VOL_XII - Wilbourhall.org

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VOL_XII - Wilbourhall.org



GASMAN EDITIONLimited toOne Thousand CopiesNo. 958



BreslauCejrtVOL. III.


NOUREDDIN ALI OF DAMASCUS AND THEDAMSEL SITT EL MILAH. 1There was once, of old days and in bygone ages andtimes, a merchant of the merchants of Damascus, byname Aboulhusn, who had money and riches and slavesand slave-girls and lands and houses and baths; buthe was not blessed with a child and indeed his yearswaxed great; wherefore he addressed himself to supplicateGod the Most High in private and in public andin his inclining and his prostration and at the seasonof the call to prayer, beseeching Him to vouchsafe him,before his admittance [to His mercy], a son who shouldinherit his wealth and possessions; and God answeredhis prayer. So his wife conceived and the days of herpregnancy were accomplished and her months and hernights and the pangs of her travail came uponher andshe gave birth to a male child, as he were a piece ofthe moon. He had not his match for beauty and heput to shame the sun and the resplendent moon; forhe had a shining face and black eyes of Babylonian1Breslau Text, voL xii. pp. 50-116, Nights dcccclviii-dcccdxtr.

witchery 1 and aquiline nose and ruby lips; brief, he wasperfect of attributes, the loveliest of the folk of his time,without doubt or gainsaying.His father rejoiced in him with the utmost joy andhis heart was solaced and he was glad; and he madebanquets to the folk and clad the poor and the widows.He named the boy Sidi* Noureddin Ali and reared himin fondness and delight among the slaves and servants.When he came to seven years of age, his father puthim to school, where he learned the sublime Koran andthe arts of writing and reckoning: and when he reachedhistenth year, he learned horsemanship and archery andto occupy himself with arts and sciences of all kinds,part and parts.' He grew up pleasant and subtle andgoodly and lovesome, ravishing all who beheld him, andinclined to companying with brethren and comradesand mixing with merchants and travellers. From theselatter he heard tell of that which they had seen of themarvels of the cities in their travels and heard themsay, "He who leaveth not his native land diverteth not1 Babylon, according to the Muslims, Is the head -quarters of sorceryand it is there that the two fallen angels, Harout and Marout, who areappointed to tempt mankind by teaching them the art of magic, aresupposed to be confined.1 ie. "my lord," a title generally prefixed to the names of saints. Itis probable, therefore, that the boy was named after some saint or other,whose title,to him.as well as name, was somewhat ignorantly appropriated* i.t. one and all?

himself [with the sight of the marvels of the world,]and especially ofthe city of Baghdad."So he was concerned with an exceeding concern forhis lack of travel and discovered this to his father, whosaid to him, "O my son, why do I see thee chagrined?"And he answered, "I would fain travel." Quoth Aboulhusn,"O my son, none travelleth save those whoseoccasion is urgent and those who are compelled thereunto[by need].As for thee, O my son, thou enjoyest amplefortune; so do thou content thyself with that whichGod hath given thee and be bounteous [unto others],even as He hath been bounteous unto thee; and afflictnot thyself with the toil and hardship of travel, forindeed it is said that travel is a piece of torment" 1 Butthe youth said, " Needs must I travel to Baghdad, theabode of peace."When his father saw the strength of his determinationto travel, he fell in with his wishes and equipped himwith five thousand dinars in cash and the like inmerchandise and sent with him two serving-men. Sothe youth set out, trusting in the blessingof God theMost High, and his father went out with him, to takeleave of him, and returned [to Damascus]. As forNoureddin Ali, he gave not over travelling days andnights till he entered the city of Baghdad and layingup his loads in the caravanserai, made for the bath,where he did away that which was upon him of thedirt of the road and putting off his travelling clothes,1 i.e. * foretaste of hell.

8donned a costly suit of Yemen stuffi worth an hundreddinars. Then he put in his sleeve 1 a thousand nutheals 1of gold and sallied forth a-walking and swaying gracefullyas he went His gait confounded all those whobeheld him, as he shamed the branches with his shapecheeks andand belittled the rose with the redness of hishis black eyes of Babylonian witchcraft; indeed, thouwouldst deem that whoso looked on him would surely bepreserved from calamity; [forhe was] even as saithof him one of his describers in the following verses :Thy haters say and those who malice to thee bear A true word, profit*ing its hearers everywhere ;"The glory's not in those whom raiment rich makes fair,who still adom the raiment that they wear."But thoseSo he went walking in the thoroughfares of the cityand viewing its ordinance and its markets and thorough-Cares and gazing on its folk. Presently, Abou Nuwasmet him. (Now he was of those of whom it is said,"They love the fair,"* and indeed there is said whatis said concerning him.4 )When he saw Noureddin Ali,he stared at him in amazement and exclaimed, "Say,I take refuge with the Lord of the Daybreak I"' Then* Lit. he loaded his sleeve with.1 A mithcal is the same as a dinar, ie. about ten shillings.* Masculine.4He was a noted debauchee, as well as the greatest poet of his day.See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Voi IVp. aos, and Vol. IX. p. 332.* See ante, VoL II. p. 240. note.

he accosted the young Damascene and saluting him, saidto him, "Why do I see mylord alone and forlorn?Meseemeth thou art a stranger and knowest not thiscountry; so, with my lord's permission, I will put myselfat his service and acquaint him with the streets, forthat I know this city." Quoth Noureddin, "This willbe of thy favour, O uncle." Whereat Abou Nuwas rejoicedand fared on with him, showing him the marketsand thoroughfares,tillthey came to the house of aslave-dealer, where he stopped and said to the youth,"From what city art thou?" "From Damascus,"answered Noureddin; and Abou Nuwas said,"By Allah,thou art from a blessed city, even as saith of it thepoet in the following verses :Damascus is all gardens decked for the pleasance of the eyes ; For theseeker there are black-eyed girls and boys of Paradise."Noureddin thanked him and they entered the slave -merchant's house. When the peopleof the house sawAbou Nuwas, they rose to do him worship, for thatwhich they knew of his station with the Commanderof the Faithful. Moreover, the slave-dealer himself cameup to them with two chairs, and they seated themselvesthereon. Then the slave-merchant went into the houseand returning with the slave-girl, as she were a willowwandor a bamboo-cane, clad in a vest of damask silkand tired with a black and white turban, the ends whereoffell down over her face, seated her on a chair of ebony;after which quoth he to those who were present, "I willdiscover to you a face as it were a full moon breaking

IOforth from under a cloud." And they said, "Do so."So he unveiled the damsel's face and behold, she was likethe shining sun, with comely shape and day-bright faceand slender [waist and heavy] hips; brief, she was endowedwith elegance, the description whereof existethnot, [and was] even as saith of her the poet :A fair one, to idolaters if she herself should show, They'd leaye theiridols and her face for only Lord would know jAnd if into the briny sea one day she chanced to spit, Assuredly thesalt sea's floods straight fresh and sweet would grow.The dealer stood at her head and one of the merchantssaid, " I bid a thousand dinars for her." Quoth another,"I bid eleven hundred dinars;" [and a third, "I bidtwelve hundred"]. Then said a fourth merchant, "Beshe mine for fourteen hundred dinars." And the biddingsstood still at that sum. Quoth her owner, "I will notsell her save with her consent If she desire to be sold,I will sell her to whom she willeth." And the slavedealersaid to him, "What is her name?" "Her nameis Sitt el Milah," 1 answered the other; whereupon thedealer said to her, "By thy leave, I will sell thee toyonder merchant for this price of fourteen hundreddinars." Quoth she, "Come hither to me." So hecame up to her and when he drew near, she gave hima kick with her foot and cast him to the ground, saying,"I will not have that old man." The slave-dealer arose,shaking the dust from his clothes and head, and said,"Who biddeth more? Who is desirous [of buying?]"1 Princess of the Fail;

IIQuoth one of the merchants, "I," and the dealer saidto her, "O Sitt el Milan,shall I sell thee to thismerchant?" "Come hither to me," answered she; buthe said, "Nay; speakmy place, for I will not trust myselfand I will hearken to thee fromto thee." And shesaid, " I will not have him."Then he looked at her and seeing her eyes fixed onthe young Damascene, for that in very deed he hadravished her with his beauty and grace, went upto thelatter and said to him, " O my lord, art thou a looker-onor a buyer? Tell me." Quoth Noureddin, "I am bothlooker-on and buyer. Wilt thou sell me yonder slave-girlfor sixteen hundred dinars?" And he pulled out thepurse of gold. So the dealer returned, dancing andclapping his hands and saying, "So be it,so be it, or"not ![at all]Then he came to the damsel and saidto her, "O Sitt el Milan, shall I sell thee to yonderyoung Damascene for sixteen hundred dinars?" Butshe answered, "No," of shamefastness before her masterand the bystanders; whereupon the people of the bazaarand the slave-merchant departed, and Abou Nuwas andAli Noureddin arose and went each his own way, whilstthe damsel returned to her master's house,full of lovefor the young Damascene.When the night darkened on her, she called him tomind and her heart clave to him and sleep visited hernot; and on this wise she abode days and nights, tillshe sickened and abstained from food.So her lord wentin to her and said to her, "O Sitt el Milah, how fmdestthou thyself?" "O my lord," answered she," I am dead

12without recourse and I beseech thee to bring me myshroud, so I may look on it before my death." Therewithalhe went out from her, sore concerned for her, andbetook himself to a friend of his, a draper, who hadbeen present on the day when the damsel was cried[for sale]. Quoth his friend to him, " Why do I see theetroubled?" And he answered, "Sitt el Milah is at thepoint of death and these three daysshe hath neithereaten nor drunken. I questioned her to-day of her case'and she said, O my lord, buy me a shroud, so I maylook on it before my death.'" Quoth the draper, "Methinksnought ails her but that she is enamoured of theyoung Damascene and I counsel thee to mention hisname to her and avouch to her that he hath foregatheredwith thee on her account and is desirous of coming to thyhouse, so he may hear somewhat of her singing. If shesay, * I reck not of him, for there is that to do with mewhich distracteth me from the Damascene and from otherthan he,' know that she saith sooth concerning her sickness;but, if she say to thee other than this, acquaintme therewith,"So the man returned to his lodging and going in toslave-girl, said to her, " O Sitt el Milah,hisI went out onthine occasion and there met me the young man ofDamascus, and he saluted me and saluteth thee.Indeed, he seeketh to win thy favour and would fainbe a guest in our dwelling, so thou maystsomewhat of thy singing." When she heard speaklet him hearof theyoung Damascene, she gave a sob, that her soul was liketo depart her body, and answered, saying, " He knoweth

13my plight and is ware that these three days past I haveeaten not nor drunken, and I beseech thee, O my lord,by the Great God, to accomplish the stranger his dueand bring him to my lodging and make excuse to himfor me."When her master heard this, his reason fled for joy andhe went to his friend the draper and said to him, " Thouwast right in the matter of the damsel, for that she isenamoured of the young Damascene so;how shall I do ? "Quoth the other, " Go to the bazaar and when thou seesthim, salute him and say to him, ' Indeed, thy departurethe other day, without accomplishing thine occasion, wasgrievous to me ; so, if thou be still minded to buy thegirl, I will abate thee an hundred dinars of that whichthou badest for her, by way of hospitable entreatment ofthee and making myself agreeable to thee;for that thouart a stranger in our land.' If he say to thee, ' I haveno desire for her' and hold off from thee, know that hewill not buy; in which case, let me know, so I maycontrive thee another device ;and if he say to thee otherthan this, conceal not from me aughtSo the girl'sowner betook himself to the bazaar,where he found the youth seated at the upper end of themerchants' place of session, selling and buying and takingand giving, as he were the moon on the night of its full,and saluted him. The young man returned his salutationand he said to him, " O my lord, be not thou vexed at thegill's speech the other day, for her priceshall be lessthan that [which thou badest], to the intent that I maypropitiate thy favour. If thou desire her for nought, I

"4will send her to thee, or if thou wouldst have me abatethee of her price, I will well, for I desire noughtbut whatshall content thee ;for that thou art a stranger in ourland and it behoveth us to entreat thee hospitably andhave consideration"for thee." By Allah," answered theyouth,"I will not take her from thee but at an advanceon that which I bade thee for her aforetime ;so wilt thounow sell her to me for seventeen hundred dinars ? " Andthe other answered, " O my lord, I sell her to thee, mayGod bless thee in her."So the young man went to his lodging and fetchinga purse, returned to the girl's owner and counted out tohim the price aforesaid, whilst the draperwas betweenthem. Then said he, "Bring her forth;" but the otheranswered, "She cannot come forth at this present; butbe thou my guest the rest of this day and night, and onthe morrow thou shall take thy slave-girl and go in theprotection of God." The youth fell in with him of thisand he carried him to his house, where, after a little, helet bring meat and wine, and they [ate and] drank. Thensaid Noureddin to the girl's owner, " I beseech thee bringme the damsel, for that I bought her not but for the likeof this time." So he arose and [going in to the girl],gaid to her, " O Sitt el Milah, the young man hath paiddown thy price and we have bidden him hither; so hehath come to our dwelling and we have entertained him,and he would fain have thee be present with him."Therewithal the damsel rose briskly and putting ofiher clothes, washed and donned sumptuous apparel andperfumed herself and went out to him, as she were a

15willow-wand or a bamboo-cane, followed by a black slavegirl,bearing the lute. When she came to the young man,she saluted him and sat down by bis side. Then she tookthe lute from the slave-girl and tuning it,smote thereonin four-and-twenty modes, after which she returned to thefirst mode and sang the following verses :Unto me the world's whole gladness is thy nearness and thy sight ; Allincumbent thy possession and thy love a law of right.In my tears I have a witness ;when I call thee to my mind, Down mjcheeks they nut like torrents, and I cannot stay their flightNone, by Allah, 'mongst all creatures, none I love save thee alone !Yea,for I am grown thy bondman, by the troth betwixt us plightPeace upon thee 1 Ah, how bitter were the severance from thee ! Bnot this thy troth-plight's ending nor the last of our delight tTherewithal the young man was moved to delight andexclaimed, * By Allah, thou sayest well, O Sitt el Milah ILet me hear more." Then he handselled her with fiftydinars and they drank and the cups went round amongthem; and her seller said to her, "O Sitt el Milah, thisis the season of leave-taking ;so let us hear somewhaton the subject." Accordingly she struck the lute andavouching that which was in her heart, sang the followingverses :I am filled full of longing pain and memory and dole, That from thewasted body's wounds distract the anguished soulThink not, my lords, that I forget: the case is still the same. Whensuch a fever fills the heart, what leach can make it whole?And if a creature in his tears could swim, as in a sea, I to do this of allthat breathe were surely first and sole.

16Aiflker of the wine of woe, tarn fromlore-rick maid, Who drink*her tear* still, night tod morn, thy bitter -flavoured bowl.1 had not left you, had I known that severance would prove My death |bat what is past is past, Fate stoops to no control.As they were thus in the enjoyment of all that if mostdelicious of easance and delight, and indeed the wine wassweet to them and the talk pleasant, behold, there camea knocking at the door. So the master of the house wentout, that he might see what was to do, and found ten menof the Khalifs eunuchs at the door. When he saw this,he was amazed and said to them, "What is to do?* ;Quoth they, "The Commander of the Faithful saluteththee and requireth of thee the slave-girl whom thou hastfor sale and whose name is Sitt el Milan.*" By Allah,"answered the other, "I have sold her." And they said,"Swear by the head of the Commander of the Faithfulthat she is not in thy dwelling." He made oath that hehad sold her and that she was no longer at his disposal ;but they paid no need to his word and forcing theirway into the house, found the damsel and the youngDamascene in the sitting-chamber. So they laid handsupon her, and the youth said, "This ismy slave-girl,whom I have bought with my money." But theyhearkened not to his speech and taking her, carriedher offto the Commander of the Faithful.Therewithal Noureddin's life was troubled ;so he aroseand donned his clothes, and his host said, "Whitheraway this night, O my lord?" Quoth Noureddin, "Imean to go to my lodging, and to-morrow I will betake

17myself to the palace of the Commander of the Faithfuland demand my slave-girl" "Sleep till the morning,"said the other, "and go not forth at the like of thishour." But he answered, "Needs must I go;" and thehost said to him, "[Go] in the safeguardof God." SoNoureddin went forth, and drunkenness had got themastery of him, wherefore he threw himself down on [abench before one of] the shops. Now the watch wereat that hour making their round and they smelt thesweet scent [of essences] and wine that exhaled fromhim; so they made for it and found the youth lyingon the bench, without sense or motion. They pouredwater upon him, and he awoke, whereupon they carriedhim to the house of the Chief of the Police and hequestioned him of his affair. MO my lord," answeredNoureddin, " I am a stranger in this town and have beenwith one of my friends. So I came forth from hisHouse and drunkenness overcame me."The prefect bade carry him to his lodging ; but one ofthose in attendance upon him, by name 1 Muradi, saidto him, "What wilt thou do? This man is clad inrich clothes and on his finger is a ring of gold, thebeazel whereof is a ruby of great price jso we will carryhim away and slay him and take that which isuponhim of raiment [and what not else]and bringit tothee; for that thou wilt not [often] see profit the likethereof, more by token that this fellow is a stranger andthere is none to enquire concerning him." Quoth theprefect,"This fellow is a thief and that which he saithis leasing." And Noureddin said, "God forbid that IVOL. III.

18should be a thief!" But the prefect answered, "Thouliest." So they stripped him of his clothes and takingthe ring from his finger, beat him grievously, what whilehe cried out for succour, but none succoured him, andbesought protection, but none protected him. Then saidhe to them, "O folk, ye are quit of 1 that which yehave taken from me ;but now restore me to my lodging."But they answered, saying," Leave this knavery, O cheat !Thine intent is to sue us for thy clothes on the morrow.""By Allah, the One, the Eternal," exclaimed he, "Iwill not sue any for them I "But they said, "We cannowise do this." And the prefect bade them carry himto the Tigris and there slay him and cast him intothe river.So they dragged him away, what while he wept andspokethe words which whoso saith shall nowise be con-"founded, to wit, There is no power and no virtue save"in God the Most High, the Sublime I When they cameto theTigris, one of them drew the sword upon him andEl Muradi said to the swordbearer, " Smite off his head."But one of them, Ahmed by name, said, "O folk, dealgently with this poor wretch and slay him not unjustlyand wickedly, for I stand in fear of God the Most High,lest He burn me with his fire." Quoth El Muradi, "A"truce to this talk ! And Ahmed" said, If ye do with himaught, I will acquaint the Commander of the Faithful"" How, then, shall we do with him ? w asked they ;andhe answered, " Let us deposit him in prison and I will1 i/. Ye are welcome to.

19be answerable to you for his provision; so shall we bequit of his blood, for indeed he is wrongfully used." Sothey took him up and casting him into the Prison ofBlood, 1went away.Meanwhile, they carried the damsel into the Commanderof the Faithful and she pleased him; so he assignedher a lodging of the apartments of choice. Sheabode in the palace, eating not neither drinking andceasing not from weeping night nor day, till, one night,the Khalif sent for her to his sitting-chamber and saidto " her, O Sitt el Milah, be of good heart and cheerfuleye, for I will make thy rank higher than [any of] theconcubines and thou shalt see that which shall rejoicethee." She kissed the earth and wept; whereupon theKhalif called for her lute and bade her sing. So sheimprovised and sang the following verses, in accordancewith that which was in her heart :Say, by the lightnings of thy teeth and thy soul's pure desire, Moan'stthou as moan the doves and is thy heart for doubt on fire?How many a victim of the pangs of love-liking hath died 1 Tiredpatience, but of blame my censors never tire.is myWhen she had made an end of her song, she cast thelute from her hand and wepttill she swooned away,whereupon the Khalif bade carryher to her chamber.Now he was ravished with her and loved her with anexceeding love; so, after awhile, he again commandedto bring her to his presence, and when she came, he* ijt. the place in which those accused or convicted of crimes ofviolence were confined.

20bade her sing. Accordingly, she took the late and spokeforth that which was in her heart and sang the followingverses :What strength have I solicitude and long desire to bear? Why art thonpurposed to depart and leave me to despair?Why to estrangement and despite inclin'st thou with the spy? Yet thata bough 1 from tide to side incline 1 small wonder 'twere.Thon layst on me a load too great to bear, and thus thou dost But thatmy burdens I may bind and so towards thee fare.Then she cast the lute from her hand and swoonedaway;so she was carried to her chamber and indeedpassion waxed upon her. After a long while, the Commanderof the Faithful sent for her a third time andbade her sing. So she took the lute and sang thefollowing verses :hillsof the sands and the rugged piebald plain, Shall the bondmanof love win ever free from paint1 wonder, shall I and the friend who's far from m* Once more begranted of Fate to meet, we twain IBravo for a fawn with a honri's eye of black, Like the sun or the shiningmoon midst the starry train !To lovers, "What see ye?" he saith, and to hearts of stone, "Whatlove ye," quoth he, "[if to love me ye disdain?"]I supplicate Him, who parted us and doomed Our separation, that wemay meet again.When she had made an end of her song, the Corn-1 Lt. a youth slender and flexile as a bough.1 i.t. sway gracefully. A swimming gait is the ideal of elegance tothe Arab.

21mander of the Faithful said to her, "O damsel, thouart in love."" Yes," answered she. And he" said, Withwhom?" Quoth she, "With my lord and my master,my love for whom is as the love of the earth for rain,or as the love of the female for the male ;and indeedthe love of him is mingled with my flesh and my bloodand hath entered into the channels of my bones. OCommander of the Faithful, whenas I call him to mind,mine entrails are consumed, for that I have not accomplishedmy desire of him, and but that I fear to die,without seeing him, I would assuredly kill myself."And he said, "Art thou in my presence and bespeakestme with the like of these words ? I will assuredly makethee forget thy lord."Then he bade take her away ;so she was carried to herchamber and he sent her a black slave-girl, with a casket,wherein were three thousand dinars and a carcanet ofgold, set with pearls, great and small, and jewels, worthother three thousand, saying to her, " The slave-girl andthat which is with her are a gift from me to thee."When she heard this, she said, u God forbid that I shouldbe consoled for the love of my lord and my master, thoughwith the earth full of gold!" And she improvised andrecited the following verses :I swear by his life, yea, I swear by the life of my love without peer,To please him or save him from hurt, I'd enter the firewithoutfeu I" Console thou thyself for his love," quoth they, "with another thanhe ;" But, "Nay, by his life," answered I," I'll never forget him,my dear I"

22A moon is my love, in a robe of loveliness proudly arrayed, And thesplendours of new-broken day from his cheeks and his foreheadshine clear.Then the Khalif summoned her to his presence a fourthtime and said to " her, O Sitt el Milan, sing." So sheimprovised and sang the following verses :To his beloved one the lover's heart's inclined; His soul's a captiveslave, in sickness' hands confined." What is the taste of love ? " quoth one, and " I replied, Sweet water'tis at first ; but torment lurks behind."Love's slave, I keep my troth with them > but, when they vowed, Fatemade itself Urcoub, 1 whom never oath could bind.What is there in the tents? Their burdens are become A lover's, whosebelovM is in the litters 'shrined.In every halting-place like Joseph* she appears And he in every stead1with Jacob's grief is pined.When she had made an end of her song, she threw thelute from her hand and wepttill she swooned away.So they sprinkled on her rose-water, mingled with musk,and willow-flower water; and when she came to herself,Er Reshid said to her, " O Sitt el Milah, this is not fairdealing in thee. We love thee and thou lovest another."" O Commander of the Faithful," answered she," thereis no help for it" Therewithal he was wroth with her1An Arab of Medina, proverbial for faithlessness.* Josephis the Mohammedan prototype of beauty.*For the loss of Joseph. Jacob, in like manner, is the Muslim typeof inconsolable grief.

23and said, "By the virtue of Hemzeh* and Akil 1 andMohammed, Prince of the Apostles, if thou name oneother than I in my presence, I will bid strike off thy"head ! Then he bade return her to her chamber, whilstshe wept and recited the following verses :If I must die, then welcome death to heal My woes ;'twere lighter thanthe pangs I feel.What if the sabre cut me limb from limb INo torment 'twere for loverstrue and leal.Then the Khalif went in to the Lady Zubeideh, palewith anger, and she noted this in him and said to him,"How cometh it that I see the Commander of theFaithful changed of colour?" "O daughter of myuncle," answered he," I have a beautiful slave-girl,who reciteth verses and telleth stories, and she hathtaken my whole heart ;but she loveth other than I andavoucheth that she loveth her [former] master ;whereforeI have sworn a great oath that, if she come again to mysitting-chamber and sing for other than I, I will assuredlytake a span from her highest part."* Quoth Zubeideh," Let the Commander of the Faithful favour me with herpresence, so I may look on her and hear her singing."So he bade fetch her and she came, whereupon the LadyZubeideh withdrew behind the curtain, whereas she sawher not, and Er Reshid said to her," Sing to us."took the lute and tuning it, sang the following verses :So she* Uncle of the Prophet1 First cousin of the Prophet.1 i.e. cat off her head.

24Lo, since the day I left yon, O my masters. Life is not sweet, noaye my heart is light.Yea, in the night the thought of yon still slays me; Hidden aremy traces from the wise men's sight,All for a wild deer's love, whose looks hare snared me And oawhose brows the morning glitters brightI am become, for severance from my loved one, Like a left hand,forsaken of the rightBeauty on his cheek hath written, "Blest be Allah, He who createdthisenchanting wight!"Him I beseech our loves who hath dissevered, Us of his grace oncemore to reunite.When Er Reshid heard this, he waxed exceeding wrothand said," May God not reunite you twain in gladness 1 "Then he summoned the headsman, and when he presentedhimself, he said to him, "Strike off the head of thisaccursed slave-girl." So Mesrour took her by the handand [led her away ; but], when she came to the door, sheturned and said to the Khalif, "O Commander of theFaithful, I conjure thee, by thy fathers and forefathers,give ear unto that I shall say I" Then she improvisedand recited the following verses :O Amir of justice, be kind to thy subjects) Foe justice, indeed,of thy nature's a trait.O thou my inclining to love him that blamest, Shall lovers be blamedfor the errors of Fate?Then spare me, by Him who vouchsafed thee the kingship; Fota gift in this world is the regal estate.Then Mesrour carried her to the other end of the

35sitting-chamber and bound her eyes and making her sit,stood awaiting a second commandment ;whereupon quoththe Lady Zubeideh, " O Commander of the Faithful, withthy permission,wilt thou not vouchsafe this damsel ashare of thy clemency? Indeed, if thou sky her, it wereinjustice." Quoth he, "What is to be done with her?"And she said," Forbear to slay her and send for her lord.If he be as she describeth him in grace and goodliness,she is excused, and if he be not on this wise, then slayher, and this shall be thy justification against her." 1" Be it as thou deemest," answered Er Reshid and causedreturn the damsel to her chamber, saying to her, "TheLady Zubeideh saith thus and thus." Quoth she, " Godrequite her for me with good I Indeed, thou dealestequitably, O Commander of the Faithful, in this judgment."And he answered, "Go now to thy place, andto-morrow we will let bring thy lord." So she kissed theearth and recited the following verses :I am content, for him I lore, to all abide ; So, who will, let himblame, and who will, let him chide.At their appointed terms souls die but for ; despair My soul is liketo die, or ere its term betide.O thou with lore of whom I'm smitten, yet content, I prithee comato me and hasten to my side.Then she arose and returned to her chamber .On the morrow, the Commander of the Faithful sat[in his hall of audience]and his Vizierthe Barmecide came in to him; whereupon1When asked, on the Day of Judgment, whyJaafer ben Yehyahe called tohe had slain her.

26him, saying, "I would have thee bring me a youthwho is lately come to Baghdad, hight [Sidi NoureddinAli] the Damascene." Quoth Jaafer, "Hearkening andobedience," and going forth in quest of the youth, sentto the markets and khans and caravanserais three days'space, but found no trace of him, neither litupon tidingsof him. So on the fourth day he presented himself beforethe Khalif and said to him, "O our lord, I have soughthim these three days, but have not found him." QuothEr Reshid, " Make ready letters to Damascus. Belikehe hath returned to his own land." So Jaafer wrote aletter and despatcheditby a dromedary-courier to thecity of Damascus ;and they sought him there and foundhim not.Meanwhile, news was brought that Khorassan hadbeen conquered ;decorate*whereupon Er Reshid rejoiced and badeBaghdad and release all who were in the prisons,giving each of them a dinar and a dress. So Jaafer addressedhimself to the decoration of the city and badehis brother El Fezl ride to the prison and clothe andrelease the prisoners. El Fezl did his brother's biddingand released all but the young Damascene, who abodestill in the Prison of Blood, saying, "There is no powerand no virtue save in God the Most High, the Sublime !Verily, we are God's and to Him we return." Then saidEl Fezl to the gaoler," Is there any prisoner left in theprison ? " " No," answered he, and El Fezl was about1 i.t, that some one of the many risings in Khorassan (which wuin a chronic state of rebellion during Er Reshid' reign'i had been potdown.

27to depart, when Noureddin called out to him from withinthe prison, saying,"O my lord, tarry, for there remainethnone in the prison other than I and indeed I am oppressed.This is a day of clemency and there is nodisputing concerning it" El Fezl bade release him ; sothey set him free and he gave him a dress and a dinar.So the young man went out, bewildered and knowingnot whither he should go, for that he had abidden inthe prison nigh a year and indeed his condition waschanged and his favour faded, and he abode walkingand turning round, lest El Muradi should come uponhim and cast him into another calamity.When El Muradi heard of his release, he betook himselfto the chief of the police and said to him, " O our lord,we are not assured from yonder youth, [the Damascene],for that he hath been released from prison and we fearlest he complain of us." Quoth the prefect, " How shallwe do?" And El Muradi answered, saying, "I willcast him into a calamity for thee." Then he ceased notto follow the young Damascene from place to place tillhe came up with him in a strait place and a by-streetwithout an issue ; whereupon he accosted him and puttinga rope about his neck, cried out, saying, "A thief!"The folk flocked to him from all sides and fell to beatingand reviling Noureddin, whilst he cried out for succour,but none succoured him, and El Muradi still said to him,B But yesterday the Commander of the Faithful releasedthee and to-day thou stealestl" So the hearts of thefolk were hardened against him and El Muradi carriedhim to the master of police, who bade cut off his hand.

28Accordingly, the hangman took him and bringing outthe knife, offered to cut off his hand, what while ElMuradi said to him, "Cut and sever the bone and sear 1it not for him, so he may lose his blood and we berid of him." But Ahmed, he who had aforetime beenthe means of his deliverance, sprang up to him and said,"O folk, fear God in [your dealings with] this youth,for that I know his affair from first to last and he iivoid of offence and guiltless. Moreover, he is of thefolk of condition,1 and except ye desist from him, I willgo up to the Commander of the Faithful and acquainthim with the case from first to last and that the youthis guiltless of crime or offence." Quoth El Muradi," Indeed, we are not assured from his mischief." AndAhmed answered, "Release him and commit him tome and I will warrant you against his affair, for yeshall never see him again after this." So they deliveredNoureddin tohim and he took him from their hands andsaid to him, " O youth, have compassion on thyself,for indeed thou hast fallen into the hands of these folktwice and if they lay hold of thee a third time, theywill make an end of thee; and [in dealingthee], I aim at reward and recompense*answered prayer.**thus withfor thee' and1 Lit. fry.The custom is to sear the stump by plungingit intaboiling oiL1 Lit. of those having houses.fo. from God in the world to come.4 ijt. I look to get God'g favour in consequence of thy fervent prayenfor me.

29Noureddin fell to kissing his hand and calling downblessings on him and said to him, "Know that I ama stranger in this your city and the completion of kindnessis better than the beginning thereof; wherefore Ibeseech thee of thy favour that thou complete to methy good offices and kindness and bring me to thegate of the city. So will thy beneficence be accomplishedunto me and may God the Most High requite thee forme with good!" ["Fear not,"] answered Ahmed; "noharm shall betide thee. Go; I will bear thee companytill thou come to thy placeof assurance." And he lefthim not till he brought him to the gate of the cityand said to him, "O youth, go in the safeguard of Godand return not to the city ; for, if they fall in with thee[again], they will make an end of thee." Noureddinkissed his hand and going forth the city, gave not overwalking till he came to a mosque that stood in oneof the suburbs of Baghdad and entered therein withthe nightNow he had with him nought wherewithal he mightcover himself; so he wrapped himself up in one of therugs of the mosque [and abode thus till daybreak], whenthe Muezzins came and finding him sitting in that case,said to him, M O youth, what is this plight?" Quoth he,"I cast myself on your hospitality, imploring your pro.tection from a company of folk who seek to kill meunjustly and oppressively, without cause." And [one of]the Muezzin [s] said, "Be of goodheart and cheerfuleye.' Then he brought him old clothes and coveredhim withal; moreover, he set before him somewhat of

30meat and seeing upon him signs of gentle bleeding,said to him, "O my son, I growold and desire theeof help, [in return for which] I will do away thy"necessity." Hearkening and obedience, 1* answeredNoureddin and abode with the old man, who restedand took his ease, what while the youth [did hisservice in the mosque], celebrating the praisesof Godand calling the faithful to prayer and lighting the lampsand filling the ewers 1 and sweeping and cleaning outthe place.Meanwhile, the Lady Zubeideh, the wife of the Commanderof the Faithful, made a banquet in her palace andassembled her slave-girls. As for Sitt el Milan, she came,weeping-eyed and mournful-hearted, and those who werepresent blamed her for this, whereuponfollowing verses :she recited theYe chide at one who weepeth for troubles ever new ; Needs most th*afflicted warble the woes that make him rae.Except I be appointed a day [to end my pain], I'll weep ontil mineeyelids with blood their tears ensue,When she had made an end of her verses, the LadyZubeideh bade each damsel sing a song,till the turncame round to Sitt el Milah, whereuponshe took thelute and tuning it, sang thereto four-and-twenty songs infour-and-twenty modes; then she returned to the firstmode and sang the following verses :1 Provided for ablution.

Fortune its arrows all, through him I lore, let fly At me and parted rafrom him for whom I sigh.Lo, in my heart the heat of every heart burns high And inmine eyesunite the tears of every eye.When she had made an end of her song, she wept tillshe made the bystanders weep and the Lady Zubeidehcondoled with her and said to her, "God on thee, O Sittel Milah, sing us somewhat, so we may hearken to thee."" Hearkening and obedience," answered the damsel andsang the following verses :Assemble, ye people of passion, I pray ;For the hour of our tormenthath sounded to-day.The raveui of parting croaks loud at oar door} Alas, for our ravencleaves fast to us aye!For those whom we cherish are parted and gone ; They have left us intorment to pine for dismay.So arise, by your lives I conjure yon, arise And come let us fare to oarloved ones away.Then she cast the late from her hand and wepttill shemade the Lady Zubeideh weep, and she said to " her, OSitt el Milah, raethinks he whom thou lovest is not inthis world,for that the Commander of the Faithful hathsought him in every place, but hath not found him."Whereupon the damsel arose and kissing the LadyZubeideh's hands, said to " her, O my lady, if thou wouldsthave him found, I have a request to make to thee, whereinthou mayst accomplish my occasion with the Commander

3*of the Faithful." Quoth the princess, "And what is it?"" It is," answered Sitt el Milah, " that thou get me leaveto go forth by myself and go round about inquestof himthree days, for the adage saith, *She who mourneth forherself is not the like of her who is hired to mourn.' 1him before the CommanderIf I find him, I will bringof the Faithful, so he may do with us what he will; andif I find him not, I shall be cut off from hopeof himand that which is with me will be assuaged." Quoth theLady Zubeideh, " I will not get thee leave from him butfor a whole month ;so be of goodheart and cheerfuleye." Whereupon Sitt el Milah was glad and rising,kissed the earth before her once more and went away toher own place, rejoicing.As for Zubeideh, she went in to the Khalif and talkedwith him awhile ;then she fell to kissing him betweenthe eyes and on his hand and asked him that which shehad promised Sitt el Milah, saying, "O Commander ofthe Faithful, I doubt me her lord is not found in thisworld ;but, if she go about in quest of him and find himnot, her hopes will be cut off and her mind will be set atrest and she will sport and laugh ;for that, what while sheabideth in hope, she will never cease from her frowardness."And she gave not over cajoling him till he gaveSitt el Milah leave to goforth and make search for herlord a month's space and ordered her an eunuch to attendher and bade the paymaster [of the household] give herall she needed, were it a thousand dirhemsa day or more.1 i.. if you want a thing done, do it yourself.

