OHCHR Gender Equality Policy - Office of the High Commissioner ...

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OHCHR Gender Equality Policy - Office of the High Commissioner ...

Foreword by the High CommissionerMissions. Myself, the Deputy HighCommissioner, the Assistant Secretary-General, Directors, Chiefs of Branch,Heads of Field Presences and Chiefsof Section are primarily responsiblefor ensuring its implementation.I will hold all staff accountablefor contributing towards genderintegration efforts.© OHCHR photoDear colleagues,The OHCHR Gender Equality Policythat I approved on 9 September 2011is now fully in force. It is the resultof an extensive consultation processwhich started in late 2010.As we advocate for women’s rightsand gender equality worldwide,I am conscious that we should firstput these principles into practice inour daily lives, starting with our ownOffice. You will thus see that theGender Equality Policy of OHCHRis largely an internal guidancedocument, outlining a joint vision,strategic priorities and processesfor integrating gender perspectivesthroughout the work of the Office.I would like to emphasize that thispolicy applies to all human rightsstaff members at Headquartersand in Field Presences, includingHuman Rights Components of PeaceI therefore call on all of you tofamiliarize yourselves with thedocument and to understand itsguiding principles and accountabilitymechanisms.The policy is complemented by aGender Equality Strategic Plan, whichmaps out concrete actions requiredto operationalize the policy, withdetailed performance indicators,resources and timeframes forimplementation.I count on your full cooperation inimplementing the Gender EqualityPolicy and Strategic Plan in yourrespective work, making genderequality a reality for our entire Office.Thank you.Navi PillayUnited Nations High Commissionerfor Human Rights

OHCHR photo

4. POLICYFramework and vision4.1 The Gender Equality Policy isbased on the international human rightsframework, including the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights, theInternational Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights, theInternational Covenant on Civil andPolitical Rights, and the Conventionon the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women. Itreflects the application by the Office ofinternational human rights standards,norms and principles, which includegender equality and non-discrimination.4.2 Gender integration (ormainstreaming) 1 is the process ofassessing the implications for womenand men of any planned action,including legislation, policies orprogrammes, in all areas and atall levels. It is a strategy for makingwomen’s, as well as men’s concernsand experiences, an integral dimensionof the design, implementation,monitoring and evaluation of policiesand programmes; and this in allpolitical, economic and societal spheres,so that women and men benefit equally,1A 2008 evaluation of the Office’s performancein mainstreaming human rights within the UnitedNations noted that staff avoided using the term“mainstreaming” due to lack of clarity aboutits meaning. Throughout this policy the term“gender integration” is used rather than “gendermainstreaming”, unless there is an explicit referenceto an existing document featuring the word“mainstreaming”.Human rights banner at the exhibit of artworkmade by victims of torture, Geneva (2011)thereby ensuring that inequality is notperpetuated. Gender integration goeshand in hand with the promotion andprotection of women’s human rights andthe elimination of discrimination againstwomen. The ultimate goal is to achievegender equality 2 (see more on genderintegration in the Glossary, annex 1).4.3 The Office’s areas of expertise,such as human rights treaties(particularly the monitoring of theConvention on the Elimination of AllForms of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW) provide an important entrypoint to promoting gender equality andwomen’s rights, especially at countrylevel. Human rights treaty bodies,special procedures and the UniversalPeriodic Review (UPR) can makea valuable contribution towards tointegrating a gender perspective in theunderstanding of human rights normsthrough their assessment of compliancewith treaty obligations by States Parties.Moreover, implementing the GenderEquality Policy will impact the work ofOHCHR at large, not only in carryingout applied research on criticalhuman rights issues affecting womenin particular, but also on the ground.This ground work will be evidencedby integrating a gender perspective,while mainstreaming human rightsin the work of the United NationsCountry Teams and helping strengthennational institutions and civil societyorganizations striving for improvedgender equality.2ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions, as contained inresolution 1997/27

