPEARANCE•note uniform depth andgood continuity ofparapet line frombridge, on along topof abutment wall,enhanced by shadow• effective planting helpsto 'soften' hard structure• good joint / pier /dripjunction to minimizerisk of staining.• good line of parapet,not interrupted byshallow pier.PATH OFWASH'WATERbelow :-• vertical pier interfereswith line of parapet.• risk of staining on pierdue to interruption of drip.PREFERRED

V.4Appendix 4.17.1 - p.lAmendments No. V-2/85 (July)IntroductionTHE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE APPEARANCE OFBRIDGES AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES(Reproduced from LWB Technical Circular No. 7/84)1.1 The appearance of bridges and associated structuresfrom time to time arouses public criticism.1.2 Most designers under normal circumstances produceorderly and disciplined designs that are at leastunobtrusive and inoffensive. Occasionally, usually asthe result of inexperience leading a designer toconsider the engineering aspects of his design to theexclusion of its finished appearance, an ugly orobtrusive bridge is produced. This is often becausethe design has not been considered critically from thepoint of view of appearance at an early enough stage.1.3 The Advisory Committee on the Appearance of Bridges andAssociated Structures (ACABAS) has been set up with thepurpose of ensuring that such designs do not escapecritical examination until too late.1.4 The existence of ACABAS is expected to increase theimportance of final appearance as a criterion fordesign, and is intended also to stimulate interest inthe appearance of bridges.Scope of ACABAS2.1 The activities of ACABAS are intended to be directedprimarily towards bridges and other structuresassociated with the public highway system. The adviceof ACABAS may, however, be sought on any bridge orassociated structure which will be exposed to thepublic view.

V.4Appendix 4.17.1 - p.2Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)2.2 Responsibility for the public highway system liesultimately with the Director of EngineeringDevelopment, to whom ACABAS is accordinglyresponsible. However, other Departments of the Landsand Works Group contribute bridges and associatedstructures to the public highway system from time totime as well, and should obtain the approval of ACABASbefore their designs are implemented.2.3 Private and quasi-Government bodies also from time totime need to construct bridges and associatedstructures crossing or connecting to the public highwaysystem. The granting of approval for such proposalsshould be made conditional on the approval of ACABASbeing obtained for any such proposal before it isimplemented.2.4 Any irreconcilable disagreement arising between ACABASand a designer should be referred initially to DED forarbitration. If DED should feel unable to arbitrateany such disagreement, or if the Department or otherbody responsible for a project over which any suchdisagreement has arisen should so request, thedisagreement should be referred to Lands and WorksConference for a ruling.3. Terms of Reference3.1 The terms of reference of ACABAS are(1) To enquire into the visual merits, general amenityvalue and related environmental factors of allproposals for bridges and associated structuresover, under on or adjacent to public roads in theTerritory.(2) To advise DED on standards to be applied andprocedures to be adopted to encourage anappropriately high level of aesthetic quality inthe design of bridges and associated structuresand to promulgate general guidance on suchmatters.(3) To receive and scrutinise individual proposals atthe preliminary design stage, to advise designersof their acceptability or otherwise and to makerecommendation as deemed necessary.

V.4Appendix 4.17.1 - p.3Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)(4) To refer to BED proposals where 9 afterconsideration by ACABAS, disagreement is found tobe irreconcilable either- in principle, because for instance a design islikely to result in disproportionate damage tosensitive historic, scenic, ecological or otherenvironmental features, or- in detail, because for instance the proposedlayout, style or surface finishes are consideredto be inappropriate,provided that, should DED feel unable toarbitrate, or should the Department or other bodyresponsible for the proposals so request, suchdisagreement may be referred to Lands and WorksConference for a decision.4-- Membership4.1 The regular membership of ACABAS will consist ofChairman : One of the Government Highway Engineers, EDDMembers: One representative each from(a)(b).Architectural Office, BDD;New Territories Development Department;(c) Highways/Structural Design Division,EDD.Secretary: One of the Landscape Architects of theHighways Office Landscape Unit, EDD.4.2 If necessary, other members may be co-opted to serve onACABAS, on either a temporary or a permanent basis.5. Submissions to ACABAS5.1 The designs of all bridges and other structuresassociated with the public highway system should beapproved by ACABAS before construction.5.2 Submissions to obtain the approval of ACABAS should asfar as possible be made at the preliminary designstage, to avoid effort being wasted on the detaileddesign of an unsatisfactory concept.

V.4Appendix 4.17.1 - p.4Amendments No. V-2/85 (July)5.3 Submissions should include a general arrangementdrawing with elevations of all parts that will beexposed to view, together with either a perspective oraxonometric view, or a model illustrating the form,texture and colour treatment of the proposedstructure. Submissions should be accompanied bycomprehensive photographs of the site, and in the caseof footbridges and subways details of anticipatedpedestrian flows should be indicated on the plans tojustify location.5.4 Meetings of ACABAS will be held as far as possible onthe second Tuesday of each month. Submissions shouldbe made to the Secretary of ACABAS at least two weeksbefore the following meeting to enable them to becirculated to members. 5 copies of each drawing to bepresented to the Committee should be forwarded to theSecretary.6. ACABAS recommendat ion6.1 The minutes of ACABAS meetings will record theconclusions reached and the recommendations made. Nofurther record will be made of approvals.6.2 When modification of a design is required before ACABASfeels able to approve it, the Secretary will write tothe Office or Division that submitted the design,stating what aspect of the design is to be modifiedand, if appropriate, asking for the design to beresubmitted after modification.6.3 If a preliminary design is considered to be broadlyacceptable, but ACABAS feels that further considerationis warranted, the Secretary will write to the Office orDivision that submitted the design, asking for workingdrawings to be submitted before construction of theproject proceeds.6.4 ACABAS may recommend the provision of hard or softlandscape elements in conjunction with the structure.6.5 ACABAS may make recommendations on the location oframps, stairways and other features dependent onpedestrian desire lines.6.6 Should the recommendations of ACABAS be unacceptable tothe designer of a project, or to his Office orDivision, and should attempts at reconciliation provevain, the matter shall treated as described in TOR 4.

4,18 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONSV*4«18(ifovember, 1983)4.18*1Various matters of greater relevanceto use in service rather than to actual designnonetheless have considerable influence on designand should accordingly be given due considerationat the design stage*4*18*2Ruming surfaces of asphalt have proveddifficult to maintain on Hong Kong highwaystructures. Rutting and fretting of the surfacehas occurred* Movement joints have caused reflectioncracking in the asphalt surface, which has thendeteriorated under traffic* Proprietary expansionjoints have given less satisfactory service wheninstalled in asphalt running surfaces than wheninstalled in concrete running surfaces*As a matter of design policy, therefore thighway structures should as far as possible bedesigned to use the structural concrete of thedeck as the running surface* At least 25 nun ofconcrete extra to purely structural retirement sshould be provided at the surface to allow for wear*Einishing of concrete decks, particularlyif they have steep gradients or crossfalls, isdifficult at any time, and finishing them to providesatisfactory running surfaces adds to the problem*Finishing is a progressive process dependent onthe rate of concrete placing and the ability ofthe setting concrete to resist the tendencyto flow downhill on gradients* Careful considerationshould be given at the design stage to possiblemethods of easily and accurately screeding deckconcrete to a smooth running surface*The use of a surface quality mix forthe top of a deck to produce a satisfactoryfinish should be considered* If the deck is 300 mmthick or less, the surfacing cjuality mix should beused for the full depth* If the deck is more than300 mm thick, then the top 100 mm should be cast ina second pour after, say 24 hours, thus avoidingthe need to change mixes during placing, and avoidingdisturbing concrete having only an initial set*

V*4*18*2 (Oontd)(ifovember, 1983)Under certain circumstances f for example,incremental construction, where finishing structuralconcrete to an acceptable running surface would beimpossibly difficult, the provision of a 100mmoverlay of surfacing quality concrete on top ofthe structural deck should be considered*Asphalt surfacing can be given a betterinitial ruiming surface than can structural concrete,and it can be used to disguise constructional featuresthat would otherwise require more careful detailing*These short-term advantages do not out weight thelong-term disadvantages of operational maintenance*However, when a comparatively short bridgeis constructed on an asphalt surfaced stretch ofroad, the asphalt surfacing should be carried overthe bridge to avoid surfacing interfaces which aredifficult to maintain* Both surfacing base course andsurfacing wearing course should always be carriedover the bridge, and the road base should preferablybe carried over as well, to minimize unevenness dueto the bridge being stiffer than the subgrade.Although proprietary expansion joints perforaibetter in a concrete running surface than in an asphaltrunning surface, their presence is always potentiallytroublesome* Construction types should accordingly bechosen so as to keep the number of proprietary expansionjoints as low as possible*4*18*3 Service life4»18*3»1 Access for inspection and maintenanceHighway structures and railway bridgesrequire regular inspection and maintenance in thecourse of their service life* Consideration shouldaccordingly be given at the design stage to thepro vision of means of access to all locations andcomponents likely to require inspection andmaintenance* Such means of access may includestep-irons, ladders, cat-walks and inspectioncovers, and should be designed to discouragemisuse by the general public*

