Water, Sanitation and IWRM - Stakeholder Forum

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Water, Sanitation and IWRM - Stakeholder Forum

130 Copyright c○ 2004 Tech Science Press CMC, vol.1, no.2, pp.129-140, 2004lesser CPU time and lesser system resources, than theelement-based methods [Atluri and Shen (2002a,b), Hanand Atluri (2004)]. It makes the MLPG method to bemore efficient, in solving large-scale dynamic problems.The study in this paper represents a recent effort to developa 3-D explicit method for solving elasto-dynamicproblems by using the MLPG approach. Although someproblems can be simplified as the 2-D ones, there aremany problems of significance which cannot be describedby a two-dimensional geometry, such as the yawand oblique impacts, contact and penetrations, as well asfragmentation. The present work can easily be enhancedto analyze the large plastic deformations in such nonlinearproblems. The present method is based on the localsymmetric weak form (LSWF), along with the use ofthe MLS approximation, in which the shape functions areconstructed at the local scattered points with the higherorder continuities, which yields more continuous stressfields. One of the major disadvantages of the MLS is thatthe shape functions do not possess the Kronecker deltaproperty, which makes it difficult to impose the kinematicboundary conditions. However, it becomes easier to handlethe kinematic boundary conditions in the dynamiccases, if explicit time-integration schemes are used. Asimple procedure for treating the kinematic boundaryconditions in transient dynamic problems is presented inthe present paper. It renders the present MLPG method tobe even more efficient for solving the dynamic problems,than the static ones [as compared to the FEM], becauseno matrix inversion is required in the explicit scheme.The local sub-domains are constructed at the local scatteredpoints, with the use of the local polyhedrons, aspresented in Han and Atluri (2004).The following discussion begins with the local symmetricweak form of elasto-dynamics, in Section 2. The discretizationand the numerical implementation, along witha novel idea for the enforcement of the kinematic boundaryconditions are presented in Section 3. Numerical examplesfor 3D elasto-dynamic problems are given in Section4. Then paper ends with conclusions and discussionsin Section 5.2 Local symmetric weak-forms (LSWF) of elastodynamicsConsider a linear elastic body in a 3D domain Ω, with aboundary ∂Ω. The solid is assumed to undergo infinitesimaldeformations. The equations of balance of linear andangular momentum can be written as:σ ij, j + f i −ρa i = 0; σ ij = σ ji ; () ,i ≡ ∂∂ξ i(1)where σ ij is the stress tensor, which corresponds to thedisplacement field u i , the acceleration field is a i ; and f i isthe body force. The corresponding boundary conditionsare given as follows,u i = u i on Γ ut i ≡ σ ij n j = t i on Γ t(2a)(2b)where u i and t i are the prescribed displacements and tractions,respectively, on the displacement boundary Γ u andon the traction boundary Γ t , and n i is the unit outwardnormal to the boundary Γ.The strain-displacement relations are:ε kl = 1 2 (u k,l +u l,k ) (3)The constitutive relations of an isotropic linear elastic homogeneoussolid are:σ ij = E ijkl ε kl = E ijkl u k,l (4)whereE ijkl = λδ ij δ kl +µ(δ ik δ jl +δ il δ jk ) (5)with λ and µ being the Lame’s constants.In the local Petrov-Galerkin approaches, one may write aweak form over a local sub-domain Ω s , which may havea arbitrary shape, and contain the a point x in question,as shown in Figure 1. A generalized local weak form ofthe differential equation (1) over a local sub-domain Ω s ,can be written as:∫(σ ij, j + f i −ρa i )v i dΩ = 0 (6)Ω swhere u i and v i are the trial and test functions, respectively.By applying the divergence theorem, Eq. (6) may berewritten in a symmetric weak form as:∫∫σ ij n j v i dΓ − (σ ij v i, j − f i v i +ρa i )dΩ = 0 (7)∂Ω s Ω s