12Silhouettes of a father and his child, Germany (2013)(a) Institutionalizing gender equality inOHCHR organizational culture5.2 Gender equality in human andfinancial resource management.Changing the institutional cultureand structure will be crucial inmoving beyond commitment togender equality often associated withparticular individuals, to an Officewideengagement on the basis ofshared values of diversity. As part ofthe United Nations wide commitmentto gender equality, 5 OHCHR supportsequal career opportunities for allstaff and appropriate workingarrangements to balance work andfamily life. It also encourages thehiring of women for posts at equalqualification and aims at progressively5Chief Executive Board resolution CEB/2006/2on United Nations system-wide policy on genderequality and the empowerment of women: focusingon results and impact (2006)

13© EPA photoincreasing the representation ofwomen at decision-making levels.Furthermore, OHCHR staff individuallyand collectively has a responsibility topromote women’s human rights andintegrate a gender perspective intoall aspects of the Office’s work at alllevels. In this regard, incoming staffmay be evaluated during the interviewprocess on their knowledge of genderconcepts and methodologies andinternational standards on women’srights and their sensitivity to genderinequality and women’s human rights.Institutional incentives will be createdto strengthen the accountability ofmanagers for gender integration work,and to assimilate gender integrationobjectives into work plans and staffreview, ensuring that these arereviewed on a regular basis (see morein section 6).

© United Nations/ OHCHR photo14Gender integration training for the Heads of Field Presences and Gender FocalPoints of the Middle East and North Africa region, in Doha, Qatar (2012)5.3 Capacity developmentDeveloping and/or strengtheningstaff capacity and competencyin gender analysis is essential tothe successful mainstreaming of agender perspective into policies andprogrammes. Staff members who areresponsible for programme designand implementation, as well as thoseresponsible for technical advisoryservices, will be trained in order toensure that a gender perspective isreflected in their work. Training of staffon gender integration is foreseen by theOffice, first for Gender Facilitators andprogramme management units, and tobe extended to all staff as part of theirmandatory training package. Toolssuch as checklists and theme-specificguidance notes will be made availableto facilitate the gender integration workof every staff member. Accordingly,staff performance assessment will covergender integration.5.4 Knowledge and informationmanagement.The increased work of the Office ingender integration in general andwomen’s human rights in particularhas generated many good practices inensuring gender-sensitive programmingand implementation. This has, however,often remained ad hoc and unableto result in change. Systematicallycollecting and sharing good practices isessential for developing lessons learned.All organizational entities, includingField Presences, are encouragedto make an assessment of genderintegration efforts of their offices when

eporting, and regularly undertakelessons learning exercises to improve theway they integrate a gender perspectivein their programmes.(b) Advancing gender equality in allfields of the OHCHR mandate5.5 Placing women’s rights andgender equality as one of the Office’spriorities at the highest level.There is a perceived commitment togender equality at the highest levelsof OHCHR as reflected, for example,in the public statements of the HighCommissioner and Deputy HighCommissioner. The fight against sexand gender-based discrimination isalso an integral part of both the HighCommissioner’s Compact and theOHCHR Management Plan. 6 Thoughgender equality is relevant to all ofthe Office’s priorities, this is not madeexplicit through the articulation ofthe strategies and global expectedaccomplishments. Gender concernsneed to be fully integrated in thestrategy process and captured in themonitoring and reporting processes.5.6 Integration of gender dimensionsinto the work of the Human RightsCouncil, Special Procedures and Treatybodies.By adopting resolution 6/30 onintegrating the human rights of womenthroughout the United Nations system,the Human Rights Council reaffirmed6For example, “countering discrimination, inparticular […] on the ground of sex” is part of oneof the six priorities in the High Commissioner’sCompact for 2010 and 2011 and the OHCHRStrategic Management Plan for 2010-2011.its commitment to effectively integratethe human rights of women, as wellas a gender perspective, in its workand mechanisms. This includesintegrating gender equality concernsin all phases of the universal periodicreview, the Advisory Committee, thereview of mandates. It also extendsto incorporating into its programmeof work, sufficient and adequatetime (at least an annual full-daymeeting) to discuss the human rightsof women, including measures thatcan be adopted by States and otherstakeholders to address human rightsviolations experienced by women. 7As for Special Procedures, the reportby the Special Rapporteur on Torture,focusing on the protection of womenfrom torture (2008), is a good exampleof ensuring that a specific legalframework (in this case, the tortureprotection framework) is interpretedand applied in a gender-sensitivemanner, with a view to strengtheningthe protection of women. Regardingthe Human Rights Treaty Bodies,integrating a gender perspectiverequires more effort than payingattention to specific issues of relevanceto women, in particular eliminatingdiscrimination against women, towhich the Committee on the Eliminationof Discrimination against Womenis entirely devoted. It requires thatwomen’s and men’s socially constructedrealities be addressed explicitly in thecontext of each of the rights in humanrights instruments, to preventing,7Human Rights Council Resolution 6/30 on“Integrating the human rights of women throughoutthe United Nations System” (2007)15