4«18*3«2 Maintenance accommodation(November, 1983)Maintenance is easier to carry out ifworkshops and stores are available close at hand*Consideration should therefore be given at thedesign stage to the provision of suitable workshopand store accommodation* Most major structureshave approaches in which the necessary accommodationcan be quite easily provided*Each major structure should as far aspossible be provided with a workshop and a store*The workshop should have a workbench with metalworkingand wood-working vices, a sink with awater supply, a W.C* and an electricity supply forpower and lighting* The store should have lighting,shelving and racks ? and should be separated fromthe workshop by a lockable door* Access to theworkshop should be by means of a 2000 mm by 2000 mmopening with stout steel double doors secured withbolts and padlocks* Workshops and stores should besuitably ventilated*If possible f a parking bay should beprovided for use by maintenance vehicles* Precautionsshould be taken against unauthorised use of suchparking bays*4*18*3*3 Spare partsCertain components are likely to besubject to damage ori/ear during the service life of ahighway structure or railway bridge* A range ofspare parts should be provided for such componentsduring the construction stage*Examples are sections of expansion jointingand parapet railing, gully gratings, rodding eyecovers and keys, drain rods and all kinds of fixingsand fastenings*The individual circumstances of eachproject govern the scale of provision f but as aguide two each of the larger components and onedozen each of the smaller may be considered suitable*4*18*4 Safety Circuits for bridges over n^vigab^e chajtiqe]^Ships often collide with bridges overnavigable channels* The severity of damage causedby such collisions depends on the design of thebridges, but fatalities have often resulted fromvehicles falling into waterways because theirdrivers were unaware of collision damage*

Y.4.18.4(November,Bridges exposed to shipping collisions shouldbe provided with safety circuits which activate stoplights to halt passing traffic if the bridge isseriously damaged*Such "bridges are also subject to less severeblows from passing vessels which, while not severeenough to cause collapse, can result in damage thatmay not be readily apparent but nevertheless needsrepair. Secondary safety circuits capable ofdetecting and. recording such blows should be fittedto draw attention to the need for inspection andmaintenance*

v.5.1(July 77)CHAPTER 5MINOR WORKS(See also Vol*II Chapter 8)5.1 HBSURPACINGProgrammes for resurfacing of carriageways aresubject to approval "by C.E. Highways. They arecompiled in the form of Appendix 1*Improvements such as the provision of superelevationand the installation of pedestrian andvehicular aids (other than traffic signals, "bus baysand new pedestrian crossings done at the same time)may "be incorporated in the 1*0rk. However f if suchimprovements together exceed 20$ of the total cost ofthe project or $85 f OOO whichever is the less f Secretariatapproval is required*A check list to be completed by Engineers priorto an item "being included in a Resurfacing Programmeis at Appendix 2*5*2 MINOR HEGOHSTRUCTIONProgrammes for minor reconstruction work aresubject to approval by GJHUE*(W)» They are compiledin the form of Appendix !•Minor reconstruction consists of replacement ofthe road pavement from foundation upwards over sub—stantial areas (the replacement of isolated sectionsis carried out as normal maintenance work) and mayincorporate improvements such as superelevation,minor realignment, provision of central dividers andall installations in respect of pedestrian and vehi~*cular aids (except traffic signals) done at the sajnetime*Improvements may not exceed 20$ of the totalcost of the project or $85*000 whichever is the less*Reconstruction works costing over $425 t OOO mustform a separate item in the P*W*P»A check list-* to be completed by Engineers priorto an item being included in a Minor ReconstructionProgramme is at Appendix 3*

V.5.3(July 77)5.3 MINOR IMPaDVBCBNTS.Programmes for minor improvements are subject toapproval by G*H«E./T,T. Items of street widening, bus bays ftraffic islands and car parks costing between $25,000 and$200,000 should be included in the programme.Items costing (flt) over $200,000 or, (b) less than$200,000 but involving special features, must form aseparate item in the P.W. Programme.Some items require the agreement of the Commissionerfor Transport, Traffic Engineering Branch, Traffic Police,or the District Officer before submission to G*H*E./T«T.5*4 FOOTWAYSA check list is at Appendix 4«Programmes for the provision of new footways costingup to $100,000 require the approval of GJLE./T.T. Itemscosting between $100,000 and the limit for Gat* D itemsshould be included under Cat. D.A check list is at Appendix 5*

(July*??)5*5 PHEPARATION OF, MINOR WORKS PIOQHAIBgBf,5*5«1 ProcedureWhen preparing programmes of minor works f Engineers shouldperform the duties out-lined "below*(a) Make a comprehensive check on the needs of utility undertakingsf(i)(ii)(iii)for the duration of the works fduring the subsequent 5 years ffor the future®Deferment or amendment of the minor works programme may benecessary as a result*(b) Check for any related work to "be carried out in connectionwith neif drainage installations*(c) Maintain liaison i-riLth the Traffic Engineering Branch inrespect of short and long term proposals.(d) Check approved and tentative Town Planning proposals.5*5*2 Technical DetailsWhen preparing minor reconstruction programmes, the informationlisted "below should "be provided.(a) Date of original construction*(b) Type and thickness of original construction*(c) Condition of pavement*(d) C*B.R* test results*(e) Details of traffic volumes, bus routes, heavy goods traffic,etc*(f) Proposed type and thickness of construction, and reasons forits adoption*(g) Detailed drawing to appropriate scale to show essential details*(h) Where it is proposed to offer minor improvement or recon**struction items for tender, the item should be endorsed11 Authority to call tenders is requested 11 *An item will not normally be considered for inclusion ina programme if it forms the whole or part of a separate itemin the P*W*P«

HIGHWAYS () DIVISION* ResurfacingMinor ReconstructionMinor ImprovementFootwayProgramme No«ItemNo.LocationDescription of WorkEstimatedExpenditureRemarks«

Highways""""C ) ""DivisionCheck List for Possible Itemsin Resurfacing ProgrammeV*5Appendix 2(July 77)Name of Road :Section :Subject1* Type of existingconstruction2. Condition of roadsurface3* When last resurfaced orreconstructed*K Status of read5. Traffic permitted6. State of development orr ede vel opmentRoad covered by Statutory/O.D. Plan7- Any widening or/andimprovement scheme forthis road8* Is there an item in P.I*Programme for this roadInformationConcrete. Flexible. Concretewith bituminous surface.iCorrugated* Worn* Uneven. Cracked. \Slippery. Disintegrated. Subsided.Public. Private. Part private }Vehicle. Pedestrian. Market.Hawkers.NoNoNoYes. Plan No.refers*Yes. Drg. No.refers*Anticipated implementationdate /19Yes. Itemin CategoryfijInitial& Date9* Any traffic signalproposal* 10. Any drainage improvementrequired11* Any sewer duplicationproposed12. Any major utilitiescontemplated13* Recommendation :(b) Improvements to beincorporated (2C$ ofproject or $85,000)(c) Scarifying requireddue to| : " 14. Estimated cost :15* Remarks :MoNoNoNoYes, in T.E. f s 19 /programme. Anticipatedimplementation date /19Yes* Manhole. Stormwaterdrain. Gully. SewerYes. Drg. No.refers*Anticipated implementationdate /19W.W.O.H.K.E./C.L.P.H.K.T.GasOthersSuperelevation* Provision offlat-channel. Realignment of: kerbs. Camber.Grade, corrugation, bleedingconcrete jbise, disintegration.AWorks can 'Start immediately/weeks a%6%l^%ppr6val .Prepared by:Engineer/Asst, Engineer

Highways ( ) DivisionCheck List for Possible Itemsin Minor Reconstruction ProgrammeV.5Appendix 3(July 7?)Name of Road :Section :1.2.3*k.• 5*6.7*B.9*10*11*12*• 13*I.Ik.15. Recommendation :(a) Reconstruct in(b) Improvements to beincorporated (20?£ of- project or 885,000)16. Traffic aids17*18.SubjectType of existingconstructionCondition of road surfaceWhen last resurfaced orreconstructedStatus of roadTraffic permittedState of development orredevelopment ,Road covered by Statutory/O.D. ElanAny widening or/landimprovement for this roadIs there an item in P.W.Programme for this roadExisting- X- sect ion of roadProposed X-section of roadAny traffic signalproposalAny drainage improvementrequiredAny sewer duplicationproposalAny major utilitiescontemplatedEstimated cost :Remarks :InformationConcrete* Flexible* Concretewith bituminous surface «Corrugated* Worn* Uneven •Cracked* Slippery* Disintegrated.Subsided*Public* Private. Part privateVehicles* Pedestrian. Market*Hawkers*1No j Yes* EL an No* refers* 'M Yes* Drg. No. refers.j Anticipated implementationi date /19Yes, Item in CategoryFootpath- carriageway- footpathFootpath-carriageway-footpath1 Yes, in T.E.'s 19 /No , ; programme. Anticipatedimplementation date /19Yes. Manhole. Gully* Storm-° water drain. SewerYes. Drg. No. refers.jj o Anticipated implementationdate /19H 0w.w.o.H.K.E./C.I-P.H.K.T.GasOthersSuper el e vat ion « Real ignment *Provision of bus bay.Yes. Street lighting.0 Road marking. Traffic signs.Cats-eyes*Works can start immediately/weeks after approval.Prepared by:Initial& DateEngineer/Asst. Engineer/ A9

