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NEUTRINOS AND FUTURE CONCORDANCE COSMOLOGIES

NEUTRINOS AND FUTURE CONCORDANCE COSMOLOGIES

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!NEUTRINOS AND FUTURECONCORDANCE COSMOLOGIESNeutrino 2008 / Richard Easther (Yale)


INTRODUCTION...Integrated History of the Universe...Probes:CMBLarge scale structure21 cmSummary...


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEWImage: NASA


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEWOverall expansion...Image: NASA


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEW{Stars, galaxies...Image: NASA


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEWDark Ages...Image: NASA


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEWMicrowave BackgroundImage: NASA


COSMOLOGY: OVERVIEW“Big Bang”Inflation! +BBNImage: NASA


CONCORDANCECOSMOLOGY" bBaryon fraction(Mass known, #??)"CDMDark matter(Mass ??, #??)" # Cosmological constant$ ReionizationBaryogenesis(? - GUT, Electroweak?)TeV Scale physics??Supersymmetry? LHC?Quantum GravityTooth fairy?First stars (gastrophysics,nuclear physics)h Hubble’s “constant” When we are lookingA s ,n sPrimordialPerturbationsInflationGUT/string physics?


THE FUTURE...Parameter set will expandNeutrino sector! Scale dependence of n? Darkenergy parameters? Tensor modes? Heliumfraction? Curvature? Secondary anisotropies?Parameter set will shrinkNeutrino masses from experiments?Recombination observed directly in 21cm?Specific models of inflation?


NUMBERS...Photons: T % = 2.726 K = 2.35 10 -4 eV (measured)Massless !: T ! ~ 1.9K = 1.7 10 -4 eV (inferred)Photons at z = 1,089: T % = 2.97 10 3 K = 0.255 eVMassless !: T ! ~ 2.07 10 3 K = .17 eVMinimum &m ! ~ 0.05 eV (normal hierarchy)Change in equation of state as universe expands!


CMB: WMAP


BEST FITEarly universe is a simple systemGeneral relativity and small inhomogeneitiese - , p, He nuclei, dark matter, !, %, also #, H o and kBoltzmann equationsBeautiful and largely classical classical physicsCompute C l & polarization (E and B mode)


THE SPECTRAL INDEX


THE BARYON FRACTION


HUBBLE PARAMETER


WHAT DO WE LEARN?Count the significant figures...WMAP 5 +Cosmology graduated from back of the envelope!


TOTAL NEUTRINO MASS


ERROR FORECASTS(Rough & Overly Optimistic)&mPlanck’“Ideal”PerfectH 0


CURRENT CONSTRAINTSWMAP5 + AllCare neededKomatsu et al.PriorsSystematicsbetween datasets&m ! < ~1eV


LARGE SCALESTRUCTURE


LARGE SCALESTRUCTURE & LENSINGGalaxies clustered in spaceBubbles and voidsOrthogonal information to microwave backgroundLarge scale structureGet power spectrum P(k)Break degeneraciesNonlinear at short scales (function of redshift)


MATTER POWER...


HIGH-REDSHIFT 21CM"Before first stars, universe is mostly neutral HNeutral hydrogen emits a 21cm lineRedshifted; H at redshift 10: 2.1 meters.


HIGH-REDSHIFT 21CMObserve sky at ~100 MHzRemove foregrounds (!)Map neutral hydrogendensity as a function of zNeeds radio-quiet locationGet “slices” by tuningreceiver


(Steve Furlanetto)


HIGH-REDSHIFT 21CMInstrumentsMileura (Australia)LOFAR (Belguim)SKA (To be decided)Lunar Array (Far side of the moon / vaporware!)


PROSPECT FORNEUTRINOSFirst observations: “Low” redshiftFocus on reionization / first starsLonger term: High redshiftWeaker signalProbe short wavelengths (uncollapsed)Perturbations small; challenging experimentsForegrounds??? Terrestrial noise???


A BOLD PREDICTION?Total mass: 0.3eVNonlinear scales atz=0.3,4 and 8Pritchard and Pierpaoli


A BOLD PREDICTION?Total mass 0.12eVBoth hierarchiesSolid z=8TheoreticallydistinguishablePritchard and Pierpaoli


COMMENTS ANDCONCLUSIONS...Neutrinos provide definite targetVery good reason to believe they are there (WMAP)We know their total mass is non-zeroProbe thermal history of very early universeSmall effect: precision cosmologyTerrestrial measurements of neutrino massconstrain other cosmological parameters


COMMENTS ANDCONCLUSIONS...Current bound ~10 times larger than minimum &mNext few years: Planck, ACT, EBEX, DECBetter SN1a bounds & BAO, first 21cm dataSomewhat longer term: JDEM, LSST, CMBPol (?)Very long term: High precision high-z 21cmGUESS: A factor of 10 on &m in 10 years??

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