16or reduce, women’s traditionallyaccepted disadvantages. 8 The GeneralComments adopted since 2000 by theCommittee on Human Rights, and theCommittee on Economic, Social andCultural Rights, giving States Partiesdetailed guidance on how to approachgender issues under individualarticles and on the areas and types ofinformation that should be providedin reporting to the Committees, areimportant steps in this direction. 95.7 Gender as a cross-cutting issuefor the Office’s thematic work.Thematic units provide the critical linkbetween the analysis of human rightsand gender issues and organizationalpriorities. They can contribute toraising awareness and understandingof gender and women’s human rightsissues, to ensure that gender aspectshave been properly identified and arenot lost in the process of aggregatingorganizational priorities. In the fightagainst discrimination, for example,elimination of entrenched, complexand multiple forms of discrimination isone of the key priorities of the Office.Racism and related intolerance ismost significantly experienced by themost vulnerable members of society,in particular minority women. Despite8Integrating a gender perspective into United Nationshuman rights work, Women 2000, UN-DAW (1998)9Other treaty bodies such as the Committee onthe Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD),Committee against Torture (CAT) or Committee onthe Rights of the Child (CRC) have taken accountof the situation of women within the framework ofguarantees of equality and non-discrimination inthe enjoyment of human rights and have focusedon situations that are specific to women includinggender-based violence.some encouraging advancement inthe legal field, such as the adoption ofGeneral Comment on the equal rightof men and women to the enjoymentof all economic, social and culturalrights, 10 women throughout the worldremain disproportionally affectedby poverty and socio-economicinequalities. More work can be doneto unpack and deconstruct the cultural,religious and social beliefs that havehistorically held women in inferiorpositions and to advocate for theinterconnectedness and indivisibilityof all women’s rights. Other areas,such as the human rights of womenmigrants or domestic workers, oftenfalling outside the scope of labourlaws, are increasingly brought to theattention of the High Commissionerand deserve further attention.5.8 Promoting gender equality at theregional and country level.OHCHR Field Offices at country andregional level cover several issuesrelated to women’s rights and genderequality. These include violenceagainst women, sexual violence inarmed conflict, laws and practicesthat discriminate against women,impunity and its impact on women,the administration of justice, includingaccess to justice and support tohuman rights mechanisms, such asthe The Committee on the Elimination10G General comment No. 16 (2005) “The equalright of men and women to the enjoyment of alleconomic, social and cultural rights” (art. 3 of theInternational Covenant on Economic, Social andCultural Rights)http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G05/435/39/PDF/G0543539.pdf?OpenElement

Two human rights staff of UNIntegrated Mission in Timor-Lesteat work, Galitaz, Timor-Leste(2011)© UN Photo/Martine Perret17of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW). OHCHR has also beenworking closely with a key group ofStates to promote gender issues withinthe programme of the Human RightsCouncil, resulting in major outcomessuch as a Joint Statement on equalitybefore law (2009) and resolution6/30 on “Integrating the humanrights of women throughout the UnitedNations System.” 11 Other majoroutcomes from OHCHR collaborationswith Member States include HumanRights Council resolutions 11/8 and15/17 on eliminating preventableMaternal Mortality and Morbidity and11H Human Rights Council resolution 6/30 on“Integrating the human rights of women throughoutthe United Nations System” (2007)a Joint Statement by 108 countries,(June 2010) on the issue.However, without a systematic genderanalysis, key issues affecting men andwomen at country and regional levelmay be missed. United Nations countryteams often combine substantial genderexpertise and provide opportunities towork on priority gender issues acrossorganizations. OHCHR can draw onexisting expertise and analysis withinother United Nations organizationsand add its own human rights lens tocapitalize on existing synergies at thefield level particularly, where otheragencies’ gender advisers (UNDP,UNFPA or UNICEF) are activelypromoting gender integration.