Name of Soad sLocation :Sub j ect1* Type of existingconstruction) i2* Improvement involved j3- Scheme requested byk« Scheme proposed by5« Scheme agreed orapproved by6. Is resumption required* i 7»!Road covered by Statutory/0»D* Plan; 8» Is there an item in P.I*Programme for this road9* Any traffic signalproposal10. Any proposed bus shelterat this site11* Any drainage improvementrequired12. Any sewer duplicationproposalIJ. Estimated cost sIk. Remarks sHighways ( ) DivisionCheck List for Possible Itemsin Minor Improvement.InformationConcrete. Flexible* Concretewith bituminous surface.Provision of bus bay or lay-by*Widening to approved reserve.Superelevation® Widening on bend*Junction improvement*Widening of narrow bridge.Provision of car park®Provision of footpath*C E T E /C S 0 /T (P L 0 )G.H.E./tt.' NoOn Crown landYesNoNoNoNoNoNOIt has/has not been clearedwith C.L* & 3*0. (refers*) inYes* Plan No* refers.Yes. Itemin CategoryYes f in T«E. f s 19 /programme . Anticipatedimplementation date /19YesYes* Manhole. Gully, Stormwaterdrain* Sewer.Yes* Drg* No* refers*Anticipated implementationdate /1QWorks can start immediately/weeks after approval*¥.5Appendix(July 77)Initial& DatePrepared byEngineer/Asst * Engineer/ A9

Highways ) DivisionCheck List for Possible Items inFootpath Programme(Hew where none exist)V.5Appendix 5(July 77)Name of Hoad sSection :Subject1. Existing X-section of road2. Proposed X~ sect ion of road3. Status of road4. Is road widening requiredor proposed ?5* Any widening or improvementscheme for this road6. Eoad covered by Statutory/Q.D. Plan7. Scheme requested by; 8* Scheme proposed by9* Scheme agreed or approvedby10. Estimated cost :11* Is there an item in P.W.Programme for this road12. Any proposed bus shelteron proposed footpath13. Bemarks :InformationFootpath-carriageway-footpathFootpath-carriageway-footpathPublic/Private/Part privateNoYesOn Crown landPart of Lot is affected,It has/has not been clearedwith C.L. & S*0. ( ) inrefers.Yes* Drg* No. refers.No Anticipated implementationdate /19NoYes. Plan No.G.H.E./W. (Must)NoNoYes. ItemYes.refers*in CategoryWorks can start immediately/weeks after approval*Initial& DatePrepared byEngineer/Asst. Engineer/ A9

(July 77)6.1 ROAD RECORDS6*1.1 ProcedureRoad Record sheets (Appendix l) are maintained inDivisional drawing offices.Form R.R*1 (Appendix 2} should be completed by theengineer when :(i) a Contract involving road works is signed; or,(ii) a Works Order involving modifications toexisting roads is issued on the MaintenanceContractor.The form should be passed to the Senior EngineeringAssistant (Civil) who should arrange for the appropriatefile to be brought up on the anticipated completion date,and who should endorse R.R.I accordingly*If the time for completion of the Works is extendedthe engineer should advise S.E.A.(C) of the revisedcompletion date*When the Works are completed, S.E.A.(C) should completeform R.R.2 (Appendix 3) and ensure that the appropriate RoadRecord sheet is up-dated.6*1*2 FilesS.E.A.(C) maintains files for forms R.R.I (by districts)and the General Registry maintains files for forms R.R.2(by districts)*6*1»3 Record Sheets Entries(i) All entries including sketches should beclear and neat.(ii) Descriptions of works should be brief andmeaningful.(iii)Standard symbols should be used wherepossible, (see Vol. XI - Drawing OfficePractices)*

V.6.1.V(July 77)AmendmentsRecords should be amended when s(i) any road line or level is changed;(ii)any additions or deletions such asaccesses, footpaths, bus bays, cableducts, nullah decking, etc. are made;(iii)the type of pavement construction ischanged;(iv) resurfacing is carried out;(v) reconstruction is carried out.


V.6-Appendix 2Form No. R.R.IRoad Records(To be completed in duplicate - originator to retain one copy)* Capital Works/*District/*Maintenance Engineer :Name of Project :* Contract/* Works Order No. *Drg./*Sketch No.* Contract/* Works Order file No.Senior Engineer^^(Civil)The above quoted project will commence onand is expected to be completed onProject EngineerDatesB.U. onR.R.2 raised on (date)* Delete if inapplicable.

V.6Appendix 3(July -??)Road Records(To be completed in duplicate ~ originator to retain one copy)^Capital lorks/*District/*Maintenance Engineer :A. Name of Project :*Contract/*Works Order No.*Drawing/*Sketch No.*Contract/*Works Order file No.Anticipated date of completionRevised date of completionB. Actual date of completion Actual Cost $Status of Road : *Public/*Private/*Future Cross-Section of RoadDescription of Works :Location of Works :C. Please provide information requested atB together with'as-constructed*drawings.From: Senior Engineering AssistantTotEngineerD« Herewith information requested.From: *Engineer/*Asst. EngineerTo: Senior Engineering AssistantE. Information entered in Road Record Sheet,please check if in order.From: Senior Engineering AssistantTo: EngineerF. Record checked and found in order.From: Engineer (Thro 1 S.E**C*M*/*D*)To: Senior Engineering AssistantG. Please file.From: Senior Engineering AssistantTo: General Registry^Delete if inapplicableInitialDate

(July, 77)CHAPTER 7S^YlPIl^? 1 ffi^*^®¥7*1 INTRODUCTION7*1*1 Basis of d.e, gigs,.The design procedure described in this chapter is basedon the 3rd Edition of Boad Note No* 29 published by the UnitedKingdom Road Research Laboratory in 1970* Reference may bemade to the Road Note for amplification*7*1* 2 ApplioabilityThis chapter applies to the design of new highway pavements*The described procedure should be followed in full whenhighway pavements for important projects are being designed*The Traffic and Transport Survey Division of Highways Officeissues annual traffic censuses containing data suitable foruse with this procedure and will, in addition* provide trafficestimates for pavement design purposes on request when suitablecensus data is not available*For smaller projects, pavement designs may be selectedfrom the range given for the road hierarchy later in thischapter* These designs are based on conservative assumptionsto ensure that the expense and inconvenience associated withpremature pavement failures are avoided* They should accordinglybe used with discretion, as careless use on a large scale couldlead to extravagance*Because the design procedure is based on the damagingpower of heavy axles travelling at normal velocities', it shouldnot be employed for car parks and other areas used only byslow-moving traffic*

V.7.2(July, 77)7.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES7.2.1 Pesign parametersThe following parameters should be considered:a the design traffic;the design life;(c the strength of the subgradej and f(d) the type of pavement *Bstimation of design traffioTraffic damage to highway pavements increases progressivelywith the weight of individual axle loads* The loads imposed byprivate cars cause no significant damage to pavements, whereasaxle loads of the maximum permitted weight have very considerabledamaging power, and in general only the loads imposed by commercialvehicles need to be considered for pavement design purposes* Inthis context, a commercial vehicle is a goods or public servicevehicle of unladen weight exceeding 1500 kg* The axle loadsimposed by commercial vehicles vary widely and for design purposestheir effects may be represented by equivalent numbers of standardaxles of 8200 kg each* The actual factor used in pavement designis the cumulative number of standard axles passing during thedesign life of the pavement* This is derived in three stages:(i) the number of commercial vehicles using the pavementimmediately after completion is first estimated;(ii)(iii)a growth rate is then assumed and applied to obtainthe cumulative number of vehicles passing during thedesign life of the pavement;a co—efficient based on the expected characteristicsof the traffic is finally applied to convert thenumber of commercial vehicles to the number ofstandard axles passing during the design life ofthe pavement»Figures ?*?*! to Tf»7*4 graphically relate cumulative totalsof commercial vehicles passing to initial traffic and design lifefor growth rates of 3$ t 4^f S$* and 6$ per annum*Alternatively, the expressionA -. P (l+r) nwhere A « the number of commercial vehiclesper day for the f n f th year:

