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VOLUME 1 HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND ... - CSIR

G u i d e l i n e s f o rHUMAN SETTLEMENTPLANNINGAND DESIGNVOLUME 1Compiled under the patronage of the Department of Housingby CSIR Building and Construction Technology


Compiled under the patronage of the Department of Housingby CSIR Building and Construction Technology


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNFOREWORDThe establishment of economically, physically, environmentally and socially integrated and sustainable builtenvironments is one of the most important factors which will contribute to harnessing the full developmentpotential of South Africa and addressing distortions of the past and the future needs of our growing population.This goal cannot be achieved without the active participation of especially local government, the private sector andcommunities in partnership with one another.This manual, Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, provides a guiding vision for South Africansettlement formation, addressing the qualities that should be sought after in our human settlements, andproviding guidance on how these can be achieved. The publication has been developed over a period of more thantwo years through a participative process in which stakeholders and experts from various disciplines were involved.This book is intended to be a living document and you, the reader, are one of its architects. I therefore encourageyou to use it, discuss it and debate the guidelines it contains. Still, this work is not the last word on the subject, andyour feedback and comments would be welcome. Your active involvement will be the key to the successfulattainment of sustainable, habitable living environments in South Africa.MS S MTHEMBI-MAHANYELEMINISTER OF HOUSINGForewordi


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPublished by CSIR Building and Construction TechnologyP O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001Copyright vests in the CSIRc 2000, CSIR, PretoriaBoutek Report No. BOU/E2001Reprint 2005Capture Press, PretoriaISBN 0-7988-5498-7ii


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe following persons and organisations were involved in the preparation of this document:Project manager:Mr L M AustinCSIR BoutekProject coordinators:Ms H D BekkerDr S M BiermannMr J S StiffMs L VoslooMr K M WolhuterCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR TransportekCSIR BoutekCSIR TransportekAuthors:Mr A AdamMCA Urban and Environmental Planners ccMr L M Austin CSIR BoutekDr D I BanksEnergy & Development Research Centre, University of Cape TownMr R Behrens Urban Problems Research Unit, University of Cape TownMr W Blersch Ninham Shand (North) (Pty) Ltd, Consulting EngineersMs E BrinkCSIR BoutekMs K BurgerBurger & Waluk Town PlannersMr J W M Cameron TRC Africa (Pty) LtdMr W D Cowan Energy & Development Research Centre, University of Cape TownProf D Dewar School of Architecture & Planning, University of Cape TownMr L DruceVBGD Town & Regional PlannersMs L C Duncker CSIR BoutekMr O J Gerber GIBB Africa (Pty) Ltd, Consulting EngineersMr D J JonesCSIR TransportekMr G Jordaan Holm & Jordaan Architects and Urban DesignersMs T Katzschner Urban Problems Research Unit, University of Cape TownMs K Landman CSIR BoutekMs A LebeloNinham Shand (North) (Pty) Ltd, Consulting EngineersMs A LootsHolm & Jordaan Architects and Urban DesignersMs N Mammon Mammon Rendall Planners and Designers ccMr G J Morris Feather EnergyDr P Paige-Green CSIR TransportekMr E R Painting Mothopo Technologies cc, Management & Engineering ConsultantsMr C SadlerBergman-Ingerop (Pty) Ltd, Consulting EngineersMr J S StiffCSIR TransportekMr J S Strydom CSIR BoutekMr H L Theyse CSIR TransportekProf F Todeschini School of Architecture & Planning, University of Cape TownProf R Uytenbogaardt School of Architecture & Planning, University of Cape TownMr S van Huyssteen CSIR TransportekProf A T Visser Department of Civil Engineering, University of PretoriaDr K C WallNinham Shand (Pty) Ltd, Consulting EngineersProf V Watson Urban Problems Research Unit, University of Cape TownMr K M Wolhuter CSIR TransportekThe NRS Project, Eskom, provided material on electricity supply, based on documents approved by the ElectricitySuppliers Liaison Committee, on which Eskom, AMEU, the Chamber of Mines and the South African Bureau ofStandards are represented.Acknowledgementsiii