5.9 Strengthening collaborationson promoting women’s human rightsand gender integration with partners,including UN Women.In implementing the Gender EqualityPolicy, OHCHR will strengthen itsworking relations with relevantpartners through bilateral andmultilateral engagement at policy andoperational levels. Partners includethe Committee on the Eliminationof Discrimination against Women,the Special Rapporteur on Violenceagainst Women, the Working Groupon Discrimination in Law and Practice,the Special Representative of theSecretary-General on sexual violenceor the Special Representative of theSecretary-General for Children andArmed Conflict. Within the UnitedNations system, the Office will continueto actively contribute to the Inter-AgencyNetwork on Women and GenderEquality and the United NationsDevelopment Group) on women’srights issues, as well as share lessonslearned and good practices in genderintegration. In particular, the Officewill contribute to the System-WideAction Plan for Gender Mainstreamingcoordinated by UN Women, whichincludes the development of a commonaccountability framework containinga set of minimum performancestandards for the United Nationssystem on gender integration. At the18High Commissioner Navi Pillay addresses a ministerial meeting on the role of the United Nations inending violence and discrimination against LGBT individuals, New-York, 26 September 2013© UN Photo/Amanda Voisard

ilateral level, OHCHR will pursue itsengagement on specific women’s rightsand gender issues, such as reproductivehealth, with the United NationsPopulation Fund or violence againstwomen, with UN Women.6. MONITORING ANDCOMPLIANCE6.1 Responsibility for genderintegration, the promotion ofwomen’s human rights and theadvancement of gender equalitywill be performed through OHCHRinstitutional machinery. InternalOHCHR monitoring mechanisms toassess compliance with the GenderEquality Policy are crucial for aneffective performance management.This process is the basis for holdingstaff members accountable anddocumenting good practices.To achieve desired outcomes,adequate human and financialresources will be allocated to theimplementation of gender integration.This will entail better utilization ofcurrent resources, the assignment ofadditional resources where requiredand the alignment of resources withexpected outcomes. The developmentof common-system approaches,whereby the entire United Nationssystem will apply agreed-uponnorms and standards, indicators andtargets, and evaluation frameworkswill considerably reduce duplicationof efforts, especially at the countrylevel. 12 An external evaluation to verifyimplementation of the policy in theOHCHR organizational structure andactivities is foreseen after four years.6.2 The High Commissioner DeputyHigh Commissioner, AssistantSecretary-General for HumanRights in New York, Directors,Chiefs of Branches and Headsof Field Presences have primaryresponsibility in ensuring that therespect for women’s human rightsand the advancement of genderequality are effectively carriedout office-wide, guided by thispolicy and related documents.The High Commissioner, DeputyHigh Commissioner and AssistantSecretary-General oversee allin-house initiatives and chair theOHCHR Senior ManagementTeam, 13 holding all managersand staff accountable for genderintegration efforts. Accountabilityframeworks (including provisionson gender responsive budgeting,programming, reporting and staffing)are being progressively developed.12C Chief Executive Board resolution CEB/2006/2on United Nations system-wide policy on genderequality and the empowerment of women: focusingon results and impact (2006)13O Other members of the SMT are: the Chief of PSMS,the Chief of PPMES, the Deputy Director NYO,the Chief of DEXREL, the Chief of CommunicationsSection, the Chiefs of Civil Society Section andSafety and Security Unit, the Chief of Office, andfour representatives from the field. The SMT is theprincipal consultative and advisory body providingsupport, advice and recommendations to theHigh Commissioner when addressing, notably,women’s human rights and gender equality. Suchresponsibility must be informed by and reflect agender perspective.19