V.7.2,2(Cont'd)(July, 77)Pr»® the Initial number of commercialvehicles per day after completion;» the assumed annual growth rate; and fn * the number of years fmay "be used to find the number of commercial vehicles passingper day for each year of the design life* The cumulative totalof commercial vehicles passing during the design life may thenbe found by multiplying the daily figures by 365 and addingthem together*After the possible capacity of a road has been reachedthe growth rate will be jsero* The cumulative number of standardaxles passing during the remainder of the design life should becalculated on this basis*For information on suitable design factors to be employedin assessing the design traffic for a particular location,reference should be made in the first instance to the RoadDesign Data given in the T*T*S*B* f s Annual Traffic Censuses*If no suitable information can be obtained from this source, theT«T*S»B* should be asked to assist in estimating suitable valuesfor the location in cjuesrtion. As a last resort, the followingassumptions may "be made:(a) the flow of vehicles on a road immediately aftercompletion amounts to 40^ of its design capacity;(b) the percentages of commercial vehicles in varioustypes of traffic flow are as follows:on roads serving industrial areas 30$on general purpose roads20^on roads serving residential areas - IQ^j(c) the growth rate is 3$ (taken low because assumption(a) is high);(d) the numbers of standard axles per commercial vehiclein various types of traffic flow are as follows:7*2*3 Estimation of design lifeon roads serving industrial areas 0*9,on general purpose roads0*?^on roads serving residential areas 0#5«The design life of a highway pavement is the periodduring which it may be expected to carry the design traffic.without requiring extensive repair or reconstruction*

?*7«2,3(Cont f d)(July, 11}Because flexible pavements may be strengthened comparativelyeasily by adding further surfacing material, whereas rigid pavementscannot be strengthened by any means short of complete reconstruction,design lives are generally shorter for the former than forthe latter* load Note No* 29 suggests design lives of 20 yearsfor flexible pavements and 40 years for rigid pavements, butchanges occur comparatively slowly in the U*K* f and design livesof 15 years for flexible pavements and 30 years for rigid pavementsare recommended for Hong Kong*If the life of a pavement is expected to be limited forsome reason such as a known future change of alignment, the designlife should be correspondingly shortened* In such cases a flexiblepavement is usually appropriate*The presence of numerous junctions and underground services,making variations in level undesirable, can sometimes justify thechoice of a flexible pavement with a longer life*%en the choice of a flexible pavement is being consideredat the design stage because of the possibility of extending itslife by resurfacing, the discounted overall cost should be takeninto account* A discount rate of &fo should be used unless adviceto the contrary is received.7*2*4 Strength ........of ......The strength of a subgrade is assessed in terms of theCalifornia Bearing Satio (CH?) for pavement design purposes*Details of the CBB test are given in BS 1377* The GBR value ofa subgrade may be determined either by laboratory tests onrecompacted samples of the subgrade material, or by in situ testsof the completed subgrade* Care should be taken to carry out thetest under conditions of compaction and moisture content similarto those to be expected under the completed pavement*GBR tests require considerable experience in both performanceand interpretation for reliable results* The GBR value of properlycompacted subgrade s ; of decomposed rock and other soils of lowplasticity is unlikely to be less than 5? aM this value may beused for subgrades composed of such materials*7*2*5 ffype of pavementPavements may be either flexible or rigid* Flexiblepavements consist of sub-base, roadbase and surfacing* Sigidpavements consist of sub^base and concrete slab*Many factors affect the choice of pavement type* Forexample, a remote location can mean that bituminous materialwould take so long to reach the site that it would be too cold

(July, 77)for laying, and a rigid pavement would thus "be preferable* Onthe other hand, where settlement is expected, a flexible pavementwould be preferable because it could accept small deformationswithout damage and would be easier to repair if larger deformationsoccurred* Streets serving developing areas are more suitably pavedwith flexible materials f which are easier to dig up and repair thanrigid pavements* For such areas f construction in flexible materialsin two stages is often suitable f with the first stage beingconstructed for a relatively short design life covering the periodwhen construction traffic is heavy and excavation for utilitiesfrequent f and the secoi3d stage being designed for a longer life andconstructed when the pace of development slows, using the firststage as roadbase or basecourse* In designing two-stage flexiblepavements, careful consideration should be given to the extent bywhich compaction and consolidation during the first stage life willaffect the design parameters for the second stage, so that undueextravagance is avoided*If there is no practical reason for choosing one type inpreference to the other, it is sometimes advantageous to preparedesigns and call tenders for both types, so that a choice can bemade on economic grounds* In such cases s overall cost, includingestimated recurrent costs discounted back over the design life,must be considered rather than first cost,Other factors to be taken into account in selecting the typeof pavement to be used include speed of construction, riding qualityand the availability and relative costs of different materials*The thickness of sub-base to be provided for a flexiblepavement may be found from the strength of the subgrade, and thecumulative number of standard axles to be carried, using FigureV*7«5* Sub-bases provided in Hong Kong will generally need tohave a CBR value of at least 3Q« The most suitable materialavailable meeting this requirement is all-in crushed rock*Partially decomposed rock may also be suitable. Traffic cox*~siderations will, usually require a sub-base thickness of at least150 mnu No sub-base is required if the CHS value of the subgradeis in excess of the minimum CBR value shown on Figure V»7*5 a sbeing necessary for the sub-base,Suitable roadbase materials available in Hong Kong comprise!lean concrete and! dense bitumen macadam* The thicknesses requiredfor either of these materials are given in terms of the cumulativenumber of standard axles to be carried on Figures ?»7*6 and ¥.7*7*1dhen traffic heavy enough to require a surfacing thickness of morethan 100 mm is expected, the additional thickness may be added tothe roadbase in the form of an extra layer of dense bitumenmacadam*

V*7.2.6(Cont*d)(July, 77)Suitable surfacing materials available in Hong Kongcomprise asphaltic concrete, dense bitumen macadam and bitumenmacadam* Details of how these materials should be used aregiven in fable 7.1.Table 7*1 Surfacing materials for flexible pavementsCumulative numberof standard axlesBase courseWearing courseLess than 1-J- million|r - 2^- millionMore than 2J- millionBitumen macadamBitumen macadamorDense bitumen macadamDense bitumen macadamorAsphaltic concreteDense bitumen macadamMinimum thickness 20 mmDense bittimen macadamorAsphaltic concreteMinimum thickness 25 mmAsphaltic concreteMinimum thickness 35 raraNominalSizeBitumenmacadamPermissible compacted layer thicknessDenseBitumen macadamAsphalticConcrete40 mm60 - 75 ram60 - 80 mm60.- 90 mm20 mm30 - 45 mm30 - 50 mm30 ~ 50 iwn10 nm15 - 20 ram15 - 25 mm24 - 40 mmNote: A "course 1 * may consist of more than one "layer 1

(July* 77)7* 2 *7 Rigid PavementsSub-abases for rigid pavements should be provided inaccordance with Table 7*2Table 7®2 Sub-bases for rigid pavementsWeakNormalStrongCategory of subgradeGBR value of 2 or lesssubgrades not in other twocategories.CBR value of 15 or more*Includes undisturbedfoundations of old roads*Minimum thicknessof sub-base150 mm80 mmThe thicknesses required for reinforced and unreinforcedconcrete slabs for rigid pavements are given in Figure V«7«8in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles to becarried* Concrete for rigid pavements should be made fromordinary Portland cement and have a characteristic strengthof 28 N/mm^ a* 2^ days? better results may be expected if theaggregate size is limited to a maximum of 20 mm, particularlyfor concrete above reinforcement level*7*2*8 Characteristic road hierarchy designsConsider an urban trunk road f with dual 3-lane carriageways*The design capacity t (taken from Volume IIl) f is 4 f 500 PCU/kourin one direction* Assume initial traffic to consist of 4C$>design capacity, with all commercial vehicles in slow lane* Anurban trunk road, which will serve neither predominantly industrialnor predominantly residential areas exclusively, can be considereda general purpose road for pavement design purposes, so 2C$* of theinitial traffic may be assumed to be commercial vehicles, eachhaving 0*7 standard axles and comprising 3 PCUs. Neglectingconsiderations of peak hour flow, but in compensation takingonly a 16 hour day, and assuming a 3$ growth rate, the cumulativenumber of standard^axles after 15 years is 4*3 x 10 and after 30years is 10*8 x 10 * On a subgrade of assumed CBR value 5, aflexible pavement with 15 years design life requires a sub-basethickness of 240 mm f a dense bitumentmacadain roadbase thickness

Ew«*•*1235678TypeofroadCDFeeder6m wideLocaldistributor(a) in dust rial(b)other7-3m wideRural CB)7-3m wideDistrictdistributor4(ai industrial

(July, 77)of 120 aim with surfacing 90 mm thick or a lean concrete roadbasethickness of 180 mm with surfacing 100 mm thick, A rigidpavement with 30 years design life requires a sub-base thicknessof 80 mm with a concrete slab 220 mm thick. Figure V*7«9illustrates suitable flexible and rigid designs for such anurban trunk road at item 8«Similar considerations apply to the other types of road inboth urban and rural road hierarchies, and characteristic designsfor these are also given in Figure V«7«9* with design assumptionsand details summarised in Table 7«3