33So the Lady Zubeideh arose and returning to her palace,sent for Sitt el Milan and acquainted her with that whichhad passed [between herself and the Khalif] ; whereuponshe kissed her hand and thanked her and called downblessings on her.Then she took leave of the princess and veiling herface, disguised herself; 1 after which she mounted themule and sallying forth, went round about seeking herlord in the thoroughfares of Baghdad three days' space,but lit on no tidings of him ;and on the fourth day, sherode forth without the city. Now it was the noontidehour and great was the heat, and she was aweary andthirst waxed upon her. Presently, she came to themosque, wherein the young Damascene had takenshelter, and lighting down at the door, said to the oldman, [the Muezzin], "O elder, hast thou a draught ofcold water? Indeed, I am overcome with heat andthirst" Quoth he, " [Come up] with me into my house."So he carried her up into his lodging and spreading her[a carpet and cushions], seated her [thereon] ;afterwhich he brought her cold water and she drank and saidto the eunuch, " Go thy ways with the mule and on themorrow come back to me here." [So he went away] andshe slept and rested herself.When she awoke, she said to the old man, " O elder,hast thou aught of food?" And he answered, MO mylady, I have bread and olives." Quoth she, "That is1 i*. put on the ordinary walking dress of the Eastern lady, whichcompletely hides the person.VOL. III. 3

34food fit but for the like of thee. As for me, I will havenoughtbut roast lamb and broths and fat rissoled fowlsand stuffed ducks and all manner meats dressed with[pounded nuts and almond-jkernels and sugar." "Omy lady," replied the Muezzin, "I never heard of thischapter in the Koran, nor was it revealed unto our lordMohammed, whom God bless and keep!" lShe laughedand said, "O elder, the matter is even as thou sayest ;but bring me inkhorn and paper." So he brought herwhat she sought and she wrote a letter and gave it to him,together with a seal-ring from her finger, saying, "Gointo the city and enquire for such an one the moneychangerand give him this my letter."The old man betook himself to the city, as she badehim, and enquired for the money-changer, to whom theydirected him. So he gave him the ring and the letter,which when he saw, he kissed the letter and breakingitopen, read it and apprehended its purport. Then herepaired to the market and buyingall that she badehim, laid it in a porter's basket and bade him go withthe old man. So the latter took him and went withhim to the mosque, where he relieved him of his burdenand carried the meats in to Sitt el Milah. She seatedhim by her side and they ate, he and she, of those1 This is apparently said in jest ;but the Muslim Puritan (suchas the strict Wehhabi) is often exceedingly punctilious in refusingto eat or use anything that is not sanctified by mention in the Koranor the Traditions of the Prophet, in the same spirit as the oldCalvinist Scotchwoman of popular tradition, who refused to eat"muffins, because they warna mentioned in the Bible,"

35ich meats, till they were satisfied, when the old mantose and removed the food from before her.She passed the night in his lodgingand when shearose in the morning, she said to him, " O elder, mayI not lack thy kind offices for the morning-meal I Goto the money-changer and fetch me from him the likeof yesterday's food." So he arose and betaking himselfto the money-changer, acquainted him with that whichshe had bidden him. The money-changer brought himall that she required and set it on the heads of porters;and the old man took them and returned with them toSitt el Milah. So she sat down with him and they atetheir sufficiency,after which he removed the rest ofthe food. Then she took the fruits and the flowersand setting them over against herself, wrought them intorings and knots and letters, whilst the old man lookedon at a thing whose like he had never in his life seenand rejoiced therein.Then said she to him, "O elder, I would fain drink."So he arose and brought her a gugglet of water; butshe said to him, "Who bade thee fetch that?" Quothhe, ** Saidst thou not to me, ' I would fain drink'?" Andshe answered, " I want not this ; nay, I want wine, thedelight of the soul, so haply, O elder, I may solacemyself therewith." "God forbid," exclaimed the oldman, "that wine should be drunk in my house, and Ia stranger in the land and a Muezzin and an imam, 1 whoprayeth with the true-believers, and a servant of the> to. * leader (lit. foreman, antiites) of the people at prayer.

36house of the Lord of the Worlds!" Quoth she, "Whywilt thou forbid me to drink thereof in thy house?""Because," answered he, "it is unlawful" "O elder,"rejoined she, "God hath forbidden [the eating of] bloodand carrion and hog's flesh. Tell me, are grapes andhoney lawful or unlawful?" Quoth he, "They arelawful;" and she said, "This is the juice of grapes andthe water of honey." But he answered, "Leave this thytalk, for thou shalt never drink wine in my house." "OSheikh," rejoined she, "folk eat and drink and enjoythemselves and we are of the number of the folk andGod isvery forgiving, clement." 1 Quoth he, "This isa thing that may not be." And she said, "Hast thounot heard what the poetthe following verses:saith ....?" And she recitedO son of Simeon, give no ear to other than my say. How bitterfrom the convent 'twas to part and fare away!Ay, and the monks, for on the Dayof Palms a fawn there wasAmong the servants of the church, a leveling blithe and gay.By God, how pleasant was the night we 'passed, with him forthird! Muslim and Jew and Nazarene, we sported till the day.The wine was sweet to us to drink in pleasance and repose, Andin a garden of the garths of Paradise we lay,Whose streams beneath the myrtle's shade and cassia's welled amainAnd birds made carol jubilantfrom every blossomed spray.Quoth he, what while from out his hair the morning glimmered whire,"This, this is life indeed, except, alas I it doth not stay "1Koran il 1 68.

37"0 elder," added she, "if Muslims and Jews andNazarenes drink wine, who are we [thatwe shouldabstain from it]?" "By Allah, O my lady," answeredhe, "spare thine endeavour, for this is a thingto whichI will not hearken." When she knew that he would notconsent to her desire, she said to him, " O elder, I amof the slave-girls of the Commander of the Faithfuland the food waxeth on me 1 and if I drink not, I shallperish, 1 nor wilt thou be assured against the issue of myaffair. As for me, I am quit of blame towards thee,for that I have made myself known to thee and havebidden thee beware of the wrath of the Commander ofthe Faithful"When the old man heard her words and that wherewithshe menaced him, he arose and went out,perplexed andknowing not what he should do, and there met him aJew, who was his neighbour, and said to him, "OSheikh, how cometh it that I see thee strait of breast?Moreover, I hear in thy house a noise of talk, such asI use not to hear with thee." Quoth the Muezzin,"Yonder is a damsel who avouch eth that she is of theslave-girlsof the Commander of the Faithful Harouner Reshid; and she hath eaten food and now wouldfain drink wine in my house, but I forbade her. Howevershe avoucheth that except she drink thereof, shewill perish, and indeed I am bewildered concerning my1 i.e. 1 have eaten largely and the food lies heavy on my stomach.'Wine is considered by the Arabs a sovereign digestive. See my"Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night,'* Vol. IV. p. 357.

affair." "Know, O my neighbour," answered the Jew,"that the slave-girls of the Commander of the Faithfulare used to drink wine, and whenas they eat and drinknot, they perish; and I fear lest some mishap betideher,in which case thou wouldst not be safe from theKhalifs wrath." "What is to be done?" asked theSheikh ;and the Jew replied, " I have old wine thatwill suit her." Quoth the old man, "[I conjure thee]by the right of neighbourship, deliver me from thiscalamity and let me have that which is with thee!"" In the name of God," answered the Jew and goingto his house, brought out a flagon of wine, with whichthe Sheikh returned to Sitt el Milan. This pleased herand she said to him, "Whence hadst thou this?" "Igot it from my neighbour the Jew," answered he, ** I setout to him my case with thee and he gave me this."Sitt el Milah filled a cup and emptied it; after whichshe drank a second and a third. Then she filled thecup a fourth time and handed it to the old man, but hewould not acceptit from her. However, she conjuredhim, byher own head and that of the Commander of theFaithful, that he should take it from her, till he took thecup from her hand and kissed it and would have set itdown; but she conjured him by her life to smell itSo he smelt it and she said to him, "How deemestthou?" "Its smell is sweet," replied he; and she conjuredhim, by the life of the Commander of the Faithful,to taste itSo he put it to his mouth and she rose to himand made him drink; whereupon, "O princess of thefair," said he, " this is none other than good."Quoth she,

39"So deem I. Hath not our Lord promised us wine inParadise?" And he answered, "Yes. Quoththe MostHigh, 'And rivers of wine, a delight to the drinkers.' 1And we will drink it in this world and the world tocome." She laughed and emptying the cup, gave himto drink, and he said, "O princess of the fair, indeedthou art excusable in thyfrom her another and another, tillhis talk waxed great and his prate.The folk of thelove for this." Then he tookhe became drunken andquarter heard him and assembled underthe window ;and when he was ware of them, he openedthe window and said to them, "Are ye not ashamed,O pimps? Every one in his own house doth what hewill and none hindereth him ;but we drink one poor dayand ye assemble and come, cuckoldy varlets that ye are 1To-day, wine, and to-morrow [another] matter; and fromhour to hour [cometh] relief." So they laughed anddispersed. Then the girl drank till she was intoxicated,when she called to mind her lord and wept, and the oldman said to her, " What maketh thee weep, O my lady ? ""O elder," replied she, "I am a lover and separated[from him I love]." Quoth he, " O my lady, what is thislove?" "And thou," asked she, "hast thou never beenin love ? " " By Allah, O my lady," answered he," neverin allmy life heard I of this thing,nor have I ever known* "The similitude of Paradise, the which itpromised unto thosewho fear [God]. Therein are rivers of water incorruptible and rivenof milk, the tastewhereof changeth not, and rivers of wine, a delightto the drinkers, and riven of clarified honey." Koran xlvii. 16, 17.

40it! Is it of the sons of Adam or of the Jinn?" Shelaughed and said, "Verily,whom the poet speaketh,she repeated the following verses :thou art even as those ofwhen as he saith . . . ." AndHow long will ye admonished be, withoutTfl or heed? The shepherdstill his flocks forbids, and they obey his rede.I see you like onto mankind in favour and in form ;But oxen,1 verily,ye are in fashion and in deed.The old man laughed at her speech and her versespleased him. Then said she to him, "I desire of theea lute." " So he arose and brought her a piece of firewood.Quoth she, "What is that?" And he said,"Didst thou not bid me bring thee wood?" "I donot want this," answered she, and he rejoined, "Whatthen is it that is called wood, other than this?" Shelaughed and said, "The lute is an instrument of music,whereunto I sing." Quoth he, "Where is this thingfound and of whom shall I getit for thee?" And shesaid, "Of him who gave thee the wine." So he aroseand betaking himself to his neighbour the Jew, said tohim, " Thou favouredst us aforetime with the wine ;sonow complete thy favours and look me out a thing calleda lute, to wit, an instrument for singing;for that sheseeketh this of me and I know it not." "Hearkeningand obedience," replied the Jew and going into his house,brought him a lute. [Theold man took it and carried* The ox is the Arab type of stupidity, u with us the as*.Syn. wood

41it to Sitt el Milah,] whilst the Jewtook his drink andsat by a window adjoining the other's house, so he mighthear the singing.The damsel rejoiced, when the old man returned toher with the lute, and taking it from him, tuned itsstringsand sang the following verses:After your loss, nor trace of me nor vestige would remain, Did not thehope of union some whit my strength sustain.Ve're gone and desolated by your absence is the world : Requital, ay,or substitute to seek for you 'twere Tain.Ye, of your strength, have burdened me, upon my weakliness, Withburdens not to be endured of mountain nor of plain.When from your land the breeze I scent that cometh, as I were Areveller bemused with wine, to lose my wits I'm fain.Love no light matter is, O folk, nor are the woe and care And blamelittle thing to brook that unto it pertain.I wander seeking East and West for you, and every ftTH? Unto a campI come, I'm told," They've fared away again."My friends have not accustomed me to rigour ;for, of old, When I forlookthem, they to seek accord did not disdain.When she had made an end of her song, she weptsore, till presently sleep overcame her and she slept.On the morrow, she said to the old man, "Get theeto the money-changer and fetch me the ordinary." Sohe repaired to the money-changer and delivered him themessage, whereupon he made ready meat and drink, asof his wont, [with which the old man returned to thedamsel and they ate tillthey had enough. When she

43had eaten,] she soughtof him wine and he went tothe Jew and fetched it Then they sat down and drank jand when she grew drunken, she took the lute andsmiting it, fell a-singing and chanted the followingverses:How long shall I thus question my heart that's drowned in woe? Fmmute for my complaining ;but tears speak, as they flow.They have forbid their image to visit me in sleep ; So even my nightlyphantom forsake th me, heigh o!And when she had made an end of her song, she weptsore.All this time, the young Damascene was hearkening, andwhiles he likened her voice to that of his slave-girl andwhiles he put away from him this thought, and the damselhad no whit of knowledge of him. Then she broke outagain into song and chanted the following verses :M Forget him," quoth my censurers, " forget him ;what is he?" "If Iforget him, ne'er may God," quoth I, " remember me 1"Now God forbid a slave forget his liege lord's love I And how Of allthings in the world should I forget the love of thee ?Pardon of God for everything I crave, except thy love, For on the dayof meeting Him, that will my good deed be.Then she drank three cups and fillingthree, sang the following verses :the old man otherHis love he'd have hid, but bis tears denounced him to the spy,For the heat of a red-hot coal that 'twixt his ribs did lie.

43Suppose for distraction he seek in the Spring and its blooms one day,The face of his loved one holds the only Spring for his eye.O blamer of me for the love of him who denieth his grace, Which bethe delightsome of things, but those which the people deny ?A son [is my love ;] but his heat in mine entrails still rageth, concealed;A moon, in the hearts of the folk he riseth, and not in the sky.When she had made an end of her song, she threwthe lute from her hand and wept, whilst the old manwept for her weeping. Then she fell down in a swoonand presently coming to herself, filled the cup anddrinking it off, gave the old man to drink, after whichshe took the lute and breaking out into song, chantedthe following verses :Thy loss in the fairest of all my heart's woes; My cue it hathaltered and banished repose.The world isupon me all desolate grown. Alack, my long griefand forlornnessl Who knowsBat the Merciful yet may incline thee to me And unite as again,in despite of oar foes 1Then she wept till her voice rose high and her lamentationwas discovered [to those without] ;after which sheagain began to drink and plying the old man with wine,sang the following verses :They hare shut oat thy person from my sight j Theycannot shutthy memory from my spright.Favour or floator despite.me, still my soul shall be Thy ransom, in contentment

44My outward of mytells aright 1inward testifiesAnd tkit bean witness that thaiWhen she had made an end of her song, she threwthe lute from her hand and wept and lamented. Thenshe slept awhile and presently awaking, said, uO elder,hast thou what we may eat ? " " O my lady," answeredthe old man, " "there is the rest of the food ; but shesaid, "I will not eat of a thing I have left. Go downto the market and fetch us what we may eat" Quoth he,w Excuse me, O my lady ;I cannot stand up, for that I amovercome with wine ;but with me is the servant of themosque, who is a sharp youth and an intelligent. I willcall him, so he may buy thee that which thou desirest.""Whence hast thou this servant?" asked she; and hereplied, "He is of the people of Damascus." Whenshe heard him speak of the people of Damascus, shegave a sob, that she swooned away; and when she cameto herself, she said, 'Woe's me for the people ofDamascus and for those who are therein ! Call him, Oelder, that he may do our occasions."So the old man put his head forth of the window andcalled the youth, who came to him from the mosque andsought leave [to enter]. The Muezzin bade him enter,and when he came in to the damsel, he knew her andshe knew him ; whereupon he turned back in bewilder-1 i.i. my pallor and emaciation testify to the affliction of my heartand the latter bears witness that the external symptoms correctly indicatethe internal malady.

45ment and would have fled; but she sprang up to himand seized him, and they embraced and wept together,tillthey fell down on the ground in a swoon. Whenthe old man saw them in this plight, he feared for himselfand fled forth, seeing not the way for drunkenness.His neighbour the Jew met him and said to him, " Howcomes it that I see thee confounded?" "How shouldI not be confounded," answered the old man, "seeingthat the damsel who is with me is fallen in love withthe servant of the mosque and they have embraced andfallen down in a swoon? Indeed, I fear lest the Khalifcome to know of this and be wroth with me ;so tell methou what is to be done in this wherewith I am afflictedof the affair of this damsel." Quoth the Jew, " For thenonce, take this casting-bottle of rose-water and go forthrightand sprinkle them therewith. If theybe aswoonfor this their foregathering and embracement, they willcome to themselves, and if otherwise, do thou flee."The old man took the casting-bottle from the Jewand going up to Noureddin and the damsel, sprinkledtheir faces, whereupon they came to themselves and fellto relating to each other that which they had suffered,since their separation, for the anguishof severance.Moreover, Noureddin acquainted Sitt el Milah with thatwhich he had endured from the folk who would haveslain him and made away with him; and she said tohim, "O my lord, let us presently give over this talkand praise God for reunion of loves, and all this shallcease from us." Then she gave him the cupand heaid, " By Allah, I will nowise drink it, whilst I am in

"this plight!46So she drank itoff before him and takingthe lute, swept the strings and sang the following verses :Thou that wast absent from my stead, yet still with me didst bide, Themwast remove^ from mine eye, yet still wast by my side.Thou left'st unto me, after thee, languor and carefulness ;I lived a lifewherein no jot of sweetness I espied.For thy sweet sake, as 'twere, indeed, an exile I had been, Lone anddeserted I became, lamenting, weeping-eyed.Alack, my grief!Thou wast, indeed, grown absent from my riew, Yetart the apple of mine eye nor couldst from me divide.When she had made an end of her song, she weptand Noureddin wept also. Then she took the lute andimprovised and sang the following verses :God knows I ne'er recalled thy memory to my thought, But still withbrimming tears straightway mine eyes were fraught ;Yea, passion raged in me and love-longing was like To slay me ; yetmy heart to solace still it wrought.Light of mine eyes, my hope, my wish, my thirsting eyes Wiib lookingon thy face can never sate their drought.When Noureddin heard these his slave-girl's verses,he fell a-weeping, what while she strained him to herbosom and wiped away his tears with her sleeve andquestioned him and comforted his mind. Then she tookthe lute and sweepingits strings, played thereon, aftersuch a wise as would move the phlegmatic to delight,and sang the following verses :

47Whenas mine eyes behold thee not, that day As of mylife I do notreckon aye ;And when I long to look upon thy face, My life is perished with desucstraightway.On this wise they abode till the morning, tasting notthe savour of sleep ;and when the day lightened, behold,the eunuch came with the mule and said to Sitt el Milah," The Commander of the Faithful calleth for thee." Soshe arose and taking her lord by the hand, committed"him to the old man, saying, I commend him to thycare, under God, 1 till this eunuch cometh to thee ;andindeed, O elder, I owe thee favour and largesse suchas filleth the interspace betwixt heaven and earth."Then she mounted the mule and repairing to the palaceof the Commander of the Faithful, went in to him andkissed the earth before him. Quoth he to her, as whoshould make mock of her, "I doubt not but thou hastfound" thy lord." By thy felicity and the length ofthy continuance "[on life,] answered " she, I have indeed"found him ! Now Er Reshid was leaning back ; but,when he heard this, he sat up and said to her," Bymy life, [is this thou sayest] true ? " " Ay, by thy life 1 "answered she ;and he said," Bring him into my presence,so I may see him." But she replied, " O my lord, therehave betided him many stresses and his charms arechanged and his favour faded ;and indeed the Commanderof the Faithful vouchsafed me a month ; whereforeI will tend him the rest of the month and then1Lit he is [first] the deposit of God, then thy deposit.

48bring him to do his service to the Commander of theFaithful." Quoth Er Reshid, "True; the condition wafor a month ;but tell me what hath betided him.""Omy lord," answered she, "may God prolong thy continuanceand make Paradise thy place of returning andthy harbourage and the fire the abiding-place of thineenemies, when he presenteth himself to pay his respectsto thee, he will expound to thee his case and will nameunto thee those who have wronged him; and indeedthis is an arrear that is due to the Commander of theFaithful, in 1 whom may God fortify the Faith andvouchsafe him the mastery"froward 1over the rebel and theTherewithal he ordered her a handsome house andbade furnish it with carpets and other furniture andvessels of choice and commanded that all she neededshould be given her. This was done during the rest ofthe day, and when the night came, she despatched theeunuch with the mule and a suit of clothes, to fetchNoureddin from the Muezzin's lodging. So the youngman donned the clothes and mounting, rode to the house,where he abode in luxury and delight a full-told month,what while she solaced him with four things, to wit, theeating of fowls and the drinking of wine and the lyingupon brocade and the entering the bath after copulation.Moreover, she brought him six suits of clothes and fellto changing his apparel day by day; nor was the appointedtime accomplished ere his beauty returned to1Or "by.'

49him and his goodliness; nay, his charms waxed tenfoldand he became a ravishment to all who looked on him.One day the Commander of the Faithful bade bringnim to the presence ;so his slave-girl changed his raimentand clothing him in sumptuous apparel, mounted him onthe mule. Then he rode to the palace and presentinghimself before the Khalif, saluted him with the goodliestof salutations and bespoke him with eloquent and deepthoughtedspeech. When Er Reshid saw him, he marvelledat the goodliness of his favour and his eloquenceand the readiness of his speech and enquiring of him,was told that he was Sitt el Milah's lord; whereuponquoth he, " Indeed, she is excusable in her love for him,and if we had put her to death unrighteously, as we wereminded to do, her blood would have been upon ourheads." Then he turned to the young man and enteringinto discourse with him, found him well bred, intelligent,quick of wit and apprehension, generous, pleasant,elegant, erudite. So he loved him with an exceedinglove and questioned him of his native city and of hisfather and of the manner of his journey to Baghdad.Noureddin acquainted him with that which he wouldknow in the goodliest of words and with the concisestof expressions ;and the Khalif said to him, " And wherehast thou been absent all this while? Indeed, we sentafter thee to Damascus and Mosul and other the towns,but lit on no tidings of thee." "O my lord," answeredthe young man, "there betided thy slave in thy citythat which never yet betided any." And he acquaintedhim with his case from first to last and told him thatVOL. Ill

50which had befallen him of evil [fromEl Muradi and hiscrew].When Er Reshid heard this, he was sore chagrined andwaxed exceeding wroth and said," Shall this happenin a city wherein I am ? " And the Hashimi vein l startedout between his eyes. Then he bade fetch Jaafer, andwhen he came before him, he acquainted him with thematter and said to him, " Shall this come to pass in mycity and I have no news of it?" Then he bade Jaaferfetch all whom the young Damascene had named [ashaving maltreated him], and when they came, he let smiteMoreover, he summoned him whom theycalled Ahmed and who had been the means of the youngoff their heads.man's deliverance a first time and a second, and thankedhim and showed him favour and bestowed on him asumptuousdress of honour and invested him with thegovernance over his city.*Then he sent for the old man, the Muezzin, and whenthe messenger came to him and told him that theCommander of the Faithful sought him, he feared thedenunciation of the damsel and accompanied him tothe palace, walking and letting wind* as he went, whilstall who passed him by laughed at him. When he cameinto the presence of the Commander of the Faithful,he fell a-trembling and his tongue was embarrassed,1 See supra, Vol. L p. 35, note.1 i.e. made him Chief of the Police of Baghdad, in placeof theformer Prefect, whom he had put to death with the rest of Nouredd in'oppressors.* For affright

.sendingSi[so that he could not speak]. The Khalif laughed athim and said to him, "O elder, them hast done nooffence ; so [why] fearest thou ? " " O my lord," answeredthe old man (and indeed he was in the sorest of thatwhich may be of fear,) '* by the virtue of thy pure forefathers,indeed Iof my conduct."have done nought, and do thou enquireThe Khalif laughed at him and orderinghim a thousand dinars, bestowed on him a sumptuousdress of honour and made him chief of the Muezzinsin his mosque.Then he called Sitt el Milah and said to her, "Thehouse [wherein thou lodgest] and that which is thereinfa a guerdon [from me] to thy lord. So do thou takehim and depart with him in the safeguard of God theMost High ;but absent not yourselves from our presence."[So she went forth with Noureddin and] when she cameto the house, she found that the Commander of theFaithful had sent them gifts galore and abundance ofgood things. As for Noureddin, he sent for his fatheiand mother and appointed him agents and factors in thecity of Damascus, to take the rent of the houses andgardens and khans and baths; and they occupied themselveswith collecting that which accrued to him andit to him every year. Meanwhile, his father andmother came to him, with that which they had of moniesand treasures and merchandise, and foregathering withtheir son, saw that he was become of the chief officersthe Commander of the Faithful and of the number of hissession-mates and entertainers, wherefore they rejoiced inreunion with him and he also rejoiced in them.of

5*The Khalif assigned them pensions and allowances;and as for Noureddin, his father brought him those richesand his wealth waxed and his case was goodly,till hebecame the richest of the folk of his time in Baghdadand left not the presenceof the Commander of theFaithful night or day. Moreover, he was vouchsafedchildren by Sitt el Milah, and he ceased not to livethe most delightsome of lives, he and she and hisfatherand mother, a while of time, till Aboulhusn sickenedof a sore sickness and was admitted to the mercy ofGod the Most High. After awhile, his mother died alsoand he carried them forth and shrouded them and buriedand made them expiations and nativities. 1 Then hischildren grew up and became like unto moons, and hereared them in splendour and fondness, what while hiswealth waxed and his case flourished. He ceased notto pay frequent visits to the Commander of the Faithful,he and his children and his slave-girl Sitt el Milah, andthey abode, he and they, in all solace of life andprosperity till there came to them the Destroyer ofDelights and the Sunderer of Companies; and extolledbe the perfection of the Abiding One, the Eternal I Thisis all that hath come down to us of their story.1 ie. religious ceremonies so called. See my w Book of the ThousandNights and One Night." VoL IX. p.113, note


EL ABBAS AND THE KING'SBAGHDAD. 1DAUGHTER OFThere was once, of old days and in bygone ages andtimes, in the city of Baghdad, the Abode of Peace,a king mighty of estate, lord of understanding andbeneficence and liberality and generosity, and he wasstrong of sultanate and endowed with might and majestyand magnificence. His name was Ins ben Cais benRebiya es Sheibani," and when he took horse, there rodeunto him [warriors] from the farthest parts of the twoIraks. God the Most High decreed that he should taketo wife a woman hight Afifeh, daughter of Ased esSundusi, who was endowed with beauty and grace andbrightness and perfection and justness of shape andBreslau Text, Tol. xii. pp. 116-237, Nights dcccclxtri-dcccclxxlx.1 i*. A member of the tribe of Sheiban. No such King of Baghdad(which was not founded till the eighth century) as Ins ben Cais is, Ibelieve, known to history.'The cities and provinces of Bassora and Cufa are generally knownas " The Two Iraks " ;but the name is here in all probability used in itawider meaning of Irak Arabi (Chaldaa) and Irak Farsi (Persian Irak).

56symmetry; her face was like unto the new moon andshe had eyes as they were gazelle's eyes and an aquilinenose like the crescent moon. She had learned horsemanshipand the use of arms and had thoroughly studiedthe sciences of the Arabs j moreover, she had gottenby heart all the dragomanish 1 tongues and indeed shewas a ravishment to mankind.She abode with Ins ben Cais twelve years, during whichtime he was blessed with no children by her; whereforehis breast was straitened, by reason of the failure oflineage, and he besought his Lord to vouchsafe him achild. Accordingly the queen conceived, by permissionof God the Most High ;and when the dayspregnancy were accomplished, she gaveof herbirth to a maidchild,than whom never saw eyes a goodlier, for that herface was as it were a pure pearl or a shining lamp ora golden 1 candle or a full moon breaking forth of a cloud,extolled be the perfection of Him who created her fromvile water* and made her a delight to the beholders !When her father saw her on this wise of loveliness, hisreason fled for joy, and when she grew up, he taughther the art of writing and polite letters 4 and philosophyand all manner of tongues. So she excelled the folk of1 i.e. all those languages the knowledge whereof is necessary to aninterpreter or dragoman (properly terjeman). Or quareis the wordterjemaniyeh(Turcoman).1 ie. gilded?* i,e.sperma hominia.4 Syn. good breeding.(dragomanish) here a mistranscription for turkumaniyck

57her time and overpassed her peers ;and the sons ofthe kings heard of her and all of them desired to lookupon her.The first who sought her in marriage wasof Mosul, who came to her with a greatKing Nebhancompany, bringingwith him an hundred she-camels laden with musk andaloes-wood and ambergris and as many laden withcamphor and jewels and other hundred laden with silvermoney and yet other hundred laden with raiment of silkenand other stuffs and brocade, besides an hundred slavegirlsand an hundred magnificent horses of swift andgenerous breeds, completely housed and accoutred, asthey were brides; and all this he laid before her father,demanding her of him in marriage. Now King Ins benan oath that he would notCais had bound himself bymany his daughter but to him whom she should choose ;so, when King Nebhan sought her in marriage, her fatherwent in to her and consulted her concerning his affair.She consented not and he repeated to Nebhan that whichshe said, whereupon he departed from him. After thiscame King Behram, lord of the White Island, with richesmore than the first; but she accepted not of him andhe returned, disappointed ;nor did the kings give overcoming to her father, on her account, one after other,from the farthest of the lands and the climes, eachglorying in more 1 than those who forewent him ;but shepaid no heed unto any of one them.1 i*. those women of equal age and rank with herself.' i.e.vaunting himself of offering richer presents.

58Presently, El Abbas, son of King El Aziz, lord of theland of Yemen and Zebidoun 1 and Mecca (which Godincrease in honour and brightness and beauty!), heardof her ;and he was of the great ones of Mecca and theHejaz 1 and was a youth without hair on his cheeks.So he presented himself one day in his father's sittingchamber,'whereupon the folk made wayfor him and theking seated him on a chair of red gold, set with pearlsand jewels. The prince sat, with his head bowed to theground, and spoke not to any ; whereby his father knewthat his breast was straitened and bade the boon-companionsand men of wit relate marvellous histories, suchas beseem the assemblies of kings ;nor was there one ofthem but spoke forth the goodliest of that which was withhim ;but El Abbas still abode with his head bowed down.Then the king bade his session-mates withdraw, and whenthe chamber was void, he looked at his son and saidto him, "By Allah, thou rejoicest me with thy comingin to me and chagrinest me for that thou payest no heedto any of the session-mates noi of the boon-companions.What is the cause of this ? ""O father mine," answered the prince, "I have heardtell that in the land of Irak is a woman of the daughters1 Apparently Zebid, the ancient capital of the province of Tehamehin Yemen, a town on the Red Sea, about sixty miles north of Mocha.The copyist of the Tunis MS. appears to have written the name withthe addition of the characteristic desinence (oun) of the nominative cue,which isdropped except in the Koran and in poetry.1Name of the province in whicu Mecca is situated.Sy n. assembly.

59of tne kings, and her father is called King Ins ben Cais,lord of Baghdad; she is renowned for beauty and graceand brightness and perfection, and indeed folk havemanysought her in marriage of the kings; but her soul consentednot unto any one of them. Wherefore I amminded to travel to her, for that my heart cleaveth untoher, and I beseech thee suffer me to go to her." "O myson," answered his father, "thou knowest that I havenone other than thyself of children and thou art thesolace of mine eyes and the fruit of mine entrails; nay,I cannot brook to be parted from thee an instant and Ipurpose to set thee on the throne of the kingship andmarry thee to one of the daughters of the kings, whoshall be fairer than she." El Abbas gave ear to bisfather's word and dared not gainsay him; so he abodewith him awhile, whilst the fire raged in his entrails.Then the king took counsel with himself to build hisson a bath and adorn it with various paintings, so hemight show it to him and divert him with the sightthereof, to the intent that his body might be solacedthereby and that the obsession of travel might cease fromhim and he be turned from [his purpose of] removal fromhis parents. So he addressed himself to the buildingof the bath and assembling architects and builders andartisans from all the towns and citadels and islands [ofhis dominions], assignedthem a site and marked out itsboundaries. Then the workmen occupied themselveswith the making of the bath and the settingout andadornment of its cabinets and roofs. They used paintsand precious stones of all kinds, accordingto tha

60variousness of their hues, red and green and blue andyellow and what not else of all manner colours ;and eachartisan wrought at his handicraft and each painter at hisart, whilst the rest of the folk busied themselves withtransporting thither varicoloured stones.One day, as the [chief] painter wrought at his work,there came in to him a poor man, who looked long uponhim and observed his handicraft; whereupon quoth thepainter to him, "Knowest thou aught of painting?""Yes," answered the stranger; so he gave him toolsand paints and said to him, "Make us a rare piece ofwork." So the stranger entered one of the chambersof the bath and drew [on the walls thereof] a doubleborder, which he adorned on both sides, after a fashionthan which never saw eyes a fairer.Moreover, [amiddlewardthe chamber] he drew a picture to which therekcked but the breath, and it was the portraiture ofMariyeh, the king's daughter of Baghdad. Then, whenhe had made an end of the portrait, he went his way[and told none of what he had done], nor knew anythe chambers and doors of the bath and the adornmentand ordinance thereof.Presently, the chief workman came to the palace andsought an audience of the king, who bade admit him.So he entered and kissing the earth, saluted him witha salutation beseeming kings and said, "O king of thetime and lord of the age and the day, may felicity endureunto thee and acceptance and be thy rank exalted overall the kings both 1morning and eveningI The work1 i.e.day and night, to wit, for ever.

6iof the bath isaccomplished, by the king's fair fortuneand the eminence of his magnanimity, 1 and indeed wehave done all that behoved us and there remaineth butthat which behoveth the king." El Aziz ordered hima sumptuous dress of honour and expended monies galore,giving unto each who had wroughten, after the measureof his work. Then he assembled in the bath all thegrandees of his state, amirs and viziers and chamberlainsand lieutenants, and the chief officers of his realm andhousehold, and sending for his son El Abbas,said tohim, "O my son, I have builded thee a bath, whereinthou mayst take thy pleasance; so enter thou therein,that thou mayst see it and divert thyself by gazing uponit and viewing the goodliness of its ordinance and decoration.""With allmy heart," replied the prince andentered the bath, he and the king and the folk aboutthem, so they might divert themselves with viewing thatwhich the workmen's hands had wroughten.El Abbas went in and passed from place to place andchamber to chamber,till he came to the chamber aforesaidand espied the portrait of Mariyeh, whereupon hefell down in a swoon and theworkmen went to his fatherand said to him, " Thy son El Abbas hath swooned away."So the king came and finding the prince cast down, seatedhimself at his head and bathed his face with rose-water.After awhile he revived and the king said to him, " Godkeep thee,' O my sont What hath befallen thee?"1 Syn. the loftiness of his purpose.* Lit " I charm thee by invoking the aid of God for thee againstvil" orI seek refuge with God for thse."

62"O my father," answered the prince," I did but look onyonder picture and itbequeathed me a thousand regretsand there befell me that which thou seest" Therewithalthe king bade fetch the [chief] painter, and when hestood before him, he said to him, "Tell me of yonderportrait and what girl is this of the daughters of thekings ;else will I take thy head."" By Allah, O king,"answered the" painter, I limned it not, neither knowI who she is; but there came to me a poor man andlooked at me. So I said to him, ' Knowest thou the artof painting ? ' And he replied, ' Yes.' Whereupon I gavehim the gear and said to him, ' Make us a rare piece ofwork.' So he wrought yonder portrait and went awayand I know him not neither have I ever set eyes onhim save thatday."Therewithal the king bade all his officers go roundabout in the thoroughfares and colleges[of the town] andbring before him all strangers whom they found there.So they went forth and brought him much people, amongstwhom was the man who had painted the portrait Whenthey came into the presence, the Sultan bade the criermake proclamation that whoso wrought the portrait shoulddiscover himself and have whatsoever he desired.So thepoor man came forward and kissing the earth before theking, said to him, "O king of the age, I am he whopainted yonder portrait." Quoth El Aziz, "And knowestthou who she is?" "Yes," answered the other; "thisis the portrait of Mariyeh, daughter of the king ofBaghdad." The king ordered him a dress of honour anda slave-girl [and he went his way]. Then said 1Abbas,

63"O father mine, give me leave to go to her, so I maylook upon her ;else shall I depart the world, without fail."The king his father wept and answered, saying, "O myson, I builded thee a bath, that it mightdivert thee fromleaving me, and behold it hath been the cause of thygoing forth; but the commandment of God is a foreordained* decree." *Then he wept again and El Abbas said to him," Fear not for me, for thou knowest my prowess andmy puissance in returning answers in the assemblies ofthe land and my good breeding* and skill in rhetoric;and indeed he whose father thou art and whom thouhast reared and bred and in whom thou hast unitedpraiseworthy qualities, the repute whereof hath traversedthe East and the West, thou needest not fear for him,more by token that I purpose but to seek diversion*and return to thee, if it be the will of God the MostHigh." Quoth the king, "Whom wilt thou take withthee of attendants and [what] of good ? " " O fathermine," replied El Abbas, " I have no need of horses orcamels or arms, for I purpose not battle, and I willhave none go forth with me save my servant Aamir andno more."As he and his father were thus engaged in talk, in camebis mother and caught hold of him ;and he said to tier,1Or " determinate."1Koran xxxiii. 38.'Or " accomplishments. '* i.e. to make a pleasure-excursion.

* God on thee, let me go my gait and strive not to turnme from my purpose, for that needs must " I go." O myson/' answered she, "if it must be so and there is nohelp for it, swear to me that thou wilt not be absent fromme more than a year." And he swore to her. Then heentered his father's treasuries and took therefrom what hewould of jewels and jacinths and everything heavy ofworth and light of carriage. Moreover, he bade hisservant Aamir saddle him two horses and the like forhimself, and whenas the night darkened behind him, 1 herose from his couch and mounting his horse, set out forBaghdad, he and Aamir, whilst the latter knew not whitherhe intended.He gave not over going and the journey was pleasantto him, till they came to a goodly land, aboundingin birdsand wild beasts, whereupon El Abbas started a gazelleand shot it with an arrow. Then he dismounted andcutting its throat, said to his servant, "Alight thou andskin it and carryit to the water." Aamir answered him[with " Hearkening and obedience "]and going downto the water, kindled a fire and roasted the gazelle's flesh.Then they ate their fill and drank of the water, afterwhich they mounted again and fared on diligently, andAamir stillunknowingwhither 1 Abbas was minded togo. So he said to him, "O my lord, I conjure thee byGod the Great, wilt thou not tell me whither thouintendest ? " El Abbas looked at him and made answerwith the following verses :1 Lit. beset his back.

In my soul the fire of yearning and affliction rageth aye; Lo, I barn withlove and longing ; nought in answer can I say.To Baghdad upon a matter of all moment do I fare, For the lore ofone whose beauties have my reason led astray.Under me's a slender camel, a devourer of the waste ;Those who passa cloudlet deem it, as it flitteth o'er the way.So, O Aamir, haste thy going, e'en as I do, so may I Heal my sicknessand the draining of the cup of love essay ;For the longing that abideth in my heart is hard to bear. Fare withme, then, to my loved one. Answernothing, but obey.When Aamir heard his lord's verses, he knew that hewas a slave of love [and that she of whom he wasenamoured abode] in Baghdad. Then they fared onnight and day, traversing plains and stony wastes, tillthey came in sight of Baghdad and lighted down in itssuburbs 1 and lay the night there. When they arose in themorning, they removed to the bank of the Tigris andthere they encamped and sojourned three days.As they abode thus on the fourth day, behold, acompany of folk giving their beasts the rein and cryingaloud and saying, "Quick! Quick! Haste to ourrescue, O King!" Therewithal the king's chamberlainsand officers accosted them and said to them, "Whatis behind you and what hath befallen you?" Quoththey, "Bring us before the king." [So they carriedthem to Ins ben Cais;] and when they saw him, theysaid to him, "O king, except thou succour us, we are1 Lit. in its earth.VOL. til. f

66dead men ;for that we are a folk of the Benou Sheiban,1who have taken up our abode in the parts of Bassora,and Hudheifeh the Arab 1 hath come down on us withhis horses and his men and hath slain our horsemenand carried off our women and children; nor was onesaved of the tribe but he who fled; wherefore we cravehelp [first] by God the Most High, then by thy life."When the king heard their speech, he bade the criermake proclamation in the thoroughfares of the city thatthe troops should prepare [for the march]and that thehorsemen should mount and the footmen come forth;nor was it but the twinkling of the eye ere the drumsbeatand the trumpets sounded; and scarce was the forenoonof the day passed when the city was blocked withhorse and foot So the king passedthem in reviewand behold, they were four-and-twenty thousand innumber, horsemen and footmen. He bade them go forthto the enemy and gavethe commandment over themto Said ibn el Wakidi, a doughty cavalier and a valiantman of war. So the horsemen set out and fared onalong the bank of the Tigris.El Abbas looked at them and saw the ensigns displayedand the standards loosed and heard the drums beating;so he bade his servant saddle him a charger and lookto the girths and bring him his harness of war. QuothAamir, "And indeed I saw El Abbas his eyesflash andthe hair of his hands stood on end, for that indeed1The king's own tribe.* i*. the Arab of the desert or Bedouin (el Aarabi), the nomad.