These follow United Nations ChiefExecutive Board guidance to monitorSenior Management and their staff’scommitment to implement the GenderEquality Policy and will be detailed inthe Gender Equality Strategy document(forthcoming). Sustainable funding willbe made available for activities thatadvance women’s human rights andpromote gender equality.6.3 Gender Facilitators 14 are OHCHRstaff members who are strategicallyplaced in the different Branches andDivisions at Headquarters, as wellas the New York Office and Field14G Gender Facilitators’ functions were established asper the Senior Management Team decision adoptedon 15 June 2010.Presences. They are generally involvedin strategy development, analysis,planning, programming, monitoringand evaluation.Their responsibilities include inter aliathe facilitation of gender integration inthe planning, programming, reportingand monitoring of implementationwithin their organizational entity.Gender facilitators report on theintegration of gender aspects in thedifferent areas of the Office’s work.These efforts are coordinated viathe Women’s Human Rights andGender Section, within the contextof the OHCHR Annual Report.20UNAMID staff march alongsideSudanese women against gender-basedviolence, El Fasher, Sudan (2010)© UN Photo/Albert González Farran

OHCHRhuman rightssummercamps forPalestinianchildren© United Nations/OHCHR photoThis information also feeds into theOffice’s report on progress on genderintegration.Gender facilitators receive trainingon on gender integration and areequipped with tools and knowledgeon how the Office’s strategic prioritiesare linked with women’s rights andgender equality. They also participatein further defining their terms ofreference and work plans.6.4 The Women’s Human Rightsand Gender Section is responsiblefor the provision of substantiveand operational guidance on theimplementation of the Gender EqualityPolicy by all organizational entities.The Section oversees the work ofregional Gender Advisers 15 (or staffmembers designated by the Headsof Field Presences 16 to performgender integration tasks) who monitorand report periodically on genderintegration efforts in the Field, inclose cooperation with local partners,including United Nations entitiesThe Section is also responsible forcoordinating the work of GenderFacilitators and providing them with15R Regional Gender Advisers are positions establishedin OHCHR Field Presences. Advisers work in linewith the strategic objectives of the Women’s HumanRights and Gender Section by providing expertadvice on the integration of women’s human rightsand gender perspectives in the work of the Officeand on the implementation of the recommendationsof human rights mechanisms.16F Field Presences include Regional Offices, CountryOffices, Support to Peace Missions, as well asHuman Rights Adviser positions within UnitedNations Country Teams.21

Congolese women welcome UN Deputy HighCommissioner for Human Rights, Mambassa,Democratic Republic of the Congo (2013)22technical support in carrying out theirfunctions. Furthermore, The Sectioncontributes to developing knowledgemanagement tools related to genderintegration, with a view to enhancingOffice-wide capacity, in closecooperation with the Policy Planning,Monitoring and Evaluation Serviceand the Methodology, Educationand Training Section. Efforts willbe made to progressively integrategender dimensions in all planning andreporting documents of the Office.For example, the Women’s HumanRights and Gender Section and PolicyPlanning, Monitoring and EvaluationService will jointly develop performanceindicators to measure progress madein gender integration within the Office.These will be included in the existingmonitoring framework of OHCHRGlobal Management Outputs or that ofExpected Accomplishments, to ensurethat the identified indicators are genderresponsive.

© UN Photo/Sylvain Liechti237. CONTACTWomen’s Human Rightsand Gender SectionResearch and Right toDevelopment DivisionTel: +41 22 92 83109 /89203 / 89649e-mail: psob@ohchr.org /sterada@ohchr.org /wrgs@ohchr.org8. DATESThe present Gender Equality Policyis issued at Geneva on 9 September2011. It will be reviewed at the endof every other biennium (four yearperiodicity).