.* x(July 77)7.3 DESIGN DETAILS7*3*1 Reinforcement of Rigid pavementsFor reinforced concrete pavements the minimum weight ofreinforcement required in relation to the cumulative number ofstandard axles to be carried is given in Figure V«7*1Q in termsof weight of reinforcement and area of steel per unit width ofpavement* Eeinforcement should be long mesh fabric complyingwith BS 4483. The reinforcement should have 60 mm cover fromthe surface except for slabs less than 150 mm thick where 50 mmcover should be provided* The reinforcement should terminate atleast kO mm and not more than 80 mm from the edge of the slaband from all joints except longitudinal joints covered by thenext paragraph. -&t * h ® transverse overlap of reinforcing matsthe first transverse wire of one mat should lie within the lastcomplete mesh of the previous mat and the overlap should be notless than k$Q mm. No overlap is needed longitudinally betweenmats*Where a two-or three-lane carriageway width is constructedin one operation, reinforcing mats having transverse wires of8 mm diameter at 200 tarn centres may be used to span the longitudinaljoints in place of tie bars. The longitudinal reinforcementin all mats should be as required by the previous paragraph.The 8 mm wires must be long enough to span at least 500 mm eitherside of the longitudinal joints*Where a three-lane carriageway is constructed in two widths,transverse reinforcement consisting of 8 mm diameter wires at200 mm centres, which may be incorporated in special mats, shouldbe used in slabs wider than 4*5 *a* The length of this transversereinforcement should be 600 mm longer than a third of the slabwidth and should be placed centrally.Reinforcement details for rigid pavements are shown onstandard drawing Nos. B*f~l f B&-2, H^-3, and H5.7»3«2 Joints in rigidpavementsFor reinforced concrete slabs, the maximum spacing of jointsis shown in Figure V*7*ll in relation to the weight of reinforcement.The maximum joint spacing used should correspond to theactual weight of reinforcement used and not necessarily theminimum weight required in Figure V*7*10. Every third jointshould be an expansion joint, the remaining two being contractionjoints* Reinforcement must be discontinuous at both contractionand expansion joints* Longitudinal joints should be providedso that slabs are not wider than k^ m except where transversereinforcement is provided.

7-3-2 (Cont'd)uly 77)Tor unreinforced concrete slabs f the maximum allowable spacingof expansion joints is 60 m for slabs of 200 mm or greater thicknessand kO m for slabs of lesser thickness f with intermediate contractionjoints at 5 m intervals* Tied warping joints may be substitutedfor some of the sliding contraction joints, but more than threewarping joints should be used, in succession* The distribution ofcontraction and expansion joints may be amended accordingly*Longitudinal joints should be provided so that the slabs are notmore than 4»5 ni wide*For both reinforced and unreinforced concrete slabs,contraction joints may be used in place of expansion jointsbetween the end of March and the beginning of November, except -(a) adjacent to slabs which have been, or will be,laid outside this period;(b) adjacent to bridge abutments;(c) adjacent to changes to flexible construction;(d) at junctions with other carriageways,where expansion joints should always be provided.Expansion joints should be provided with a joint filler25 mm thick* AH joints, however made, should be provided witha groove to accommodate a sealing material* The dimensions ofthe sealing material should conform to Table ?•**> the groovebeing filled with sealing compound to 5 »» below the surfaceof the concrete. If the grooves are made deeper than is requiredfor the sealing material, they should be caulked to an appropriatedepth with a compressible filling material considered suitableby the joint-sealing compound supplier. Where tied warpingjoints are substituted for some of the contraction joints, thesize of groove for the contraction joints will depend on thespacing between sliding joints. As an alternative to pouredsealing compound, a preformed neoprene compression sealing stripmay be used. The width of groove for this method of sealingshould be chosen in relation to the length of slab and therecommendations of the manufacturers of the sealing strip to beused; special care is required in forming the groove* To ensurecomplete formation of warping, contraction and longitudinal joints,the combined depth of groove and fillet should be one-quarter toone-third of the thickness of the slab. Adequate means of load.transference should be provided at all joints in concrete pavementsof 150 ran or greater thickness. All expansion and contractionjoints should have sliding dowel bars conforming to the requirementsof Table 7-5* The dowels should be placed at 300 mm centresand half the length of the bars should be coated with a bondbreakingcompound. The bars in expansion joints only should be

(July 77)provided with a cap at the debonded end, containing a thicknessof 25 mm of compressible material to allow the joint to open andclose. Longitudinal joints should have tie bars 12 mm indiameter by 1 m long at 600 mm centres.Details of expansion, longitudinal, warping and contractionjoints are shown on standard drawings Nos* H5* H6-1, H6-2 andH7.Table ?•**•Dimension for sealing materials andgrooves for joints in concrete roadsType ofJointSpacing (m)Width ofgroove (mm)Depth of Seal(mm)Contractionjointunder 8)-see8-15) note15-20) (1)Over 20101520see Mote (2)20 - 2520 ~ 2525-3025 - 30Warping jointAll spacings1015 - 20ExpansionjointAll spacings5 mm greaterthan thicknessof filler25 - 30Longitudinaljoint~520 - 25^Note (l) - When warping joints are used the spacing applicableis the distance between adjacent sliding joints.(2) - For contraction joint spacing* in excess of 20 m thewidth ©f groove should be increased by 5 ra® for each5 m in excess of 20 flu

7.3.2 (Cont'd)(July 77)Table 7*5Slabthickness(mm)Dimensions of dowel bars for expansion and contractionjointsExpansion jointsDiameter(mm)Length(mm)Contraction jointsDiameter(mm)Length(mm)150 - 180190 - 2302*K) and over202532550650750122025400500600Note: . .Dowel bars are not recommended for slabs thinnerthan 150 mm7*3*3 ManholesManhole covers in flexible pavements should be set on themanhole in a manner that facilitates adjustment of surface levelafter resurfacing of the pavement. The most convenient way ofdoing this is by finishing the manhole proper sufficiently lowto enable one or two courses of brickwork to be introduced, onwhich the manhole cover can be set, and which can be readily rebuiltto the correct level after resurfacing takes place.Any manhole situated under rigid pavements should beconstructed up to surface level in the form of a small, individualslab, into which the manhole cover should be cast, within the mainpavement slab. Two 25 mm diameter mild steel trimming bars shouldbe provided at a depth of 60 mm in the main pavement slabdiagonally across the corners of the manhole slab to preventcracking, care being taken to ensure adequate bond length. Bondbetween the manhole slab and the main pavement slab should beprevented either by the provision of joint filler and sealantall round the manhole slab, or by painting the interface withcutback bitumen or bituminous paint.Standard drawings Nos* CE 1021 and H 12 illustrate thesepoints.In addition, care should be taken to arrange transverseand longitudinal joints in the pavement with due regard forthe presence of manholes. Every location requires individualconsideration, but reference may be made to standard drawingNo. H 13 for guidance.

(Jialy 77)7.3* 1 * Edge detailsPavement design should include edge detailing. Theselection of a suitable edge detail should take into accountthe need(a) to support the edge of the pavement againstlateral deformation;(b)to protect the edge of the pavement fromtraffic damage;(c) to control storm water and prevent it fromdamaging the pavement;(d) to provide visual definition of the edge ofthe carriageway for the benefit of motorists;(e) to prevent encroachment of vegetation ontothe carriageway;(f) to protect pedestrians on adjoining footpathsfrom traffic;(g) to prevent traffic leaving the carriagewayat hazardous locations;(h) to provide a datum for constructional andmaintenance purposes.Although flush kerbs, dished channels and hard shouldersare often used as edge details in other parts of the world, inHong Kong the need to control stormwater and protect vergesdictates the use of raised kerbs in most locations. Suitablekerb sections are shown on standard drawing No. H 8. For mostlocations, a kerb thickness of 125ra*nis adequate, but inareas of particularly heavy commercial and industrial traffic,kerbs 150 mm thick should be used.Where traffic has to be prevented from leaving thecarriageway to protect pedestrians on an adjoining footpath,half-batter kerbs should be used. The use of chamferedgranite kerbs is sometimes appropriate in order to matchexisting work, but the chamfered section is less effective incontrolling traffic than the half-batter section, which shouldconsequently be given preference. Half-batter kerbs should belaid with an tipstand of preferably 125 mm but not more than150 mm nor less than 100 mm* For heavily trafficked flexiblepavements, an upstand of 150 mm may be used to allow for futureresurfacing, and in areas of particularly heavy commercialand industrial traffic, consideration should be given toincreasing the upstand still further, up to a maximum of 175 HHB*to prevent heavy vehicles from overriding footpaths.