67horsemanship i abode [rooted in his heart]." So hemounted his charger, whilst Aamir also bestrode a warhorse,and they went forth with the troops and faredon two days. On the third day, after the hour of themid-afternoon prayer, they came in sight of the enemyand the two armies met and the ranks joined battle.The strife raged amain and sore was the smiting, whilstthe dust rose in clouds and hung vaulted [over them],so that all eyes were blinded ;and they ceased not fromthe battle till the night overtook them, when the twohosts drew off from the mellay and passed the night,perplexed concerning themselves [andthe issue of theiraffair].When God caused the morning morrow, the two armiesdrew out in battle array and the troops stood looking atone another. Then came forth El Harith ibn Saad betweenthe two lines and played with his lance and criedout and recited the following verses :Algates ye are oar prey become ; this many a day and night Rightinstantly of God we've craved to be vouchsafed your sight.So hath the Merciful towards Hudheifeh driven you, A champion rulingover all, a lion of great might.It there a man of you will come, that I may heal his pains With blowsright profitful for him who's sick for lust of fight ?By Allah, come ye forth to me, for lo, I'm come to you May he I who'swronged the victory get and God defend the right 1*1 f.t. the martial instinct.' Lit. " And he who is oppressed shall become oppressor."

68Thereupon there sallied forth to him Zuheir ben Hebib,and they wheeled about and feinted awhile, then cameto close quarters and exchanged strokes. 1 Harithforewent his adversary in smiting and stretched himweltering in his gore; whereupon Hudheifeh cried outto him, saying, "Gifted of God art thou, O Harith 1Call another of them." So he cried out, saying, "Isthere a corner-forth [to battle?]" But they of Baghdadheld back from him ;and when itappeared to El Hariththat confusion was amongst them, he fellupon them andoverthrew the first of them upon their last and slew ofthem twelve men. Then the eveningovertook him andthe Baghdadis addressed themselves to flight.When the morning morrowed, they found themselvesreduced to a fourth part of their number and there wasnot one of them had dismounted from his horse. Sothey made sure of destruction and Hudheifeh came outbetween the ranks (now he was reckoned for a thousandcavaliers) and cried out, saying, "Harkye, my mastersof Baghdad 1 Let none come forth to me but yourAmir, so I may talk with him and he with me ;and heshall meet me in single combat and I will meet him,and may he who is void of offence come off safe I "Thenhe repeated his speech and said, "Why do I not hearyour Amir return me an answer?" But Saad, the amirof the army of Baghdad, [replied not to him], and indeedhis teeth chattered in his head, whenas he heard himsummon him to single combat.When El Abbas heard Hudheifeh's challenge and sawSaad in this case, he came up to the latter and said to

(59him, "Wilt thou give me leave to reply to him and 1will stand thee in stead in the answeringof him and thegoing forth to battle with him and will make myself thysacrifice?" Saad looked at him and seeing valourshining from between his eyes, said to him, " O youth,by the virtue of the Chosen [Prophet,] (whom God blessand keep,) tell me [who thou art and] whence thoucomest to our succour." " This is no place for questioning,"answered the prince ;and Saad said to him, " Ochampion, up and at Hudheifeh !Yet, if his devil provetoo strong for thee, afflict not thyself in thy youth."Quoth El Abbas, "It is of Allah that helpis to besought,"* and taking his arms, fortified his resolutionand went down [into the field], as he were a castle ofthe castles or a piece of a mountain.[When] Hudheifeh [saw him], he cried out to him,saying, "Haste thee not, O youth1 Who art thou ofthe folk?" And he answered, "I am Saad [ibn] elWakidi, commander of the host of King Ins, and butthat thou vauntedst thyself in challenging me, I hadnot come forth to thee; for that thou art not of mypeers neither art counted equal to me in prowess andcanst not avail against my onslaught Wherefore preparethee for departure,* seeing that there abideth but a little1 i*. be not ashamed to flee rather than perish in thy youth,if hisprowess (attributed to diabolical aid or possession) prove too much foithee.A periphrastic way of saying, " I look to God for help."if. from the world.

70of thy life.** When Hudheifeh heard this his speech,he threw himself backward, 1 as if in mockery of him,whereat 1 Abbas was wroth and called out to him,saying, " O Hudheifeh, guard thyself against me.w Thenhe rushed upon him, as he were a swooper of the Jinn,"andwhile.Hudheifeh met him and they wheeled about a longPresently, El Abbas cried out at Hudheifeh a cry thatastonied him and dealt him a blow, saying, "Take thisfrom the hand of a champion who feareth not the likeof thee." Hudheifeh met the stroke with his shield,thinking to ward it off from him;but the sword shorethe target in sunder and descending upon his shoulder,came forth gleaming from the tendons of his throat andsevered his arm at the armpit ; whereupon he fell down,wallowing in his blood, and El Abbas turned upon hishost ;nor had the sun departed the pavilion of the heavensere Hudheifeh's army was in full flight before El Abbasand the saddles were empty of men. Quoth Saad, "Bythe virtue of the Chosen [Prophet],whom God bless andkeep, I saw El Abbas with the blood uponhis saddlepads, [in gouts] like camels' livers, smiting with thesword right and left, till he scattered them abroadin every mountain-pass and desert; and when he turned[back to the camp], the men of Baghdadof him."were fearful1 In laughter.* i.e. as he were a flying genie, swooping down upon a mortal fromthe air, hawk-fashion.

When the Baghdadis saw this succour that hadbetided them against their enemies [and the victorythat 1 Abbas had gotten them], they turned backand gathering together the spoils [of the defeated host],arms and treasures and horses, returned to Baghdad,victorious, and allby the valour of El Abbas. As forSaad, he foregathered with the prince, and they faredon in company till they came to the place where ElAbbas had taken horse, whereupon the latter dismountedfrom his charger and Saad said to him, " O youth, whereforealightest thou in other than thy place? Indeed,thy due is incumbent upon us and upon our Sultan; sogo thou with us to the dwellings, that we may ransomthee with our souls." "O Amir Saad," replied El Abbas,"from this placeI took horse with thee and herein ismy lodging. So, God on thee, name me not to the king,but make as if thou hadst never seen me, for that I ama stranger in the land."So saying, he turned awayon to the palace, where he found allon the king and recounting tofrom him and Saad faredthe suite in attendancehim that which had betidedthem with El Abbas. Quoth the king, "Where is he?"And they answered, " He is with the Amir Saad." [So,when the latter entered], the king [looked, but] foundnone with him ;and Saad, seeing that he hankered afterthe youth, cried out to him, saying, "God prolong theking's days ! Indeed, he refuseth to present himselfbefore thee, without leave or commandment" "OSaad," asked the king, "whence cometh this man?"And the Amir answered, "O my lord, I know not; but

72he is a youth fair of favour, lovesome of aspect, accomplishedin discourse, goodly of repartee, and valourshineth from between his eyes."Quoth the king, "O Saad, fetch him to me, for indeedthou describest to me a masterful man." 1 Andhe answered, saying, "By Allah, O my lord, hadstthou but seen our case with Hudheifeh, what while hechallenged me to the field of war and the stead ofthrusting and smiting and I held back from doingbattle with him! Then, whenas I thought to go forthto him, behold, a cavalier gave loose to his bridlereinand called out to me, saying, 'O Saad, wilt thousuffer me to fillthy room in wagingwar with him andI will ransom thee with myself? ' 'And I said, By Allah,O youth, whence cometh thou?' Quoth he, 'This is notime for thy questions.' " Then he recounted to the kingall that had passed between himself and El Abbas fromfirst to last ; whereupon quoth Ins ben Cais, " Bring himto me in haste, so we may learn his tidings and questionhim of his case."" It is well," answered Saad, and goingforth of the king's presence, repaired to his own house,where he put off his harness of war and took rest forhimself.To return to El Abbas, when he alighted from hischarger, he put off his harness of war and rested awhile;after which he brought out a shirt of Venetian silk anda gown of green damask and donning them, coveredhimself with a turban of Damietta stuff and girt bis1 Syn. " Thou seitest oat to me a mighty matter."

73middle with a handkerchief. Then he went out a-walkingin the thoroughfares of Baghdad and fared on till hecame to the bazaar of the merchants. There he founda merchant, with chess before him ;so he stood watchinghim and presently the other looked up at him and saidto him, M O youth, what wilt thou stake upon the game ? "And he answered, " Be it thine todecide."" Then be ita hundred dinars," said the merchant, and El Abbas consentedto him, whereupon quoth he, " O youth, producethe money, so the game may be fairly stablished." So1 Abbas brought out a satin purse, wherein were athousand dinars, and laid down an hundred dinars therefromon the edge of the carpet,whilst the merchant didthe like, and indeed his reason fled for joy, whenas hesaw the gold in El Abbas his possession.The folk flocked about them, to divertthemselves withwatching the play, and they called the bystanders towitness of the wager and fell a-playing. El Abbas forborethe merchant, so he might lead him on, and procrastinatedwith him awhile ;and the merchant won and tookof him the hundred dinars. Then said the prince," Wiltthou play another game?" And the other answered,"O youth, I will not play again, except it be for athousand dinars." Quoth the prince,stakest, I will match thy"Whatsoever thoustake with the like thereof." Sothe merchant brought out a thousand dinars and theprince covered them with other thousand. Then theyfell a-playing, but El Abbas was not long with him erehe beat him in the square of the 1 elephant, nor did he1AA the castle,

74leave to do thus till he had beaten him four times andwon of him four thousand dinars.This was all the merchant's good; so he said, "Oyouth, I will play thee another game for the shop." Nowthe value of the shop was four thousand dinars ;so theyplayed and 1 Abbas beat him and won his shop, withthat which was therein; whereupon the other arose,shaking his clothes, and said to him, " Up, O youth,and take thy shop." So 1 Abbas arose and repairingto the shop, took possession thereof, after which hereturned to [the place where he had left]his servant[Aamir] and found there the Amir Saad, who was cometo bid him to the presence of the king. El Abbas consentedto this and accompanied him tillthey came beforeKing Ins ben Cais, whereupon he kissed the earth andsaluted him and exceeded 1 in the salutation. Quoth theking to him, "Whence comest thou, O youth?" and heanswered, " I come from Yemen."Then said the king, "Hast thou a need we may accomplishunto thee? For indeed we are exceeding beholdento thee for that which thou didst in the matterof Hudheifeh and his folk." And he let cast over hima mantle of Egyptian satin, worth an hundred dinars.Moreover, he bade his treasurer give him a thousanddinars and said to him, "O youth, take this in part ofthat which thou deservest of us ;and if thou prolongthy sojournwith us, we will give thee slaves and servants."El Abbas kissed the earth and said, "O king, may God1 it. was eloquent and courtly to the utmoct

75grant thee abiding prosperity, I deserve not all this."Then he put his hand to his poke and pulling out twocaskets of gold, in each of which were rubies, whosevalue none could tell, gave them to the king, saying,"O king, God cause thy prosperity to endure, I conjurethee by that which God hath vouchsafed thee, heal myheart by accepting these two caskets, even as I haveaccepted thy present." So the king acceptedthe twocaskets and El Abbas took his leave and went away tothe bazaar.When the merchants saw him, they accosted him andsaid, "O youth, wilt thou not open thy shop?" Asthey were bespeaking him, up came a woman, havingwith her a boy, bareheaded, and [stood] looking at ElAbbas, till he turned to her, when she said to him, " Oyouth, I conjure thee by Allah, look at this boy andhave pity on him, for that his father hath forgotten hiscap in the shop [he lost to thee] ;so if thou will wellto giveit to him, thyreward be with God ! For indeedthe child maketh our hearts ache with his much weeping,and God be witness for us that, were there left us aughtwherewithal to buy him a cap in its stead, we had notsought it of thee." "O adornment of womankind,"replied El Abbas, "indeed, thou bespeakest me with thyfair speech and supplicatest me with thy goodly words.... But bring me thy husband." So she went andfetched the merchant,whilst the folk assembled to seewhat El Abbas would do. When the man came, hereturned him the gold he had won of him, all and part,and delivered him the keys of the shop, saying, **Requit*

us with thy pious prayers.";6Therewithal the woman cameup to him and kissed his feet, and on like wise did themerchant her husband ;and all who were present blessedhim, and there was no talk but of 1 Abbas.As for the merchant, he bought him a sheep andslaughtering it, roasted it and dressed birds and [other]meats of various kinds and colours and bought dessertand sweetmeats and fresh fruits. Then he repaired to1 Abbas and conjured him to accept of his hospitalityand enter his house and eat of his victual. The princeconsented to his wishes and went with him tillthey cameto his house, when the merchant bade him enter. So 1Abbas entered and saw a goodly house, wherein was ahandsome saloon, with a vaulted estrade. When heentered the saloon, he found that the merchant had madeready food and dessert and perfumes, such as overpassdescription; and indeed he had adorned the table withsweet-scented flowers and sprinkled musk and rose-waterupon the food. Moreover, he had smeared the wallsof the saloon with ambergris and set [the smoke ofburning] aloes-wood abroach therein.Presently, El Abbas looked out of the window of thesaloon and saw thereby a house of goodly ordinance, loftyof building and abounding in chambers, with two upperstories ;but therein was no sign of inhabitants. So hesaid to the merchant, " Indeed, thou exceedest in doingus honour ; but, by Allah, I will not eat of thyvictual tillthou tell me what is the reason of the emptiness of yonderhouse." "O my lord," answered the other, "that was1 Ghitrifs house and he was admitted to the mercy of

77God 1 and left none other heir than myself jso it becamemine, and by Allah, if thou hast a mind to sojourn inBaghdad, do thou take up thine abode in this house, sothou mayst be in my neighbourhood j for that indeed myheart inclineth unto thee with love and I would have theenever absent from my sight, so I may still have fillmy ofEl Abbas thanked himthee and hearken to thy speech."and said to him, " Indeed, thou art friendly in thy speechand exceedest [in courtesy] in thy discourse, and needsmust I sojourn in Baghdad As for the house,if it likethee, I will abide therein ;so take of me its price.**So saying, he put his hand to his poke and bringingout therefrom three hundred dinars, gave them to themerchant, who "said in himself, Except I take the money,he will not abide in the house." So he pouched themoney and sold him the house, taking the folk to witnessagainst himself of the sale. Then he arose and set foodbefore El Abbas and they ate of the good things whichhe had provided ; after which he brought him dessert andsweetmeats. They ate thereof till they had enough, whenthe tables were removed and they washed their handswith rose-water and willow-flower-water. Then the merchantbrought El Abbas a napkin perfumedwith thefragrant smoke of aloes-wood, on which he wiped hishand, 1 and said to him, " O my lord, the house is becomethy house; so bid thy servant transport thither the horsesand arms and stuffs." El Abbas did this and the merchanti.e.died.1The Arabs use the right hand only in eating.

78rejoiced in his neighbourhood and left him not night noday, so that the prince said to him, " By Allah, I distractthee from thy livelihood."" God on thee, O my lord,"replied the merchant, " name not to me aught of this, orthou wilt break my heart, for the best of traffic is thycompanyand thou art the best of livelihood." So therebefell strait friendship between them and ceremony waslaid aside from between them.Meanwhile the king said to his vizier, " How shall wedo in the matter of yonder youth, the Yemani, on whomwe thought to confer largesse, but he hath largessed uswith tenfold [our gift]and more, and we know notif he be a sojourner with us or no ? " Then he wentinto the harem and gave the rubies to his wife Afifeh,who said to him, " What is the worth of these with theeand with [other] the kings?" And he answered, "Theyare not to be found save with the greatest of kings andnone may avail to price them with money." Quoth she,**Whence gottest thou them?" So he recounted to herthe story of El Abbas from first to last, and she said," By Allah, the claims of honour are imperative on usand the king hath fallen short of his due;have not seen him bid him to his assembly,he seated him on his left hand."for that wenor hath[When the king heard his wife's itwords], was as ifhe had been asleep and awoke; so he went forth of theharem and bade slaughter fowls and dress meats of allkinds and colours. Moreover, he assembled all hisretainers and let bringsweetmeats and dessert and allthat beseemeth unto kings' tables. Then he adorned

79his palace and despatched after El Abbas a man of thechief officers of his household, who found him comingforth of the bath, clad in a doublet of fine goats' hairand over it a Baghdadi scarf jhis waist was girt witha Rustec 1 kerchief and on his head he wore a lightturban of Damietta make.The messenger wished him joy of the bath and exceededin doing him worship. Then he said to him,"The king biddeth thee in weaL" a "Hearkening andobedience," answered 1 Abbas and accompanied themessenger to the king's palace.Now Afifeh and her daughter Mariyeh were behindthe curtain, looking at him; and when he came beforethe king, he saluted him and greeted him with thegreeting of kings, whilst all who were present staredat him and at his beauty and grace and perfection.The king seated him at the head of the table ;and whenAfifeh saw him and straitly considered him, she said," By the virtue of Mohammed, prince of the Apostles,this youth is of the sons of the kings and cometh not"to these parts but for some high purpose1 Then shelooked at Mariyeh and saw that her face was changed,and indeed her eyes were dead in her face and sheturned not her gaze from El Abbas a glance of theeyes, for that the love of him had gotten hold uponher heart When the queen saw what had befallen hex1Name of a quarter of Baghdad.' i*. he summoneth thee to his presence by way of kindness aod DO)because he is wroth with thee.

Sodaughter, she feared for her from reproach concerningEl Abbas; so she shut the wicket of the lattice andsuffered her not to look upon him more. Now therewas a pavilion set apart for Mariyeh, and therein wereprivy chambers and balconies and lattices, and she hadwith her a nurse, who served her, after the fashion ofkings' daughters.When the banquetwas ended and the folk had dispersed,the king said to 1 Abbas, " I would fain havethee [abide] with me and I will buy thee a house, sohaply we may requite thee the high services for which weare beholden to thee; for indeed thy due is imperative[upon us] and thy worth is magnified in our eyes ;andindeed we have fallen short of thy due in the matter ofdistance." 1 When the prince heard the king's speech,he rose and sat down' and kissing the earth, returnedthanks for his bounty and said," I am the king's servant,wheresoever I may be, and under his eye." Then herecounted to him the story of the merchant and themanner of the buying of the house, and the king said," Indeed, I would fain have had thee with me and inmyneighbourhood. "Then El Abbas tookleave of the king and went awayto his own house. Now it befell that he passed underthe palace of Mariyeh the king's daughter, and she wassittingat a window. He chanced to look round and his1 i.e. in allowing thee hitherto to remain at a distance from tu andnot inviting thee to attach thyself to our person.1 "An Arab idiom, meaning he showed agitation."

eyes met those of the princess, whereupon his wit departedand he was like to swoon away, whilst his colourchanged and he" said, Verily, we are God's and to Him"we return 1 But he feared for himself lest estrangementbetide him ;so he concealed his secret and discovered nothis case to any of the creatures of God the Most High.When he reached his house, his servant Aamir said tohim, "O my lord, I seek refuge for thee with God fromchange of colour Hath there betided thee a ! pain fromGod the Most High or hath aught of vexation befallenthee? Verily, sickness hath an end and patience dothaway vexation." But the prince returned him no answer.Then he brought out inkhorn [and pen] and paper andwrote the following verses :Quoth I (and mine a body is of passion all forslain, Ay, and a heartthat's all athirst for love and longing painAnd eye that knoweth not the sweet of sleep ;yet she, who caused Mydole, may Fortune's perfidies for aye from her abstain !Yea, for the perfidies of Fate and sev'rance I'm become Even as wasBishr 1 of old time with Hind, 1 a fearful swain ;A talking-stock among the folk for ever I abide ; Life and the dayspass by, yet ne'er my wishes I attain),*'Knoweth my loved one when I see her at the lattice high Shine as theson that flameth forth in heaven's blue demesne?"Her eye is sharper thui a sword ; the soul with ecstasy It takes andlonging leaves behind, that nothing may assain.As at the casement high she sat, her charms I might espy, For fromher cheeks the envious veil that hid them she had ta'en.1Apparently two well-known lovers.VOL. III. 6

82Sh shot at me a shaft til at reached myheart and I became The bondmanof despair, worn out with effort all in vain.Fawn of the palace, knowst thou not that I, to look on thee, The worldhave traversed, far and wide, o'er many a hill and plain ?Sick, love-Read then my writ and pity thou the blackness of my fate,distraught, without a friend to whom I may complain.Now the merchant's wife aforesaid, who was thenurseof the king's daughter, was watching him from a window,unknown of him, and [when she heard his verses], sheknew that there hung some rare story by him; so shewent in to him and said," Peace be on thee, O afflictedone, who acquaintest not physician with thy case 1Verily,thou exposest thyself unto grievous peril I 1conjurethee by the virtue of Him who hath afflicted thee andstricken thee with the constraint of love-liking, that thouacquaint me with thine affair and discover to me the truthof thy secret; for that indeed I have heard from theeverses that trouble the wit and dissolve the body." So heacquainted her with his case and enjoined her to secrecy,whereof she consented unto him, saying, "What shallbe the recompense of whoso goeth with thyletter andbringeth thee an answer thereto ? " He bowed his headfor shamefastness before her [and was silent] ;and shesaid to him, "Raise thy head and give me thy letter."So he gave her the letter and she took it and carryingit to the princess, said to " her, Read this letter and giveme the answer thereto."Now the liefest of all things to Mariyeh was the recitationof poems and verses and linked rhymes and the

83twanging [of the strings of the lute],and she was versedin all tongues; so she took the letter and opening it,read that which was therein and apprehended its purport.Then she cast it on the ground and said, "O nurse, Ihave no answer to make to this letter." Quoth the nurse," Indeed, this is weakness in thee and a reproach untothee, for that the peopleof the world have heard of theeand still praise thee for keenness of wit and apprehension ;so do thou return him an answer, such as shall deludehis heart and weary his soul." "O nurse," rejoined theprincess, "who is this that presumeth upon me with thisletter? Belike he is the stranger youth who gave myfather the rubies." "It is himself," answered thewoman, and Mariyeh said, "I will answer his letteron such a wise that thou shalt not bring me otherthan it[from him]." Quoth the nurse, "So be it" Sothe princess called for inkhorn and paper and wrotethe following verses:O'erbold art thou in that to me, a stranger, thou hast sent These verses;'twill but add to thee unease and miscontentNow God forbid thou shonldst attain thy wishes !What care I If thouhave looked on me a look that caused thee lang irishmen t?Who art thou, wretch, that thou shouldst hope to win me? With thyrhymes What wouldst of me? Thy reason, sure, with passion isforspentIf to my favours thou aspire and covet me, good lack ! What leachsuch madness can assain or what medicament?Leave rhyming, madman that thou art, lest, bound uponthe cross,Thou thy presumption in the stead of abjectness repent.

84Deem not, O youth, that I to thee incline ; indeed, no part Hare I inthose who walk the ways, the children of 1the tentIn the wide world no house thou hast, a homeless wanderer thon :thine own place thou shalt be borne, an object for lament 1ToForbear thy verse-making, O thou that harbourest in the camp, Lest tothe gleemen thou become a name of wondermentHow many a lover, who aspires to union with his love, For all hithopes seem near, is baulked of that whereon he's bent !Then get thee gone nor covet that which thou shalt ne'er obtain ;Soshall it be, although the time seem near and the eventThus unto thee have I set forth my case ;consider well My words, tothou mayst guided be aright by their intentWhen she had made an end of her verses, she foldedthe letter and delivered it to the nurse, who took it andwent with it to El Abbas. When she gave it to him, hetook it and breakingitopen, read it and apprehended itspurport ;and when he came to the end of it, he swoonedaway.After awhile, he came to himself and said," Praisedbe God who hath caused her return an answer to myletter I Canst thou carry her another letter, and withGod the Most High be thy requital ? "Quoth she, " Andwhat shall letters profit thee, seeing she answereth on thiswise ? "But he said," Belike, she may yetbe softened."Then he took inkhorn and paper and wrote tbe followingverses :Thy letter reached me ;when the words thou wrot'st therein I read, Mylonging waxed and pain and woe redoubled on my head.Yea, wonder-words I read therein, mycaused emaciation wear my body to a shred.trouble that increased And1 i.e. the wandering Arabs. * i*. slain.

85Would God then knewst what I endure for love of thee and how Myvitals for thy cruelty are all forspent and dead !Fain, fain would I forget thy love. Alack, my heart denies To beconsoled, and 'gainst thy wrath nought standeth me hi stead.An thou'dst vouchsafe to favour me, 'twould lighten my despair, Thoughbut in dreams thine image 'twere that visited my bed.Persist not on my weald iness with thy disdain nor be Treason and breachof love its troth to thee attributed ;For know that hither have I fared and come to this thy land, By hopesof union with thee and near fruition led.How oft I've waked, whilst over me my comrades kept the watch IHow many a stony waste I've crossed, how many a desert dread !From mine own land, to visit thee, I came at love's command, For allthe distance did forbid, 'twixt me and thee that spread.Wherefore, by Him who letteth waste my frame, have ruth on me Andquench my yearning and the fires by passion in me fed.in glory's raiment clad, by thee the stars of heaven are shamed And inamaze the full moon stares to see thy goodlihead.All charms, indeed, thou dost comprise ; so who shall vie with theeAnd who shall blame me if for love of such a fair I'm sped ?When he had made an end of his verses, he foldedthe letter and delivering it to the nurse, charged herkeep the secret So she took it and carryingit toMariyeh, gave it to her. The princess broke itopenand read it and apprehendedits purport. Then saidshe, "By Allah, O nurse, myheart is burdened withan exceeding chagrin, never knew I a dourer, becauseof this correspondenceand of these verses." And thenurse made answer to her, saying, "O my lady, thouart in thy dwelling and thy place and thy heart is void

86of care; so return him an answer and reck thou not"Accordingly, the princess called for inkhorn and paperand wrote the following verses :Thou that the dupe of yearning art, how many a melting wight Inwaiting for the unkept tryst doth watch the weary night 1If in night's blackness thou hast plunged into the desert's heart Andhast denied thine eyes the taste of sleep and its delight,If near and far thy toiling feet have trod the ways and thou Deril* andMarids hast ensued nor wouldst be led iright,And dar'dst, O dweller in the tents, to lift thine eyes tome, Hoping bystress to win of me the amorous delight,Get thee to patience fair, if thou remember thee of that Whose issues(quoth the Merciful) are ever benedight. 1How many a king for my sweet sake with other kings hath vied, Stillcraving onion with me and suing for my sight !Whenas En Nebhan strove to win my grace, himself to ine With camelloadshe did commend of musk and camphor white,And aloes-wood, to boot, he brought and caskets full of pearls Andpriceless rubies and the like of costly gems and bright ;Yea, and black slaves he proffered me and slave-girls big with childAnd steeds of price, with splendid arms and trappings rich bedight.Raiment of silk and sendal, too, he brought to as for gift, And me inmarriage sought therewith ; yet, all his pains despite,Of me he got not what he sought and brideless did return, For thatestrangement and disdain were pleasing in my sightWherefore, O stranger, dare thou not approach me with desire, Lestruin quick and pitiless thy hardihood requite.1 "O ye who believe, seek aid of patience and prayer; verily, Godk with the patient." Koran ii.148.

87When she had made an end of her verses, she foldedthe letter and delivered it to the nurse, who took itand carried it to El Abbas. He broke itopen andread it and apprehended its purport; then took inkhornand paper and wrote the following verses:Indeed, thou'st told the tale of kings and men of might, Each one alion fierce, impetuous in the fight,Whose wits (like mine, alack !)thou stolest and whose hearts Withshafts from out thine eyes bewitching thou didst smite.Yea, and how slaves and steeds and good and virgin girls Were profferedthee to gift, thou hast not foiled to cite,How presents in great store thou didst refuse and eke The givers, greatand small, with flouting didst requite.Then came I after them, desiring thee, with me No second save mysword, my falchion keen and bright.No slaves with me have I nor camels swift of foot, Nor slave-girls haveI brought in curtained litters dight.Yet, an thou wilt vouchsafethy favours unto me, My sabre thou shallsee the foemen put to flight ;Ay, and around Baghdad the horsemen shall behold,Like clouds thatwall the world, full many a doughty knight,All hearkening to my word, obeying my command, In whatsoever thingis pleasing to my sight.If slaves thou fain wouldst have by thousands every day Or, kneelingat thy feet, see kings of mickle might,And horses eke wouldst have led to thee day by day And girls, highbreastedmaids, and damsels black and white,Lo under my command the land of Yemen is And trenchant is mjsword against the foe in fight

83When .is the couriers came with news of thee, how fair 7 hoi wast andsweet and how thy visage shone with light,All, all, for thy sweet sake, I left ; ay, I forsook Aziz, my sire, andthose akin to me that bightAnd onto Irak fared, my way to thee to make, And crossedthe stonywastes i' the darkness of the night.Then sent I speech to thee in verses such as bum The heart ;reproachtherein was none nor yet unright ;Yet with perfidiousness (sure Fortune's self as thou Ne'er soperfidiouswas) my love thou didst requiteAnd deemedst me a waif, a homeless good-for-nought, A slave-begottenbrat, a wanton, witless wightThen he folded the etter and committed it to thenurse and gave her five hundred dinars, saying, "Acceptthis from me, for that indeed thou hast wearied thyselfbetween us." "By Allah, O my lord," answered she," my desire is to bring about union between you, thoughI lose that which my right hand possesseth." And hesaid, " May God the Most "High requite thee with good !Then she carried the letter to Mariyeh and said to her,"Take this letter; belike itmay be the end of thecorrespondence." So she took it and breakingitopen,read it, and when she had made an end of it,she turnedto the nurse and said to her, "This fellow putteth offlies upon me and avoucheth unto me that he hath citiesand horsemen and footmen at his command and submittingto his allegiance; and he seeketh of me thatwhich he shall not obtain ;for thou knowest, O nurse,that kings' sons have sought me in marriage, with presents

89and rarities ;but I have paid no heed unto aught of this ;so how shall I accept of this fellow, who is the fool l ofhis time and possesseth nought but two caskets of rabies,which he gave to my father, and indeed he hath takenup his abode in the house of El Ghitrif and abideth withoutsilver or gold? Wherefore, I conjure thee by Allah,O nurse, return to him and cut off his hope of me."Accordingly the nurse returned to El Abbas, withoutletter or answer; and when she came in to him, he sawthat she was troubled and noted the marks of chagrinon her face; so he said to her, "What is this plight?"Quoth she, " I cannot set out to thee that which Mariyehsaid ;for indeed she charged me return to thee withoutletter or answer." "O nurse of kings," rejoined ElAbbas, " I would have thee carry her this letter and returnnot to her without it" Then he took inkhorn and paperand wrote the following verses :My secret is disclosed, the which I strove to hide; Of thee andof thy love enough have I abyed.My kinsmen and myfriends for thee I did forsake And left themweeping tears that poured as 'twere a tide.Yea, to Baghdad I came, where rigour gave me chase And I waioverthrown of crueltyand pride.Repression's draught, by caps, from the beloved's hand I've quaffed;with colocynth for wine she hath me plied.Oft as I strove to make her keepthe troth of love. Unto concealmeat's waysstill would she turn aside.1 Lit. "ignorant one" (jahil).

90My body is dissolved with sufferance in vain j Relenting, my, andgrace I hoped should yet betide;Bat rigour still hath waxed on me and changed my case And lor*hath left me bound, afflicted, weeping-eyed.How long shall I anights distracted be for love Of thee? Howlong th' assaults of grief and woes abide?Thou, thou enjoy'st repose and comfortable sleep, Nor of the mis'riesreckst by which my heart is wried.I watch the stars for wake and pray that the belovM May yet tome relent and bid mytears be dried.The pains of long desire have wasted me away; Estrangement anddisdain my body sore have tried."Be thou not hard of heart," quoth I. Had ye but deigned Tovisit me in dreams,I had been satisfied.But when ye saw my writ, the standard ye o'erthrew Of faith, yourfavours grudged and aught of grace denied.Nay, though ye read therein discourse that sure should speak Toheart and soul, no word thereunto ye replied,But deemed yourselfsecure from every changing chance Nor reckedthe ebb and flow of Fortune's treacherous tide.Were my affliction thine, love's anguish hadst thou dreed And inthe flaming hell of long estrangement sighed.Yet shah thou suffer that which I from thee have borne And withlove's woes thy heart shall yetbe mortified.The bitterness of false accusing shalt thou taste And eke the thingreveal that thou art fain to hide ;Yea, he thou lov'st shall be hard-hearted, recking not Of fortune'sturns or fate's caprices, in his pride.Wherewith farewell, quoth I, and peace be on thee aye, Whatwhile the branches bend, what while the stars abide.

91When he had made an end of his verses, he folded theletter and gave it to the nurse, who took it and carriedit to Mariyeh. When she came into the princess'spresence, she saluted her; but Mariyehreturned not hersalutation and she said, "O my lady, how hard isthyheart that thou grudgest to return the salutation! Takethis letter, for that it is the last of that which shall cometo thee from him." Quoth Mariyeh, "Take my warningor it will be the causeand never again enter my palace,of thy destruction ; for I am certified that thou purposestmy dishonour. So get thee gone from me." And shecommanded to beat the nurse ; whereupon the latter wentforth fleeing from her presence, changed of colour andabsent of wits, and gave not over goingtill she cameto the house of El Abbas.When the prince saw her in this plight, he was as asleeper awakened and said to her, "What hath befallenthee? Set out to me thy case."" God on thee," answeredshe, " nevermore send me to Mariyeh, and do thou protectme, so may God protect thee from the fires of belli"Then she related to him that which had betided her withMariyeh ;which when he heard, there took him theshamefastness of the generous and this was grievousunto him. The love of Mariyehfled forth of his heartand he said to the nurse, "How much hadst thou ofMariyeh every month?" "Ten dinars," answered she,and he said, "Be not concerned." Then he put his handto his poke and bringing out two hundred dinars, gavethem to her and said, " Take this for a whole year's wageand turn not again to serve any one. When the yeax

92is out, I will give thee two years' wage, for that thou hastwearied thyself withof thy dependence upon Mariyeh."us and on account of the cutting offMoreover, he gave her a complete suit of clothes andraising his head to her, " said, When thou toldest me thatwhich Mariyeh had done with thee, God rooted out thelove of her from my heart, and never again will she occurto my mind; so extolled be the perfection of Him whoturneth hearts and eyesI It was she who was the causeof my coming out from Yemen, and now the time is pastfor which I engaged with my people and I fear lest myfather levy his troops and come forth in quest of me, forthat he hath no child other than myself and cannot brookto be parted from me ;and on like wise is it with mymother." When the nurse heard his words, she saidto him, "O my lord, and which of the kings is thyfather?" "My father is El Aziz, lord of Yemen andNubia and the Islands 1 of the Benou Kehtan and theTwo Noble Sanctuaries 1 (God the Most High have themin His keeping!)," answered El Abbas "; and whenas hetaketh horse, there mount with him an hundred andtwenty and four thousand horsemen,all smiters with thesword, let alone attendants and servants and followers,all of whom give ear unto my word and obey my commandment.""Why, then, O my lord," asked the nurse*1 i.e. Peninsula. J aireh (sing, ofjezalr, islands) is constantly used bythe Arabs in this sense ;hence much apparent confusion in topogra.phical passages.1 './. Mecca and Medina.

9311 didst them conceal the secret of thy rank and lineage andpassedst thyself off for a wayfarer? Alas for our disgracebefore thee by reason of our shortcoming in renderingthee thy due ! What shall be our excuse with thee, andthou of the sons of the kings?" But he rejoined, "ByAllah, thou hast not fallen short !Nay,it is incumbenton me to requite thee, what while I live, though I be fardistant from thee."Then he called his servant Aamir and said to him," Saddle -the horses." When the nurse heard his wordsand indeed [she saw that]Aamir brought him the horsesand they were resolved upon departure, the tears randown upon her cheeks and she said to him, " By Allah,thy separation is grievous to me, O solace of the "eye 1Then said she, "Where is the goal of thine intent, sowe may know thy news and solace ourselves with thyreport ?" Quoth he, "I go hence to visit Akil, the son ofmy father's brother, for that he hath his sojourn in thecamp of Kundeh ben Hisham, and these twenty yearshave I not seen him nor he me ;wherefore I purpose torepair to him and discover his news and return hither.Then will I go hence to Yemen, if it be the will of Godthe Most High."So saying, he took leave of the woman and her husbandand set out, intending for Akil, his father's brother's son.Now there was between Baghdad and Akil's abiding-placeforty days' journey ;so El Abbas settled himself on theback of his courser and his servant Aamir mounted alsoand they fared forth on their way. Presently,turned right and left and recited the following verses :El Abbas

94I am the champion-slayer, the warrior without peer ; My foes I slay,destroying the hosts, when I appear.Tow'rds El Akil my journey I take ;to visit him, The wastes in praiseand safety I traverse, without fear,And all the desert spaces devour, whilst to my rede, Or if in sport orearnest, 1 still Aamir giveth ear.Who letteth us or hind'reth our way, I spring on him, As springeth lynxor panther upon the frighted deer ;With ruin I o'erwhelm him and abjectness and woe And cause himquaff the goblet of death and distance drear.Well-ground my polished sword is and thin and keen of edge Andtrenchant, eke, for smiting and long my steel-barbed spear.So fell and fierce my stroke is, if on a mountain high It lit, though allof granite, right through its midst 'twould shear.Nor troops have Inor henchmen nor one to lend me aid Save God, towhom, my Maker, my voice in praise I rear.Til He who pardoneth errors alike to slave and free ; On Him u myreliance in good and evil cheer.Then theyfell to journeying night and day, and as theywent, behold, they sighted a camp of the camps of theArabs. So 1 Abbas enquired thereof and was told thatit was the camp of the Benou Zuhreh. Now there werearound them sheep and cattle, such as filled the earth, andthey were enemies to El Akil, the cousin of El Abbas,upon whom they still made raids and took his cattle;wherefore he used to pay them tribute every year, for thathe availed not to cope with them. When El Abbas came* '.. whether on a matter of sport, such as the chase, or a gravematter, such as war, etc.