Women Demining Team Leaderfor United Nations Interim Forcein Lebanon (UNIFL), Bliba,Lebanon (2012)24© UN Photo/Pasqual GorrizANNEXESANNEX IGLOSSARYThis glossary is largely based ondefinitions from Human RightsTreaty Bodies, including generalrecommendations and comments,and where these do not exist,definitions commonly used in theUnited Nations system. The glossaryis not an exhaustive list of commonlyused definitions but includes termsmentioned throughout the policy or tothose closely linked to these terms.Gender 17The term “sex” refers to biologicaldifferences between men and women.The term “gender” refers to sociallyconstructed identities, attributesand roles for women and men, andsociety’s social and cultural meaningfor these biological differences, whichresult in hierarchical relationshipsbetween women and men and inthe distribution of power and rightsfavouring men and disadvantaging17G General recommendation No. 23 on the coreobligations of States parties under article 2 ofthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (2010), paragraph 5.

women. This social positioningof women and men is affectedby political, economic, cultural,social, religious, ideological andenvironmental factors and can bechanged by culture, society andcommunity.Gender analysis 18Gender analysis is a tool to diagnosethe differences between women andmen regarding their specific activities,conditions, needs, access to andcontrol over resources, and their18A ABC of Women Worker’s Rights and GenderEquality, International Labour Organization (2007)access to development benefits anddecision-making. It studies the linksbetween these and other factors inthe larger socio-cultural, economic,political and environmental context.A gender sensitive or genderresponsive project reflects theapplication of gender analysis toproject design, implementation,monitoring and evaluation.Gender balance and equalparticipation 19Participation is a core elementof gender equality. Eliminatingdiscrimination against women in thepolitical and public life means toensure women, on equal terms withmen, the right:(i) To vote in all elections and publicreferenda and to be eligible forelection to all publicly electedbodies;(ii) To participate in the formulationof government policy and theimplementation thereof and tohold public office and performall public functions at all levels ofgovernment;(iii) To participate in non-governmentalorganizations and associationsconcerned with the public andpolitical life of the country.19G General recommendation No. 28 on women inpolitical and public life, under the article 7 ofthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (1997)25

26Gender-based discrimination 20Any distinction, exclusion or restrictionwhich has the effect or purpose ofimpairing or nullifying the recognition,enjoyment or exercise by womenof human rights and fundamentalfreedoms is discrimination, even wherediscrimination was not intended.Direct discrimination against womenconstitutes different treatment explicitlybased on grounds of sex and genderdifferences. Indirect discriminationagainst women occurs when alaw, policy, programme or practiceappears to be neutral in so far as itrelates to men and women, but hasa discriminatory effect in practiceon women because pre-existinginequalities are not addressed by theapparently neutral measure.Gender equality and gender equity 21Inherent to the principle of equalitybetween men and women, or genderequality, is the concept that all humanbeings, regardless of sex, are free todevelop their personal abilities, pursuetheir professional careers and makechoices without the limitations set bystereotypes, rigid gender roles andprejudices. States parties are calledupon to use exclusively the concepts of20G General recommendation No. 28 on the coreobligations of States parties under article 2 ofthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (2010), paragraph5 and 16.21G General recommendation No. 28 on the coreobligations of States parties under article 2 ofthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (2010), paragraph 22.equality of women and men or genderequality and not to use the concept ofgender equity in implementing theirobligations under the Convention.Gender equity is used in somejurisdictions to refer to fair treatmentof women and men, according to theirrespective needs. This may includeequal treatment, or treatment that isdifferent but considered equivalent interms of rights, benefits, obligationsand opportunities.Gender integration/mainstreamingGender integration (or mainstreaming) isthe process of assessing the implicationsfor women and men of any plannedaction, including legislation, policiesor programmes, in all areas and atall levels. It is a strategy for makingwomen’s as well as men’s concerns andexperiences an integral dimension of thedesign, implementation, monitoring andevaluation of policies and programmesin all political, economic and societalspheres so that women and menbenefit equally and inequality is notperpetuated. The ultimate goal is toachieve gender equality. 22 In theory,gender integration, as a strategyand methodology, does not mean anemphasis on women’s experiences.In practice the implementation ofgender integration - given the sociallyconstructed differences and relationsbetween males and females in most ofthe world’s societies - often results in a22E ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions, as contained inresolution 1997/2