V.7*3*** (Cont'd)(July 7?)At locations, generally rural, where a raised edge is.required, but where there is no adjoining footpath, and vehiclescan consequently be allowed to leave the carriageway inemergencies, splayed kerbs should be used, Splayed kerbs shouldbe laid" with an upstand of between 80 mm and 100 mm*If the traffic has to be prevented from leaving thecarriageway for its own protection, either some form of guardrailor a profiled concrete vehicle barrier of the type shown onstandard drawing No. H 11 should be provided. The former doesnot affect the pavement edge detail, but the latter does.Kerbs for flexible pavements should be set to level inmortar on a bed of low-grade concrete, and backed with concreteof the same grade. Where a lean concrete road base is used, theseparate bed can sometimes be omitted and the lean concreteextended past the kerb line to form the kerb foundation.. Suitabledetails are illustrated on standard drawing No. H 10.The provision of concrete channels in front of kerb forflexible pavements should be avoided as far as possible, becauseof the serious danger of stormwater penetrating the interfacebetween concrete channel and flexible surfacing, weakening thesubgrade close to the point where the heaviest wheels pass andcausing premature deterioration of the pavement. The practice ofproviding concrete channels originated in the days when opentexturedbituminous surfacing were commonly used, and is unnecessarynow that wearing courses are dense and impervious. Concretechannels are useful with very flat gradients, as the cross fallcan be varied to give an articifial gradient for assisting stormwaterdrainage; they should only be used where gradients areflatter than 1 in 180*Kerbs for rigid pavements should be set to level on amortar bed in a rebate cast in the pavement slab, and backed withlowgrade concrete, as illustrated on standard drawing No. H 9«Joints should be left in -the kerbs corresponding to the jointsin the pavement.Eigid pavements should be surface-finished by transversebrushing with a wire broom to form a rough surface. Thebrushed finish should be omitted in front of kerbs for a widthof 425 8Hfc$ which should instead be trowel-finished to form asmooth channel to aid surface run-off.7«3*5 Flexible and rigid pavingmaterials not to be mixedIn the previous paragraph, the possibility was mentionedof flexible pavements deteriorating because the presence ofconcrete channels encourages water to penetrate to the subgrade.The same problem occurs with any other concrete introducedinto flexible pavements, such as surrounds to manhole covers and

(Jialy 77)gully gratings. Because it is difficult to gauge exactly howmuch uncompacted bituminous material should be laid beside a pieceof concrete to achieve the same level after compaction,insufficient material is often provided, which appears satisfactoryat the time of laying, because the roller is supported on theconcrete, but sinks below the concrete after further compactionby traffic. The difference of level causes impacts fromvehicle wheels, which break down the surrounding material toform holes, which hold water, which accelerates the breaking downprocess. For this reason, the introduction of concrete intoflexible pavements is very bad practice, and should be carefullyavoided except in the case, mentioned in the previous paragraph,of a flat location where a concrete channel is necessary togive an artificial gradient. Wearing courses for flexiblepavements should present a homogeneous aspect from kerb tokerb, broken only by cast-iron manhole covers and gullygratings.7,3.6 Stormwater drainage detailsAlthough the hydraulic design of stormwater drainage isoutside the scope of this section, certain aspects of stormwaterdrainage affect pavement design, notably channels, crossfallsand gullies.Mention has already been made of channels in connectionwith both flexible and rigid pavements.Crossfall should be provided on all/highway pavements toshed stormwater to the channels* Experience has shown thatcrossfalls of /2%/for flexible pavements, and2 % for rigid pavementsgive satisfactory results. 0^straight lengths of road,crossfall should be provide^'in the form of camber; on curves,superelevation requirement^usually ensure sufficient crossfallfor drainage purposes, b^ where the radius of curvature is toolarge for superelevatio/ to be necessary, straight crossfallshould be introduced at the gradients shown above.Gullies should be provided and located as required byhydraulic considerations. Suitable designs for gullies areshown on Figs. V*7.12 to V.7,17. If gully gratings toFigs. V.?.lV.:r and V.7.iif.2 are available, the use of eitherof the desig&s shown on Figs. V.7*12 and ^.7*13 is recommended.The design/of Fig. ¥.7*12 is preferred, because it is lessliable tc/choke, but if any possibility exists of sewage beingdischarged into the stormwater drain serving the gullies, thedesig/of Fig. V.7.13 should be used. Figs. V.7.15 to V.7.17*whi^fi have been used successfully in the New Territories,be used if only gratings to standard drawing No. CE 1029available.

V.7.3.6 (Cont'd)(July 77).The arrangement shown on standard drawing No. CE lOkk isexpensive to construct, becomes choked easily and is difficultto clean. Its use is consequently no longer recommended*Gullies in flexible pavements should be surrounded w/thbituminous paving material; for the reasons given in paragraph7«3«5 they should not be surrounded with concrete.On the other hand, gullies in rigid pavements ^hould beset in small, individual concrete slabs separated f/om the mainpavement slab by a butt joint painted with a suitable bondbreakingsubstance and sealed* Transverse joints in rigidpavements should be located with care so that they either jointhe front face of a gully or are situated at /least 2 meters awayfrom the side face of any gully. /If hydraulic considerations require gullies to be used inpairs, they should be spaced at least

¥.7.5*5(Deo.* 83)- ''"gully gratings^ Because it is difficult to gauge exactly bowmuch lincorapacted bituminous material should" be laid beside a' '"piece "-of concrete to achieve the' -same level after compaction,•••:•:• - •^insufficient material is- of text' provided ? which, appears'••: "'satisfa:ctoryat' the time of laying,'-' because the roller is: , •: . - :'•"': -supported' on the concrete.,' but sinks ; "below the concrete after;"•:. further compaction by traffic*' 'The. difference' of 'level causesimpacts from vehicle wheels,, which -Break down the" surroundingmaterial to form holes, which hold, water, .which acceleratesthe breaking down proce_ss.* For" ; this' reason, the. introduction• '• • "of' concrete" into flexible' pavements" "is" very' bad '"practice,• . . ' ' • -"and 'should "-be -'carefully avoided except in the case, mentionedin the previous paragraph* of a flat location \fhere a concretechannel is necessary to give an artificial gradient* Wearingcourses for flexible pavements should present a homogeneousaspect from kerb to kerb, broken only by cast-iron. manholecovers "and gully gratings*7»3*6 S tormwa ter^ r d£ainage .......de tailsAlthough the hydraulic design of storrmfeter drainageis outside the scope of this section, certain aspects ofstormwater drainage affect' pavement design, notably channels,:crossfalls and gullies*Mention has already been made of channels in connectionwith both flexible and rigid- pavements."Crossfall should be provided on all highway pavementsto shed" stormwater to the channels* -'Experience has shownthat crossfalls of • • • • • - ; • . . •:•••'••--'.•..;'-••for -flexible : 'p,toAts*- and2?£ for rigid pavemenljgive satisfactory results. On straight lengths of road,-crossfall should be provided in the form of camber; oncurves, superelevation requirements usually ensure sufficientcrossfall for drainage purposes, but where the radius ofcurvature is too large for superelevation to be necessary,straight crossfall should be introduced at the gradientsshown above «Gullies should be provided and located as required byhydraulic considerations. Suitable designs for gulliesshould be selected from the Highways Office series ofstandard drawings* Fixed gully gratings should not be used,-as they choke easily and are difficult to clean*.Gullies in flexible pavements should be surroundedwith bituminous paving material;, for the reasons given inparagraph 7*3*5 they -.should not be surrounded with concrete.


Ref. : ( ) in E.G. 4/3/2? Highways Office Headquarters,Engineering Development Department,10/P., Empire Centre,68, riody Road,Tsim Sha Tsui,Kowloon.4th August, 1985ROAD IMOTE 6Road Pavement DrainagePAST AThis Road Note amplifies Chapter 7 "Pavement Design" -of-Volume V'Roads 1 ' of the Civil Engineering Manual. The requirements ofSection 7*3*6 should be amended in accord'ance with therecommendations that follow in Part B.2» Introduction2;1 The existing methods of design of road Pavement .drainagehave generally been based upon the following assumptions :-(a) Gullies should be spaced such that a maximum widthof flooding in a 50 year storm should be 1 lane width(or 2 for 4 or more lanes), and.no overtopping of kerbsshould occur in a 200 year storm.(•jj)The design of the gullies should be in 2 stages i.e.an intake chamber with no standing water (generallyaccepted to be in order to prevent breeding ofmosquitoes), connected to a trapped sump*2.2 The application of the above requirements has generally." resulted in widely spaced multiple gully installations,using a common sump detail in accordance with HO standarddrawing N o . H 162B* It is apparent, however, that the riiaintenaJic*liability with these designs is considerable. Unless veryfrequent cleaning operations are carried out, manyblockages occur,because the designs, trap and retain debris*In KOv/loon alone, the maintenance organisation deals withat least 250-300 complaints involving blocked gullieseach month, and there are continuous flooding problems onmany elevated structures.2.J Whilst the existing drainage designs attempt to preventthe : breeding of mosquitoes by eliminatiiig standings-water . _.in gullies, they do so at the expense of a massivemaintenance liability, which cannot be adequately catered