95near the camp, he dismounted from his courser and hisservant Aamir also dismounted ;and they set down thevictual and ate their sufficiency and rested awhile of theday. Then said the prince to Aamir, "Fetch water andgive the horses to drink and draw water for us in thywater-bag, by way of provision for the road."So Aamir took the water-skin and made for the water jbut, when he came to the well, behold, two young menwith gazelles, and when they saw him, they said to him,"Whither wilt thou, O youth, and of which of theArabs art thou?" "Harkye, lads," answered he, "fillme my water-skin, for that I am a stranger man and awayfarer and I have a comrade who awaiteth me."Quoth they, "Thou art no wayfarer, but a spy fromEl Akil's camp." Then they took him and carried himto [their king]Zuheir ben Shebib; and when he camebefore him, he said to him, " Of which of the Arabsart thou?" Quoth Aamir, "I am a wayfarer." AndZuheir said, "Whence comest thou and whither wiltthou?" "I am on my way to Akil," answered Aamir.When he named Akil, those who were present wereagitated; but Zuheir signed to them with his eyesand said to him, "What is thine errand with Akil?"Quoth he, " We would fain see him, my friend and I."When Zuheir heard his words, he bade smite off hishead ;but his Vizier said to him, " Slay him not,till hisfriend be present." So he commanded the two slavesto fetch his friend ; whereupon they repaired to ElAbbas and called to him, saying, "O youth, answer thesummons of King Zuheir." "What would the king

96with me?" asked he, and they answered, "We knownot." Quoth he, "Who gave the king news of me?""We went to draw water," answered they, "and founda man by the water. So we questioned him of his case,but he would not acquaint us therewith; wherefore wecarried him perforce to King Zuheir, who questionedhim of his case and he told him that he was going toAkiL Now Akil is the king's enemy and he purposethto betake himself to his c?mp and make prize of hisoffspring and cut off his traces." " And what," asked ElAbbas, "hath Akil done with King Zuheir?" And theyreplied, "He engaged for himself that he would bringthe king every year a thousand dinars and a thousandshe-camels, besides a thousand head of thoroughbredhorses and two hundred black slaves and fifty slave-girls;but it hath reached the king that Akil purposeth to givenought of this; wherefore he is minded to go to him.So hasten thou with us, ere the king be wroth with theeand with us."Then said El Abbas to them, "O youths, sit by myarms and my horse till I return.** But they answered,saying, "By Allah, thou prolongest discourse with thatwhich beseemeth not of words ! Make haste, or we willgo with thy head, for indeed the king purposeth to slaythee and to slay thy comrade and take that which iswith you," When the prince heard this, his skin quakedand he cried out at them with a cry that made themtremble. Then he sprang upon his horse and settlinghimself in the saddle, gallopedtill he came to the king'sAssembly, when he cried out at the top of his voice,

97saying, ["To horse,] cavaliers!** And levelled his speaiwherein was Zuheir. Now there wereat the pavilionabout him a thousand smiters with the sword; but 1Abbas fell in upon them and dispersed them from aroundhim, and there abode none in the tent save Zuheir andhisvizier.Then came up El Abbas to the door of the tent, andtherein were four-and-twenty golden doves; so he tookthem,after he had beaten them down with the end ofhis lance. Then he called out, saying," Harkye, Zuheir 1Doth it not suffice thee that thou hast quelled El Akil'srepute, but thou art minded to quell that of those whosojourn round about him? Knowest thou not that heis of the lieutenants of Kundeh ben [Hisham of theBenou] Sheiban, a man renowned for prowess? Indeed,covetise of him hath entered into thee and jealousy ofhim hath gotten possession of thee. Doth it not sufficethee that thou hast orphaned his children 1 and slain hismen? By the virtue of the Chosen Prophet, I will makethee drink the cup of death 1" So saying,he drew hissword and smiting Zuheir on his shoulder, caused thesteel issue, gleaming, from the tendons of his throat.Then he smote the vizier and clove his head in sunder.As he was thus, behold, Aamir called out to him andsaid, "O my lord, come to my help, or I am a dead"man 1 So El Abbas went up to him and found himcast down on his back and chained with four chains tofour picketsof iron. He loosed his bonds and said to1'.. the children of his fighting-men whom thou slewestVOL. 111. 7

98him, "Go before me, O Aamir." So he fared on beforehim a little, and presently they looked, and behold, horsemenmaking to Zuheir's succour, to wit, twelve thousandcavaliers, with Sehl ben Kaab in their van, mounted upona jet-black steed. He charged upon Aamir, who fledfrom him, then upon El Abbas, who said, "O Aamir,cleave fast to my horse and guard my back." Aamir didas he bade him, whereupon El Abbas cried out at thefolk and falling upon them, overthrew their braves andslew of them nigh two thousand cavaliers, whilst notone of them knew what was to do nor with whom hefought. Then said one of them to other, "Verily, theking is slain; so with whom do we wage war? Indeedye flee from him; so do ye enter under his banners,or not one of you will be saved."Thereupon they all dismounted and putting off thatwhich was upon them of harness of war, came beforeEl Abbas and tendered him allegiance and sued for hisprotection. So he held his hand from them and badethem gather together the spoils. Then he took theriches and the slaves and the camels, and they all becamehis liege-men and his retainers, to the number(according to that which is said) of fiftythousand horse.Moreover, the folk heard of him and flocked to himfrom all sides; whereupon he divided [the spoil amongstthem] and gave giftsand abode thus three days, andthere came presents to him. Then he bade set out forAkils abiding-place; so they fared on six days andon the seventh day they came in sight of the camp.El Abbas bade his man Aamir forego him and give

99Akil the glad news of his cousin's coming. So herode on to the camp and going in to Akil, gave himthe glad news of Zuheir's slaughter and the conquestof histribe.Akil rejoiced in the comingof El Abbas and thelaughter of his enemy and all in his camp rejoicedalso and cast dresses of honour upon Aamir. Moreover,Akil bade go forth to meet El Abbas, and commandedthat none, great or small, freeman or slave,should tarry behind. So they did his bidding and goingforth all, met El Abbas at three parasangs' distancefrom the camp. When they met him, they all dismountedfrom their horses and Akil and he embracedand clapped hands. 1 Then they returned, rejoicing inthe coming of El Abbas and the slaughterof theirenemy, to the camp, where tents were pitched for thenew-comers and carpets spread and game killed andbeasts slaughtered and royal guest-meals spread; andon this wise they abode twenty days, in the enjoymentof all delightand solace of life.To return to King El Aziz. When his son El Abbasleft him, he was desolated for him with an exceedingdesolation, he and his mother ;and when tidings ofhim tarried long and the appointed time passed [andthe prince returned not],the king caused public proclamationto be made, commanding all his troops tomake ready to mount and go forth in questof his son1Arab fashion of shaking hands. See my ' Book of the ThousandNight* and One Night," Vol. IX. p. IJl, note.

100El Abbas at the end of three days, after which timeno cause of hindrance nor excuse should be admittedunto any. So on the fourth day, the king bade numberthe troops, and behold, they were four-and-twentythousand horse, besides servants and followers. Accordingly,they reared the standards and the drumsbeat to departure and the king set out [with his army],intending for Baghdad; nor did he cease to fare onwith all diligence, till he came within half a day'sjourney of the city and bade his troops encamp in[a place there called] the Green Meadow. So theypitched the tents there, till the country was straitenedwith them, and set up for the king a pavilion of greenbrocade, broidered with pearls and jewels.When El Aziz had sat awhile, he summoned themamelukes of his son El Abbas, and they were fiveand-twentyin number, besides half a score slave-girls,as they were moons, five of whom the king had broughtwith him and other five he had left with the prince'smother. When the mamelukes came before him, hecast over each of them a mantle of green brocade andbade them mount like horses of one and the samefashion and enter Baghdad and enquire concerning theirlord El Abbas. So they entered the city and passedthrough the [streets and] markets, and there abode inBaghdad nor old man nor boy but came forth to gazeon them and divert himself with the sight of theirbeauty and grace and the goodliness of their aspect andof their clothes and horses, for that they were even asmoons. They gave not over going till they came to the

101royal palace, where they halted, and the king lookedat them and seeing their beauty and the goodliness oftheir apparel and the brightness of their faces, said," "Would I knew of which of the tribes these are IAnd he bade the eunuch bring him news of them.So he went out to them and questionedthem of theircase, whereupon, "Return to thy lord," answered they," and question him of Prince El Abbas, if he have comeunto him, for that he left his father King1 Aziz a fulltoldyear agone, and indeed longing forhim troubleth theking and he hath levied a part of his army and his guardsand is come forth in quest of his son, so haply he maylight upon tidings of him." Quoth the eunuch, " Is thereamongst you a brother of his or a son?" "Nay, by"Allah 1 answered " they. But we are all his mamelukesand the boughten of his money, and his father El Azizhath despatched us to make enquiry of him. So go thouto thy lord and question him of the prince and returnto us with that which he shall answer you." " And whereis King El Aziz ? " asked the eunuch ;and they replied,44 He is 1encamped in the Green Meadow."The eunuch returned and told the king, who said,"Indeed, we have been neglectful with regard to1 Abbas. What shall be our excuse with the king?By Allah, my soul misdoubted me that the youth was"of the sons of the kings1 The Lady Afifeh, his wife,law him lamenting for [his usage of]El Abbas and said1 Lit a deft meadow (mtrj stiia). This is probably a mistranscriptionfor mfrj sselia, a treeless champaign.

102to him, "O king, what is it thou regrettest with thisexceeding regret?" Quoth he, "Thou knowest thestranger youth, who gave us the rubies?" "Assuredly,"answered she; and he said, "Yonder youths, who havehalted in the palace court, are his mamelukes, and hisfather King El Aziz, lord of Yemen, hath pitched hiscamp in the Green Meadow ;for he is come with his armyto seek him, and the number of his troops is [four-and-]twenty thousand men." [Then he went out from her],and when she heard his words, she wept sore for him andhad compassion on his case and sent afterhim, counsellinghim to send for the mamelukes and lodge them [in thepalace] and entertain them.her counsel and despatching theThe king gave ear toeunuch for the mamelukes, assigned them a lodging andsaid to them, "Have patience, till the king give youtidings of your lord El Abbas." When theyheard hiswords, their eyes ran over with plenteous tears, of theirmuch longing for the sight of their lord. Then the kingbade the queen enter the privy chamber 1 and let downthe curtain* [before the door thereof]. So she did thisand he summoned them to his presence. When theystood before him, they kissed the earth, to do him worship,and showed forth their breeding* and magnified hisdignity. He bade them sit, but they refused, till he1 i.t. one of the small rooms opening upon the hall of audience ofsaloon of estate.So she might hear and see what passed, herself unseen.'Or knowledge of court etiquette.

1Oconjuredthem by their lord El Abbas. So they sat downand he caused set before them food of various kinds andfruits and sweetmeats. Now within the Lady Afifeh'spalace was an underground way communicatingpalace of the princess Mariyeh. So the queenher and she came to her, whereupon she made herwith thesent afterstandbehind the curtain and gave her to know that El Abbaswas the king's son of Yemen and that these were hismamelukes. Moreover, she told her that the prince'sfather had levied his troops and was come with his armyin quest of him and that he had pitched his campGreen Meadow and despatched these mamelukes toin themakeenquiry of their lord. So Mariyeh abode looking uponthem and upon their beauty and grace and the goodlinessof their apparel,tillthey had eaten their fill of food andthe tables were removed; whereupon the king recountedto them the story of El Abbas and they took leave of himand went away.As for the princess Mariyeh, when she returned to herpalace, she bethought herself concerning the affair ofEl Abbas, repenting her of that which she had done, andthe love of him took root in her heart. So, when thenight darkened upon her, she dismissed all her womenand bringing out the letters, to wit, those which El Abbashad written, fell to reading them and weeping. Shegave not over weeping her night long,and when she arosein the morning, she called a damsel of her slave-girls,Shefikeh by name, and said to her, "O damsel, I purposeto dir^over to thee mine affair, and I charge thee keepmy secret ;to wit, I would have thee betake thyself to the

104house of the nurse, who used to serve me, and fetch heito me, for that I have grave occasion for her."Accordingly, Shefikeh went out and repairingto thenurse's house, found her clad in apparel other 1 thanthat which she had been wont to wear aforetime. Soshe saluted her and said to her, "Whence hadst thouthis dress, than which there is no goodlier ? " " OShefikeh," answered the nurse, "thou deemest that Ihave gotten* no good save of thy mistress ;but, by Allah,had I endeavoured for her destruction, I had done [thatwhich was my right], for that she did with me whatthou k newest* and bade the eunuch beat me, withoutoffence of me committed; wherefore do thou tell herthat he, on whose behalf I bestirred myself with her,hath made me quit of her and her humours,for that hehath clad me in this habit and given me two hundredand fifty dinars and promised me the like thereof everyyear and charged me serve none of the folk."Quoth Shefikeh, "My mistress hath occasion forto re-thee; so come thou with me and I will engagestore thee to thy dwelling in weal and safety." Butthe nurse answered, saying, "Indeed, her palace isbecome forbidden 4 to me and never again will I entertherein, for that God (extolled be His perfection andexalted be He 1)of His favour and bounty hath rendered1 i.e. richer.1 Lit seen.Lit what she did.4 ijg. tabooed or unlawful in m religions sense

IDSme independent of her." So Shefikeh returned to heimistress and acquainted her with the" rfurse's wordsand that wherein she was of affluence \ whereuponMariyeh confessed the unseemliness of her dealing withher and repented, whenas repentance profited her not;and she abode in that her case days and nights, whilstthe fire of longing flamed in her heartMeanwhile, El Abbas abode with his cousin Akiltwenty days, after which he made ready for the journeyto Baghdad and letting bring the booty he had gottenof King Zuheir, divided it between himself and his cousin.Then he set out for Baghdad, and when he came withintwo days' journey of the city, he called his servant Aamirand bade him mount his charger and foregohim with thebaggage-train and the cattle. So Aamir [took horse and]fared on till he came to Baghdad, and the season of hisentering was the first of the day; nor was there littlechild or hoary old man in the city but came forth to diverthimself with gazing on those flocks and herds and uponthe goodliness of those slave-girls, and their wits wereamazed at what they saw.Presently the news reached theking that the young man 1 Abbas, who had gone forthfrom him, was come back with herds and rarities andslaves and a mighty host and had taken up his sojournwithout the city, whilst his servant Aamir was presentlycome to Baghdad, so he might make ready dwellingplacesfor his lord, wherein he should take up hisabode.When the king heard these tidings of Aamir, he sentfor him and let bring him before him; and when he

io6entered his presence, he kissed the earth and saluted andshowed forth his breeding and greeted him with thegoodliest of compliments. The king bade him raise hishead and questioned him of his lord El Abbas; whereuponhe acquainted him with his tidings and told himthat which had betided him with KingZuheir and of thearmy that was become at his commandment and of thespoil that he had gotten. Moreover, he gave him to knowthat El Abbas was coming on the morrow, and with himmore than fifty thousand cavaliers, obedient to his commandment.When the king heard his speech,he badedecorate Baghdad and commanded [the inhabitants] toequip themselves with the richest of their apparel, inhonour of the coming of El Abbas. Moreover, he sentto give King El Aziz the glad tidings of his son's returnand acquainted him with that which he had heard fromthe prince's servant.When the news reached El Aziz, he rejoiced with anexceeding joy in the coming of his son and straightwaytook horse, he and all his army, what while the trumpetssounded and the musicians played, that the earth quakedand Baghdad also trembled, and it was a notable day.When Mariyeh beheld all this, she repented with the uttermostof repentance of that which she had wroughtenagainst El Abbas his due and the fires still ragedvitals. Meanwhile, the troops1and went out toin hersallied forth of Baghdadmeet those of El Abbas, who had halted1 i*. those of El Aziz, who had apparently entered the city Ofpassed through it on their way to the camp of El Abbas.

107in a meadow called the Green Island. When he espiedthe approaching host, he knew not what they were;so he strained his sight and seeing horsemen comingand troops and footmen, said to those about him,"Among yonder troops are ensigns and banners ofvarious kinds ; but, as for the great greenstandard thatye see, it is the standard of my father, the which isreserved [unto him and never displayed save] over hishead, and [by this]I know that he himself is comeout in quest of me." And he was certified of this, heand his troops.[So he fared on towards them] and when he drew nearunto them, he knew them and they knew him ; whereuponthey lighted down from their horses and saluting him,gave him joy of his safety and the folk flocked to him.When he came to his father, they embraced and greetedeach other a long time, whilst neither of them availedunto speech, for the greatness of that which betided themof joy in reunion. Then El Abbas bade the folk mount ;so they mounted and hismamelukes surrounded him andthey entered Baghdad on the most magnificent wise andin the highest worship and glory.The wife of the shopkeeper, to wit, the nurse, came out,with the rest of those who came out, to divert herselfwith gazing upon the show, and when she saw 1 Abbasand beheld his beauty and the goodliness of his army andthat which he had brought back with him of herds andslaves and slave-girls and mamelukes, she improvisedand recited the following verses:

io8El Abbas from Akil his stead is come again ; Prize hath he madeof steeds and many a baggage-train ;Yea, horses hath he brought, fall fair of shape and hoe, Whosecollars, anklet-like, ring to the bridle-rein.Taper of hoofs and straight of stature, in the dust They prance, ulike a flood they pour across the plain;And on their saddles perched are warriors richly clad, That withtheir hands do smite on kettle-drums amain.Coached are their limber spears, right long and lithe of point, Keengroundand polished sheer, amazing wit and brain.Who dares with them to cope draws death upon himself; Yea, ofthe deadlylance incontinent he's slain.Come, then, companions mine, rejoice with me and say, "All hailto thee, O friend, and welcome fair and fain I"For whoso doth rejoice in meeting him shall have Largesse and giftsgalore at his dismounting gain.When the troops entered Baghdad,each of themalighted in his pavilion, whilst El Abbas encamped apartin a place near the Tigris and commanded to slaughterfor the troops, each day, that which should suffice themof oxenand sheep and bake them bread and spread thetables. So the folk ceased not to come to him and eatof bis banquet. Moreover, all the people of the countrycame to him with presents and rarities and he requitedthem many times the like of their gifts, so that the landswere filled with his tidings and the report of him wasbruited abroad amongcities.the folk of the deserts and theThen, when he rode to his house that he had bought,

109the shopkeeper and his wife came to him and gave himjoy of his safety ; whereupon he ordered them three swiftthoroughbred horses and ten dromedaries and an hundredhead of sheep and clad them both in sumptuous dressesof honour. Then he chose out ten slave-girls and tenblack slaves and fifty horses and the like number of shecamelsand three hundred head of sheep, together withtwenty ounces of musk and as many of camphor, andsent all this to the King of Baghdad. When this cameto Ins ben Cais, his wit fled for joy and he was perplexedwherewithal to requite him. Moreover, El Abbas gavegifts and largesse and bestowed dresses of honour upongreat and small, each after the measure of his station,save only Mariyeh ;for unto her he sent nothing.This was grievous to the princess and it irked her sorethat he should not remember her ;so she called her slavegirlShefikeh and said to her, " Go to 1 Abbas and salutehim and say to him, ' What hindereth thee from sendingmy lady Mariyeh her part of thy booty?'" So Shefikehbetook herself to him and when she came to his door, thechamberlains refused her admission, until they shouldhave gotten her leave and permission. When she entered,El Abbas knew her and knew that she had somewhat ofspeech [with him] ;so he dismissed his mamelukes andsaid to her, " What is thine errand, O handmaid of good ? *"O my lord," answered she, "I am a slave-girl of thePrincess Mariyeh, who kisseth thy hands and commendethher salutation to thee. Indeed, she rejoiceth in thy safetyand reproacheth thee for that thou breakest her heart,alone of all the folk, for that thy largesse embraceth great

noand small, yet hast thou not remembered hei with aughtof thy booty. Indeed, it is as if thou hadst hardened thyheart against her." Quoth he, " Extolled be the perfectionof him who turneth hearts 1By Allah, my vitalswere consumed with the love of her [aforetime] and ofmy longing after her, I came forth to her from my nativeland and left my people and my home and my wealth,and it was with her that began the hardheartedness andthe cruelty. Nevertheless, for all this, I bear her nomalice and needs must I send her somewhat wherebyshe may remember me; for that I abide in her landbut a few days, after which I set out for the land ofYemen."Then he called for a chest and bringing out thencea necklace of Greek handiwork, worth a thousand dinars,wrapped it in a mantle of green silk, set with pearls andjewels and inwrought with red gold, and joined theretotwo caskets of musk and ambergris. Moreover, he putoff upon the girl a mantle of Greek silk, striped withgold, wherein were divers figures and semblants depictured,never saw eyes its like. Therewithal the girl'swit fled for joy and she went forth from his presence andreturned to her mistress. When she came in to her, sheacquainted her with that which she had seen of El Abbasand that which was with him of servants and attendantsand [set out to her] the loftiness of his station and gaveher that which was with her.Mariyeh opened the mantle, and when she saw thatnecklace, and indeed the place was illumined with thelustre thereof, she looked at her slave-girl and said to her,

Ill" By Allah, O Shefikeh, one look at him were liefer to methan all that my hand possesseth! Would I knew whatI shall do, whenas Baghdad is empty of him and I hear"no tidings of him ! Then she wept and calling for inkhornand paper and pen of brass, wrote the followingverses :Still do I yearn, whilst passion's fire flames in my liver aye; Forparting's shafts have smitten me and done my strength away.Oft for thy love as I would be consoled, my yearning turns To-theewardstill and my desires my reason still gainsay.My transports I conceal for fear of those thereon that spy ; Yet downmy cheeks the tears course still and still my case bewray.No rest is there for me, no life wherein I may delight, Nor pleasantmeat nor drink avails to please me, night or day.To whom save thee shall I complain, of whom relief implore, Whoseimage came to visit me, what while in dreams I lay?Reproach me not for what I did, but be thou kind to one Who'ssick of body and whose heart is wasted all away.The fire of love-longing I hide ;severance consumeth me, A thrallof care, for long desire to wakefulness a prey.Midmost the watches of the night I see thee, in a dream; A lyingdream, for he I love my love doth not repay.Would God thou knewest that for love of thee which I endure IIt hath indeed brought down on me estrangement and dismay.Read thou my writ and apprehend its purport, for myand fate hath stricken me with sorrows past allay.case This itKnow, then, the woes that have befall'n a lover, neither grudge Hefsecret to conceal, but keep her counsel still, I pray.Then she folded the letter and giving it to her slave.

112girl, bade her carry it to El Abbas and bring back hisanswer thereto. Accordingly, Shefikeh took the letterand carried it to the prince, after the doorkeeper hadsoughtleave of him to admit her. When she came into him, she found with him five damsels, as they weremoons, clad in [rich] apparel and ornaments; and whenhe saw her, he said to her, "What is thine occasion, Ohandmaid of good? 1' So she put out her hand to himwith the letter, after she had kissed it, and he bade oneof his slave-girls receive it from her. Then he took itfrom the girland breaking itopen, read it and apprehendedits purport; whereupon "We are God's and"to Him we return ! exclaimed he and calling for inkhornand paper, wrote the following verses :I marvel for that to my love I see thee now incline, What timemy heart, indeed, is fain to turn away from thine.Whilere, the verses that I made it was thy wont to flout, Saying,"No passer by the way 1 hath part in me or mine.How many a king to me hath come, of troops and guards ensued,And Bactrian camels brought with him, in many a laden line,And dromedaries, too, of price and goodly steeds and swift Ofmany a noble breed, yet found no favour in my eyne ! "Then, after them came I to thee and union did entreat And untothee set forth at length my case and my design;Yea, all my passion and desire and love-longing in verse, As peariiin goodly order strung it were,I did enshrine.Yet thou repaidst me with constraint, rigour and perfidy, To whichno lover might himself on any wise resign.1Lit none of the sons of the road.

How many a bidder onto love, a secret-craving wight, How manya swain, complaining, saith of destiny malign," How many a cup with bitterness o'erflowing have I quaffed ! I makemy moan of woes, whereat it boots not to repine."Quoth thou, "The goodliest of things is patienceand its use: Itspractice still mankind doth guide to all that's fair and fine."Wherefore fair patience look thou use, for sure 'tis praiseworthy ; Tea,and its issues evermore are blessed and benign ;And hope thou not for aught from me, who reck not with a folk Tomix, who may with ahjectness infect my royal line.This is my saying ; apprehend its purport, then, and know I may in nowise yield consent to that thou dost opine.Then he folded the letter and sealing it,delivered itto the damsel, who took it and carried it to her mistress.When the princess read the letter and apprehendeditscontents, she said, " Meseemeth he recalleth to me thatwhich I did aforetime." Then she called for inkhorn andpaper and wrote the following verses :lie, till I stricken was therewith, to love thou didst excite, And withestrangement now, alas !heap'st sorrows on my sprightThe sweet of slumber after thee I have forsworn ; indeed The loss ofthee hath smitten me with trouble and affright.How long shall I, in weariness, for this estrangement pine, What whilethe spies of severance l do watch me all the night ?My royal couch have I forsworn, sequestering myself From all, aadhave mine eyes forbid the taste of sleep's delight1 i.i. the stanVOL. III. 9

H4Thou taught'st me what I cannot bear ; afflicted sore am f ; Yea, thouhast wasted me away with rigour and despite.Yet, I conjure thee, blame me not for passion and desire, Me whomestrangement long hath brought to sick and sorry plight.Sore, sore doth rigour me beset, its onslaughts bring me near Unto thestraitness of the grave, ere in the shroud I'm dight.So be thou kind to me, for love my body wasteth sore, The thrall ofpassion I'm become its fires consume me quite.Mariyeh folded the letter and gave it to Shefikeh,bidding her carryit to El Abbas. So she took it andgoing with it to his door, would have entered ;but thechamberlains and serving-men forbade her, tillthey hadgotten her leave from the prince. When she went into him, she found him sitting in the midst of the fivedamsels aforesaid, whom his father had brought him.So she gavehim the letter and he took it and readit. Then he bade one of the damsels, whose name wasKhenfeh and who came from the land of China, tuneher lute and sing upon the subject of separation. Soshe came forward and tuning the lute, played thereonin four-and-twenty modes ; after which she returned tothe first mode and sang the following verses :Upon the parting day oar loves from as didestrangement and despair.fare And left as to endureWhenas the burdens all were bounden on and shrill The camel-leadei'icall rang out across the air,Fast flowed my tears ; despair gat hold upon myeyelids must the sweet of sleep forbear.soul And needs mine

I wept, but those who spied to part us had no rath On me nor on thefires that in my vitals flare.Woe's me for one who burns for love and longing pain1regrets my heart that rend and tear !Alas for theTo whom shall I complain of what is in my soul, Now thou art goneand I my pillow most forswear ?The flames of long desirewax on me day by day And far away arepitched the tent-poles of my fair.O breeze of heaven, from me a charge I prithee take And do not thoubetray the troth of my despair ;Whenas thou passest by the dwellings of my love, Greet him for mewith peace, a greeting debonair,And scatter musk on him and ambergris, so long As time endures ;forthis is all my wish and care.When the damsel had made an end of her song, ElAbbas swooned away and they sprinkled on him rosewater,mingled with musk, till he came to himself, whenhe called another damsel (nowthere was on her oflinen and clothes and ornaments that which beggarethdescription, and she was endowed with brightness andloveliness and symmetry and perfection, such as shamedthe crescent moon, and she was a Turkish girl fromthe land of the Greeks and her name was Hafizeh) andsaid to her, "O Hafizeh, close thine eyes and tune thylute and sing to us upon the days of separation." Sheanswered him with "Hearkening and obedience" andtaking the lute, tuned its strings and cried out fromher head, 1 in a plaintive voice, and sang the followingverses :1 it. in falsetto?

friends, the tears flow ever, in mockery of my pain ;for sev'rance and love-longing in vain.Myheart is sickAll wasted is my body and bowels tortured sore ;Love's fire on me stillwaxeth, mine eyes with tears still rain.Whenas the fire of passion flamed in my breast, with tears, Upon theday of wailing, to quench itI was fain.Desire hath left me wasted, afflicted, sore afraid, For the spy knowsthe secret whereof I do complain.When I recall the season of love-delight with them, The sweet ofsleep forsakes me, my body wastes amain.Those who our parting plotted our sev'rance still delights; Thespies, for fearful prudence,their wish of us attain.1 fear me for my body from sickness and unrest, Lest of the fear ofsev'rance it be betrayed and slain.When Hafizeh had made an end of her song, El Abbas"said to her, Well done !Indeed, thou quickenest heartsfrom sorrows." Then he called another damsel of thedaughters of the Medes, by name Merjaneh, and saidto her, "O Merjaneh, sing to me upon the days ofseparation." "Hearkening and obedience," answeredshe and improvising, sang the following verses :" Fair patience practise, for thereon still followeth content" So mmthe rede 'mongst all that dwell in cityor in tent.How oft of dole have I made moan for love and longing pain,What while my body for desire in mortal peril went 1How oft I've waked, how many a cap of sorrow have I drained,Watching the stars of night go by, for sleepless languishment IIt had sufficed me, had thy grace with verses come to me; Myexpectation still on thee in the foredawns was bent.

ii;Then was my heart by that which caused my agitation seared, Andfrom mine eyelids still the tears poured down without relent.Yea, nevermore I ceased from that wherewith I stricken was ; Mynight with wakeralness was filled, my heart with dreariment.Bat now hath Allah from myheart blotted the love of thee, Afterfor constancy I'd grown a name of wonderment.Hence on the morrow forth I fare and leave your land behind jSo take your leave of us nor fear mishap or ill event.Whenas in body ye from us are far removed, would God I knewwho shall to us himself with news of you present !And who can tell if ever house shall us together bring In unionof life serene and undisturbed content?When Merjaneh had made an end of her song, theprince said to " her, Well done, O damsel !Indeed, thousayest a thing that had occurred to my mind and mytongue was like to speak it" Then he signed to thefourth damsel, who was a Cairene, by name Sitt el Husn,and bade her tune her lute and sing to him upon the[same] subject So she tuned her lute and sang thefollowing verses :Fair patience use, for ease still followeth after stress And all thing*have their time and ordinance no less.Though Fortune whiles to thee belike may be unjust, Her seasonschange and man's excused if he transgress.In her revolving scheme, to bitter sweetness still Succeeds and thing*become straight, after crookedness.Thine honour, therefore, guard and eke thy secret keep,Nor saveto one free-born and true thy case confess.The Lord's alternatives are these, wherewith He'i wont The needywretch to ply and those in sore duresse.

118When El Abbas heard her verses, they pleased himand he said to her, "Well done, O Sitt el Husn!Indeed, thou hast done away trouble from my heartand [banished] the things that had occurred to mymind." Then he heaved a sigh and signing to thefifth damsel, who was from the land of the Persiansand whose name was Merziyeh (now she was the fairestof them all and the sweetest of speech and she waslike unto a splendid star, endowed with beauty andloveliness and brightness and perfection and justnessof shape and symmetry and had a face like the newmoon and eyes as they were gazelle's eyes) and saidto her, "O Merziyeh, come forward and tune thy luteNow this damsel had met many kingsand sing to us on the[same] subject, for indeed weare resolved upon departure to the land of Yemen."and had consortedwith the great; so she tuned her lute and sangthe following verses :May the place of my session ne'er lack thee ! Oh, why, My heart'slove, hast thou saddened my mind and mine eye ? 1By thy ransom, 1 who dwellest alone in my heart, In despair for the lossof the loved one am I.Bo, by Allah, O richest of all men m charms, Vouchsafe to a lover,who's bankrupt well-nighOf patience, thy whilom endearments again, That I never to anydivulged, nor deny1 ijt.bythine absence.'Common abbreviation for " May I be thy ransom I "

119The approof of my lord, so my stress and unease I mayban and mineenemies' malice defy,Thine approof which shall clothe me in noblest attire And my rank inthe eyes of the people raise high.When she had made an end of her song, all who werein the assembly wept for the daintiness of her speech andthe sweetness of her voice and El Abbas said to her," Well done, O Merziyeh!Indeed, thou confoundest thewits with the goodliness of thy verses and the eleganceof thy speech." All this while Shefikeh abode gazingupon her, and when she beheld El Abbas his slave-girlsand considered the goodliness of their apparel and thenimbleness of their wits and the elegance of their speech,her reason was confounded. Then she sought leave ofEl Abbas and returning to her mistress Mariyeh, withoutletter or answer, acquainted her with his case and thatwherein he was of puissance and delight and majestyand venerance and loftiness of rank. Moreover, shetold her what she had seen of the slave-girls and theircircumstance and that which they had said and how theyhad made El Abbas desireful of returning to his owncountry bythe recitation of verses to the sound of thestrings.When the princess heard this her slave-girl's report, shewept and lamented and was like to departthe world.Then she clave to her pillow and said, "O Shefikeh,I will instruct thee of somewhat that is not hidden fromGod the Most High, and it is that thou watch over metill God the Most High decree the accomplishment of

I2OHis commandment, and when my days are ended, takethou the necklace and the mantle that El Abbas gave meand return them to him. Indeed, I deem not he willlive after me, and if God the Most High decree againsthim and his days come to an end, do thou give onecharge to shroud us and bury us both in one grave."Then her case changed and her colour paled; andwhen Shefikeh saw her mistress in this plight, sherepaired to her mother and told her that the kdyMariyeh refused meat and drink. "Since when haththis befallen her?" asked the queen, and Shefikehanswered, "Since yesterday;" whereat the queen wasconfounded and betaking herself to her daughter, thatshe might enquire into her case, found her as one dead.So she sat down at her head and Mariyeh opened hereyes and seeing her mother sitting by her, sat up forshamefastness before her. The queen questioned herof her case and she said, "I entered the bath and itstupefied me and weakened me and left an exceedingpain in my head; but I trust in God the Most Highthat it will cease."When her mother went out from her, Mariyehfellto chidingthe damsel for that which she had done andsaid to her, "Verily, death were leifer to me than this;so look thou discover not my affair to any and I chargethee return not to the like of this fashion." Then sheswooned away and lay awhile without life, and whenshe came to herself, she saw Shefikeh weeping over her ;whereuponshe took the necklace from her neck andthe mantle from her body and said to the damsel, " Lay

121them in a napkin of damask and carry them to 1 Abbasand acquaint him with that wherein I am for thepersistence of estrangement and the effects of forbiddance."So Shefikeh took them and carried them toEl Abbas, whom she found in act to depart,for thathe was about to take horse for Yemen. She went into him and gave him the napkin and that which wastherein, and when he openedit and saw what it contained,to wit, the mantle and the necklace, his vexationwas excessive and his eyes were distorted, [so that thewhites thereof appeared] and his rage was manifest inthem.When Shefikeh saw that which betided him, she cameforward and said to him, " O bountiful lord, indeed mymistress returneth not the mantle and the necklacedespitefully ;but she is about to departthe world andthou hast the best right to them." "And what is thecause of this?" asked he. Quoth Shefikeh, "Thouknowest. By Allah, never amongthe Arabs nor thebarbarians nor among the sons of the kings saw I aharder of heart than thou! Is it a light matter to theethat thou troublest Mariyeh'slife and causest her mournfor herself and depart the world on account of 1 thyyouth ?Indeed, thou wast the cause of her acquaintancewith thee and now she departeth the world on thineaccount, she whose like God the Most Highhath notcreated among the daughters of the kings."When 1 Abbas heard these words from the damsel,1 iu. for lore of and longing for.

122his heart irkedhim for Mariyeh and her case was grievousto him ;so he said to Shefikeh, " Canst thou avail tobring me in company with her, so haply I may discoverher affair and allay that which aileth her?" "Yes,"answered the damsel, "I can do that, and thine willbe the bounty and the favour." So he arose and followedher, and she forewent him, till they came to thepalace. Then she [opened and] locked behind themfour-and-twenty doors and made them fast with bolts;and when he came to Mariyeh, he found her as shewere the setting sun, cast down upon a rug of Taifileather, 1 among cushions stuffed with ostrich down, andnot a limb of her quivered. When her maid saw herin this plight, she offered to cry out; but 1 Abbas saidto her, " Do it not, but have patiencetill we discoverher affair; and if God the Most Highhave decreedthe ending of her days, wait till thou have opened thedoors to me and I have goneseemeth good tothee."forth. Then do whatSo saying, he went op to the princess and laying hishand upon her heart, found it fluttering like a dovelingand the life yet clinging to 1 her bosom. So he laid hishand upon her cheek, whereupon she opened her eyesand beckoning to her maid, signed to her, as who shouldsay, " Who is this that treadeth my carpetand transgressethagainst me?"' "O my lady," answered She-1 ijt. leather from Et Talf, a town of the Hejai, renowned for UMmanufacture of scented goats' leather.1Or "suspended in."i*. violatethmy privacy.

123fikeh, "this is Prince El Abbas,for whose sake thoudepartest the world." When Mariyeh heard speak of ElAbbas, she raised her hand from under the coverlet andlaying it upon his neck, inhaled his odour awhile. Thenshe sat up and her colour returned to her and they sattalking till a third part of the night was past.Presently, the princess turned to her maid and badeher fetch them somewhat of food and sweetmeats anddessert and fruits. So Shenkeh brought what she desiredand they ate and drank [and abode on this wise] withoutlewdness, till the night departed and the day came. Thensaid El Abbas, " Indeed, the day is come. Shall I goto my father and bid him go to thy father and seek theeof him in marriage for me, in accordance with the Bookof God the Most High and the Institutes of His Apostle(whom may He bless and keep 1)so we maynot enterinto transgression?" And Mariyeh answered, saying," By Allah, it is well counselled"of thee 1 So he wentaway to his lodging and nought befell between them jand .when the day lightened, she improvised and recitedthe following verses :O friends, the East wind waxes, the morning draweth near ;A plaintivevoice 1 bespeaks me and I rejoice to hear.Up, to our comrade's convent, that we mayvisit him And drink of winemore subtle than dust ;* our trusty fere1 i,e. the plaintive song of a nightingale or turtle-dove.1 This curious comparison appears to be founded upon the extremetenuity of the particles of fine dust, to minutely divided as to seenalmost fluid.