Water and Sanitation: Obstacles Constraints and Next Steps for the CSDA report from the global public policy network on water and sanitationTechnology Transfer• Resources should be committed for increased demonstrations oftechnologies for water and sanitation, and for Water Use Efficiency thatmeet the requirements of different places and circumstances– this could bedone through stakeholder Learning Alliances which can increaseknowledge on a local and grassroots level of new technology development.This could be backed up by an interactive online resource of new and lowcosttechnologies, which could be co-ordinated by DSD to ensuremaximum knowledge exchange through the CSD.Research• Recipient countries and donors should give special attention to watermanagement research partnerships that are interdisciplinary and focus onthe followingi. Climate Change Adaptation and its close connection to integratedwater resource management, including in a transboundary context,in the case of international watercoursesii. The impact of agriculture on water resources and the development ofwater efficiency technologies to mitigate impact.Implications of social and cultural traditions for water managementDocumenting traditional and indigenous knowledge in relation towater managementv. Assessing the socio-economic, especially gender impact of wateriii.iv.vi.vii.viii.Genderand sanitation provisionAssessing the gender impact of water and sanitation provision.Implications of the recognition of access to water for domestic useand sanitation as a human rightVirtual water and the role of consumers• Indicators on gender in relation to water and sanitation should beestablished within the proposed work by UN Water to ensure gender equityof provision. Indicators that should be considered include: involvement ofwomen in decision making processes on water and sanitation; number ofnational training and education programmes around water and sanitationfocussing on women; access to water and specifically sanitation in placesthat are safe and appropriate for women; the usage of facilities by women;education and training programmes focussing specifically on women;recognition of girls' and women's rights as distinct from men's rights innational legislation.Overseas Development Assistance• Bilateral donors and IFIs should review their ODA practices to assess theextent to which they prioritise funding for countries not on track for achievingthe Millennium Development Goals on water and sanitation, and internationalcommitments on IWRM, and report to the CSD in 2012 on thefunding provided.Stakeholder Forum ● SIWI ● http:gppn.stakeholderforum.org


Water and Sanitation: Obstacles Constraints and Next Steps for the CSDA report from the global public policy network on water and sanitation• Recipient country governments should report to UN Water every year onthe percentage of funds allocated to water and sanitation, and IWRM. UNWater should produce a League Table of countries based on thepercentage of ODA and overall GDP earmarked for water and sanitationand IWRM.National Financial PlansGovernments should ensure the following:i. National Implementation and Financial plans should be drawn up relating towater and sanitation and IWRM specificallyii. Components of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers should be dedicated towater and sanitation, and how it interacts with IWRM for long-termsustainabilityiii. 1 % of GDP should be allocated to water and sanitation through publicspendingPrivate Sector InvestmentGovernments should provide the enabling regulatory and policy frameworkrequired to attract investments in the provision of water and sanitation services,supported within a publicly controlled and accountable framework that setsdown standards for quality and price, mainstreaming a pro-poor approach.Building Capacity for Local ProvidersBi-lateral Donor and IFIs should support new and innovative approaches towater and sanitation provision and fund pilot schemes and partnerships to helpempower local communities and local water and sanitation providers to servethe poorest communities, through tapping into capital markets. There should besupport for the establishment of Water Operators Partnerships supportingSouth-South utility to utility partnerships with UN Habitat taking a facilitatingrole. This capacity building for small-scale providers should be supported onlywithin properly governed, regulated and accountable framework that sets downstandards for quality.Cost RecoveryGovernments should prioritise within their Poverty Reduction Strategies Papers(PRSP) and Sustainable Development Strategies sustainable cost recovery ofwater and sanitation service charges, ensuring it does not have a prohibitiveeffect on the poorest and most vulnerable accessing safe water and sanitationthrough the following measures:i. Instituting an efficient tariff system with cross subsidies for the poorestcommunities.ii. Collecting taxes for water and sanitation rather than user fees in morevulnerable and developing areasStakeholder Forum ● SIWI ● http:gppn.stakeholderforum.org


Water and Sanitation: Obstacles Constraints and Next Steps for the CSDA report from the global public policy network on water and sanitationRight to Access to Water and SanitationGovernments should call on the Human Rights Council to explicitly state thatthe right to access to water and sanitation is included in the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In addition to/parallel tothis, governments should incorporate the right to access to safe drinking waterand sanitation into national law.Climate Change and WaterGovernments should develop National and, where appropriate, TransboundaryAdaptation Plans of Action to incorporate sustainable water management,national and transboundary contingency plans, and introduce climate proofingand new infrastructure where necessary. Financial aspects should be includedin such plans.Governments should incorporate an of assessment of climate change impactsin National Water Policy and/or Management Plans (including Integrated WaterResources Management plans currently under preparation or implementationin many countries.)Virtual WaterCSD could ask UN Water in association with UNESCO-IHE Institute for WaterEducation, UN Statistics Division, Institute for Water Education and otherrelevant stakeholders to co-ordinate an international working group to developrecommendations for a standardized methodology for assessing waterfootprints and virtual water. This could include agreed definitions for anddefined methodologies for assessing:i. Blue, green and grey waterii. Production-site Measurementsiii. Consumption-site measurements.iv. Water embedded in the raw materials and/or other inputs required formanufacturing productsv. Water required to use a product or serviceInternational WatercoursesGovernments should ratify and implement the UN Convention on the Law ofthe Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, as well as otherapplicable cooperative frameworks, to enhance transboundary integrated waterresources management.Stakeholder Forum ● SIWI ● http:gppn.stakeholderforum.org

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