for in Kong Kong. The resulting widespread flooding offootways, roads and structures is at the very least anuisance in the dense and highly pedestrianised areas ofHong K 0 ng, and at worst can expose the road structure; topossible early failure, and can be the potential cause ofaccidents. The occurrence of flooding on major dualcarriageway roads poses much more severe problems of potentialhazard, compounded by the risk to operatives if gully designsare used which require^manual cleaning*2.4 This Hoad No-tey therefore? -provides :-(a) Revised criteria for design, which limit thedesigned flooding on the road to proportionsconsistent v/ith the high volume of pedestrian traffic onUrban Roads, and the high standard of major roads inthe Territory*(to) Revised*gully designs? incorporating individual deepsumps which, when considered together v/ith the morefrequent gully spacing resulting from the designcriteria, result in up to 50-60 times the silttrapping capability of existing designs* >,...,The new designs will .substantially reduce gully'maintenance. • implications and gully block-ages*.. They will makepossiblea .planned maintenance programme of rapid gully. • -emptying by mechanical gully emptying-machines,including "dry season" oiling to prevent the breeding ofmosquitoes*•2.5 The revised gully designs and criteria for gully spacingshould be adopted on all new ; .roads and-structures in theTerritory,, l.here sections of existing road are reconstructed,the opportunity should be taken- to upgrade the drainagesystem by incorporating the new designs and spacingcriteria. Problem areas on existing roads will haveidentified themselves by a flooding history,, andwherever possible, gully installations at such problemareas should'be amended to eliminate'flooding.3. EnquiriesEnquiries relating to this .'Oc.d -'pte ; should be directed toHighways Office Research and Development Unit (EORDU);^7216029/3-679664.*•"Ago Eriiicipa.1 Government Highway Engineerfor Director p.f. Engineering Development/si

PART BAdditional Requirements to Section 7-3* Volume V, CE Manual7»3%6 Stormwater Drainage Details7*3*6.1 Gully SpacingThe spacing of gullies on roads and structuresshould be such that under heavy rainfall conditions,the flow of water in the channel is limited to amaximum width commensurate with the function of theroad* Normally, it will be suitable to design thedrainage system so that in a 5 times per year stormoccurrence, the flow in the channel will not exceed0.75 m width. This will result in the followingapproximate maximum flow widths for different stormfrequencies :-- • -\• maximumStorm Occurrence...... Intensity Flooded width10 per year 80 mm/la 0^70 -&.5 per year 100 mm/h 0*75 m1 per year 140 mm/h 0.85 m1 in 50 years 240 mm/h 1.05 m1 in 200 years 280 mm/h 1.12m'•, -.7«3«6«2 -The flooded widths shown above represent a suitablecompromise between the need to restrict water on thecarriageway to acceptable proportions, and the highcosts associated with higher levels of road drainage.For dual carriageway roads* where 1m wide marginalstrips are provided, the criteria will restrictthe flow of water within the marginal strips. Thisis particularly important f

For wide dual carriageway roads in flat areas, therequirements to remove water from the carriagewayare substantial,, A dual .3 lane carriageway,v/ith adjacent footway, would require gulliesat 8m spacing at a longitudinal gradient . of ;..Q.671^ _v/ith a Zfej crossfall, and this would still only limitflooding to the widths shown in .Table 1 * .In; such' \circumstances, continuous drainage by means of coveredchannels may be preferable, since these_ at the .sajnetime eliminate flowing water adjacent to footways andcentral reserves* Gullies'Suitable designs for gullies' for roads "and structuresshould be selected from Figs. 7,3-6.2 - 6, which formthe basis of the revised Highways Office standarddrawings. Fixed gully grating' should not be -used,as they choke easily and are difficult to cleanoTrapped Bullies are only necessary if the carrier drainis likely to/l|r^. For newlyconstructed roads, v/ith separate highway 'drains, it- will normally be appropriate to use untrapped gullies.Gullies in flexible pavements should be surrounded• v/ith bituminous paving material, for the reasonsgiven in pars&raph 7*3*5 , they should not be surroundedwith concrete oOn the other hand, sullies in rigid pavements shouldbe set in small, individual concrete slabs separatedfrom the main pavement slab by a butt, joint paintedwith a suitable bond-breaking substance and sealed*Transverse joints in rigid pavements should be locatedwith care so that they either join the front faceof a gully, or are. situated at least 2 metres away.;••• from the side face of any gully «7*3*6*6 Double Gully Installations • ' • • . .At lov; points in the/channel alignment, i 0 e« at asag curve, or as frequently occurs at the corners• of junctions and roundabouts, ponding vail occur inthe event of a blockage* As- a precaution, twogullies,' with a shared connection to the carrier drainphould be provided, together with kerb weirs o Theyshould be spaced at least one kerb length apart toenable the portion of Pavement between, them to beproperly constructed. .7*3*6*7 I^raijaage of .bevel and Hear Level ^oadsWhilst every, effort should be % made to. provide analignment with a minimum gradient of 0*67/^> it willoften be necessary to. accept flatter gradients,particularly in reclaimed areas * It is preferableto provide a level road, "with a drainage system/6

- 5designed accordingly, rather than manipulate thecomplete vertical alignment with repeated rise andfalls to maintain a drainage gradient*On low speed roads, channel shaping will be requiredto provide minimum drainage falls to double gulliesof 6.67^* The normal kerb face should be 115nnn, butwill need to be varied between 75* and 140mm toachieve satisfactory drainage*For major roads, with 1m margins, channel shapingshould be carried out within the 1m margin. Forexample, a dual 3 lane carriageway would require doublegullies at about 16m intervals, with kerb face rangingfrom about 90mm between gullies to 140miB at the gullies*It may, however, be more suitable to adopt continuouscovered drainage channels incorporating sumped catchpits. Footway DrainageIt will normally be appropriate for footways adjacentto the carriageway to drain over the kerbs to the roadchannel, in which case the total paved area of footwayand carriageway should be used to calculate the gullyspacing according to Fig* 7*3*6.1.Where wide paved areas occur, adjacent to the carriageway,gully spacing on the carriageway will need to be veryfrequent, and it may be more appropriate to provideseparate footway drainage. This can be achieved by drainingto the back or centre of the paved area, by open or coveredchannels (with sumped gullies) connected direct to thecarrier drain. This is particularly relevant wherewide single carriageways are superelevated, to prevent theentire carriageway and footways draining to a singlechannel*







Figure Y. 7.1.Relation between cumulative number of commercial vehiclescarried by each slow < lane and design life —Growthrate 3 per cent90ox 80701 60Initial traffic.Commercial vehicle /dayin each direc tioncauIc

Figure g. 7.2Relation,, between cumulative number of., commerciat vehiclescarried by each r slow lane _and design lite —Growth re te .4.. .P.e r ceo t90oXc8070Initial traffic.—}Commercial vehicle/day Hin each direction250060o aOstfl50x.lL1500oo1Weeo o30Z_1000^JQe20500,;I"5•250-Du0 10 20Design life { years )30

Figure T V 7. 3_ Jbetween cumulat h e number of commerciat _ vehiclescarried by each stow lane_ and design ^ life,—Growth rate 5 per cent90oX80Initial t rcf f i c .Commercial vehicle/dayin each direct ionJL-i2 500 —yco3:o70JC oO60co^ 502 40o U6c2030>4»*JO101ODesi gn life20 30(years)

Cumulative number of commercial vehicles on each stow lane t x10 6 )nc3 cTlO DD : cao ?SI ~*ex- oCL-"*CDOo2,p*nr**in

600I ! ! i I i M IMinimum CBR value forsub-base 20 per centMinimum CBR value forsub-base 30 per cent500e 400Below CBR 2 per cent add 150mmto thickness indicated forCBR 2 per cent2!do'cn300&i/iaJQ«X*J?200200orcrW ?rtooMinimum thickness 150mm onCBR less than 30 per centof100GO!Minimum thickness 60mm on subgradesofCBR less than 20 per centi i it 111 i r i i•02 •04 -06 -08 0-1 •20 •40 -60 -80 i-0 2-0 4-0 6-0 80 10 20 60 80 100Cumulative number of standard axles (xJO 6 )