I24Hath spent thereon his substance, withouten stint ; indeed, In his owncloak he wrapped it, b : tendered it so dear. 1Whenas its jar was opened, the singers prostrate fell In worshipit brightness, shone so wonder-clear.of itsThe priests from all the convent came flocking onto it : With cries ofjoy and welcome their voices they did rear.We spent the night in passing the cup, my mates and I, Till in theEastward heaven the day-star did appear.No sin is there in drinking of wine, for it affords All that's foretold 1 ofunion and love and happy cheer.O mom, our loves that sunder'st, a sweet and easeful life Thou dost forme prohibit, with thy regard austere.Be gracious, so our gladness may be fulfilled with wine And we of oarbelove"d have easance, without fear.The best of all religions your love is, for in yon Are love and life madeeaseful, untroubled and sincere.Meanwhile,1 Abbas betook himself to his father'scamp, which was pitched in the Green Meadow, bythe side of the Tigris, and none might make his waybetween the tents, for the much interlacement of thetent-ropes. When the prince reached the first of theand servants came out to meet himtents, the guardsfrom all sides and escorted him till he drew near thesitting-place of his father, who knew of his coming.So he issued forth of his pavilion and coming to meethis son, kissed him and made much of him. Then they1 i.e. he carried it into the convent, hidden under his cloak.1 i.e. all the delights of Paradise, as promised to the believer by theKoran.

125returned together to the royal pavilion and when theyhad seated themselves and the guards had taken uptheir station in attendance on them, the kingsaid toEl Abbas, "O my son, make ready thine affair, so wemay go to our own land,for that the folk in our absenceare become as they were sheep without a shepherd."1 Abbas looked at his father and wepttill he swoonedaway, and when he recovered from his swoon, he improvisedand recited the following verses:I clipped her 1 in mine arms and straight grew drunken with the scentOf a fresh branch that had been reared in affluence and content'Twos not of wine that I had drunk ; her mouth's sweet honeyed dewsIt was intoxicated me with bliss and ravishmentUpon the table of her cheek beauty hath " writ, Alack, Her charms I'Twere well thou refuge sought'st with God incontinent."*Since thou hast looked on her, mine eye, be easy, for by God Nor motenor ailment needst thou fear nor evil accident.Beauty her appanage is grown in its entirety, And for this cause allhearts must bow to her arbitrament.If with her cheek and lustre thou thyself adorn,* thou'lt find Butchrysolites and gold, with nought of baser metal blentWhen love- longing for her sweet sake I took upon myself, The nailersSocked to me anon, on blame and chiding bent ;1 " Him " in the text and so on throughout the piece ; but Mariyehis evidently the person alluded to,according to the common practice ofMuslim poets of a certain class, who consider it indecent openly tomention a woman as an object of love.1 i.e. from the witchery of her beauty. See Vol. II. p. 240, note.* Lot "if thou kohl thyself," i.e. use them as a cosmetic for the eye.

126Bat on no wise was I affrayed nor turned from love of her; So let therailer rave of her henceforth his heart's contentBy God, forgetfulness of he' shall never cross my mind, What while Iwear the bonds of life nor when of death they're rentAn if I live, in love of her I'll live, and if I die Of love and longingfor her sight, O rare I O excellent !When 1 Abbas had made an end of his verses, hisfather said to him, " I seek refuge for thee with God, Omy son I Hast thou anywant unto which thou availestnot, so I may endeavour for thee therein and lavish mytreasures in quest thereof? " "O father mine," answered1 Abbas, "I have, indeed, an urgent want, on accountwhereof I came forth of my native land and left mypeople and my home and exposed myself to perils andstresses and became an exile from my country, and Itrust in God that it may be accomplished by thine augustendeavour." "And what is thy want?" asked the king.Quoth El Abbas, "I would have thee go and demandme in marriage Mariyeh, daughter of the King of Baghdad,for that my heart is distraughtwith love of her." Andhe recounted to his father his story from first to lastWhen the king heard this from his son, he rose tohis feet and calling for his charger of state,with four-and-twentytook horseamirs of the chief officers of hisempire. Then he betook himself to the palace of theKing of Baghdad, who, when he saw him coming, Dadehis chamberlains open the doors to him and going downhimself to meet him, received him with all worship

127Moreover, he carried him [and his suite] into the palaceand causing make ready for them carpets and cushions,sat down upon a chair of gold, with traverses of juniperwood,set with pearls and jewels. Then he bade bringsweetmeats and confections and odoriferous flowers andcommanded to slaughter four-and-twenty head of sheepand the like of oxen and make ready geese and fowls,stuffed and roasted, and pigeons and spread the tables;nor was itlongbefore the meats were set on in dishesof gold and silver. So they ate tillthey had enoughand when they had eaten their fill, the talles were removedand the wine-service set on and the cups and flagonsranged in order, whilst the mamelukes and the fair slavegirlssat down, with girdles of gold about their middles,inlaid with all manner pearls and diamonds and emeraldsand rubies and other jewels. Moreover, the king badefetch the musicians ;so there presented themselves beforehim a score of damsels, with lutes and psalteries andrebecks, and smote upon instruments of music, on suchwise that they moved the assembly to delight.Then said El Aziz to the King of Baghdad, " I wouldfain speak a word to thee ;but do thou not excludefrom us those who are present. If thou consent untomy wish, that which is ours shall be thine and thatwhich is incumbent on thee shall be incumbent on us,1and we will be to thee a mighty aid against all enemiesand opposites." Quoth Ins ben Cais, "Say what thouwilt, O King, for indeed thou excellest in speech and1. we will assume thy debts and responsibilities.

128attainest [the mark] in that which thou sayest" So ElAziz said to him, " I desire that thou give thy daughterMariyeh in marriage to my son El Abbas, for thouknowest that wherewithal he is gifted of beauty andloveliness and brightness and perfection and how hebeareth himself in the frequentation of the valiant andhis constancy in the stead of smiting and thrusting.""By Allah, O king," answered Ins ben Cais, "of mylove for Mariyeh, I have appointed her disposalto bein her own hand; wherefore, whomsoever she choosethof the folk, I will many her to him."Then he arose and going in to his daughter, foundher mother with her; so he set out to them the caseand Mariyeh said, "O father mine, my wish is subjectunto 1 thy commandment and my will ensueth thy will ;so whatsoever thou choosest, I am still obedient untothee and under thy dominion." Therewithal the Kingknew that Mariyeh inclined unto El Abbas; so hereturned forthright to King El Aziz and said to him," May God amend the King ! Verily, the occasion isaccomplished and there is no opposition unto that whichthou commandest" Quoth El "Aziz, By God's leaveare occasions accomplished. How deemest thou, OKing, of fetching El Abbas aad drawing up the contractof marriage between Mariyeh and him ? " And Ins benCais answered, saying, "Thine be it to decide."So El Aziz sent after his son and acquainted him withwhich had passed; whereupon El Abbas called for* Lit " behind."

129four-and-twenty mules and half a score horses [and asmany camels] and loaded the mules with pieces of silkand rugs of leather and boxes of camphor and muskand the camels [and horses] with chests of gold andsilver. Moreover, he took the richest of the stuffs andwrapping them in pieces of gold-striped silk, laid themon the heads of porters, and they fared on with thetreasures tillthey reached the King of Baghdad's palace,whereupon all who were present dismounted in honourof El Abbas and escorting him to the presence of KingIns ben Cais, displayed unto the latter all that they hadwith them of things of price. The king bade carry allthis into the harem and sent for the Cadis and thewitnesses, who drew upthe contract andto Prince El Abbas, whereuponmarried Mariyehthe latter commanded to[slaughter] a thousand head of sheep and five hundredbuffaloes. So they made the bride-feast and bade theretoall the tribes of the Arabs, Bedouins and townsfolk, andthe tables abode spread for the space of ten days.Then El Abbas went in to Mariyeh in a happy andpraiseworthy hour 1 and found her an unpierced pearland a goodly filly that had never been mounted ; whereforehe rejoiced and was glad and made merry, andcare and sorrow ceased from him and his life waspleasant and trouble departedand he abode with her1* a specially auspicious hour, as ascertained by astrologicalcalculations. Eastern peoples have always laid great stress upon thenecessity of commencing all important undertakings at an (astrologically)favourable time.VOL, III. 9

130in the gladsomestof case and in the most easeful oflife, till seven days were past, when King El Azi*determined to set out and return to his kingdom andbade his son seek leave of his father-in-law to departwith his wife to his own country. [So El Abbas bespokeKing Ins of this] and he granted him the leavehe sought; whereupon he chose out a red camel, taller 1than the [other] camels, and mounting Mariyeh in alitter thereon, loaded it with apparel and ornaments.Then they spread the ensigns and the standards, whilstthe drums beat and the trumpets sounded, and set outupon the homeward journey. The King of Baghdad rodeforth with them and brought them three days' journeyon their way, after which he took leave of them andreturned with his troops to Baghdad. As for King ElAziz and his son, they fared on night and day and gavenot over goingtill there abode but three days' journeybetween them and Yemen, when they despatched threemen of the couriers to the prince's mother [to acquainther with their return], safe and laden with spoil, bringingwith them Mariyeh, the king's daughter of Baghdad.When the queen-mother heard this, her wit fled for joyand she adorned El Abbas his slave-girls after thegoodliest fashion. Now he had ten slave-girls, as theywere moons, whereof his father had carried five withhim to Baghdad, as hath aforetime been set out, andother five abode with his mother. When the dromedary-1Or " more valuable." Red camels are considered better than thoteof other colours by some of the Arabs.

posts 1 came, they were certified of the approach of ElAbbas, and when the sun rose and their standardsappeared, the prince'smother came out to meet herson; nor was there great or small, old man or infant,but went forth that day to meet the king.The drums of glad tidings beat and they entered inthe utmost of worship and magnificence. Moreover, thetribes heard of them and the peopleof the towns andbrought them the richest of presents and the costliestof rarities and the prince's mother rejoiced with anexceeding joy. Then they slaughtered beasts and mademighty bride-feasts to the people and kindled fires, thatitmight be visible afar to townsman [and Bedouin] thatthis was the house of the guest-meal and the wedding,festival, to the intent that, if any passed them by, [withoutpartaking of their it hospitality], should be of his ownfault* So the folk came to them from all parts andquarters and on this wise they abode days and months.Then the prince's mother bade fetch the five slave-girlsto that assembly; whereupon they came and the tendamsels foregathered. The queen seated five of themon her son's right hand and other five on his left andthe folk assembled about them. Then she bade the fivewho had remained with her speak forth somewhat of verse,so they might entertain therewith the assembly and that1 i.t. couriers mounted on dromedaries, which animals are commonlyused for this purpose, being (for long distances)swifter and moreenduring than horses.1 Lit. he sinned against himself

132El Abbas might rejoice therein. Now she had clad themin the richest of raiment and adorned them with trinketsand ornaments and wroughten work of gold and silverand collars of gold, set with pearls and jewels. So theycame forward, with harps and lutes and psalteries andrecorders and other instruments of music before them,and one of them, a damsel who came from the laudof China and whose name was Baoutheh, advanced andtightened the strings of her lute. Then she cried outfrom the top of her head 1 and improvising, sang thefollowing verses :Unto its pristine lustreyour land returned and more, Whenas ye came,dispelling the gloom that whiles it wore.Oar stead, that late was desert, grew green and eke our trees, Thatbarren were, grew loaded with ripened fruits galore.Yea, to the earth that languished for lack of rain, the clouds Werebounteous ;so it flourished and plenteous harvests bore ;And troubles, too, forsook as, who tears like dragons' blood, O lording*,for your absence had wept at every pore.Indeed, your long estrangement hath caused my bowels yearn.WouldGod I were a servant in waiting at your door tWhen she had made an end of her song, all whowere present were moved to delight and El Abbasrejoiced in this. Then he bade the second damsel singsomewhat on the like subject. So she came forwardand tuning the strings of her harp, which was of balast1 U, in falsetto!

133ruby, warbled a plaintive air and improvising, sang thefollowing verses :The absent ones' harbinger came as onto With tidings of those who*had caused us to rue."My soul be thy ransom," quoth I, "for thy grace! Indeed, to theoath that thou swor'st them wast true."OB the dear nights of union, in you was our joy, But afflicted were wsince ye bade us adieu.You swore you'd be faithful to us and our lore, And true to your oathand your troth-plight were yon ;And I to you swore that a lover I was ; God forbid that with treasonmine oath I ensue !Yea, " Welcome ! Fair welcome to those who draw near I" I calledout aloud, as to meet you I flew.The dwellings, indeed, one and all, I adorned, Bewildered and dazedwith delight at your view ;For death in your absence to us was decreed ; But, when ye came back,we were quickened anew.When she had made an end of her verses, El Abbasbade the third damsel, who came from Samarcand of thePersians and whose name was Rummaneh, sing, and sheanswered with "Hearkening and obedience." Then shetook the psaltery and crying out from the midst of herbead,' improvised and sang the following verses :1 i.t, of gold or rare wood, set with balass rabies.1 i.t. whose absence.. in a throat voice ?

134My watering lips, that cull the rose of thy soft cheek, declare My basil, 1lily mine, to be the myrtles of thy hair.Sandhill 1 and down* betwixt there blooms a yellow willow-flower,4Pomegranate-blossoms* and for fruits pomegrantes that dothbear.His eyelids' sorcery from mine eyes hath banished sleep ; since he Fromme departed, nought see I except a drowsy fair.*He shot me with the shafts of looks launched from an eyebrow's* bow;A chamberlain * betwixt his eyes hath driven me to despair.My heart belike shall his infect with softness, even as me His bodywith disease infects, of its seductive air.Yet, if with him forgotten be the troth-plight of our lores, I have aking who of his grace will not forget me e'er.1Koranic synonym, victual (rihan). See Vol. IL p. 247, note.* Apparently, the apple of the throat.* Apparently, the belly.4 Apparently, the bosom.* Cf. Fletcher's well-known song in The Bloody Brother;" Hide, O hide those hills of snow,That thy frozen bosom bears,On whose tops the pinks that growAre of those that April wears."**. the breasts themselves.' i.e.your languishing beauties are alone present to my mind's eye.A drowsy voluptuous air of languishment is considered by the Aral>s anspecial charm.* Syn. chamberlain (hajib).* Syn. eyebrow (hajib). The usual trifling play of words is of courseblended.

135His sides the tamarisk's slenderness deride, so lithe they are, Whencefor conceit in his own charms still drunken doth he fare.Whenas he runs, his feet still show like wings, 1 and for the wind Whenwas a rider 'found, except King Solomon it were ?Therewithal 1 Abbas smiled and her verses pleasedhim. Then he bade the fourth damsel come forwardand sing. Now she was from the land of Morocco andher name was Belekhsha. So she came forward andtaking the lute and the psaltery, tightened the stringsthereof and smote thereon in many modes ;then returnedto the first mode and improvising, sang the followingverses :When in the sitting-chamber we for merry-making sate, With thineeyes' radiance the place thou didst illuminateAnd pliedst us with cups of wine, whilst from the necklace pearls' Astrange intoxicating buss withal did circulate,Whose subtleness might well infect the understanding folk ;And secretsdidst thou, in thy cheer, to us communicate.Whenas we saw the cup, forthright we signed to pass it round And sunand moon unto our eyes shone sparkling from it straight.The curtain of delight, perforce, we've lifted through the friend, 4 Fortidings of great joy, indeed, there came to us of late.1 Lit. feathers.Solomon is fabled by the Muslims to have compelled the wind tobear his throne when placed upon his famous magic carpet. See my" Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," VoL V. pp. 235-6.1Quart the teeth.4 i.t the return of our beloved hath enabled us to remove the barrienthat stood between us and delight.

136The camel-leader singing came with the belcVd ; oar wish Accomplishedwas and we were quit of all the railers' prate.When clear'd my sky was by the sweet of oar foregathering And nota helper there remained to disuniting Fate,I shut myself up with my love ;no spy betwixt as was ; We feared noenemies' despite, no envious neighbour's hate.Life with our loves was grown serene, estrangement was at end : Oardear ones all delight of love vouchsafed to as elate,Saying, "Thy fill of onion take ;no spy is there on us, Whom weshould fear, nor yet reproach our gladness may abate."Onr loves are joined and cruelty at last is done away ; Ay, and the capof love-delight 'twixt us doth circulate.Upon you be the peace of God May I all prosperity, For what'sdecreed of years and lives,upon you ever wait IWhen Belekhsha had made an end of her verses, allpresent were moved to delight and 1 Abbas said toher, "Well done, O damsel!" Then he bade the fifthdamsel come forward and sing. Now she was fromthe land of Syria and her name was Rihaneh; shewas surpassing of voice and when she appeared in anassembly, all eyes were fixed upon her. So she cameforward and taking the rebeck (for that she was usedto play upon [all manner] instruments) improvised andsang the following verses :Your coming to-me-ward, indeed, with "Welcome ! fair welcome I"I hail.Your sight to me gladness doth bring and banisheth sorrowand bale ;For love with your presence grows sweet, untroubled and life is sereneAnd the star of our fortune bums bright, that clouds in yourabsence did veil

137Yea, by Allah, my longing for you ne'er waneth nor passeth away IFor your like among creatures is rare and sought for in mountainand vale.Ask mine eyes whether slumber hath lit on their lids since the hour ofyour loss Or if aye on a lover they've looked.not their tale,Nay, an ye believeMy heart, since the leave-taking day afflicted, will tell of my case,And my body, for love and desire grown wasted and feeble andfrail.Could they who reproach me but see my sufferings,relent ;ones bewail.their hearts wouldThey'd marvel, indeed, at my case and the loss of my lovedYea, they'd join me in pouring forth tears and help me my woes tolament, And like onto me they'd become allwasted and torturedand pale.How long did the heart for thy love that languished with longingendure A burden of passion,'neath which e'en mountains mighttotter and fail IBy Allah, what sorrows and woes to my soul for thy sake were decreed IMy heart is grown hoar, ere eld's snows have left on my tressestheir trail.The fires in my vitals that rage if I did but discover to view, Theirardour the world to consume, from the Eastto the West, mightavail.But now unto me of my loves accomplished are joyancethose whom I cherish myregale.and cheer Andsoul with the wine of contentmentOut Lord, after sev'rance, with them hath conjoined us, for he whodoth good Shall ne'er disappointed abtde and kindnesses kindnessentailWhen King El Aziz heard the damsel's song, her

138speech and her verses pleasedhim and he said to ElAbbas, "O my son, verily, these damsels are weary withlong versifying, and indeed they make us yearn afterthe dwellings and the homesteads with the goodlinessof their songs. Indeed, these five have adorned ourassembly with the excellence of their melodies and havedone well in that which they have said before thosewho are present; wherefore we counsel thee to enfranchisethem for the love of God the Most High."Quoth El Abbas, "There is no commandment but thycommandment;" and he enfranchised the ten damselsin the assembly; whereupon theykissed the hands ofthe king and his son and prostrated themselves inthanksgiving to God the Most High. Then they putoff that which was upon them of ornaments and layingaside the lutes [and other] instruments of music, claveto their houses, veiled, and went not forth. 1As for King El Aziz, he lived after this seven yeanand was admitted to the mercy of God the Most High;1 Singing (as I have before pointed out) is not, in the eyes of thestrict Muslim, a reputable occupation and it is, therefore, generally thefirst idea of the " repentant" professional songstress or (as in this case)enfranchised slave-girl, who has been wont to entertain her master withthe display of her musical talents, to free herself from all signs of herformer profession and identify herself as closely as possible with theordinary " respectable " bourgcoise of the harem, from whom she hatbeen distinguished hitherto by unveiled face and freedom of ingress andegress and with this aim in view she would; naturally be inclined toexaggerate the rigour of Muslim custom, as applied to herself.

139whereupon his son 1 Abbas carried him forth to burialon such wise as beseemeth unto kings and let makerecitations and readings of the Koran,in whole or inpan, over his tomb. He kept up the mourning for hisfather a full-told month, at the end of which time hesat down on the throne of the kingship and judged anddid justice and distributed silver and gold. Moreover,he loosed all who were in the prisons and abolishedgrievances and customs dues and did the oppressedjustice of the oppressor; wherefore the people prayedfor him and loved him and invoked on him enduranceof glory and kingship and length of continuance [onlife]and eternity of prosperity and happiness. Moreover,the troops submitted u; him and the hosts fromall parts of the kingdom, *nd there came to himpresents from all the lands. The kings obeyed him andmany were his troops and his grandees, and his subjectslived with him the most easeful and prosperous oflives.Meanwhile, he ceased not, he and his beloved, QueenMariyeh, in the most delightsome of life and thepleasantest thereof, and he was vouchsafed by herchildren; and indeed there befell friendship and lovebetween them and the longer their companionship wasprolonged, the more their love waxed, so that theybecame unable to endure from each other a single hour,save the time of his going forth to the Divan, whenhe would return to her in the utterest that might beof longing. Aud on this wise they abode in all solaceand delight of life, till there came to them the Destroyer

40of Delights and the Sonderer of Companies.be the perfection of Him whose kingdomSo extolledendureth forever, who is never heedless neither dieth nor sleepethlThis is all that hath come down to OB of their story,and so peace [be on yon f ]


SHEHRZAD AND SHEHRIYAJL*King Shehriyar marvelled [at this story 1 and said]u "'By Allah, verily, injustice slayeth its folk !was edified by that wherewith Shehrzad bespokeAnd hehim andsought help of God the Most High. Then said he toher, "Tell me another of thy stories, O Shehrzad ; letit be a pleasant one and this shall be the completionof the story-telling." "With allmy heart," answeredShehrzad. "It hath reached me, O august King, that'a man once said to his fellows, I will set forth to you1 Breslan Text, vol. xii. pp. 383-4 (Night mi).* i.e. that of the king, his seven viziers, his son and his favourite,which in the Breslau Edition immediately follows the Storyof ElAbbas and Mariyeh and occupies pp. 237-383 of voL xii. (Nightsdcccclxxix-m). It will be found translated in my "Book of thrThousand Nights and One Night," Vol. V. pp. 260-346, under th.name of "The Malice of Women."i.e.those who practise it

144a means 1 of security* against vexation." A friend ofmine once related to me and said, "We attained [whiles]to security* against vexation,' and the origin of it wasother than this ;to wit, it was as follows :*1Or " cause " (sebeb).*Or " preservation " (selameh}.*Or " turpitude, anything that is hateful or vexatious " (keraheh}.* These preliminary words of Shehrzad have no apparent connectionwith the story that immediately follows and which is only her own toldin the third person, and it is difficult to understand why they should behere introduced. The author may have intended to connect them withthe story by means of a further development of the latter and withthe characteristic carelessness of the Eastern story-teller, forgotten orneglected to carry oat his intention ; or, again, it is possible that thewords in question may have been intended as an introduction to theStory of the Favourite and her Lover (see post, p. 165), to which theyseem more suitable, and have been misplaced by an error of transcription.In any case, the text isprobably (as usual) corrupt.


THE TWO KINGS AND THE VIZIER'SDAUGHTERS. 1[Aforetime] I journeyed in [many] lands and climesand towns and visited the great cities and traversed theways and [exposed myself to] dangers and hardships.Towards the last of my life, I entered a city [of thecities of China],* wherein was a king of the Chosroesand the Tubbas* and the Caesars. 4 Now that city hadbeen peopled with its inhabitants by means of justiceand equitable dealing; but its [then] king was a tyrant,who despoiled souls and [did away] lives; there wasno wanning oneself at his fire,' for that indeed he1 Breslau Text, vol. xii. pp. 384-394.' The kingdom of the elder brother is afterwards referred to as situatefat China. See post, p. 150.* Tubba was the dynastic title of the ancient Himyerite Kings ofYemen, even asChosroes and Caesar of the Kingsof Persia and theEmperors of Constantinople respectively.* i.e. a king similar in magnificence and dominion to the monarchsof the three dynasties aforesaid, whose names are in Arab literaturesynonyms for regal greatness.1 i.e. his rage was ungovernable, so that none dared approach him inhis heat of passion.

148oppressed the true believers and wasted the lands. Nowhe had a younger brother, who was [king] in Samarcandof the Persians, and the two kings abode a while oftime, each in his own city and place, tillthey yearnedunto each other and the elder king despatchedhis vizierin quest of his younger brother.When the vizier came to the King of Samarcand [andacquainted him with his errand], he submitted himselfto the commandment [ofhis brother and made answer]with ' Hearkening and obedience.' Then he equippedhimself and made ready for the journey and broughtforth his tents and pavilions. A while after midnight,he went in to his wife, that he might take leave ofher, and found with her a strange man, sleeping withher in one bed. So he slew them both and draggingthem out by the feet, cast them away and set forthincontinent on his journey. When he came to hisbrother's court, the latter rejoicedin him with an exceedingjoy and lodged him in the pavilion of enter*tainment, [to wit, the guest-house,] beside his ownpalace. Now this pavilion overlooked a garden belongingto the elder king and there the younger brotherabode with him some days. Then he called to mindthat which his wife had done with him and rememberedhim of her slaughter and bethought him how he wasa king, yet was not exemptfrom the vicissitudes offortune; and this wrought upon him with an exceedingdespite, so that it caused him abstain from meat anddrink, or, if he ate anything, it profited him notWhen his brother saw him on this wise, he doubted

149not but that this had bedded him by reason of severancefrom his people and family and said to him, ( Come, letus go forth a-hunting.' But he refused to go with him ;so the elder brother went forth to the chase, whilst theyounger abode in the pavilionaforesaid. As he wasdiverting himself by looking out upon the garden fromthe window of the palace, behold, he saw his brother'swife and with her ten black slaves and as many slavegirls.Each slave laid hold of a damsel [and swivedher] and another slave [came forth and] did the likewith the queen ;and when they had done their occasions,they all returned whence they came. Therewithal therebetided the King of Samarcand exceeding wonder andsolacement and he was made whole of his malady, littleby little.After a few days, his brother returned and findinghim healed of his sickness, said to him, 'Tell me, Omy brother, what was the cause of thy sickness and thypallor, and what is the cause of the return of health tothee and of rosiness to thyface after this?' So heacquainted him with the whole case and this wasgrievous to him; but theyconcealed their affair andagreed to leave the kingship and fare forth pilgrimwise,wandering at a venture, for they deemed thatthere had befallen none the like of this which had'befallen them. [So theywent forth and wandered onat hazard] and as they journeyed, they saw by the waya woman imprisoned in seven chests, whereon were fivelocks, and sunken in the midst of the salt sea, underthe guardianship of an Afrit; yet for all this that

ISOwoman issued forth of the sea and opened those locksand coming forth of those chests, did what she wouldwith the two brothers, after she had circumventedthe AfritWhen the two kings saw that woman's fashion andhow she circumvented the Afrit, who had lodged herat the bottom of the sea, they turned back to theirkingdoms and the younger betook himself to Samarcand,whilst the elder returned to China and established untohimself a custom in the slaughter of women, to wit, hiswith whomvizier used to bring him a girl every night,he lay that night, and when he arose in the morning,he gave her to the vizier and bade him put her todeath. On this wise he abode a great while, whilstthe people murmured and the creatures [of God] weredestroyed and the commons cried out by reason of thatgrievous affair whereinto they were fallen and fearedthe wrath of God the Most High, dreading lest Heshould destroy them by means of this. Still the kingpersisted in that fashion and in that his blameworthyintent of the killing of women and the despoilment ofthe curtained ones,1wherefore the girls sought succourof God the Most High and complained to Him of thetyranny of the king and of his oppressive dealing withthem.Now the king's vizier had two daughters, own sisters,the elder of whom had read books and made herself1i.e. maidens cloistered or concealed behind curtains and veiled inthe harem.

mistress of [all] sciences and studied the writings ofthe sages and the histories of the boon-companions, 1and she was possessed of abundant wit and knowledgegalore and surpassing apprehension. She heard thatwhich the folk suffered from the king and his despiteoususage of their children ; whereupon compassion gat holdupon her for them and jealousy and she besought Godthe Most High that He would bring the kingto renouncethat his heresy,* and God answered her prayer.Then she took counsel with her younger sister and saidto her, 'I mean to contrive somewhat for the liberationof the people's children ;and it is that I will go up tothe king [and offer myself to him],to his presence,and when I comeI will seek thee. When thou comestin to me and the king hath done his occasion [of me],do thou say to me, O ' my sister, let me hear and letthe king hear a story of thy goodly stories, wherewithalwe may beguile the waking hours of our night,till wetake leave of each other.' 'It is well,' answered theother. 'Surely this contrivance will deter the kingfrom his heresy and thou shall be requited with exceedingfavour and abounding recompensein the world1 i.e. those whose business it is to compose or compile stories, verses,etc., for the entertainment of kings and grandees.1 i.e. that his new and damnable custom. The literal meaning ofbiJah is "an innovation or invention, anything new;" but the word iscommonly used in the sense of "heresy " or "heterodox innovation,"anything new being naturally heretical in the eyes of the orthodoireligionist.

152to come, for that indeed thou adventurest thyself andwilt either perish or attain to thy desire.'So she did this and fair fortune aided her and theDivine favour was vouchsafed unto her and she discoveredher intent to her father, who forbade her therefrom,fearing her slaughter. However, she repeated herspeech to him a second and a third time, but heconsented not Then he cited unto her a parable, thatshould deter her, and she cited him a parable in answerto his, and the talk was prolonged between them andthe adducing of instances,till her father saw that heavailed not to turn her from her purpose and she saidto him, ' Needs must I marry the king, so haply I maybe a sacrifice for the children of the Muslims; eitherI shall turn him from this his heresy or I shall die.'When the vizier despaired of dissuading her, he wentup to the king and acquainted him with the case, saying,'I have a daughter and she desireth to give herself tothe king.' Quoth the king, 'How can thy soul consentunto this, seeing that thou knowest I lie but one nightwith a girland when I arise on the morrow, I put herto death, and it is thou who slayest her, and thou hastdone this again and again ? ' * Know, O king,' answeredthe vizier, 'that I have set forth all this to her, yetconsented she not unto aught, but needs must she havethy company and still chooseth to come to thee andpresent herself before thee, notwithstandingthat I havecited to her the sayings of the sages; but she hathanswered me to the contrary thereof with more thanthat which I said to her.' And the king said, 'Bring

153her to Jie this night and to-morrow morning come thouand take her and put her to death ;and by Allah, anthou slay her not, I will slay thee and her also 1 'The vizier obeyed the king's commandment and goingout from before him, [returnedto his own house. Whenit was night, he took his elder daughter and carried herup to the king ;and when she came into his presence,]she wept; whereupon quoth he to her, 'What causeththee weep? Indeed,it was thou who willedst this.'And she answered, saying, ' I weep not but for longingafter my little sister ;for that, since we grew up, I andshe, I have never been parted from her till this day;BO, if itplease the king to send for her, that I maylook on her and take my fill of her till the morning,this were bounty and kindness of the king.'Accordingly, the king bade fetch the girl [and shecame]. Then there befell that which befell of his foregatheringwith the elder sister, and when he went upto his couch, that he might sleep, the younger sistersaid to the elder, * I conjure thee by Allah, O my sister,an thou be not asleep, tell us a story of thy goodly stories,wherewithal we may beguile the watches of our night,against morning come and*parting.' With all my heart,'answered she and fell to relating to her, whilst the kinglistened. Her story was goodly and delightful, and whilstshe was in the midst of telling it, the dawn broke. Nowthe king's heart clave to the hearing of the rest of thestory; so he respited her till the morrow, and when itwas the next night, she told him a story concerning themarvels of the lands and the extraordinary chances of

154the folk, that was yet stranger and rarer than the firstIn the midst of the story, the day appeared and shewas silent from the permitted speech. So he let herlive till the ensuing night, so he mighthear the completionof the story and after puther to death.Meanwhile, the people of the city rejoicedand wereglad and blessed the vizier's daughter, marvelling forthat three days had passed and that the kinghad notput her to death and exulting in that, [as they deemed,]he had turned [from his purpose] and would never againburden himself with blood-guiltiness against any of themaidens of the city. Then, on the fourth night, sherelated to him a still more extraordinary story, and onthe fifth night she told him anecdotes of kings andviziers and notables. On this wise she ceased not [todo] with him [many] days and nights, what while theking still said in himself, 'When I have heard the endof the story, I will put her to death,' and the peoplewaxed ever in wonder and admiration. Moreover, thefolk of the provinces and cities heard of this thing, towit, that the king had turned from his custom and fromthat which he had imposed upon himself and had renouncedhis heresy, wherefore they rejoiced and the folkreturned to the capital and took up their abode therein,after they had departed thence; yea, they were constantin prayer to God the Most High that He would stablishthe king in that his present case ;and this," said Shehrzad," is the end of that which my friend related to me.*

155"O Shehrzad," quoth Shehriyar, "finish unto us thestory that thy friend told thee,for that it resembleththe story of a king whom I knew; but fain would Ihear that which betided the people of this city and whatreturn fromthey said of the affair of the king, so I maythat wherein I was." "With allmy heart," answeredShehrzad. "Know, O august king and lord of justjudgment and praiseworthy excellence and exceedingprowess, that, when the folk heard that the king hadput away from him his custom and returned from thatwhich had been his wont, they rejoiced in this with anexceeding joy and offered up prayers for him. Thenthey talked with one another of the cause of theslaughter of the girls,and the wise said, 'They 1 arenot all alike, nor are the fingers of the hand alike.'"1*' women.


SHEHRZAD AND SHEHRIYAR. 1When King Shehriyar heard this story, he came tohimself and awaking from his "drunkenness,* said, ByAllah, this story is my story and this case is my case,for that indeed I was in wrath* and [danger of] punishmenttill thou turnedst me back from this into the rightway, extolled be the perfection of the Causer of causesand the Liberator of necks ! Indeed, O Shehrzad," continuedhe, "thou hast awakened me unto many thingsand hast aroused me from mine ignorance."Then said she to him, " O chief of the kings, the wisesay,' The kingship is a building, whereof the troopsare the foundation,' and whenas the foundation is strong,the building endureth ;wherefore it behoveth the kingto strengthen the foundation, for that they say, 'Whenasthe foundation is weak, the building falleth.' On likewise it behoveth the king to care for his troopsand do1 Breslau Text, voL xii. pp. 394-398.1 i.e. his apathy or indifference to the principles of right and wrongand the consequences of his wicked behaviour.* i.. in a state of reprobation, having incurred the wrath of God.

i(5ojustice among his subjects,even as the owner of thegarden careth for his trees and cutteth awaythe weedsthat have no profit in them ;and so it behoveth theking to look into the affairs of his subjectsand fendoff oppression from them. As for thee, O king," continuedShehrzad, "it behoveth thee that thyvirtuous and versed in the knowledgevizier beof the affairs ofthe folk and the common people ;and indeed God theMost High hath named his name 1 in the history ofMoses (on whom be peace!) whenas He saith, [QuothMoses] ' And make me a vizier of my people, Aaron[my brother]." Could a vizier have been dispensedwithal, Moses ben Imran had been worthier [than anyof this dispensation].1As for the vizier, the sultan discovereth unto himhis affairs, private and public; and know, O king, thatthe similitude of thee with the peopleis that of thephysician with the sick man ;and the condition * of thevizier is that he be truthful in his sayings, trustworthyin all his relations, abounding in compassionfor thefolk and in tender solicitude over them. Indeed,it issaid, O king, that good troops' are like the druggist;1 i.e. hath mentioned the office of vizier.*Koran xx. 30.* i.e. none had been better qualified to dispensewith a rixieithan he.4 i.e, the essential qualification.*The word jeish (troops) is here apparently used in the sense ofofficials, ministers of government.

161if his perfumes reach thee not, thou still sraellest thesweet scent of them; and illtroops are like the blacksmith;if his sparks bum thee not, thou smellest hisnauseous smell. So it behoveth thee take unto thyselfa virtuous vizier, a man of good counsel, even as thoutakest unto thee a wife displayed before thy face, forthat thou hast need of the man's righteousness for thine1own amendment, seeing that, if thou do righteously,the commons will do likewise, and if thou do evil, theyalso will do evil."When the king heard this, drowsiness overcame himand he slept and presently awaking, called for thecandles.'So they were lighted and he sat down onhis couch and seating Shehrzad by him, smiled in herface. She kissed the earth before him and said, "Oking of the age and lord of the time and the day,extolled be the perfection of [God] the Forgiving One,the Bountiful Giver, who hath sent me unto thee, ofHis favour and beneficence, so I have informed theewith longing after Paradise;for that this which thouwast used to do was never done of any of the kingsbefore thee. As for women, God the Most High [inHis Holy Book] maketh mention of them, [whenas Hesaith,'Verily, men who submit [themselves unto God]*Or " rectification."VOL. III.II

162and women who submit] and true-believing men andtrue-believing women and obedient men and obedientwomen and soothfast men and soothfast women [andlong-suffering men and long-suffering women and menwho* order themselves humbly and women who orderthemselves humbly and charitable men and charitablewomen and men who fast and women who fast]andmen who guard their privities and women who guardtheir privities [and men who are constantly mindfulof God and women who are constantly mindful, Godhath prepared unto them forgiveness and a mightyrecompense].' 1As for that which hath befallen thee, verily, it hathbefallen [many] kingsbefore thee and their women haveplayed them false, for all they were greater of puissancethan thou, yea, and mightier of kingship and moreabounding in troops. If I would, I could relate untothee, O king, concerning the wiles of women, thatwhereof I could not make an end allmy life long;and indeed, aforetime, in all these my nights that Ihave passed before thee, I have told thee [many storiesand anecdotes] of the artifices of women and of theircraft and perfidy; but indeed the things abound onme ;* wherefore, if it like thee, O king, I will relateunto thee [somewhat] of that which befell kings ofold time of the perfidy of their women and of the1Koran xxxiii. 35.* i.e. I know not which to choose of the superabundant material atmy command in the way of instances of women's craft.