specific focus on women because theyare mostly adversely affected by existinggender inequalities.Multiple discrimination 23The discrimination of women based onsex and gender is inextricably linkedwith other factors that affect women,such as race, ethnicity, religion orbelief, health, status, age, class, casteand sexual orientation and genderidentity. Discrimination on the basisof sex or gender may affect womenbelonging to such groups to a differentdegree or in different ways to men.Likewise, racial discrimination doesnot always affect women and menequally or in the same way. Thereare circumstances in which racialdiscrimination only or primarilyaffects women, or affects women in adifferent way, or to a different degreethan men. Such racial discriminationwill often escape detection ifthere is no explicit recognition oracknowledgement of the different lifeexperiences of women and men, inareas of both public and private life.Sex-disaggregated dataSex-Disaggregated Data is data that iscollected and presented separately onmen and women, boys and girls. Sex-disaggregated data reflect roles,real situations, general conditions ofwomen and men in every aspects ofthe society. For instance, the literacyrate, education levels, businessownership, employment, wagedifferences, dependants, house andland ownership, loans and credit, anddebts are included. 24Women’s Empowerment 25Empowerment is the process ofacquiring the ability to make strategiclife choices in a context where thisability has previously been denied.Women’s empowerment has fivecomponents, including both civil andpolitical as well as cultural, economicand social dimensions: (i) women’ssense of self-worth; (ii) their rightto have and to determine choices;(iii) their right to have access toopportunities and resources; (iv) theirright to have the power to controltheir own lives, both within andoutside the home; (v) and their abilityto influence the direction of socialchange to create a more just socialand economic order, nationally andinternationally.2723G General Recommendation No. 25: Gender relateddimensions of racial discrimination, Committeeon the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (2000)and General recommendation No. 28 on the coreobligations of States parties under article 2 ofthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination against Women (2010),24U UNESCO’s Gender Mainstreaming ImplementationFramework (2003)25G Guidelines on Women’s Empowerment, UnitedNations Population Division, Department ofEconomic and Social Affairs

ANNEX II28REFERENCESThe following sources are mentionedin the Gender Equality Policy:(i)(ii)The Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights (1948)The International Covenant onCivil and Political Rights (1966)and General Comment No. 28on Equality of rights betweenmen and women (2000)(iii) The International Covenant onEconomic, Social and CulturalRights (1966) and Generalcomment No. 16 on the equalright of men and women to theenjoyment of all economic, socialand cultural rights (2005)(iv) The Convention on the Eliminationof All Forms of Discriminationagainst Women (1979)(v)Integrating a gender perspectiveinto UN human rights work,Women 2000, UN-DAW (1998)(vi) The Vienna Declaration andProgramme of Action (1994)(vii) Beijing Declaration and Platformfor Action (1995)(viii) ECOSOC resolution 1997/2 onGender Mainstreaming (1997)(ix) General Assembly resolutionA/RES/S-23/2 onmainstreaming of a genderperspective into all policiesand programmes in the UnitedNations system (1997)(x)OHCHR Policy Statement onGender Mainstreaming andHuman Rights of Women (2000)(xi) Durban Declaration andProgramme of Action (2001)(xii) OHCHR Gender MainstreamingStrategy (2002)(xiii) Chief Executive Board resolutionCEB/2006/2 on United Nationssystem-wide policy on genderequality and the empowerment ofwomen: focusing on results andimpact (2006)(xiv) CEDAW and the HumanRights Based Approach toProgramming: a UNIFEM guide(2007)

© United Nations photo29Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States holdinga Declaration of Human Rights poster in Englis(xv) Human Rights Council resolution6/30 on “Integrating the humanrights of women throughout theUnited Nations System” (2007)(xvi) Evaluation of OHCHRPerformance in GenderMainstreaming (2010)(xvii) ECOSOC resolution 2010/29on Mainstreaming a genderperspective into all policiesand programmes in the UnitedNations system (2010)

Credits:Prepared by the Women’s Human Rights and Gender SectionRule of Law, Equality and Non-Discrimination BranchResearch and Right to Development DivisionDesign and printing by the International Training Centre of the ILO, Turin – Italy,December 2013

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