»uwauy200too1BMMK mmtm lillll T* •MR 9fi£ aws •» «M J*« fljjj XXrf*2^*P*°*i^ «s*flryr yuIZ2ll/ ^X"^Surfacing :-bass course ^wearing courseXj//3^t^. iifmt/1-200tooI itI OL.^3"**O00.H"Ull*ncpi-tn*X*1©o0£X0*P§ a1•>•*2.&0'0-01 *02 -04 *08 O8CH -20 *4Q •60*801*0 2*0 4-0 6-0 &0 10 20 40 SO 80100Cumulativt number of standard axles {xtQ 6 }

aw~- cwT^^,*i«.„«iwee««— ^n 20 °JW1?o2 100yV *W# «K£S 3**''-#8&****Surfacing-MBS***' 1— — ~x^MM*-"_,^w^X-»_^^^*®T*•^^~~^J'^««~«>.,*"f»fzi:^tsi&gl^ *'J#^^«*+ ^ m* ^^^^U^_?(VF?oadtjast^^v.* € £__*£. ^^^ ^-^" ^ «, M *»»»*~"~\•*? 5=^$k For traffic 1! rra) cles,fn exmay benCHWed to roadbaseIf.-—u*^^H^2— -—1 ^JBSiSCSSWBtWa *^"" "^*"**'* ^W9«m

awu200I II ,.„i MMOn strong subgrodss CCBR 15 per centthickness by 25rnrnOf more) reduce stabOn weak subgrcdes (CBR 2 per or less 1 increase slab thickness by 25 mm'*-•, j» ^»__Unreinforced concrei e — 1Reinforced concreteB**s**9P w ® e * Wk.tf**^^«M*a&&&S&-L- 1^i^pn^pi.- - _ .,,^-nrtMWW*^*****"^ff^S^jjOg^®®*^*-^^^^i^*1s-^^;«*»".^^FT:b^t...*«M«*»•rhirt~&\&,i:*••^- »»t^i_*?&£ •W\ \ i _L-*IU ^*^**^raM *^^^>-HP**^jfM^s-jrI* 1 H|X.^'y&

• It era.UrbanRuralFlexibleRigid*t '2Local distributor(3) indnitrlGiFeeder_^soZlZriOto Ztiiotio"TnoH•TjKnm««JU^«Jl»^r iW '^^^X^.fa/^fmiE^^f^-V^^^^Jt...w~*~*^160 1 ISOM *^"» ! °•nt*f&(4,*3t ll % *tft ih. rfk*»IP! &in$fr §0r: no i**;^^"^200m.;•V» «kSO^^ 100 2^ZL.2lO ^nes " s^ §a^ 6 0 """"J ft Q '"^•jj |$0 it 160 2"JJ 290 l"*30 983< *® ra *^n^~^_^^2^2ii^j^^^^J^l«=»!^ ^1-n - ?Surf^cfPfi ^^^^-^-^^sfi ^2^,^^^^^*,,«•• •r* i- 5 i *4 ^ ^"^ ^— ~— »• . JJJLi^MUrLSab-base — —-— *»• i.',-*^- : *•. .v?.* ;-^^^^^—-^^T 89 ^ ^^ 5*ft t7§__!7§ s;s> s^^^^^^^^* s^^,^^^^**^^^^^^*^•» 5P 170 l?0 2j— ^— s*^ 00^^gQ? ^ f•x •> :\*: ;^'|*—«- Concrete § 200 |_2DO *•fH^o•»

Weight of reinforcement CKg/irr)oOO cao c3OOK?Or*.o\mTO>§O)0"ex •0 "^2. °xsrCM"«!>o^^X«»^oOO\•8O-v««MlkOo

Figure Y. 7.11.Maximum spacing of joints for reinforced concrete slabs35- 30£co%«»oDl252015o.?• 10Weight of reinforcement-(kg/m)


Figure ¥.7.13. Trappedgulty with opcninggrating2. GRADE OF CONCRETE 20/20 UNLESS SHOWH OTHERWISE3. IRAHSVERSe JOINTS IN PAVEMEMI SLABS MAT BE LOCATED TO MEET F HO NT FACE OFGULLY PIT mil MUST OTBHR¥/E< feE BE UXAYEQAT LEAST 2m FROM A SIDE FACEi. SLABS BE PROVIDED W0H TRIMMING BAR RSMPORCEMENT ACROSSCORNERS OF 0UHY PITS AS $H0¥,TN IN OR6. He. H 12iI MAY 6E VARIED TO SUIT KCHB HEIOHT j STANDARD OPEKIHOn*" j AND CHANNEL CRA D!£NT BY ADJUSTING 60LLY GRATING1 THICKNESS OF^TAjJ ittfif ft •«•«•-!MO! *•** OgOj|-L"|_ j, _^— st'ALIKG G«OOVt^ f-Iil|D WilHi j j-tr.miii TL-jr-TT' •« -^^m^T.&^M.A, ..«.,. ' ••-» ' ,.«"? »*.»«*» *»•** S\aefcJ1hJ/L• ••'•>^*iM>2¥ r 1 /60.I.VCE3&SS *'»n i —i/in ^Sflei1^.S"^^-"-T^• '.•••• u -_!•.-, r- mi- -m "**."* i * • 1 • ,*''* 't ^*'^_ ^ J *•^ pto^Srm^^^* Lr, .,„,-„„ ,., j^|0ol 530 has730^^^v55>^iOj * 1" r ieSECTION B-B:*': *• ; • '•"3231 * i s^ i \ _ Arrrtv^cu a&Ai.AniS^^tt* "*Hi P i \fk?i-to^^-2-S^J^^.V:. 1 ' •.>«-.:.tooSECTfON D~D>*- •*;^«j \- INTERFACE BETWEEN-1.3 C€ME«T MORTAR 8EO*» ^p^: GUilY 1*17 1 Rfl**£M£NT*^^.-r^"^^?^-^:|* 1 "^ *_-•— -|- SLAB FAIMTED WiTH; * \ i ?»j ° BITUMINOUS PAINT ORV y '^ «f» ^* CUT- BACK BfTUMEN• »*• *^. ..-. ; -^' ^530 hoof, ! 'SO ' j' 'si"IN SITU CONCRETE I KER8 OVi ERFLOW WEIRJ-KER8 OVERFLOW WEIftH«. C. 5.1031 iR££ ORG. ?*». C.E. KJ31 RIGID S4.A0 1>SjLt§5 3s WEAHiMO COURSE j, 0 'PRECAST KERB 1" 1^j r— ®AS£ CQUtSE | j•— •— f*""XCV^^/ T*il^-^f1 1•j ^w..^ p. " ^^-^.riJ•*• '• °' " "I••••; •'.- --i1e r^1 ' t_ ^I--.- -v125 300 75(l50JM|!50JTOO9^0 * 1,„„„, „,,„„ I -•:__„ ... - .- > ........•"^nr^"s l- J2^^^-*sjj /«J?>•-SECTION A -AIIQgji8 \ 11r i"^ "i j, ! . ... , t 11§ A «» o i • tie— 1 *- -r *" ' «: ,4 « ** • «i n iK£RS LINEI t* ** £ !t ,„. • « «* |ItLLaaSSESS^iESalH^h-—*i ^._jL^11tn! 300 ...y.»oWi»UMOL§ ""PLANh — ! —'H -~--—*^^^, ^ |.&- -iSs' '•'- •-•-••-•••MWIWI,,.,, «.,,»«,„ IJ ' 4 4, ,,,ri«,, , „« nri--nI- •.—-.'..Li22S#G'ULIVl-cieAK DISTANCEB£TWfTO BC: KOT LESS THAN jtfrft —•^r»ip£ TO SSCONDiF NECESSARYt ff* * ^1 A^ ° °1 § A m IAII ** ** 221 *- ii n i mm ,»* ***SCAte'- t :25•*;«.\'*"."#* »si n*^ ! /- ;•*-'.• ' *1 ^TTJaL 25* [^^fwr * IIim *\:.L- rrr ji. 4 *125] 3CO |?$LlSO M 150 J!00iT^io * ^ 1SECTION C-Cn>; K£«B UNC —-|' Sj • I ^r L ^,,,ny.,1»,,^-, '4-ji^- j j^^j[ 1jI*I,1 M t r^.:'7^l^|7l7^|j » . ^^J ^ji^gy^Otta^12$ 300 bsj ISO fed 150 JfOO""rT" w "n T ". I^l^^^j—r. '*°- ' - * ' -LPELANFLEXIBLE PAVEMENT RIGID PAVEMENT

"I _1NOT.E : All D!MEf4SIQNS IN MILLIMETRESJ ,PL -4— m»f3eoJL 4 .104.1 ^ 1SS.2SECTION A- A( *ELEVATION~— T"=^U, _ 18520 25 25 25 25t 25V120301iW30I??l2*,30251i*.Ja,aJS.I20PiJ5,1.1•«*— * JS"* '**4--®*20SECTION B-B^iui•M&Ti(JOt. 32.5o^fHOHINGE -tUG£_y,*^^ru«R.WaJKJLia.i*ii-l^" tS 1 UtiT.—' fcSfWPSSJ^S," '"SiJ i-*C "(Syr*i)ii -*JfC**SSi,~££S"2£rS£»" xcrs=,":r^=i¥-tcr-^..? r vrrAxviTrcr-^vTsri^rssrarT*^-^SB, . < s - ,ir.85»sBF'.jiy.ii'«t!^^s^a^^E*





V.8(July 77)CHAPTER 8 - TYPHOONAND RAINSTORM DAMAGEProcedures for dealing with storm damageare set out in the Handbook on Emergency and Storm Damage Organisation.

[HKPJ624H77CXOlbMfltHHDate Due

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