163calamities which overtook them byreason of theselatter." "How so?" asked the king. "Tell on."" Hearkening and obedience," answered Shehrzad. "Ithath been told me, O king, that a man once relatedtoa company and spoke as follows:


THE FAVOURITE AND HER LOVER. 1One day, a day of excessive heat, as I stood at thedoor of my house, I saw a fair woman approaching, andwith her a slave-girl carrying a parcel. They gave notover goingtillthey came up to me, when the womanstopped and said to me, ' Hast thou a draught of water ? ''Yes,' answered I. 'Enter the vestibule, O my lady, sothou mayst drink.' Accordingly,up intoshe entered and I wentthe house and fetched two mugs of earthenware,perfumed with musk* and full of cold water. She tookone of them and discovered her face, [that she mightdrink]; whereupon I saw that she was as the shiningsun or the rising moon and said to her, 'O my lady,wilt thou not come up into the house, so thou maystrest thyselftill the air grow cool and after go away tothine own place?' Quoth she, 'Is there none withthee?' 'Indeed,' answered I, 'I am a [stranger] anda bachelor and have none belonging to me, nor is there1 Breslau Text, voL xii. pp. 398-402.1 i*, incensed with the smoke of burningmask. It U a commonpractice in the East to fumigate drinking-vessels with the fragrantsmoke of aloes-wood and other perfumes, for the purpose of givingpleasant flavour to the water, etc., drunk from them.

1 63a living soul in the house.' And she said, 'An thoube a stranger, thou art he in quest of whom I was goingabout'Then she went up into the house and putoff her[walking] clothes and I found her as she were the fullmoon. I brought her what I had by me of meat anddrink and said to her, 'O my lady, excuse me: thisis that which is ready.' Quoth she, 'This is abundantkindness and indeed it is what I sought' And sheate and gave the slave-girl that which was left; afterwhich I brought her a casting-bottle of rose-water,mingled with musk, and she washed her hands andabode with me till the season of afternoon-prayer, whenshe brought out of the parcelshirt and trousers and an upper garment1that she had with her aand a kerchiefwroughten with gold and gave them to me; saying,'Know that I am one of the favourites of the Khalif,and we are forty favourites, each one of whom hatha lover who cometh to her as often as she would havehim; and none is without a lover save myself, whereforeI came forth to-day to find me a gallant andbehold,I have found thee. Thou must know that theKhalif lieth each night with one of us, whilst the othernine-and-thirtyfavourites take their ease with the nineand-thirtymen, and I would have thee be with me onsuch a day, when do thou come up to the palace ofthe Khalif and wait for me in such a place, till a little1Htmeini foucaniyeh. Foucamycn means " upper " (fern.) ; but the'meaning of nunani unknownto me.

i6geunuch come out to thee and say to thee a [certain]word, to wit, "Art thou Sendel?" And do thou answer," Yes," and go with him.'Then she took leave of me and I of her, after I hadstrained her to my bosom and embraced her and wehad kissed awhile. So she went awayand I abodeexpecting the appointed day, till it came, when I aroseand went forth, intending for the trysting-place ;but afriend of mine met me by the way [and would haveme go home with him. So I accompanied him to hishouse] and when I came up [into his sitting-chamber]he locked the door on me and went forth to fetch whatwe might eat and drink. He was absent tillmid-day,then till the hour of afternoon-prayer, whereat I wassore disquieted. Then he was absent till sundown, andI was like to die of chagrin and impatience ; [and indeedhe returned not] and I passed my night on wake, nighupon death, for that the door was locked on me, andmy soul was like to depart my body on account of thetryst.At daybreak, my friend returned and opening thedoor, came in, bringing with him meat-pottage 1 andfritters and bees' honey,' and said to me, 'By Allah,thou must needs excuse me, for that I was with a companyand they locked the door on me and have butnow let me go.' But I returned him no answer. Then1 Heriseh. See supra, Vol. II. p. 26, note 4.*The Arabs distinguish three kinds of honey, i,e. bees' honey, canehoney(treacle or syrup of sugar) and drip-honey (date-syrup).

170he set before me that which was with him and I atea single mouthful and went out, running, so haply I mightovertake that which had escaped me. 1 When I cameto the palace, I saw over againstit eight-and-thirtygibbets set up, whereon were eight-and-thirty mencrucified, and under them eight-and-thirty concubinesas they were moons. So I enquiredof the reason ofthe crucifixion of the men and concerning the womenin question, and it was said unto me, 'The men [whomthouseest]crucified the Khalif found with yonderdamsels, who are his favourites.' When I heard this,I prostrated myself in thanksgiving to God and said,*God requite thee with good, O my friend I' For that,had he not invited me [and kept me perforce in hishouse] that night, I had been crucified with these men,wherefore praise be to God 1Thus," continued Shehrzad, "none is safe from thecalamities of fortune and the vicissitudes of time, and[in proof of this],I will relate unto thee yet anotherstory still rarer and more extraordinary than this. Know,O King, that one said to me, 'A friend of mine, amerchant, told me the following story.Quoth he,1 i.e. yet arrive in time for the rendezvous


THE MERCHANT OF CAIRO AND THEFAVOURITE OF THE KHALIF EL MAMOUNEL HAKIM BI AMRILLAH.*As I sat one day in my shop, there came up to mea fair woman, as she were the moon at its rising, andwith her a slave-girl. Now I was a handsome man inmy time; so the lady sat down on [the bench before]my shop and buying stuffs of me, paid down the priceand went away. I questioned the girl of her and shesaid, "I know not her name." Quoth I, "Where is herabode?" "In heaven," answered the slave-girl; and Isaid, " She is presently on the earth ;so when doth sheascend to heaven and where is the ladder bywhich shegoeth up?" Quoth the girl, "She hath her lodging ina palace between two rivers,' to wit, the palace of ElMamoun el Hakim bi Amrillah.'" Then said I,"I am1 Breslau Text, pp. 402-412.1 i.t. on an island between two branches of the Nile.' It is not plain what Khalif is here meant, though it is evident, from(he context, that an Egyptian prince is referred to, unless the story istold of the Abbaside Khalif 1Mamoun, son of Er Reshid (A.D.813-33), during his temporary residence in Egypt, which he is said tohave visited. This is, however, unlikely, as his character was the

174a dead man, without recourse;" but she replied, "Havepatience, for needs must she return unto thee and buystuffs of thee yet again." "And how cometh it," askedI, "that the Commander of the Faithful trusteth her togo out?" "He loveth her with an exceeding love,"answered she," and iswrapped up in her and gainsayethher not"Then the girl went away, running, after her mistress,whereupon I left the shop and set out after them, so Imight see her abiding-place. I followed after them allthe way,till she disappeared from mine eyes, when Ireturned to my place, with a heart on fire. Some daysafter, she came to me again and bought stuffs of me.I refused to take the price and she said, "We have noneed of thy goods." Quoth I,"O my lady, accept themfrom me as a gift ;" but she said," [Wait]till I try theeand make proof of thee." Then she broughtout of herpocket a purse and gave me therefrom a thousand dinars,saying, " Trade with this till I return to thee." So I tookreverse of sanguinary ;besides, El Mamoun was not his name, bat histitie (Aboulabbas Abdallah El Mamoun Billah). Two Khalifs of Egyptassumed the title of El Hakim bi Amrillah (He who rules or decrees byor in accordance with the commandment of God), ie. the FatimiteAbou Ali El Mensour (A.D. 995-1021), and the faineant AbbasideAboulabbas Ahmed (A.D. 1261-1301) ; but neither of these was namedEl Mamoun. It is probable, however, that the first named is the princereferred to in the story, the latter having neither the power nor theinclination for such wholesale massacres as that described in the text,which are perfectly in character with the brutal and fantastic nature ofthe founder of the Druse religion.

175the purse and she went away [and returned not to me]till six months had passed by. Meanwhile, I traded withthe money and sold and bought and made other thousanddinars profit [on it].Presently, she came to me again and I said to her," Here is thy money and I have gained [with it] otherthousand dinars." Quoth she, "Keep it bytake these other thousand dinars. As soon as I havethee anddeparted from thee, go thou to Er Rauzeh 1 and buildthere a goodly pavilion, and when the building thereofisaccomplished, give me to know thereof." So saying,she left me and went away. As soon as she was gone,I betook myself to Er Rauzeh and addressed myself tothe building of the pavilion, and when it was finished,I furnished it with the goodliest of furniture and sentto the ladyto tell her that I had made an end of itsbuilding ; whereupon she sent back to me, saying, " Lethim meet me to-morrow at daybreak at the Zuweylehgate and bring with him a good ass." So I got mean ass and betaking myself to the Zuweyleh gate, atthe appointed time, found therea young man on horseback,awaiting her, even as I awaited her.As we stood, behold, up came the lady, and with hera slave-girl. When she saw the young man, she saidto him, " Art thou here ?" And he answered," Yes,O my lady." Quoth she, " To-day I am bidden by thisman. Wilt thou go with us?" And he replied, "Yes."Then said she, "Thou hast brought me [hither] against1 Lt. the well-known island of that name (The Garden).

176my will and perforce. Wilt thou go with as in anyevent ? W| "Yes, yes," answered he and we fared on,[all three,]till we came to Er Rauzeh and entered thepavilion. The lady diverted herself awhile with viewingits ordinance and furniture, after which she put off her[walking-Jclothes and sat down [with the young man]in the goodliest and chiefest place. Then I went forthand brought them what they should eat at the first ofthe day; moreover, I went out also and fetched themwhat they should eat at the last of the day and broughtthem wine and dessert and fruits and flowers. On thiswise I abode in their service, standing on my feet, andshe said not unto me, "Sit," nor "Take, eat" nor"Take, drink," what while she and the young man sattoying and laughing, and he fell to kissing her andpinching her and hopping about upon the ground andlaughing.They abode thus awhile and presently she said, " Upto now we have not become drunken ;let me pour out."So she took the cup and gave him to drink and plied himwith liquor, till he became drunken, when she took himand carried him into a closet. Then she came out, withhis head in her hand, what while I stood silent, fixing notmine eyes on hers neither questioning her of this; andshe said to me, " What is this ?"" I know not," answeredI; and she said, "Take it and cast it into the river."I obeyed her commandment and she arose and strippingherself of her clothes, took a knife and cut the dead man's1 Lt. " whatever may betide " or " will I, mil I " ?

177body in pieces, which she laid in three baskets, and saidto me, **Throw them into the river."I did as she bade me and when I returned,she said tome, "Sit, so I may relate to thee yonder fellow's case,lest thou be affrighted at that which hath befallen him.Thou must know that I am the Khalifs favourite, noris there any more in honour with him than I and I am;allowed six nights in each month, wherein I go down[into the city and take up my abode] with my [former]mistress, who reared me; and when I go down thus,I dispose of myself as I will Now this young man wasthe son of neighbours of my mistress, when I was a virgingirl.One day, my mistress was [engaged]with the chief[officers] of the palace and I was alone in the house.When the night came on, I went up to the roof, so Imight sleep there, and before I was aware, this youthcame up from the street and falling upon me, knelt on mybreast. He was armed with a poniard and I could notwin free of him till he had done away my maidenheadby force; and this sufficed him not, but he must needsdisgrace me with all the folk, for, as often as I came downfrom the palace, he would lie in wait for me by the wayand swive me against my will and follow me whithersoeverI went. This, then, is my story, and as for thee, thoupleasest me and thy patience pleaseth me and thy goodfaith and loyal service, and there abideth with me nonedearer than thou.* Then I lay with her that night andthere befell what befell between us till the morning, whenshe gave me wealth galore and fell to comingpavilion six days in every month.VOL. in. |gto the

On this wise we abode a whole year, at the end ofwhich time she was absent 1 from me a month's space,wherefore fire raged in my heart on her account. Whenit was the next month, behold, a little eunuch presentedhimself to me and said, "I am a messenger to theefrom such an one," [naming my mistress], "who giveththee to know that the Commander of the Faithful hathsentenced her to be drowned, her and those who arewith her, six-and-twenty slave-girls, on such a day atDeir et Tin,* for that they have confessed against oneanother of lewdness, and she biddeth thee look howthou mayst do with her and how thou mayst contriveto deliver her, even if thou gather together all hermoney and spend it upon her, for that this is thetime of manhood."*"Quoth I, I know not this woman ;belike it is other than I[towhom this message isaddressed]; so beware, O eunuch, lest thou cast meinto stress.""Quoth he, Behold, I have told thee[that which I had to say,"] and went away, leaving mein concern [on her account].[When the appointed day arrived], I arose andchanging my clothes and favour, donned sailor's apparel;then I took with me a purse full of gold andbuying good [victualfor the] morning-meal, accosteda boatman [at Deir et Tin] and sat down and ate withhim; after which said I to him, "Wilt thou hire me1 Lit. she was cut off or cut herself off.1 Lit." The convent of Clay."*. this is the time to approve thyself a man.

about179thy boat?" Quoth he, "The Commander of theFaithful hath commanded me to be here;" and hetold me the story of the concubines and how theKhalif purposed to drown them that day. When Iheard this from him, I broughtout to him half a scoredinars and discovered to him my case, whereuponquoth he to me, " O my brother, get thee empty calabashes,and when thy mistress cometh, give me to knowof her and I will contrive the trick."I kissed his hand and thanked him, and as I waswalking about, [waiting,] up came the guards andeunuchs with the women, who were weeping andcrying out and taking leave of one another. Theeunuchs cried out to us, whereupon we came with theboat, and they said to the boatman, "Who is this?""This is my mate," answered he, "[whom I havebrought,] to help me, so one of us may keep the boat,whilst another doth your service." Then they broughtout to us the women, one by one, saying, "Throwthem [in] by the Island;" and we answered, "It iswell" Now each of them was shackled and they hadmade a jar of sand fast ,her neck. We did asthe eunuchs bade us and ceased not to take thewomen, one after another, and cast them in, tilltheygave us my mistress and I winked to my comrade. Sowe took her and carried her out into mid-stream,where I gave her the empty calabashes 1 and said toher, " Wait for me at the mouth of the canal." Then1 To keep her afloat.

i8owe cast her in, after we had loosed the Jar of gandfrom her neck and done off her fetters,and returned.Now there remained one after her; so we took herand drowned her and the eunuchs went away, whilstwe dropped down the river with the boat till we cameto the mouth of the canal, where I saw my mistressawaiting me. So we took her up into the boat andreturned to our pavilion on Er Rauzeh. Then I rewardedthe boatman and he took his boat and went away;whereupon quoth she to me, "Thou art indeed a friendin need." 1 And I abode with her some days; but theshock wrought uponto wasting away and redoubled inher so that she sickened and felllanguishment and weaknesstill she died. I mourned for her with an exceedingmourning and buried her; after which I removed allthat was in the pavilion to my own house [and abandonedthe former].Now she had brought to the pavilion aforetime a littlebrass coffer and laid it in a place whereof I knew not;so, when theinspector of inheritances* came, he searchedthe pavilion and found the coffer, with the key in thelock. So he opened it and finding it full of jewels andjacinths and earrings and seal-rings and precious stones,such as are not found save with kings and sultans, took1 Lit "Thou art the friend who is found (or present) for the vicissitudesof Time (or Fortune)."* i.e. the officer whose dutyit is to search out the estates of intestatesand lay hands upon such property as escheats to the Crown fur wantof heirs.

it, ana me mth it, and ceased not to put me to thequestion with beating and torment till I confessed tothem the whole affair from beginning to end, whereuponthey carried me to the Khalif and I told him allthat had passed between me and her; and he said tome, O ' man, depart from this city, for I acquit theefor thy valiance sake and because of thy [constancy in]keeping thy secret and thy daring in exposing thyselfto death." So I arose forthright and departed his city;and this is what befell me.'"


SHEHRZAD AND SHEHRIYAR.King Shehriyar marvelled at these thingsand Shehrzadsaid to him, " Thou marvelledst at that which befell theeon the part of women; yet hath there befallen the kingsof the Chosroes before thee what was more grievousthan that which befell thee, and indeed I have set forthunto thee that which betided khalifs and kings andothers than they with their women, but the expositionislong and hearkening groweth tedious, and in this[thatI have already told thee] is sufficiency for theman of understanding and admonishment for the wise."Then she was silent, and when the kingheard herspeech and profited by that which she said, he summonedup his reasoning faculties and cleansed his heartand caused his understanding revert [to the right way]and turned [with repentance] to God the Most High andsaid in himself, "Since there befell the kings of theChosroes more than that which hath befallen me, never,whilst I abide [on life], shall I cease to blame myself[for that which I did in the slaughter of the daughtersof the folk].As for this Shehrzad, her like is notfound in the lands; so extolled be the perfection ofHim who appointed her a means for the deliverance ofHis creatures from slaughter and oppression 1" Then

1 86he arose from his session and kissed her head, whereatshe rejoiced with an exceeding joy, she and her sisterDinarzad.When the morning morrowed, the king went forthand sitting down on the throne of the kingship, summonedthe grandees of his empire j whereupon thechamberlains and deputies and captains of the hostwent in to him and kissed the earth before him. Hedistinguished the vizier with his especial favour andbestowed on him a dress of honour and entreated himwith the utmost kindness, after which he set forthbrieflyto his chief officers that which had bedded himwith Shehrzad and how he had turned from that hisformer usance and repented him of what he had doneaforetime and purposed to take the vizier's daughterShehrzad to wife and let draw up the contract ofmarriage withher.When those who were present heard this, they kissedthe earth before him and offered up prayersand for the damsel Shehrzad, and the vizier thankedfor himher. Then Shehriyar made an end of the session inall weal, whereupon the folk dispersed to their dwellingplacesand the news was bruited abroad that the kingpurposed to marry the vizier's daughter Shehrzad. Thenhe proceeded to make ready the wedding gear, and[when he had made an end of his preparations], hesent after his brother King Shahzeman, who came, andKing Shehriyar went forth to meet him with the troops.Moreover, they decorated the city after the goodliestfashion and diffused perfumes [from the censing-vessels]

187and [burnt] aloes-wood and other perfumesin all themarkets and thoroughfares and rubbed themselves withsaffron, what while the drums beat and the flutes andhautboys sounded and it was a notable day.When they came to the palace, King Shehriyar commandedto spread the tables with beasts roasted [whole]and sweetmeats and all manner viands and bade the criermake proclamation to the folk that they should comeup to the Divan and eat and drink and that this shouldbe a means of reconciliation between him and them.So great and small came up unto him and they abodeon that wise, eating and drinking, seven days with theirnights. Then the king shut himself up with his brotherand acquainted him with that which had betided himwith the vizier's daughter [Shehrzad] in those three years[which were past] and told him what he had heardfrom her of saws and parables and chronicles andpleasant traits and jests and stories and anecdotes anddialogues and histories and odes and verses ;whereatKing Shahzeman marvelled with the utterest of marveland said," Fain would I take her younger sister to wife,so we may be two own brothers to two own sisters, andthey on likewise be sisters unto us ;for that the calamitywhich befell me was the means of the discovering ofthat which befell thee and all this time of three yearspast I have taken no delight in woman, save that I lieeach night with a damsel of my kingdom, and whenI arise in the morning, I put her to death but now;wife's sister Dinarzad."I desire to many thyWhen King Shehriyar heard his brother's words he

1 88rejoiced with an exceeding joy and arising forthright,went in to his wife Shehrzad and gave her to knowof that which his brother purposed, to wit, that hesought her sister Dinarzad in marriage; whereupon, "Oking of the age," answered she, "we seek of him onecondition, to wit, that he take up his abode with us,for that I cannot brook to be parted from my sisteran hour, because we were brought up together and maynot brook severance from each other. If he acceptthis condition, she is his handmaid." King Shehriyarreturned to his brother and acquainted him with thatwhich Shehrzad had said ;and he answered, saying,"Indeed, this is what was in my mind, for that I desirenevermore to be parted from thee. As for the kingdom,God the Most High shall send unto it whom Hechooseth, for that there abideth to me no desire for thekingship."When Ring Shehriyar heard his brother's words, herejoiced with an exceeding joy and said, "Verily, thisb what I had wished, O my brother. So praised beGod who hath brought about union between us 1 "Then he sent after the Cadis and learned men andcaptains and notables, and they married the two brothersto the two sisters. The contracts were drawn up andthe two kings bestowed dresses of honour of silk andsatin on those who were present, whilst the city wasdecorated and the festivities were renewed. The kingcommanded each amir and vizier and chamberlain anddeputy to decorate his palace and the folk of the cityrejoiced in the presage of happiness and content

1 89Moreover, King Shehriyar bade slaughter sheep andkitchens and made bride-feasts and fed allset upcomers, high and low.Then the eunuchs went forth, that they might perfumethe bath [for the use of the brides] jso theyessenced it with rose-water and willow-flower-waterand bladders of musk and fumigatedit with Cakili 1aloes-wood and ambergris. Then Shehrzad entered,she and her sister Dinarzad, and they cleansed theirheads and clipped their hair. When they came forthof the bath, they donned raiment and ornaments, [suchas were] prepared for the kings of the Chosroes;and among Shehrzad's apparel was a dress characteredwith red gold and wroughten with semblants of birdsand beasts. Moreover, they both encircled their neckswith necklaces of jewels of price, in the like whereofIskender* rejoiced not, for therein were great jewelssuch as amazed the wit and the eye, and the thoughtwas bewildered at their charms, for indeed, each ofthem was brighter than the sun and the moon. Beforethem they kindled lighted flambeaux in torch-holdersof gold, but their faces outshone the flambeaux, forthat they had eyes sharper than drawn swords andthe lashes of their eyelids ensorcelled all hearts. Theircheeks were rosy and their necks and shapes swayedgracefully and their eyes wantoned. And the slavegirlscame to meet them with instruments of nvisic,1 i.t. Sumatran.* i.t. Alexander.

190Then the two kings entered the bath, and when theycame forth, they sat down on a couch, inlaid withpearls and jewels, whereupon the two .sisters came upto them and stood before them, as they were moons,swaying gracefully from side to side in their beauty andgrace. Presently they broughtforward Shehrzad anddisplayed her, for the first dress, in a red suit; whereuponKing Shehriyar rose to look uponher and thewits of all present, men and women, were confounded,for that she was even as saith of her one of herdescribers :Like a sun at the end of a cane in a hill of sand, She shines in a dressof the hue of pomegranate flower.She gives me to drink of her cheeks and her honeyed lips And quenchesthe worst of the fires that my heart devour.Then they attired Dinarzad in a dress of blue brocadeand she became as she were the full moon, whenas itshineth forth. So they displayed her in this, for thefirst dress, before King Shahzeman, who rejoiced in heiand well-nigh took leave of his wits for longing andamorous desire', yea, he was distraught with love forher, whenas he saw her, for, indeed, she was as saithof her one of her describers in the following verses :She comes in a robe the colour of ultramarine, Blue as the stainlesssky, undecked with white ;I view her with yearning eyes and she seems to me A moon of thesummer, set in a winter's nightThen they returned to Shehrzad and displayed her in

191the second dress. They clad her in a dress of surpassinggoodliness, and veiled her face to the eyes with herhair. Moreover, they let down her side locks and shewas even as saith of her one of her describers in thefollowing verses :Bravo for her whose loosened locks her cheeks do overcloud IShe slaysme with her cruelty, so fair she is and proud.Quoth I, "Thou overcurtainest the morning with the night ; " And she," Not so ; it is the moon that with the dark I shroud."Then they displayed Dinarzad in a second and a thirdand a fourth dress and she came forward, as she werethe rising sun, and swayed coquettishly to and fro; andindeed she was even as saith the poet of her in thefollowing verses :A sun of beauty she appears to all who look on her, Glorious in archand amorous grace, with coyness beautified ;And when the sun of morning sees her visage and her smile, O'ercome,he hasteneth his face behind the clouds to hide.Then they displayed Shehrzad in the third dress andthe fourth and the fifth, and she became as she were awillow-wand or a thirsting gazelle, goodly of grace andperfect of attributes, even as saith of her one in thefollowing verses :Like the full moon she shows upon a night of fortune fair, Slender ofshape and charmingall with her seductive air.She hath an eye, whose glances pierce the hearts of all mankind, Notcan cornelian with her cheeks for ruddiness compare.

192The sable torrent of her locks falls down unto her hips ;Beware theserpents of her curls, I counsel thee, beware 1Indeed her glance, her sides are soft ;but none the less, alas I Heiheart is harder than the rock ; there is no mercy there.The starry arrows of her looks she darts above her veil ; They hit andnever miss the mark, though from afar they fare.Then they returned to Dinarzad and displayed her inthe fifth dress and in the sixth, which was green. Indeed,she overpassed with her loveliness the fair of the fourquarters of the world and outshone, with the brightnessof her countenance, the full moon at its rising ;for shewas even as saith of her the poet in the followingverses :A damsel made for lore and decked with subtle grace ;Thou'dst deem11 e very sun had borrowed from her face.Sue came in robes of green, the likeness of the leaf That the pomegranate'sflower doth in the bud encase."How call'st thou this thy dress? " quoth we, and she replied A wordwherein the wise a lesson well might trace ;'Breaker of hearts," quoth she, " I call it, for therewith I've brokenmany a heart among the amorous race."Then they displayed Shehrzad in the sixthand seventhdresses and clad her in youths' apparel, whereupon shecame forward, swaying coquettishly from side to side jandindeed she ravished wits and hearts and ensorcelled withher glances [allwho looked on her].She shook hersides and wagged her hips, then put her hair on thehilt of her sword and went up to King Shehriyar, who

193embraced her, as the hospitable man embraces the guest,and threatened her in her ear with the taking of thesword; and indeed she was even as saith of her thepoet in these verses:Were not the darkness 1 still in gender masculine, As ofttimes is the casewith she-things passing fine,Tirewomen to the bride, who whiskers, ay, and beard Upon her faceproduce, they never would assign.'On this wise they did with her sister Dinarzad, andwhen they had made an end of displaying the two brides,the king bestowed dresses of honour on all who werepresent and dismissed them to their own places. ThenShehrzad went in to King Shehriyar and Dinarzad toKingShahzeman and each of them solaced himself withof his beloved and the hearts of the folkthe companywere comforted. When the morning morrowed, thevizier came in to the two kings and kissed the groundbefore them; wherefore they thanked him and werebountiful to him. Then they went forth and sat downupon couches of estate, whilst all the viziers and amirsand grandees and the chief officers of the realm and1 i.e. the blackness of the hair.1The ingenuity of the bride's attendants, on the occasion of awedding, is strained to the utmost to vary her attire and the mannerin which the hair is dressed on the occasion of her being displayedto her husband, and one favourite trick consists in fastening her tressesabout her chin and cheeks, so as to produce a sort of imitation of *beard and whiskers.VOL. III. 13

194the household presented themselves before them andkissed the earth. King Shehriyar ordered them dressesof honour and largesse and they offered up prayers forthe abiding continuance [on life]of the king and hisbrother.Then the two kings appointed their father-in-law thevizier to be viceroy in Samarcand and assigned him fiveof the chief amirs to accompany him, charging themattend him and do him service. The vizier kissed theearth and prayed that they might be vouchsafed lengthof life. Tnen he went in to his daughters,whilst theeunuchs and ushers walked before him, and salutedthem and bade them farewell. They kissed his handsand gave him joy of the kingship and bestowed on himtreasures galore. Then he took leave of them andsetting out, journeyed days and nightstill he camewithin three days' journey of Samarcand,where thetownspeople met him and rejoiced in him with anexceeding joy. So he entered Samarcand and theydecorated the city, and it was a notable day. He satdown on the throne of his kingship and the viziers didhim homage and the grandees and amirs of Samarcandand prayed that he might be vouchsafed justice andvictory and length of continuance [on life].So hebestowed on them dresses of honour and entreated themwith worship and they made him Sultan over them.As soon as his father-in-law had departed for Samarcand,King Shehriyar summoned the grandeesof hisrealm and made them a magnificent banquet of allmanner rich meats and exquisite sweetmeats. Moreover,

195he bestowed on them dresses of honour and guerdonedthem and divided the kingdoms between himself andhis brother in their presence, whereat the folk rejoiced.Then the two kings abode, ruling each a dayin turn,and they accorded with each other, what while tneirwives continued in the love of God the Most High andin thanksgiving to Him; and the subjects and theprovinces were at peace and the preachers prayed forthem from the pulpits, and their report was bruitedabroad and the travellers bore tidings of them [toallcountries].Moreover, King Shehriyar summoned chroniclers andcopyists and bade them write all that had betided himwith his wife, first and last; so they wrote this andnamed " it The Stories of the Thousand Nights and OneNight" The book came to 1 thirtyvolumes and thesethe king laid up in his treasury. Then the two kingsabode with their wives in all delight and solace of life.for that indeed God the Most High had changed theirmourning into joyance; and on this wise they continuedtill there took them the Destroyer of Delights andSunderer of Companies,he who maketh void the dwelling-placesand peopleth the tombs, and they were translatedto the mercy of God the Most High ;their houseswere laid waste and their palaces ruined and the kingsinherited their riches.Then there reigned after them an understanding king,who was just, keen-witted and accomplished and loved1 Literal

196stories, especially those which chronicle the doings ofkings and sultans, and he found [in the treasuriesof the kings who had foregone him] these marvellousand rare and delightful stories, [written]in the thirtyvolumes aforesaid. So he read in them a first bookand a second and a third and [so on] to the lastof them, and each book pleased him more than thatwhich forewent it, till he came to the end of them.Then he marvelled at that which he had read [therein]of stories and discourse and witty traits and anecdotesand moral instances and reminiscences and bade thefolk copy them and publish them in all lands and climes ;wherefore their report was bruited abroad and the peoplenamed them " The marvels and rarities of the ThousandNights and One Night." This is all that hath comedown to us of [the history of]this book, and God laAll-Knowing. 1 Lt,God ouly knows if it be true or not

Calcutta (islets)


NOTE.As the version of the sixth and seventh voyagesof Sindbad the Sailor contained in 1 the CalcuttaEdition (1814-18) of the first two hundred Nightsand in the text of the Voyages published by M.Langls (Paris, 1814) differs very materially fromthat of the complete Calcutta (1839-42) Edition*(which is, in this case, practically identical withthose of Boulac and Breslau), adopted by me asmy standard text in the translation of "The Bookof the Thousand Nights and One Night," the storyof the seventh voyage in particular turning upon analtogether different set of incidents, related nearly1Or rather appended to. The Voyages of Sindbad the Sailor formno part of the scheme of Nights in this edition, bat are divided into"Voyages" only and form a sort pf appendix, following the Twohundreth Night. See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and OneNight," Vol. IX. pp. 307-3.* See my " Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," VoL V.pp. 2O2 and 210.

2O2as in the old version of M. Galland, I now givea translation of the text of the two voyages inquestion afforded by the Calcutta (1814-18) Edition,corrected and completed by collation with that ofM. Langles, from which it differs only in beingslightlyless full It will be observed that in thisversion of the story the name Sindbad is reservedfor the Sailor, the porter being called Hincibad


SIN DEAD THE SAILOR AND HINDBAD THEPORTER.On the morrow they1returned to their place, as oftheir wont, and betook themselves to eating and drinkingand merry-making and sportingtill the last of theday, when Sindbad bade them hearken to his relationconcerning his sixth voyage, the which (quoth he) isof the most extraordinary of pleasant stories and themost startling [for that which itoomprisethjof tribulationsand disasters. Then said he,THE SIXTH VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THESAILOR." When I returned from my fifth voyage, I gave myselfup to eating and drinking and passed mytime in solaceand delight and forgot that which I had suffered ofstresses and afflictions, nor was itlong before thethought of travel again presented itself to my mind' i.e. the porter and the other guests.

206and my soul hankered after the sea. So I broughtout the goods and binding up the bales, departedfrom Baghdad, [intending] for certain of the lands,and came to the sea-coast, where I embarked in astout ship, in companywith a number of other merchantsof like mind with myself, and we [set out and]sailed till we came amongcertain distant islandsand found ourselves in difficult and dangerous case[One day], as the ship was sailing along, and weunknowing where we were, behold, the captain camedown [from the mast] and casting his turban from hishead, fell to buffeting his face and plucking at hisbeard and weeping and supplicating [God for deliverance].We asked him what ailed him, and he answered,saying, 'Know, O my masters, that the ship is fallenamong shallows and drifteth upon a sand-bank of thesea. Another moment [and we shall be upon it].Ifwe clear the bank, [well and good]; else, we are alldead men and not one of us will be saved; whereforepray ye to God the Most High, so haply Hemay deliver us from these deadly perils, or we shalllose our lives.' So saying, he mounted [the mast]and set the sail, but at that moment a contrary windsmote the ship, and it rose uponthe crest of the

2O7waves and sank down again into the trough oftheseaNow there was before us a high mountain,1rising[abruptly] from the sea, and the ship fell off into aneddy, 1 which bore it on tillpresently it struck upon theskirt' of the mountain and broke in sunder; whereuponthe captain came down [from the mast], weeping,and said, 'God's will be done! Take leave of oneanother and look yourselves out graves from to-day,for we have fallen into a predicament 4 from whichthere is no escape, and never yet hath anybeen castawayhere and come off alive.' So all the folk fella-weeping and gave themselves up for lost, despairingof deliverance; friend took leave of friend and sorewas the mourning and lamentation; for that hope wascut off and they were left without guide or pilot." Thenall who were in the ship landed on the skirt of themountain and found themselves on a long island,whose shores were strewn with [wrecks], beyond countor reckoning, [of] ships that had been cast away [there]and whose crews had perished; and there also were1 i.e. a mountainous island.* Kherabeh, lit. a hole. Syn. ruin or destruction.i.e. an outlying spur or reef.4 Syn. ' perilous place. Lit their guide was disappointed.

208dry bones and dead bodies, heaped upon one another,and goods without number and riches past countSo we abode confounded, drunken, amazed, humblingourselves [in supplication to God] and repenting us[of having exposed ourselves to the perils of travel] ;but repentance availed not in that place.In this island is a river of very sweet water, issuingfrom the shore of the sea and entering in at a widecavern in the skirt of an inaccessible mountain, andthe stones of the island are all limpid sparkling crystaland jacinths of price. Therein also is a spring ofliquid, welling up like [molten] pitch, and when itcometh to the shore of the island, the fish swallow it,then return and cast it up, and it becometh changedfrom its condition and that which it was aforetime ; andit is crude ambergris. Moreover, the trees of the islandare all of the most precious aloes-wood, both Chineseand Comorin; but there is no wayof issue from theplace, for it is as an abyss midmost the sea; thesteepness of its shore forbiddeth the drawing up ofships, and ifany approach the mountain, theyfall intothe eddy aforesaid; nor is there any resource 1 in thatisland.1 i,e, means (hileh) of sustaining life.

2O9So we abode there, daily expecting death, and whosoof us had with him a day's victual ate it in five days,and after this he died; and whoso had with him amonth's victual ate it in five months and died also. Asfor me, I had with me great plenty of victual; so Iburied it in a certain place and broughtit out, [littleby and little,] fed on it; and we ceased not to be thus,burying one the other, till all died but myself and Iabode alone, having buried the last of my companions,and but little victual remained to me. So I said inmyself, 'Who will bury me in this place?' And 1dug me a grave and abode in expectation of death,for that I was in a state of exhaustion. Then,of theexcess of my repentance, I blamed and reproachedmyself for my much [love of]travel and said,*Howlong wilt thou thus imperil thyself?' And I abodeas I were a madman, unable to rest; but, as I wasthus melancholy and distracted, God the Most Highinspired me with an idea, and it was that I looked atthe river aforesaid, as it entered in at the mouth ofthe cavern in the skirt of the mountain, and said inmyself, 'Needs must this water have issue in someplace.'So I arose and gathering wood and planks from theVOL. in. 14

2IOwrecks, wrought of them the semblance of a boat [towit, a raft,]and bound it fast with ropes, saying, 'Iwill embark thereon and fare with this water into theinward of the mountain. If itbring me to the mainland or to a place where I may find relief and safety,[well and good]; else I shall [but] perish, even as mycompanions have perished.' Then I collected of theriches and gold and precious stuffs, cast up there,whose owners had perished, a great matter, and ofjacinths and crude ambergris and emeralds somewhatpast count, and laid all this on the raft [together withwhat was left me of victual].Then I launched it onthe river and seating myself upon it, put mytrust inGod the Most High and committed myself to thestream.The raft fared on with me, running alongthe surfaceof the river, and entered into the inward of the mountain,where the light of dayforsook me and I abodedazed and stupefied, unknowing whither I went. WhenasI hungered, I ate a little of the victual I had with me,till it was all spent and I abode expecting the mercy ofthe Lord of all creatures. 1 Presently I found myself in1 i.e. death.

211a strait [channel] in the darkness and myhead rubbedagainst the roof of the cave; and in this case I abodeawhile, knowing not night from day,whilst anon thechannel grew straiter and anon widened out ;and whenasmy breast was straitened and I was confounded at mycase, sleeptook me and I knew neither little nor much.When I awoke and opened my eyes, I found myself[in the open air]and the raft moored to the bank ofthe stream, whilst about me were folk of the blacks ofHind. When they saw that I was awake, they cameup to me, to question me; so I rose to them andsaluted them. They bespoke me in a tongueI knewnot, whilst I deemed myself in a dream, and for theexcess of my joy, I was like to fly and myreason refusedto obey me. Then there came to mymind theverses of the poet and I recited, saying:Let destiny with loosened rein its course appointedfare And lie thoudown to sleep by night, with heart devoid of care ;For 'twixi the closing of an eye and th' opening thereof, God hath itin His power to change a case from foul to fair.When they heard me speak in Arabic, one of themcame up to me and saluting me [in that language],questioned me of my case. Quoth I,'What [manner

212of men] are ye and what country is this?' 'O mybrother,' answered he, 'we are husbandmen and cometo this river, to draw water, wherewithal to water ourfields ;and whilst we were thus engaged to-day,as ofwont, this boat appearedto us on the surface of thewater, issuing from the inward of yonder mountain.So we came to it and finding thee asleep therein, mooredit to the shore, against them shouldst awake. Acquaintus, therefore, with thy history and tell us howthou earnest hither and whence thou enteredst thisriver and what land is behind yonder mountain, forthat we have never till now known any make his waythence to us.' But I said to them, 'Give me somewhatto eat and after question me.' So they broughtme food and I ate and my spiritsrevived and I wasrefreshed. Then I related to them all that had befallenme, whereat they were amazed and confounded and said,'By Allah, this is none other than a marvellous story,and needs must we carry thee to our king, that thoumayst acquaint him therewith.' So they carried mebefore their king, and I kissed his hand and salutedhim.Now he was the king of the land of Serendib, 11 i.*.Ceylon.

213and he welcomed me and entreated me with kind*ness, bidding me be seated and admitting me to histable and converse. So I talked with him and calleddown blessings upon him and he took pleasure in mydiscourse and showed me satisfaction and said to me,'What isthy name?' 'O my lord,' answered I, 'myname is Sindbad the Sailor;' and he said, 'And whatcountryman art thou?' Quoth I, 'I am of Baghdad.''And how earnest thou hither?' asked he. So I toldhim my story and he marvelled mightilysaid, ' By Allah, O Sindbad, this thy storythereat andis marvellousand it behoveth that it be written in characters ofgold.'Then they brought the raft before him and I saidto him, 'O my lord, I am in thy hands, I and all mygood.' He looked at the raft and seeing thereinjacinths and emeralds and crude ambergris, the likewhereof was not in his treasuries, marvelled and was(amazed at this. Then said he, O Sindbad, God forbidthat we should covet that which God the Most Highhath vouchsafed unto theel Nay,it behoveth usrather to further thee on thy return to thine owncountry.' So I called down blessings on him andthanked him. Then he signed to one of his atten-

214dants, who took me and established me in a goodlylodging, and the king assigned me a daily allowanceand pages to wait on me. And every dayI usedto goin to him and he entertained me and entreatedme friendly and delighted in my converse; and asoften as our assembly broke up, I went out andwalked about the town and the island, diverting myselfby viewingthem.Now this island is under the Equinoctial line; itsnight is still twelve hours and its daythe like. Itslength is fourscore parasangs and its breadth thirty,and it is a great island, stretching between a loftymountain and a deep valley. This mountain is visibleat a distance of three days' journey and therein arevarious kinds of jacinths and other precious stonesand metals of all kinds and all manner spice-trees,and its soil is of emery, wherewith jewels are wroughtIn its streams are diamonds, and pearls are in itsrivers. 1 I ascended to its summit and diverted myself1Auiiyeh (plural of wadi, a valley). The use of the word in thissense points to an African origin of this version of the story. TheMoors of Africa and Spain commonly called a river "a valley," by anatural figure of metonymy substituting the container for the contained |eg. Guadalquiver (Wadi el Kebir, the Great River), Guadiana, etc.

215by viewing all the marvels therein, which are suchas beggar description ;after which I returned to theking and sought of him permission to return to myown country. He gave me leave, after great pressure,and bestowed on me abundant largesse from histreasuries. Moreover, he gave me a present and asealed letter and said to me, 'Carrythis to theKhalif Haroun er Reshid and salute him for us withabundant salutation.' And I said, ' I hear and obey.'Now this letter was written with ultramarine upon theskin of the hog-deer, the which is goodlier than parchmentor paper and inclineth unto yellow, and was tothe following effect :' From the King of Hind, beforewhom are a thousand elephants and on the battlementsof his palace a thousand jewels, [to the Khalif Haroun1er Reshid, greeting].To proceed: we send thee somesmall matter of presents, which do thou accept andbe to us as a brother and a friend, for that the love ofthee aboundeth in our heart and we would have theeto know that we look to thee for an answer. Indeed,we are sharers with thee in love and fear, ceasing9never1 fo. after the usual compliments, the letter proceeded thus.* i.t. we are thine allies in peace and war, for offence and defence.Those whom thou luvest we love, and those whom thou hatest whate.

2l6to do thee honour; and for a beginning, we send theethe Book of the Quintessence of Balms and a presentafter the measure of that which is fallen to our lot.Indeed, this is unworthy of thy rank, but we beseechthee, O brother, to favour us by accepting it, andpeacebe on thee I'Now this present was a cup of ruby, a span highand a finger's length broad, full of fine pearls, eacha mithcal 1 in weightand a bed covered with the skinof the serpent that swalloweth the elephant, markedwith spots, each the bigness of a dinar, whereon whosositteth shall never sicken ;also an hundred thousandmithcals of Indian aloes-wood and thirty grains ofcamphor, each the bigness of a pistachio-nut, and aslave-girl with her paraphernalia, a charming creature,as she were the resplendent moon. Then the king tookleave of me, commending me to the merchants and thecaptain of the ship, and I set out, with that which wasentrusted to my charge and my own good, and weceased not to pass from island to island and fromcountry to country, till we came to Baghdad, when Ientered my house and foregathered with my familyand brethren.1About seventy-two grain*.

217Then I took the present and a token of service frommyself to the Khalif and [presenting myself beforehim], kissed his hands and laid the whole before him,together with the Kingof Hind's letter. He read theletter and taking the present, rejoiced therein withan exceeding joy and entreated me with the utmosthonour. Then said he to me, 'O Sindbad, is thisking, indeed, such as he avoucheth in this letter?' Ikissed the earth and answered, saying, 'O my lord, Imyself have seen the greatness of his kingship to bemanifold that which he avoucheth in his letter. Onthe day of his audience, 1 there is set upfor him athrone on the back of a huge elephant,eleven cubitshigh, whereon he sitteth and with him are his officersand pages and session-mates, standing in two ranks onhis right hand and on his left. At his head standeth aman, having in his hand a golden javelin, and behindhim another, bearing a mace of the same metal, tippedwith an emerald, a span long and an inch thick.When he mounteth, a thousand riders take horse withhim, arrayed in gold and silk; and whenas he rideth"forth, he who is before him proclaimeth and saith, This*Or public appearance.

218is the king, mighty of estate and high of dominion 1"And he proceedeth to praise him on this wise andendeth by saying, "This is the king, lord of the crownthe like whereof nor Solomon 1 nor Mihraj1possessed!"Then is he silent, whilst he who is behind the kingproclaimeth and saith, "He shall die! He shall die!"And again I say, he shall die !And the otherrejoineth, saying, "Extolled be the perfection of theLiving One who dieth not I"And by reason of hisjustice and judgment* and understanding, there is noCadi in his[capital] city; but all the peopleof hisrealm distinguish truth from falsehood and know [andpractise] truth and right for themselves.'The Khalif marvelled at my speech and said, 'Howgreat is this king! Indeed, his letter testifieth of him;and as for the magnificence of his dominion, thou hastacquainted us with that which thou hast seen ; so, byAllah, he hath been given both wisdom and dominion.'1Solomon was the dynastic name of the kings of the pra- AdamiteJinn and is here used in a generic sense, as Chosroes for the ancientKings of Persia, Caesar for the Emperors of Constantinople, Tubba forthe Ilimyerite Kings of Yemen, etc., etc.* *>. Maharajah.Or "government.''

219Then he bestowed on me largesse and dismissed me,so I returned to my house and paid the poor-rate 1 andgave alms and abode in my former easy and pleasantcase, forgetting the grievous stresses I had suffered.Yea, I cast out from my heart the cares of travel andtraffic and put away travail from my thought and gavemyself up to eating and drinking and pleasure anddelight,"1 Every Muslim is bound by law to givealms to the extent of twoand half pez cent of his property.


SINDBAD THE SAILORFORTER,AND HINDBAD THEWhen Sindbad the Sailor had made an end of hisstory, all who were present marvelled at that whichhad befallen him. Then he bade his treasurer give theporter an hundred mithcals of gold and dismissed him,charging him return on the morrow, with the rest ofthe folk, to hear the history of his seventh voyage. Sothe porter went away to his house, rejoicing; and onthe morrow he presented himself with the rest of theguests, who sat down, as of their wont, and occupiedthemselves with eating and drinking and merry-makingtill the end of the day, when their host bade themhearken to the story of his seventh voyage. QuothSindbad the Sailor,

224THE SEVENTH VOYAGE OF SINDBAD THFSAILOR."When I [returned from my sixth voyage, II forsworetravel and renounced commerce, saying in myself,*What bath befallen me sufficeth me' So I abode athome and passed my time in pleasance and delight,till, one day, as I sat at mine ease, plying the winecup[with my friends], there came a knocking at thedoor. The doorkeeper opened and found without oneof the Khalif's pages, who came in to me and said,'The Commander of the Faithful biddeth thee to him.'So I accompanied him to the presence of the Khaiifand kissing the earth before him, saluted him. He bademe welcome and entreated me with honour and saidto me, 'O Sindbad, I have an occasion with thee,which I would have thee accomplishfor me.' So Ikissed his hand and said, 'O my lord, what is thelord's occasion with the slave?' Quoth he, 'I wouldhave thee go to the King of Serendib and carry himour letter and our present, even as he sent us a presentand aletter.'

225At this I trembled and replied, 'Bythe Most GreatGod, O my lord, I have taken a loathing to travel, andwhenas any maketh mention to me of travel by seaor otherwise, I am like to swoon for affright, by reasonof that which hath befallen me and what I havesuffered of hardships and perils. Indeed,I have nojot of inclination left for this, and I have sworn neveragain to leave Baghdad.' And I related to him allthat had befallen me, first and last ;whereat he marvelled*exceedingly and said, By the Most Great God, OSindbad, never was heard from time immemorial of onewhom there betided that which hath betided thee andwell may it behove thee never againto mention travel !But for my sake go thou this once and carry my letterto the King of Serendib and return in haste,if it bethe will of God the Most High, so we may not remainindebted to the king for favour and courtesy.' AndI answered him with 'Hearkening and obedience,' forthat I dared not gainsay his commandmentThen he gave me the present and letter and moneyfor my expenses. So I kissed his hand and going outfrom before him, repaired to the sea-coast, where Itook ship with manyother merchants and we saileddays and nights, till, after a prosperous voyage, GodVOL. in. 15

226vouchsafed us a safe arrival at the island of Serendib.We landed and went up to the city,wheie I carriedthe letter and present to the king and kissing the earthfell [prostrate before him], invoking blessings on him.When he saw me, ' Welcome to thee, O Sindbad 1quoth he. 'By the Most Great God, we have longedfor thy sight and the day is blessed on which we beholdthee once more.' Then he took my hand and seatingme by his side, welcomed me and entreated me friendlyand rejoiced in me with an exceeding joy; after whichhe fell to conversing with me and caressing me andsaid, 'What brings thee to us, O Sindbad?' I kissedhis hand and thanking him, said, 'O my lord, I bring'thee a present and a letter from myHaroun er Reshid.' Then I broughtlord the Khalifout to him thepresent and the letter and he read the latter andaccepted the former, rejoicingtherein with an exceedingjoy.Now this presentwas a horse worth ten thousanddinars and all its housings and trappings of gold setwith jewels, and a book and five different kinds ofsuits of apparel and an hundred pieces of fine whitelinen cloths of Egypt and silks of Suez and Cufa andAlexandria and a crimson carpet and another of

227Tebaristan 1 make and an hundred pieces of cloth ofsilk and flax mingled and a goblet of glass of thetime of the Pharaohs, a finger-breadth thick and a spanwide, amiddleward which was the figure of a lion andbefore him an archer kneeling, with his arrow drawn tothe head, and the table of Solomon son of David, 1 onwhom be peace; and the contents of the letter were asfollows: 'From the Khalif Haroun er Reshid, untowhom and to his forefathers (on whom be peace)God hath vouchsafed the rank of the noble andexceeding glory, to the august, God-aided Sultan,greeting. Thy letter hath reached us and we rejoicedtherein and have sent thee the book [called]"TheDivan of Hearts and the Garden of Wits," of thetranslation whereof when thou hast taken cognizance,its excellence will be established in thine eyes ;andthe superscriptionof this book we have made untothee. Moreover, we send thee divers other kingly1 In North-east Persia.* Alleged to have been found by the Arab conquerors of Spain onthe occasion of the sack of Toledo and presented by them to theOmmiade Khalif El Welid ben Abdulmelik (A.D. 705-716).See my44Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. III. p. 311.

228presents; 1 so do thou favour us by accepting them,and peace be on theel*When the king had read this letter, he rejoicedwith an exceeding joy and bestowed on me greatstore of presents and entreated me with the utmosthonour. Some days after this, I soughtof him leaveto depart, but he grantedit not to me save aftermuch pressing. So I took leave of him and shippedwith divers merchants and others, intending for myown country and having no desire for travel ortraffic. We sailed on, without ceasing,till we hadpassed many islands; but, one day, as we fared onover a certain tract of the sea, there came forth uponus a multitude of boats full of men like devils, cladin chain-mail and armed with swords and daggersand bows and arrows, and surrounded us on everyside. They entreated us after the cruellest fashion,smiting and wounding and slaying those who madehead against them, and taking the ship, with the crewand all that were therein, carried us to an island,where they sold us all for a low price. A rich manbought me and taking me into his house, gave me1 i*. such as are fit to be sent from king to king.

22pto eat and drink and clothed me and entreated mekindly, till myheart was comforted and I was somewhatrestored.One day my master said to me, 'Knowest thou notsome art or handicraft?' And I answered, saying,*O my lord, I am a merchant and know nought buttraffic.' Quoth he, 'Knowest thou how to shoot witha bow and arrows?' And I replied, *Yes, I knowthat.' So he brought me a bow and arrows andmounting me behind him on an elephant, set outwith me, at the last of the night, and fared on tillwe came to a forest of great trees; whereupon hemade me climb a high and stout tree and givingme the bow and arrows, said to me, 'Sit here, andwhen the elephants come hither by day, shoot at them,so haply thou shalt hit one of them; and ifany ofthem fall, come at nightfall and tell me.' Then hewent away and left me trembling and fearfuL I abodehidden in the tree till the sun rose, when the elephantscame out and fared hither and thither among the trees,and I gave not over shooting at them with arrows,till I brought down one of them. So, at eventide, Iwent and told my master, who rejoiced in me and

230rewarded me; then he came and carried away thedead elephant.On this wise I abode a while of time, every dayshooting an elephant, whereupon my master came andcarried itaway, till,one day, as I sat hidden in thetree, there came up elephants without number, roaringand trumpeting, so that meseemed the earth trembledfor the din. Theyall made for the tree whereonI was and the girth whereof was fifty cubits, andcompassedit about. Then a huge elephant cameup to the tree and winding his trunk about it, tuggedat it, till he pluckeditup bythe roots and cast it tothe ground. I fellamong the elephants, and the greatelephant, coming up to me, as I lay aswoon foraffright, wound his trunk about me and tossing me onto his back, made off with me, accompanied by theothers; nor did he leave faring on with me, and Iabsent from the world, till he brought me to a certainplace and casting me down from off his back, wentaway, followed by the rest. I lay there awhile, tillmy trouble subsided and my senses returned to me,when I sat up, deeming myself in a dream, and foundmyself on a great hill, stretching far and wide andall of elephants' bones. So I knew that this was their

231burial-place and that they had brought me thither onaccount of the bones.Then I arose and fared on a day and a night, tillI came to the house of my master, who saw me paleand disfeatured for fear and hunger. He rejoiced inmy return and said to me, 'By Allah, thou hast mademy heart ache on thine account for I went and ; findingthe tree torn up by the roots, doubted not but theelephants had destroyed thee. Tell me then how itwas with thee.' So I told him what had befallen meand he marvelled exceedingly and rejoiced, saying,'Knowst thou where this hill is?' 'Yes, O my lord,'answered I.So he took me up with him on an elephantand we rode till we came to the elephants' burial-place.When he saw those many bones, he rejoiced thereinwith an exceeding joy and carried awaywhat he hada mind to thereof. Then we returned to his house andhe entreated me with increased favour and said to me,'Verily, O my son, thou hast directed us to a passinggreat gain, may God requite thee with allgood ! Thouart free for the sake of God the Most High. Everyyear these elephants used to kill of us much peopleon account of these bones ;but God delivered thee fromthem and thou hast done us good service in the matter

232of these bones, of which thou hast given us to know ;wherefore thou meritest a great recompense, and thou' 'O my lord,' answered I, may God freeart free.'thyneck from the fire! I desire of thee that thou give meleave to return to my own*country.' So be it,' repliedhe; 'but we have a fair, on occasion whereof themerchants come hither to us and take of us theseelephants' bones. The time of the fair is now at hand,and when they come to us, I will send thee with them.ind give thee somewhat to bring thee to thine owncountry.'I blessed him and thanked him and abode with himin all honour and consideration, till, after a little, themerchants came, even as he had said, and bought andsold and bartered; and when they were about todepart, my master came to me and said, ' The merchantsare about to depart; arise, that thou mayst go withthem to thy country.' So I betook myself to the folk,and behold, they had bought great store of elephants'bones and bound uptheir loads and embarked in theship ;and my master took passagefor me with themand paid my hire and all that was chargeable uponme. 1 Moreover, he gave me great store of goods and1 i.e. the price of his victual and other necessaries for the voyage.

233we set sail and passed from island to island, till wetraversed the sea and arrived at the port of ourdestination; whereupon the merchants broughtout theirgoods and sold; and I also broughtout that whichwas with me and sold it at a good profitThen I bought of the best and finest of the produceand rarities of the country and all I had a mind toand a good hackney 1 and we set out again andtraversed the deserts from country to countrytill wecame to Baghdad. Then I went in to the Khalif andsaluted him and kissed his hand;after which I acquaintedhim with all that had passed and that whichhad befallen me. He rejoiced in my deliverance andthanked God the Most High; then he caused write mystory in letters of gold and I betook myself to myhouse and foregathered with my brethren and family.This, then," added Sindbad, "is the last of that whichbefell me in my travels, and praise be to God, theOne, the "Creator, the Maker 11 Lit. riding-beast (French monture, no exact English eqoivalemXwhether camel, mule or hone does not appear.

234When Sindbad the Sailor had made an end of hisstory, he bade his servant give the porteran hundredmithcals of gold and said to him, " How now, mybrother! Hast ever in the world heard of one whomsuch calamities have betided as have betided me andhath anysuffered that which I have suffered of afflictionsor undergone that which I have undergone ofhardships? Wherefore it behoveth that I have thesepleasures in requital of that which I have undergoneof travail and humiliations." So the porter cameforward and kissing the merchant's hands, said to him,"O my lord, thou hast indeed suffered grievous perilsand hast well deserved these bounteous favours [thatGod hath vouchsafed thee]. Abide, then, O my lord,in thy delights and put away from thee [the remembranceof] thy troubles ;and may God the Most Highcrown thine enjoyments with perfection and accomplishthy days in pleasance[to His "mercy] !until the hour of thine admissionTherewithal Sindbad the Sailor bestowed largesse uponhim and made him his boon-companion, and he abode,leaving him not night or day, to the last of their lives.Praise be to God the Glorious, the Omnipotent, theStrong, the Exalted of estate, Creator of heaven and

235earth and land and sea, to whom belongeth glorification! Amen. Amen. Praise be to God, the Lordof the Worlds 1 Amen,


NOTE.As stated In the Prefatory Note to my "Bookof the Thousand Nights and One Night," fourprinted Editions (ofwhich three are more or lesscomplete) exist of the Arabic text of the originalwork, namely those of Calcutta (183942), Boulac(Cairo), Breslau (Tunis) and Calcutta (1814-18).The first two are, for purposes of tabulation,practically identical, one whole story only,1of thosethat occur in the Calcutta (1839-42) Edition, (whichis the most complete of all,) being omitted fromthat of Boulac ;and I have, therefore, given butone Table of Contents for these two Editions.The Breslau Edition, though differing widely fromthose of Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac in contents,resembles them in containing the full number (athousand and one) of Nights, whilst that of CalcuttaThe Envier and the Envied.

24O(i 814-1 8) is but a fragment, comprising only thefirst two hundred Nights and the Voyages ofSindbad, as a separate Tale.The subscribers to my "Book of the ThousandNights and One Night" and the present "Talesfrom the Arabic" have now before them a completeEnglish rendering (the first ever made) of allthe tales contained in the four printed (Arabic)Texts of the original work and I have, therefore,thought it well to add to this, the last Volume ofmy Translation, full Tables of Contents of theselatter, a comparison of which will show the exactcomposition of the different Editions and the particularsin which they differ from one another,togetherwith the manner in which the variousstories that make up the respective collectionsare distributed over the Nights.In each Table, thetitles of the stories occurring onlyin the Editionof which itgives the contents are printedin Italicsand each Tale is referred to the number of theNight on which it is begun.The Breslau Edition, which was printed from ftManuscript of the Book of the Thousand Nights

241and One Night alleged to have been furnished tothe Editor by a learned Arab of Tunis, whom hestyles " Herr M. Annaggar " (Quaere En Nejjar, theCarpenter), the lacunes found in which were supplementedfrom various other MS. sources indicated bySilvestre de Sacy and other eminent Orientalists, isedited with a perfection of badness to which onlyGerman scholars (at once the best and worst editorsin the world) can attain. The original Editor, Dr.Maximilian Habicht, was during the period (1825-1839) of publication of the first eight Volumes,engagedin continual and somewhat acrimonious!controversy concerning the details of his editorshipwith Prof. H. L. Fleischer, who, after his death,undertook the completionof his taskand approvedhimself a worthy successor of his whilom adversary,his laches and shortcomings in the matter ofrevision and collation of the text beingat leastequal in extent and gravity to those of his predecessor,whilsthe omitted the one valuable featureof the latter'swork, namely, the glossaryof Arabic1 After the manner of Orientalists, a far more irritable folk thanany poets.VOL. ni, 16

242words, not occurring in the dictionaries, appendedto the earlier volumes.As an instance of the extreme looseness withwhich the book was edited, I mayobserve thatthe first four Vols. were published without tablesof contents, which were afterwards appended enbloc to the fifth Volume. The state of corruptionand incoherence in which the printed Text wasplaced before the public by the two learned Editors,who were responsible for its production,is such asmight well drive a translator to :despair the uncorrectederrors of the press would alone fill avolume and the verse especially is so corrupt thatone of the most laborious of English Arabic scholarspronounced its translation a hopelesstask. I havenot, however, in any single instance, allowed myselfto be discouraged by the difficulties presented bythe condition of the text, but have, to the best ofmy ability, rendered into English, without abridgmentor retrenchment, the whole of the tales, proseand verse, contained in the Breslau Edition, whichare not found in those of Calcutta (1839-42) andBoulac. In this somewhat ungrateful task, I have

243again had the cordial assistance of Captain Burton,who has (as in the case of my "Book of theThousand Nights and One Night") been kindenough to look over the proofs of my translationand to whom I beg once more to tender mywarmest thanks.Some misconception seems to exist as to thestory of Seif dhoul Yezen, a fragment of whichwas translated by Dr. Habicht and included, witha number of tales from the Breslau Text, in thefourteenth Vol. of the extraordinary gallimaufrypublished by him in 18245 as a complete translationof the 1001 Nights and it has, under1the1By the by, apropos of this soi-disant complete translation of thegreat Arabian collection of romantic fiction, it is difficult to understandhow an Orientalist of repute, such as Dr. Habicht, can have put fortha publication of this kind, which so swarms with blunders of everydescription as to throw the mistakes of all other translators completelyinto the shade and to render it utterly useless to the Arabic scholar as abook of reference. We can only conjecture that he must have left themain portion of the work to be executed, without efficient supervision,by incapable collaborators or that he undertook and executed the translationin such haste as to preclude the possibility of any preliminaryexamination and revision, worthy of the name, of the original MS. ;and this latter supposition appears to be borne out by the fact thatthe translation was entirely published before the appearance of anyrpotion of the Arabic Text, as printed from the Tunis Manuscript

244mistaken impression that this long but interestingRomance forms part of the Book of the ThousandNights and One Night, been suggested that a completetranslation of it should be included in thepresent publication.The Romance in question doesnot, however, in any way, belong to my originaland forms no part of the Breslau Text, as will beat once apparent from an examination of the Tableof Contents of the latter (see post. p. 261), by whichall the Nights are accounted for Dr. Habichthimself tells us, in his prefaceto the first Vol. ofWhilst on the subject of German translations, it may be well to correctan idea, which appears to prevail among non-Arabic scholars, .o theeffect that complete translations of the Book of the Thousand Nightsand One Night exist in the language of Hoffmann and Heine, andwhich is (as far, at least, as my own knowledge extends) a completelyerroneous one. I have, I believe, examined all the Germantranslations in existence and have found not one of them worthyof serious consideraton ; the best, that of Hammer-Purgstall, towhich I had looked for help in the elucidation of doubtful andcorrupt passages, being so loose and unfaithful, so disfigured by ruthlessretrenchments and abridgments, no less than by gross errors of allkinds, that I found myself compelled to lay it aside as useless. It itbut fair, however, to the memory of the celebrated Austrian Orientalist,to state that the only form in which Von Hammer's translation is pro*curable is that of the German rendering of Prof. Zinserling (1823-4),executed from the original (French) manuscript, which latter was unfortunatelylost before publication.

245the Arabic Text, that he found the fragment(undivided into Nights) at the end of the fifthVolume of his MS., into which other detachedtales, having no connection with the Nights, appearto have also found their way. This being thecase, it is evident that the Romance of Seif dhoulYezen in no way conies within the scope of thepresent work and would (apart from the fact thatits length would far overpass my limits) be amanifestly improper addition to it It is, however,possible that, should I come across a suitable textof the work, I may make it the subject of aseparate publication ; but this is, of course, amatter for future consideration.


TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE CALCUTTA(183^-42) AND BOULAC EDITIONS OPTHE ARABIC TEXT OF THE BOOK OPTHE THOUSAND NIGHTS AND ONENIGHT.INTRODUCTION.Story of King Shehriyar and his Brother.**&a. Story of the Ox and the Ass . . .I. The Merchant and the Genie , . . Ia. The Fust Old Man's Story ... MI. The Second Old Man's Story iic. The Third Old Man's Story ...S. The Fisherman and the Genie . . , iiia. Story of the Physician Douban ... ITaa. Story of King Sindbad and kit Falcon , wok. Story of the King's Son and the Ogress .b. Story of the Enchanted Youth ...fii% The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad iza. The First Calender's Story . . xiA. The Second Calender's Story . . , xiiba. Story of the Envier and the Envied. 1 . riii1 The Boulac Edition omits this story altogetbec,

250e. The Third Calender's Storyd. The Eldest Lady's Storyt. The Story of the Portressxvisriii4. The Three Apples. . . .5.Noureddin All of Cairo and his Son BedreddiaHassan . . .6. Story of the Hunchback . .a. The Christian Broker's Story . .t. The Controller's .Story .e. The Jewish Physician's Storyd. The Tailor's Story .e. The Barber's Story ...ea. Story of the Barber's First Brother .xxxrv,,xxviixxviiixxixxxxi,,tb. Story of the Barber's Second Brother ,c. Story of the Barber's Third Brother .ed. Story of the Barber's Fourth Brother .tt. Story of the Barber's Fifth Brother .e/. Story of the Barber's Sixth Brother ,7. Noureddin All and the Damsel Enis el Jelis .8. Ghanim ben Eyoub the Slave of Lovea. Story of the Eunuch Bekhitb. Story of the Eunuch Kafour0. The History of King Omar ben Ennuman andxxxiiixxxivxzxixhis Sons Sherkan ad Zoulniekan .a. Story of Taj tl Mulouk and the PrincestDunya . . . .aa. Story of Aziz and Aziteh , .t, Sakoun's Story of the Hashish-Eattr .e. Hemmad the Bedouin's Story. .la The Birds and Beasts and the Son of Adam .cviicxiicxliiicxlirachri

25111. The Hermits . . . .12. The Waterfowl and the Tortoist . .13. The Wolfand the Fox ...a. The Hawk and the Partridgt . .14. The Mouse and the Weasel . . .cxlviiicxlixcl15. The Cat and the Crow . . .16. The Fox and the Ctow . . . ,a. 7/4

25233. AH (t* Persian and tht Kurd Sharptr . ,34. The Imam Abou Yousuf with Haroun er Reshidand his Vizier Jaafer. . .ccxci vccxcri35. The Lover who feigned himself a Thief to savehis Mistress's Honour . ,36. Jaafrr the Barmecide and the Bean-Seller .37. Abou Mohammed the Lazy . , ,38. Y hya ben Khalid and Mensour . .39. Yehya ben Khalid and the Man who forgeda Letter in his Name . .40. Tht KhalifEl Mamoun and tkt Strange Doctor41. AH Shar and Zumurrud . . .42. The Loves of Jubeir ben, Umeir and the LadyBudour...i43. The Man of Yemeni and his six Slave-girls,44. Haroun er Reshid with the Damsel and AbooNnwas ....45. The Man who stole the Dog's Dish of Gold .46. 7 he Sharper of Alexandria and the Master ofccxcviioczcixcccccc roocvicccviicccviiioccxxviicccxxxivcccxxxviiiccodPolice , .47. El Melik en Nasir and the three Masters ofPolice. . .a. Story of the Chief of the New Cairo Policeb.Story of the Chief of the Boulac Police .t.Story of the Chief of the Old Cairo Police48. The Thief and the Money-Changer49. The Chief of the Cous Police and the Sharper50. Ibrahim ben el Mehdi and the Merchant's Sister$1. The Woman whose Hands were cnt off iocAlmsgiving. * . .ecctliii. ,cccxlrv, ,,cccxlvooczlvioccdriij

52. The Devout Israelite . .53- Abou Hassan a Ziyadi and the Man fromKhorassan . * . .54. The Poor Man and his Generous Friend .. cccxlviiicccxlixcccli55. The Ruined Man who became Rich againthrough a Dream . . .56. El Mutawekkil and his Favourite Mihboubeh .57. Wenian the Butcher's Adventure with the Ladyand the Bear ....58. The King 1 :Daughter and the Apt59. The Enchanted Horse....60. Una el Wujoud and the Vizier's DaughterRose-in-bud ....ncccli. cccliiiccclvccclviiccclxxi61. Abou Nnwas with the three Boys and theKhalif Ilaroun er Reshid . .62. Abdallah ben Maamer with the Man of Bostonand his Slave-girl. , ., cccUxxi, ccclxxxiii63. The Lovers of the Benou Udhreh . .64. T7u Vitier of Yemen and his young Brother ,65. The Loves of the Boy and Girl at School ., ccclxxxiv, ccclxxxv66. El Mutelemmis and his Wife Umeimeh ,67. Haroun er Reshid and Zubeideh in the Bath .68. Haroun er Reshid and the three Poets69. Musab ben ez Zubeir and Aaisheh his Wife70. Aboulaswed and his squinting Slave-girl .71. Haroun er Reshid and the two Girls72. Harouu er Reshid and the three Girls . *73. The Miller and his Wife74. The Simpleton and the Sharper.ccclxxxvitt. occlxxxviiNm. ccclzxxviii

25475* The Imam Abou Yousuf with Harouner Reshidand Zubeideh ....76. The Khalif El Hakim and the Merchant77. King Kisra Anoushirwan and the Village Damsel78. The Water-Carrier and the Goldsmith's Wife79.Khusrau and Shirin and the Fisherman .. CCCIXXXTUJ. ccclxxxixMt CCCXCcccxci80. Yehya ben Khalid and the Poor Man .8 1. Mohammed el Amin and Jaafer ben el Hadi .82. Said ben Salim and the Barmecides . .83. The Woman's Trick against her Husband84. The Devout Woman and the two Wicked Elders85. Jaafer the Barmecide and the Old Bedouin .86. Omar ben el Khettab and the Young Bedouin87. El Mamoun and the Pyramids of Egypt.88. The Thief turned Merchant and the other Thief89. Mesrour and Ibn el Caribi .90. The Devout Prince ....91. The Schoolmaster who Fell in Love by Report92. The Foolish Schoolmaster . .93. The Ignorant Man who set up for a Schoolmaster94. The King and the Virtuous Wife. ,95. Abdurrehman the Moor's Story of the Koc96.Adi ben Zeid and the Princess Hind . .97. Dibil el Khuzai with the Lady and Muslin ben98.elWelid .Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant . ,99. The Three Unfortunate Lovers . .100. The Lovers of the Benou Tai , .101. The Mad Lover , , ,102. The Apples of Paradise . , ,cccxciiiCCCXC1Vcccxcvcccxcixccccicccci:cccciiicccciocccviiMccccixOCCCZCCCCX1cccciii

255103. The Loves of Aboa Isa and Curret el Ain .104.105.El Amin and his Uncle Ibrahim ben el MehdiEl Feth ben Khacan and El Mutawekkil106. The Man's Dispute with the Learned Womanof the relative Excellence of the Sexes107. Aboa Suweid and the Handsome Old Woman108. Ali ben Tahir and the Girl Mounis . . .109. The Woman who had a Boy and the other whohad a Man to Lover . . .no. The Haunted House in Baghdad111. The Pilgrim and the Old Woman who dweltin the Desert ....112. Aboulhusn and his Slave-girl Taweddud113. The Angel of Death with the Proud King andthe Devout Man . .1 14. The Angel of Death and the Rich King1 1 5.The Angel of Death and the Kingofthe Childrenlid.of Israel ....Iskender Dhoulkernein and a certain Tribe ofPoor Folk117. The Righteousness of King Anoushirwan1 1 8. The Jewish Caiii and his Pious Wife119. The Shipwrecked Woman and her Child .120. The Pious Black Slave . . .121. The Devout Platter-maker and his Wife .122. El Hejjaj ben Yousuf and the Pious Man123.The Blacksmith who could Handle Fire withoutHurt . . . .124. J he Saint to whom God fave a Clou,i to tervthim and the Devout A'IH?ccccxi*ccccxviiiccccxixccccxxmCCCCXX1VCCCCXXX1VccccxxxvicccclxiicccclxiiicccclxivCCCCIXTcccclxvicccclxviicccclxviiicccclxzcccclxxicccclxxiiit

256115. The Muslim Champion and the Christian Lady126. Ibrahim ben el Khawwas and the ChristianKing's Daughter . .127. The Justice of Provident*128. The Ferryman of the Nile and the Hermit .129. The King of ...the Island130. Abulhusned Durraj and Aboujaafer the Leper131. The Queen of the Serpents. , ,a. The Adventures of Beloukiya.b. The Story of Janshah. . ,+ cccclxxiv. cccclxxviicccclxxviii. cccclxxix. ,,, cccclxxxl, cccclxxxii. cccclxxxvi. ccccxcix132.Sindbad the Sailor and Sindbad the Porter .a. The First Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor .b. The Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailorc. The Third Voyage of Sindbad the Sailord. The Fourth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailordxxxvi. dxxxvi iidxliii. dxlvi, dlt. The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor/. The Sixth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailorg. The Seventh Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor133. The City of Brass . .134.The Malice of Women . . .a. The King and his Vizier's Wife . .b. The Merchant's Wife and the Parrot .c. The Fuller and his Son ...d. The Lover's Trick against the Chaste Wife. dlvidlixdlxiiidlxvidlxxviii,dlxxix.,dlxxz. The Niggard and the Loaves of Bread ./ The Lady and her Two Lovertg. The King's Son and the Ogress .k. Hie Drop of Honey.dlxxxidlxxxiii. The Woman who made her Husband sift

257>LThe Enchanted Springs.i. The Vizier's Son and the Bathkeeper's WifeA The Wife's Device to Cheat her Husbandm. The Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singinggirl....*. The Man who never Laughed again .. The King's Son and the Merchant's Wifep. The Page who feigned to know the Speech a/Birds ...f.The Lady and her five Suitorsr. The Man who saw the Night of Powerdlxxxiidlxxxhrdlxxxvidlxxxviididdxciidxcui, dxcrit. The Stolen Necklace . .The two Pigeons .m. Prince Behram of Persia and the Princes*, aicriiEd Delma . . . .9, The House with the Belvedere .Tke King t So* and the Afrit $ Mlstrat*. The Sandal-wood Merchant and the Sharpenp. The Debauchee and the Three-year -old Child*. The Stolen Purse . .135. jouder and his Brothers ...1 36. The History of Gherib and his Brother Agib137. Otbth and Reyya . . ,138. Hind Daughter of En Numan and Ei Hejjaj139. Khu%eimeh ben Bishr and Ikrimeh el feyyat .140. Younus the Scribe and the KhaliflVclid ben S*kl141. Haroun er Rcshid and the Arab Giri . .142. El Asmdi and the three Girls ofBauora .143. Ibrahim of Mosul and the Devil . ,144. The Lovers of the Benou Udkreh , ,VOL.in.dxcviiidciidciiidcr,,dcvidcxzivdclxxzddxxxi, ddxxxi v, dclxxxvdclxxxvi, dclxxxviii dclxuviii17

2 5 8145 The Bedouin and hit Wife . . . , dcxci146. The Lovers of Bassora . dcxciii147. Isaac of Mosul and his Mistress and the Devil . dcxcv148. The Lovers of Medina ... doccri149. El Melik en Nasir and his Vitier . . . dcxcviiI$a The Rogueries of Delileh the Crafty and herDaughter Zeyneb the Trickstress . . dcxcviii151. The Adventures of Quicksilver Ali of Cairo ta Sequel.....to the Rogueries of Delileh theCraftydccviii152. Ardeshir and Heyat en Nufous . . . dccxix153. Julnar of the Sea and her Son King Bedr Basimof Persia ..... 4ccxxrritiI 54 King Mohammed ben Sebalk and the MerchantHassan . dcclvia. Storyof Prince Self el Mulouk and thePrincess Bediya..... el . .Jemal. dcclviii155. Hassan of Bassora and the King's Daughter ofJinndcclxxviii156. Khelifeh the Fisherman of Baghdad . . , dcccxxxii157. Mesrour and Zein el dcccxlv158. Ali Noureddinand the Frank King's Daughter . dccclxiii159. The Man of Upper Egypt and his Frank Wife . dcccxciv1 60. The Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave-girl. dcccxcvi161. King Jelyaad of Hind and his Vizier Shinias :whereafter ensueth the History of KingWird Khan son of King Jelyaad andhis Women and Viziers . . dcccxcixThe Cat and the Mouse .... cir.ccc.*. The Fakir and his Pot of Butter . . dcccrii

259f. The FUhes and Oie Crab . .dcccciiid. The Crow and the Serpentt. The Fox and the Wild Ass . ., dccccrff. The Unjust King and the Pilgrim Prince .g. The Crows and the Hawk .- .k. The Serpent-Charmer and his Wile .i. The Spider and the Wind .j. The Two Kings. . .k. The Blind Man and the Cripple ./. The Foolish Fisherman . .m. The Boy and the Thieves .*..t.dccccrdccccvidccccviidccccviiidccccixdccccxdccccxviiiM. The Man and his Wilful Wife . .i>.The Merchant and the Thieves/>.The Foxes and the Wolf . . .f. The Shepherd and the Thief . .r. The Heathcock and the Tortoises .162. Aboukir the Dyer and Abousir the Barber ., dccccxixdccccxx. dccccxxi. ,,. dccccxxiv. dccccxxx163.Abdallah the Fisherman and Abdallah theMerman . . .164. The Merchant of Oman .165. Ibrahim and Jemileh166. Aboulhusn ot Khorassan . .167. Kemcrnteman and the Jeweller 3 1 Wif .168. Abdallah ben Fasil and his Brothers . ,. dccccxldccccxlvidcccciiidcccclix. dcccclxiiidcccclxxvi ; i169. Maryuf the Cobbler and his Wife t-atimtk .CONCLUSION.dccccix \11 - Mi


TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE BRESLAU(TUNIS) EDIT7ON OF THE ARABIC TEXTOF THE BOOK OF THE THOUSANDNIGHTS AND ONE NIGHT.INTRODUCTION.Story of King Shehriyar and his Brother.a. Story of the Ox and the Ass . .I. The Merchant and the Genie . . ia. The First Old Man's Story ...wTiiib. The Second Old Man's Story . vie. The Third Old Man's Story ...a. The Fisherman and the Genie ...a. Story of the Physician Douban ... xiaa. Story of the Jealous Man and the Parrot l . xivab. Story of the King's Son and the .Ogress xvb. Story of the Enchanted Youth ... xxi3. The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad , xxviiia. The First Calender's Story . . , xxxvii>. The Second Calender's Story . . , . xlba. The Envier and the Envied ... xlvi1 Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac 134^. "The Merchant's Wife andthe Parrot."

'264e. The Third Calender's Story . liiid. The Eldest Lady's Story . Luiit. Story of the Portress Ixrii4. The Three Apples . . . . . box5.Noureddin All of Cairo and his Son BedreddinHassanbrfl6. Story of the Hunchback . . ciia. The Christian Broker's Story * cviii. The Controller's Storyrit. The Jewish Physician's Story cxxizd. The Tailor's StoryenxviiA The Barber's Story . . . odiiea. Story of the Barber's First Brother , deb. Story of the Barber's Second Brother * divte. Story of the Barber's Third Brother . , driitd. Story of the Barber's Fourth Brother * clviiite. Story of the Barber's Fifth Brother . , dxef. Story of the Barber's Sixth Brother , clxi vj.Ali ben Bekkar and Shemsennehar . , , dxix8. Noureddin Ali and the Damsel Enis d Jells . cxcix9. Kemerezzeman and Budour . . . ( ccxviii10, The Enchanted Horse . . . codivIt. The Voyages of Sindbad the Sailor . . cd. The First Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor odiiA. The Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor , ccliiic. The Third Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor , cdvd. The Fourth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor , cdix/. The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor . . oH*'Hf. The Sixth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor t cdrrif. The Serenth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor . odxii

26 512. Asleep and Awake . t , . cclxxia. The Lackpenny and the Cook cclxxiii13. Seif el Mulouk and Bediya el Jemal it* ccxci14. Khelif the Fisherman l . . . , . cccxri15. Ghanim ben Eyoub the Slave of Love . cccxxxiia. Story of the Eunuch Sewab * . , , cccxxxivt. Story of the Eunuch Kafour16. Uns elWujoud and the Vizier's Daughter Rosein-bud. i . . cccxli17. The Merchant of Oman . . , , cccliv18. Ardeshir and Heyat en Nufous . ccclxiv19. Hassan of Bassora and the King's Daughterof the Jinn. . , . . ccclxxxvi20. Haroun er Reshid and the three Poets . . occcxxxii21. Omar ben Abdulazit and the Potts . , .22. El Hejjaj and the three Young Men . ccccxxxiv23. Er Reshid and the Woman of the Barmecides .24. The Ten Vitiers ; or the History of King Azadbekhtand his Son . , , ccccxxxvThe Unlucky Merchant . ccccxl.t. The Merchant and his Son* ccccxliyt, Abou Sabir ccccxlviiid. Prince Bihtad . ccccliii.King Dadbin and his Vitien t cccdv1This will be found translated in my "Book of the Thousand Nightsand One Night," Vol. VII. p. 307, asan Appendix to the Calcutta(1839-42) and Boulac version of the story, from which it differs indetailCalled " Bekhit " in Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac Editions.

266'King Bekhtseman .cccclxig. King Bihkerd -^ . . , . cccclxi vk, Ilan Shah and Abou Temam . . cccclxvii.King Ibrahim and his Son . . , cccclxxij. King Suleiman Shah and his Sons . , cccclxxvk. The Prisoner and how God gave him Relief . cccclxxxv25. The City of Brass .....cccclxxxvii26. Nimeh ben er Rebya and Num his Slave-girl. , di27. Alaeddin Abou es Shamat ... dxx28. Hatim Tai his ; Generosity after Death . , dxxxi29. Maan ben Zaldeh and the three Girls . dxxxii30. Maan ben Zaldeh and the Bedouin . .31. The City of Lebtait .....32. The Khalif Hisham and the Arab Youth . . dxxxiv33. Ibrahim ben el Mehdi and the Barber- Surgeon ,34. The City of Irem . . . . , dxxxviii35. Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khedijeh and.....theKhalif Mamoun . . . , dxl36. The Mock Khalif dxliii37. The Imam Abou Yousuf with Er Reshid andJaafer , dlr38. The Lover who feigned himself a Thief to savehis Mistress's Honour . . . dlvii39. Abou Mohammed the Lazy . . . dlviii40. Jaafer ben Yehya and Abdulmelik ben Salih . . dbcv41. Jaafer ben Yehya 1 and the Man who forgeda Letter in his Name.... dlxvi42. Er Reshid and the Barmecides . dlxvii1 Yehya ben Khalid (Calcutta (1839-42) and Bou!ac).

26 743.Ilm es Semmak and Er Reshid dlx viii44. El Mamoun and Zubeideh45. Ali Shir 1 and Zumurrud . dlxix46. The Loves of Budour and Jubeir ben Umeir . . dlxxxvii47. The Man of Yemen and his six Slave-girls. * dxcv48. Haroun Er Reshid with the Damsel and AbouNuwas . * dc49. The Man who stole the Dog's50.El Melik en Nasir and the Three Masters ofDish of Gold . , dciiPolice . . . . . dciiia. Story of the Chief of the New Cairo Police . dcivb. Story of the Chief of the Boulac Police . . dcrc. Story of the Chief of the Old Cairo Police ,51. The Thief and the Money-changer ...52. Ibrahim ben el Mehdi and the Merchant's Sister . dcvi53. King Kelyaad* of Hind and his Vizier Shimas . dcixa. The Cat and the Mouse . . . . ,,*. The Fakir and his Pot of Butter . . , dcxc. The Fishes and the Crab.... dcxid. The Crow and the Serpent . * ,,*. The Fox and the Wild Ass ...f. The Unjust King and the Pilgrim Prince , dcxiig. The Crows and the Hawlc . . . dcxiiiA, The Serpent-Charmer and his Wife dcxivi. The Spider and the Wind dcxvdcxri4. The Blind Man and the Cripple. ,/. The Two Kings .....1"Shar" (Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac)." Jelyaad"(Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac).

268L The Foolish Fishermanm. The Boy and the Thieves .. The Man and his Wilful Wifeo. The Merchant and the Thieves . ,/. The Foxes and the Wolf . .q. The Shepherd and the Thiefr. The Heathcock and the Tortoises ,Almsgiving ....54.The Woman whose Hands were cut off for55. The Poor Man and his Generous Friend .56. The Ruined Man who became Rich againthrough a Dream . , .57. Abou Nuwas with the Three Boys and theKhalif Haroun er Reshid .58. The Lovers of the Benou Udhreh 1 . .59.El Mutelemmis and his Wife Umeimeh .60. Haroun Er Reshid and Zubeideh in the Bath61. Musab ben ez Zubeir and Aalsheh his Wife .62. Aboulaswed and his .Squinting Slave-girldcxxvidcxxviidcxxviiidcxxixdcxxxdcxxxiidcxxxivdcxlidcxliiidcxlivdcxlvdcxl vidcxlviiidcxlizdeli63.Haroun er Reshid and the Two Girls64. Haroun er Reshid and the Three Girl* .65. The Simpleton and the Sharper. ,66. The Imam Abou Yousuf with Er Reshid anddcliiZubeideh . . .67. The Khalif El Hakim and the Merchant .68. Kisra Anoushirwan and the Village Damsel .69. The Water-carrier and the Goldsmith's Wife .dcliii,,dcliv1 Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac, No. 63. See my Book of theThousand Nights and One Night," VoL IV. p. 211.

26970. Khusrau and Shirin and the Fishermandclvi93. El Feth ben Khacan and El Mutawekkil . dclxxxiii7!. Yehya ben Khalid and the Poor Man .72. Mohammed el Amin and Jaafer ben el Had! .73. The Woman's Trick against her Husband .dclviidclviii74. The Devout Woman and the Two WickedElders .dclix75 El Fezl ben Rebiya l and the Old Bedouin .. dclz76 En Nutnan and the Arab of tfa Benou Tai77. The Draper and the Thief* . . . . dcLri78. Mesrour and Ibn el Caribi . .dclxii79. The Devout Prince . . ,80. The Schoolmaster who fell in Love by Report81. The Foolish Schoolmaster ..., dclxiv. dclxv. dclxvi82. The Ignorant Man who set up for Schoolmaster, dclxvii83. Adi ben Zeid and the Princess Hind . .. dclxviii84. Dibil el Khuzal with the Lady and Muslim benel Welid . . . ,. dclzz85. Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant,,86. The Three Unfortunate Lovers *dclxxii87. The Lovers of the Benou Tai ., dclxziii88. The Mad Lover .dclxxiv89. Firou* and his Wife . . *del xxv90. The Apples of Paradise . . .dclxxvi91. The Loves of Abou Isa and Curret el Ain .. dclxxviii92. El Amin and his Uncle Ibrahim ben el Mehdi. dclxxxii.:Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac, "Jaafer the Barmecide."1 Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac, "The Thief turned Merchant andthe other Thief," No. 88.

2/094. The Man's Dispute with the Learned Woman ofthe relative Excellence of the Sexes .95. Abou Suweid and the Handsome Old Woman96.Ali ben Tahir and the Girl Mounis . .97. The Woman who had a Boy and the other whohad a Man to Lover .dcbcxxiftdclxxxriidclxxxvitt98. The Haunted House in Baghdad . .99. The History of Gherib and his brother Agib .100. The Rogueries of Delileh the Crafty and herDaughter Zeyneb the Trickstress .101. The Adventures of Quicksilver Ali of Cairo .102. Jouder and his Brothers .103. Julnar of the Sea and her Son King Bedr Basimof Persia .104. Mesrour and Zein el Mewasif . .105. Ali Noureddin and the Frank King's Daughter106. The Man of Upper Egypt and his Frank Wife107. The Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave-girl108. Aboukir the Dyer and Abousir the Barber .109. Abdallah the Fisherman and Abdallah the Mermanno. King Shah Bekht and his Vizier Er Rehwan .a. The Man of fChorassan, his Son and hitGovernor ....4. The Singer and the Druggist. .e. The King who knew the Quintessence of Thingid. The Rich Man who gave his Fair Daughterin Marriage to the Poor Old Man .t. The Rich Man and his Wasteful Son .f. The King's Son who fell in Love with the rittur*I. The Fuller and his Wife ...dcxcviiidcclvi. dcclxvidcclxxvdccxdvdcccxxi. dcccxxxi. dccclxii. dccclxiv. dccclxvii. dccclxxvii. dccclxxxv. dccclxxxvidccclxxx viiidcccxci. dcccxcii. dcccxciii. dcccxciv. dcccxcvi

271A, The Old Woman, the Merchant and the King . dec cxc v ii. The Credulous husband . . . dcccxcviii/.The Unjust King and th>. Tither . . . dcccxcixfa. Story ofDavid and Solomon . . *i. The Thief and the Woman . .L The Three Men and our Lord Jesut . . dccccila. The Disciple's Story ,m. The Dethroned King whose Kingdom andGood were Restored to Him . .Mn. The Man whose Caution was the Cause ofhis Death . . . . . dccccili. The Man who was lavish of hit House andhis Victual to one whom he knew not . . dccccivp. The Idiot and the Sharper . . . dccccrf. Khelbes and his Wife and the Learned Man . dccccvir. The Pious Woman accused of Lewdnett . , dccccvii*. The Journeyman and the Girl . . . dccccixt. The Weaver who became a Physician by hisWife's Commandment . .M. The Two Sharpers.....who cheated each hisFellowdcccoxiv. The Sharpers.....with the Money- Changer andthe Assdccccxivw. The Sharper and the Merchants , . , dccccxvwa. The Hawk and the Locust . . . dccccxvijr. The King ami his Chamberlain's Wife. , dccccx viixa. The Old Woman and the Draper's Wife ,f The foul-favoured Man and his Fair Wife , dccccxviii, The Kins who lost Kingdom and Wife andWealth and God restored them to him . . dcccoxix

272III,ma. Selim and Selma .M>. The King of Hind and his Visitr .El Alelik en Zahir Kukneddin Bibers el BunOmtdari and the Sixteen Officers of Polit*a. The First Officer's Story .4. The Second Officer's Story . .t. The Third Officer's Story. . .d. The Fourth Officer's Story . .. dccccxxii. dccccxxriii, dccccxn.. dccccxxtii,. dccccxxxfrA The Fifth Officer's Story. . ./ The Sixth Officer's Story , ,g. The Seventh Officer's Storyh. The Eighth Officer's Story , .ha. The Thief s Story. . ,i. The Ninth Officer's Story, , .. dcccouurrdccccxxxviii/. The Tenth Officer's Story ,k. The Eleventh Officer's Story . ,/. The Twelfth Officer's Story . .. dococxxxixm. The Thirteenth Officer's Story , .n. The Fourteenth Officer's Story .na.A Merry Jest of a Thiefnb. Story of the Old Sharper , .The Fifteenth Officer's Story . ,/. The Sixteenth Officer's Story . .Cashghar ....I IX Abdallah ben Nafi and the Kingt M y. dcccodi113.Noureddin Alt and Sitt el MiloJidecccxlu. dcccclviii114. El Abbas and the King's Dau^kte* of115. The Malice of Women . .. dcccclxri

273. The King and his Vizier's Wife . .*- The Merchant's Wife and the Parrot .c. The Fuller and his Son .d. The Lover's Trick against the Chaste Wife. The Niggard and the Loaves of Bread .tMdcccclxxxivif. The Lady and her Two Lovers . ./. The King's Son and the Ogress. ,4. The Drop of Honey .i. The Woman who made her Husband SiftDust ...../ The Enchanted Springs. . .i. The Vizier's Son and the BathkeepertWifei The Wife's Device to Cheat her Husband". dcccclxxxvdcccclxxrvidoccclxxxviiim. The Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-Girl . .. The Man who never Laughed again .- The King's Son and the Merchant's Wifep. The Man who saw the Night of Power .f. The Stolen Necklace . .r. Prince Behram of Persia and the Prince*Ed Detma ....*. The House with the Belvedere ./. The Sandal wood Merchant and the Sharpenm. The Debauchee and the Three-year-oldChild . The Stolen Purse....Tfu Fox and the Folk 1 .. .. dcccczcdccccxd. dcccCTciii4 dccccxci*. dccccxcv. docccxcviii. dccccxcix. M1 This story will be found translated in my " Book of the ThousandNights and One Night,' Vol. V. p. 345.VOL. IILIt

274116. Th* Two King* and the Vine's Daughtert.117. Th* Favourite and her Lovtr . . .118. Tk* Mtrtkant of Cairo and the FavouriU tfOu JCkalif El Mamoun El Hakimbi Amrillak . *COMCLOSKM,


TABLE OF CONTENTS OP THE UN-FINISHED CALCUTTA (iBi4-iB) EDITION(FIRST TWO HUNDRED NIGHTS ONLY)OF THE ARABIC TEXT OF THE BOOKOF THE THOUSAND NIGHTS AND ONENIGHT.IWTKODUCTTOK.a. The Ox and the Asa ....1. The Merchant and the Genie , . . , 1a. The First Old Man's Story, , ii*. The Second Old Man's Story ... frB. The Fisherman and the Genie . . . . riiia. The Physician Douban .... xiaa. The Merchant and the Parrot . . . xhrab. The King's Son and the Ogress. . XTb. The Enchanted Youth , . . nd3.The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad. . txviii1The Third Old Man's Story is wanting.

278. The First Calender's Story . . .t. The Second Calender's Story . . .ba. The Envier and the Envied . . .c. The Third Calender's Story . . .d. The Eldest Lady's Story ....14. The Three ApplesI .5. Noureddin All of Cairo and his Son Bedreddin Hassan .6. Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khedijeh and the Khalif ElMamoun 7. Story of the Hunchback.....a. The Christian Broker's Story . .& The Cook's Storysc. The Jewish Physician's Story. . . .d. The Tailor's Story. . .e. The Barber's Story . . ,ta. Story of the Barber's First Brother .eb. Story of the Barber's Second Brother , ,te. Story of the Barber's Third Brother . .ed. Story of the Barber's Fourth Brother . .a. Story of the Barber's Fifth Brother . ,ef. Story of the Barber's Sixth Brother& Ali ben Bekkar and......Shemscnnehar .9. Noureddin Ali and the Damsel Ennis el Jelis . .10. Women's Craft11. Sindbad the Sailor and Hindbad the Porter'xxxixxliixlviliiiburIxviiibcxiixcicicucxxicxxixcxxxvicxliiicxlvcxlviiiclicliiclirclriiiclxiiiclxxxicxcv-cc1 The Story of the Portress is wanting.Calcutta (1839-42), Boulac and Breslau, "The Controller's Story."Calcutta (1839-42) and Boulac, "Sindbad the Sailor and Sindbadthe Porter."

279a. The First Voyage of Sindbad the SailorJ. The Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailorc. The Third Voyage of Sindbad the Sailord. The Fourth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailort ,The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor/ The Sixth Voyage of Sindbad the SailorK The Seventh Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor


ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE FIRSTLINES OF THE VERSE IN THE " TALESFROM THE ARABIC."N.6.The Roman numerals denote the volume, the Arabic the pageA DAMSEL made for love and decked with subtle grace, Hi. 192.A fair one, to idolaters if she herself should show,iii. 10.A sun of beauty she appears to all who look on her, iii. 191.A white one, from her sheath of tresses now laid bare, ii. 291.After your loss, nor trace of me nor vestige would remain, iii. 41.Algates ye are our prey become; this many a day and night,All intercessions come and all alike do ill succeed,ii. 2 1 8.An if my substance fail, DO one there is will succour me,i. 6,An if ye'd of evil be quit, look that no evil ye do, ii. 192.Assemble, ye people of passion, I pray, iii. 31.Awaken, O ye sleepers all, and profit, whilst it's here, ii 234.iii 6.BEARD of the old he-goat, the one-eyed, what shall be, ii. 231.Behold, I am clad in a robe of leaves green,ii.242.But for the spying of the eyes [ill-omened,] we had seen, i. 50.By Allah, but that I trusted that I should meet you again,ii. 266.By Him whom I worship, indeed, I swear, O thou that mine eye doitfill, ii. 213.

284DAMASCUS is all gardens decked for the pleasance of the eyes, ill 9.Drink ever, O lovers, I rede you, of wine, ii.230.EL Abbas from Akil his stead is come again,iii. 108.Endowed with amorous grace past any else am I, ii.253.FAIR fall the maid whose loosened locks her cheeks do overcloud Iiii. 191.Fair patience practise, for thereon still folioweth content, iii. 116.Fair patience use, for ease still folioweth after stress, iii. 117.For the uses of food I was fashioned and made, ii. 223.'*Forget him," quoth my censurers, " forget him j what is he ?" iii. 42.Fortune its arrows all, through him I love, let fly, iii. 31.Full many a man incited me to infidelity, i. 205.GOD judge betwixt me and her lord !Away, i. 48.God keep the days of love-delight How ! dearly sweet they were ! i.225.God keep the days of How love-delight ! passing sweet they were ! ii. 96God knows I ne'er recalled thy memory to my thought, iii. 46.HAD we thy coming known, we would for sacrifice, i. 13.Haste not to that thou dost desire ; for haste is still unblest,He who Mohammed sent, as prophet to mankind, i. 50.ii. 88.His love he'd have hid, but his tears denounced him to the spy, iii. 42.His love on him took pity and wept for his ii.dismay, 210.How long, O Fate, wilt thou oppress and baffle me ? ii. 69.How long shall I thus question my heart that's drowned in woe ? iii. 42.How long will ye admonished be, without avail or heed ? iii. 40.How many, in Yemameh, dishevelled widows plainI i.50.I AM content, for him I love, to all abide, iii. 25.I am filled full of longing pain and memory and dole, iii. 15.1 am the champion-slayer he warrior without peer, iii. 94.

I clipped her in mine arms and straight grew drunken with the Kent,iii. 125.I fear to be seen in the air, ii.255.I marvel for that to my love I see thee now incline, iii.IllI saw thee, O thou best of all the human race, display,i.46.Iswear by his life, yea, I swear by the life of my love without peer,iii.SI.If I most die, then welcome death to heal, iii. 23.If, in his own land, midst his folk, abjection and despite,ii.196.I'm the crown of every sweet and fragrant weed, ii. 255.In every rejoicing a boon 1 midst the singers and minstrels am I, ii.258In my soul the fire of yearning and affliction rageth aye, iii. 6$.Indeed, thou'st told the tale of kings and men of might, iii. 87.It chances whiles that the blind man escapes a pit,ii.51.It is as the jasmine, when it I espy, ii. 236.LET destiny with loosened rein its coarse appointed fare, iii. ail.Like a sun at the end of a cane in a hill of sand, iii. 190.Like the full moon she shows upon a night of fortune fair, iii. 191.Lo, since the day I left you, O my masters,iii.24.Look at the moss-rose, on its branches seen, ii.256.MAY the place of my session ne'er lack thee ! Oh, why,iii. 118.Me, till I stricken was therewith, to love thou didst excite, iii. 11 j.Midst colours, my colour excelleth in light, ii. 258.Most like a wand of emerald my shape it is, trow I, ii.245.My Sower a marvel on your heads doth show, ii. 254.My fortitude fails, my endeavour is vain, ii. 95.My fruit is a jewel all wroughten of gold, ii. 245.

286My heart will never credit that I am far from thee, it 275.My secret is disclosed, the which I strove to hide, iii. 89.My watering lips, that cull the rose of thy soft cheek, declare, iii. 1 34.NO good's in life (to the counsel list of one who's purpose-whole),i. 28.O AMIR of justice, be kind to thy subjects, iii. 24.O friends, the East wind waxeth, the morning draweth near, iii. 123.O friends, the tears flow ever, in mockery of iii.my pain, 116.O hills of the sands and the rugged piebald plain,iii. 20.O thou that blamest me for my heart and railest at my ill,O thou that questionest the lily of its scent, ii. 256.O son of Simeon, give no ear to other than my say, iii. 36.ii. 101.O'er all the fragrant flowers that be I have the pref ' rence aye, ii. 235.O'erbold art thou in that to me, a stranger, thou hast sent, iii. 83.Oft as my yearning waxeth, my heart consoleth me,One of the host am I of lovers sad and sere, ii.252.ii. 228.PEACE on thee ! Would our gaze might light on thee once more ! ii. 89.Peace on you, people of my troth With 1 peace I do you greet, ii. 224.QUOTH I (and mine a body is of passion all forslain),iii. Si.RAIL not at the vicissitudes of Fate,ii.219.Ramazan in my life ne'er I fasted, nor e'er, i. 49.SAY, by the lightnings of thy teeth and thy soul's pure desire, iii. 19.She comes in a robe the colour of ultramarine,iii.190.Sherik ben Amrou, what device avails the hand of death to stay ? i.204.Some with religion themselves concern and make it their business all,L4&

Still by your ruined camp a dweller I abide, ii. 209.Still do I yearn, whilst passion's fire flames in my liver aye. Hi.ill.THE absent ones' harbinger came as unto, iii. 153.The billows of thy love o'erwhelm me passing sore, ii. 226.The crown of the flow'rets am I, in the chamber of wine, ii. 244.The Merciful dyed me with that which I wear, ii. 245.The season of my presence is never at an end, ii. 246.The two girls let me down from fourscore fathoms' height, L 49.The zephyr's sweetness on the coppice blew, ii.235.They have departed, but the steads yet full of them remain, it 239.They have shut out thy person from my sight, iii. 43.Thou that the dupe of yearning art, how many a melting wight,iii. 86.Thou that wast absent from my stead, yet still with me didst bide tiii. 46.Thy haters say and those who malice to thee bear,iii. 8.Thy letter reached me ; when the words thou wrot'st therein I read,iii. 84,Thy loss is the fairest of all my heart's woes, iii. 43.Thy presence honoureth us and we, i. 13.To his beloved one the lover's heart's inclined, iii. 22.Twere better and meeter thy presence to leave, ii. 85.Twere fitter and better my loves that I leave, L 26.UNTO its pristine lustre your land returned and more, iii. 132.Unto me the whole world's gladness is thy nearness and thy sight,iii.15.Upon the parting day our loves from us did fare, iii. 114.WERE not the darkness still in gender masculine, iii. 193.What strength have I solicitude and long desire to bear,iii. 20.When in the sitting-chamber we for merry-making sate, iii. 135.

288Whenas mine eyes behold thee not, that day, iiL 47.Whenas the soul desireth one other than its peer, U. 207.Wind of the East, if thou pass by the land where my loved ones dwell,I pray, ii. 204, 271.Would God upon that bitterest day, when my death calls for me, i. 47.Would we may live together, and when we come to die,i.47.YE chide at one who weepeth for troubles ever new, iii 30.Ye know I'm passion-maddened, racked with love and languishment,M.SJQLYour coming to- me- ward, indeed, with "Welcome t Fair welcome I"I hail, iiL 136.Your water I'll leave without drinking, for there, L aia


INDEX TO THE NAMES OF THE " TALESFROM THE ARABIC."N.B.The Roman numerals denote the volume, the Arabi- the page.ABBAS (El) and the King's Daughter of Baghdad, tH. 53.Abbaside, Jaafer ben Yehya and Abdulmelik ben Salih the, i. 183.Abdallah ben Nafi and the King's Son of Cashghar, ii. 195.Abdulmelik ben Salih the Abbaside, Jaafer ben Yehya, and, L 183.Abou Sabir, Story of, i. 90.Abou Temani, Story of I Ian Shah and,i. 126.Actions, Of the Issues of Good and Evil,i.103.Advantages of Patience, Of the, L 89.Affairs, Of Looking to the Issues of, i. 80.Ali of Damascus and Sitt el Milah, Noureddin, iii. 3.Appointed Term, Of the, i.147.Aiab of the Benou Tai, En Numan and the, i. 203.Asleep and Awake, i. 5.

AM, the Sharpers, the Money-Changer and the, IL 41.Awake, Asleep and, L 5.Azadbekht and his Son, History of King, 6li.BAGHDAD, El Abbas and the King's Daughter of, iii. 53.Barmecides, Er Reshid and the, L 189.Barmecides, Haroun er Reshid and the Woman of the, L 57.Bekhtzeman, Story of King, L 115.Benou Tai, En Numan and the Arab of the, L 203.Bibers el Bunducdari and the Sixteen Officers of Police, El Melik aZahir Rukneddin, ii. 117.Bihkerd, Story of King,i. 121.Bihzad, Story of Prince, L 99.Bunducdari (El) and the Sixteen Officers of Police, El Melik ez ZahirRukneddin Bibers,ii. 117.CAIRO (The Merchant of) and the Favourite of the Khaiif El MamouaEl Hakim bi Amrillah, iii. 171.Cashghar, Abdallah ben Nafi and the King's Son of, ii.195.Caution was the Cause of his Death, The Man whose, L 291.Chamberlain's Wife, The King and his, ii. 53.Clemency, Of, L 120.Cook, The Lackpenny and the, i. 9.Craft, Women's, ii. 287.Credulous Husband, The, i. 270.DADBIN (King) and his Viziers, Story of, i. 104.Damascus (Noureddin AH of) and Sitt el Milah, iii. 3.Daughter of the Poor Old Man, The Rich Man who married hisFair, i. 247.Daughters, The Two Kings and the Vizier's, Hi. 145.

293David and Solomon,i.275.Death, The Man whose Caution was the Cause of hit, i.291.Destiny, Of, i. 136.Dethroned King whose Kingdom and Good were restored to him,The, i. 285.Disciple's Story, The, L 283.Draper's Wife, The Old Woman and the, ii 55.Druggist, The Singer and the,i.229.EIGHTH Officer's Story, The, ii. 155.Eleventh Officer's Story, The, ii. 175.Endeavour against Persistent 111 Fortune, Of the Uselessness of, i. 7

294HAKIM (El) bi Amrillah, The Merchant and the Favourite of thKhalif El Mamoun, Hi. 171.Haroun er Reshid, Tuhfet el Culoub and, iL 203Haroun er Reshid and the Woman of the Barmecides, L 57Hawk and the Locust, The, ii. 50.Hejjaj (El) and the Three Young Men, i. 53.Hind and his Vizier, The King of, ii. 105.Hindbad the Porter, Sindbad the Sailor and, iii 199.Husband, The Credulous,i.270.IBN es Semmak and Er Reshid, i.195.Ibrahim and his Son, Story of King, i. 138.Idiot and the Sharper, The, i. 298.Ilan Shah and Abou Temam, Story of,i. 126.Ill Effects of Precipitation, Of the, i.98.Ill Fortune, Of the Uselessness of Endeavour against Persistent, L 70.Issues of Affairs, Of Looking to the, i. 80.Issues of Good and Evil Actions, Of the, i.103.JAAFER ben Vehya and Abdulmelik ben Salih the Abbaside, i. 183.Jest of a Thief, A Merry,ii. 186.Jesus, The Three Men and our Lord,i. 282.Journeyman and the Girl, The, ii. 17.KHALIF, El Mamoun El Hakim bi Amrillah, The Merchant of Cairoand the Favourite of the, iii. 171.Khalif Omar ben Abdulaziz and the Poets, The, L 45.Khelbes and his Wife and the Learned Man, i. 301.Khorassan, his Son and his Governor, Story of the Man of,King Azadbekht and his Son, History of, i. 61.King Bekhtzeman, Story of, i. 11$.i. 218.

295King Bihkerd, Story of, L 121.King and his Chamberlain's Wife, The, fl. 53.King Dadbin and his Viziers, Story of, i. 104.King (The Dethroned), whose Kingdom and Good were restored to him,i.285.King of Ind and his Vizier, The, ii. 105.King Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i. 138.King who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth, The, ii. 66.King, The Old Woman, the Merchant and the, i. 265.King who knew the Quintessence of Things, The, i 239.King Shah Bekht and his Vizier Er Rehwan, L 215.King Suleiman Shah and his Sons, Story of, L 150.King (The Unjust) and the Tither, L 273.King's Daughter of 1Baghdad, Abbas and the, iii. 53.King's Son of Cashghar, Abdullah ben Nan and the, ii. 195,Kings and the Vizier's Daughters, The Two, iii. 145,LACKPENNY and the Cook, The, L 9.Lavish of House and Victual to one whom he knew not, The Man whowas, i. 293.Learned Man, Khelbes and his Wife and the, i.301,Lewdness, The Pious Woman accused of, ii. 5.Locust, The Hawk and the, ii. 50.Looking to the Issues of Affairs, Of, i. 80.Lover, The Favourite and her, iii. 165.MALICE, Of Envy and, i. 125.Mamoun (El) El Hakim bi Amrillah, The Mercfcant and the Favouriteof the Khalif, iii. 171.Mamoun (El) and Zubeideh, i.199.

296Man whose Caution was the Cause of his Death, The, i. 291.Man and his Fair Wife, The Foul-favoured,ii. 6l.Man of Khorassan, his Son and his Governor, Story of the, i. 218.Man who was lavish of House and Victual to One whom he knew not,The, L 293.Mariyeh, El Abbas and, iii. 53.Marriage to the Poor Old Man, The Rich Man who gave his FairDaughter in, i. 247.Melik (El) Ez Zahir Rukneddin Bibers el Bunducdari and the SixteenOfficers of Police, ii. 117.Men and our Lord Jesus, The Three, L 282.Merchant of Cairo and the Favourite of the Khalif 1 Mamoun KHakim bi Amrillah, The, iii. 171.Merchant and the King, The Old Woman, the, i. 96$.Merchant and his Sons, The,i. 81.Merchant, The Unlucky,i.73.Merchants, The Sharper and the, ii 46.Merouzi (El) and Er Razi,ii. 28.Merry Jest of a Thief, A, ii. 1 86.Money-Changer and the Ass, The Sharpen, the, ft. 41.NINTH Officer's Story, The, fl. 167.Noureddin Ali of Damascus and Sitt el Milah, HL ).Numan (En) and the Arab of the Benou Tai, L 203,OFFICER'S Story, The First, ii. 122.Officer's Story, The Second,ii. 134.Officer's Story, The Third, ii. 137.Officer's Story, The Fourth,ii. 142,Officer's Story, The Fifth, ii. 144.

297Officer's Story, The Sixth, ii. 146.Officer's Story, The Seventh, ii. I5

298Prince Bihrad, Story of, L 99.Prince who fell in Love with the Picture, The, L 256.Prisoner and how God gave him Relief, Story of the, L 174.QUINTESSENCE of Things, The King who knew the, i.239.RAZI (Er) and El Merouri,ii. 28.Rehwan (Er), King Shah Bekht and his Vizier, i. 215.Relief of God, Of the Speedy, i. 174.Relief, Story of the Prisoner and how God gave him, i. 174.Reshid (Er) and the Barmecides, i. 189.Reshid (Er), Ibn es Semmak and,i.195.Reshid (Er), Tuhfet el Culoub and, ii.203.Reshid (Haroun er) and the Woman of the Barmecides, i. 57.Rich Man who gave hisFair Daughter in Marriage to the Poor OldMan, The, L 247.Rich Man and his Wasteful Son, The,i.252.SABIR (Abou), Story of, i.90.Sailor and Hindbad the Porter, Sindbad the, iiL 199.Second Officer's Story, The, ii. 134.Selim and Selma, iL 8l.Selma, Selim and,Semmak (Ibn es) and Er Reshid, L 195.ii. 8l.Seventh Officer's Story, The, ii. 1 50.Seventh Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, The, IIL 224.Shah Bekht and his Vizier Er Rehwan, King, i. 215.Sharper, The Idiot and the, i. 298.Sharper and the Merchant, The, ii. 46Sharper, Story of the Old, ii. 187.Sharpers who cheated each his Fellow, The Two,ii. 28,

299Sharpers, The Money-Changer and the Ass, The, it 41.Shehriyar, Shehrzad and, ii. ill, lit. 141, 157.Shehrzad and Shehriyar,ii. in, iii. 141, 157.Sindbad the Sailor and Hindbad the Porter, iii. 199.Sindbad the Sailor, The Seventh Voyage of, iiL 224.Sindbad the Sailor, The Sixth Voyage o iii. 203.Singer and the Druggist, The,i.229.Sitt el Milah, Noureddin Ali of Damascus and, iii. 3.Sixteen Officers of Police, 1 Melik ez Zahir Rukneddin Biben dBunducdari and the, ii. 1 17.Sixteenth Officer's Story, The, ii. 193.Sixth Officer's Story, The, ii. 146.Sixth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, The, iiL 203.Solomon, David and, i.275.Son, The History of King Azadbekht and his, L 6l.Son and his Governor, Story of the Man of Khorassan, his, i. 3I&Son, Story of King Ibrahim and his, L 138.Son, The Rich Man and his Wasteful, i. 252.Sons, Story of King Suleiman Shah and his, L 150.Sons, The Merchant and his, i. 81.Speedy Relief of God, Of the, L 174.Suleiman Shah and his Sons, Story of King, i. 150.TAI, En Numan and the Arab of the Benou, i.203.Teinam (Abou), Story of Ilan Shah and, L 126.Ten Viziers, The, i. 6l -Tenth Officer's Story, The, ii. 17*Term, Of the Appointed, i. 147.Thief, A Merry Jest of a, ii. 186.Thiefs Story, The, ii. 165.

300Thief and the Woman, The, L 278.Things, The King who knew the Quintessence of, L 239.Third Officer's Story, The, il 137.Thirteenth Officer'* Story, The, ii. 181.Three Men and our Lord Jesus, The, L 282.Three Young Men, El Hejjaj and the, L 53.Tither, The Unjust King and the, L 273.Trust in God, Of, 114.Tuhfet el Culoub and Er Reshid, ii. 203.Twelfth Officer's Story, The, n. 179.Two Kings and the Vizier's Daughters, The, iii 145.UNJUST King and the Tither, The, i. 273,Unlucky Merchant, The, L 73.Uselessness of Endeavour against Persistent 111 Fortune, Of the, i. 7cxVIZIER, The King of Hind and his, ii. 105.Vizier Er Rehwan, King Shah tseicht and his, i.215.Vizier's Daughters, The Two Kings and the, iii. 145.Viziers, Story of King Dadbin ana nis, i. 104.Viziers, The Ten, L 61.Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, The Seventh, iii. 224.Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, The Sixth, iiL 203.WASTEFUL Son, The Rich Man and his, i.252,Weaver who became a Physician by hisii.ai.Wife's Commandment, TheWife, The King and his Chamberlain's, ii. 53.Wife, The Old Woman and the Draper's, ii. 5J.

Wife, Firottz and his, i.209.Wife, The Fuller and his, L 261.Wife and the Learned Man, Khelbes and his, i.301.Woman accused of Lewdness, The Pious, ii.5.Woman of the Barmecides, Haroun er Reshid and the, L 57.Woman, The Thief and the, i.278.Woman (The Old) and the Draper's Wife, ii. 55.Woman (The Old), the Merchant and the King, L 265.Women's Craft, ii.287.YOUNG Men, 1 Hejjaj and the Three, i. 53.ZUBEIDEH, El Mamoon and,i.199TH*

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