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNSteering Committees:Ms G AbrahamsProf W J R AlexanderMr W S D ClarkeMr P DacombMr R DauskardtMr J de MeyerMr F DruytsMr S HartleyProf E HorakMr D HuntMr B M JacksonMr A LagardienMr N LetterMr N A MacleodMr G A NorrisMr A OttoMr I H PalmerMr G SchermersMr C J SchlotfeldtMr C TheronMr J van der WaltDr I van WykMr P S Van ZylMr P VickersProf A T VisserMr H VorsterMr J A WatesCoordinating Committee:CSIR Boutek representatives:Mr L M AustinMr C J SchlotfeldtGemey AbrahamsDevelopment Planning andHousing Policy ConsultantDepartment of CivilEngineering, University ofPretoriaSouthern Metropolitan LocalCouncil of GreaterJohannesburgAssociation of ConsultingTown and Regional PlannersDepartment of Development& Planning, GautengWade RefuseDepartment of Water Affairs& ForestryDepartment of Water Affairs& ForestryDepartment of CivilEngineering, University ofPretoriaEskom / NRSDevelopment Bank ofSouthern AfricaSchool of Architecture,Building and CivilEngineering, PeninsulaTechnikonEastern MetropolitanSubstructure of GreaterJohannesburgDurban MetroCSIR BoutekDepartment of Minerals &EnergyPalmer Development GroupCSIR TransportekCSIR BoutekGreater Pretoria MetropolitanCouncilDepartment of TransportAfricon, Consulting EngineersSouth African PlanningInstitutionDepartment of Water Affairs& ForestryDepartment of CivilEngineering, University ofPretoriaCity Council of PretoriaWates, Meiring & Barnard,Consulting EngineersDepartmental representatives:Mr P F JordaanMr M KrynauwMr Z NofemelaMr G OosthuizenMr G OrichoMr A OttoMr S J SmitMr U TemboMs L van ZylMr J WallisMs B ZindeProvincial representatives:Mr C W BrowneMr C BurgerMr J A CattanachMr D B DunstanMr A T FourieMr S F HaasbroekMr H G HadebeMr P LabuschagneMr M M MokoenaMr C H A RatnamMr R J StubbsMr M van der MerweOthers:Mr R G BöhmerMs C du PlessisMr D M KrugerMs S LiebermannMr M MavusoMr K J MkhabelaMr M NapierMs I S OberholzerMs I RingelMs L SlumpMs B J van ReenenEnvironmental Affairs &TourismTransportConstitutional DevelopmentWater Affairs & ForestryLand AffairsMinerals & EnergyPublic WorksTransportTrade & IndustryHousingEnvironmental Affairs &TourismGautengEastern CapeGautengKwaZulu-NatalWestern CapeNorthern CapeMpumalangaFree StateFree StateNorth WestKwaZulu-NatalNorthern ProvinceCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekCSIR BoutekPhotographs, Chapter 6:Mr E R PaintingCover design:Mothopo Technologies cc,Management & EngineeringConsultantsTruter & Truter Design & Advertising (Pty) LtdDesign and layout:African Watermark Graphic DesignivAcknowledgements


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNRECORD OF REVISIONS AND AMENDMENTSRevisions:Amendments:Remove existing chapter(s) and substitute with the attached revised chapter(s).Remove existing page(s) and substitute the attached new page(s). A vertical line in the marginshows where a change has been made (there are no amendments to date).Date Chapter Title Rev Amdt PageNo. No. number(s)August 2003 9 Water supply 1 - AllAugust 2003 10 Sanitation 1 - AllRecord of revisions and amendments


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN


IndexVolume 1Volume 2Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12IntroductionA framework for settlement-makingSpatial and structural principles forsettlement-makingPlanning method and participationPlanning guidelines5.1 Movement networks5.2 Public transport5.3 Hard open spaces5.4 Soft open spaces5.5 Public facilities5.6 Land subdivision5.7 Public utilities5.8 Cross-cutting issues5.8.1 Environmental designfor safer communities5.8.2 Ecologically soundurban development5.8.3 Fire safetyStormwater managementRoads: Geometric design and layoutplanningRoads: Materials and constructionWater supplySanitationSolid waste managementEnergy12.1 Grid electricity12.2 Other forms of energy


Chapter 11Introduction


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSBACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1NEED FOR A REVISED DOCUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Historical perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1A “living document”: the Red Book workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2PURPOSE AND LEGAL STATUS OF THIS DOCUMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2ROLES AND INTERACTION OF PROFESSIONALS INVOLVED IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 3HOW TO USE THE DOCUMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Introduction Chapter 1i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNiiChapter 1Introduction


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBACKGROUNDThis document is the result of a collaborative effort byseveral government departments under the auspicesof the Department of Housing. Mutual concern for thequality of the built environment and the country’snatural resources, as well as a common recognition ofthe role that human settlement planning and theprovision of engineering services plays in its protectionor destruction, was the catalyst for this multidepartmentalcooperation. The process was overseenby a coordinating committee consisting ofrepresentatives of the various departments, whosemain role was overall guidance, policy direction andfinancial control. Detailed guidance and control of thewritten content was provided by various steeringcommittees, each consisting of a number ofpractitioners acknowledged for their expertise in theparticular fields. The work was contracted to the CSIRin accordance with a detailed proposal submitted tothe then National Housing Board in August 1995.Overall project management was undertaken by theCSIR’s Division of Building and ConstructionTechnology, while other divisions, as well as variousexternal organisations, also provided technical andrelated expertise.NEED FOR A REVISED DOCUMENTThis aspect is best explained by a brief summary of, first,the developments leading to the publication of the firstedition of the Red Book and, second, the workshopsthat followed this event. These ultimately led to theformulation of a detailed proposal for a completerevision of the document and the multi-departmentalinitiatives for funding and guiding the process.Historical perspectiveFor many years it has been widely recognised that thecost of providing engineering services forms asignificant component of the overall cost of housing.Where capital subsidies for housing schemes areinvolved, the cost of engineering services couldconsume anything between 50 and 100% of thesubsidy, depending on, among other things, siteconditions and levels of service provided (Schlotfeldt1995b). In any development scheme, therefore, layoutplanning and the concomitant design of engineeringservices should receive particular care and attention inorder to optimise the levels of service within the givenfinancial parameters. Until comparatively recentlyengineers were seldom presented with the complextask of choosing between a great variety of serviceoptions, particularly in the fields of water supply andsanitation. The policies of the various authoritieslargely dictated the levels of service to be provided ineach case, and engineers merely confined themselvesto the technical and contractual aspects of design andconstruction (Austin 1996).The last two decades, however, have seen therecognition of, first, the effect of layout planning onthe cost of providing engineering services and, second,the impact of services on the continually rising cost ofhousing. They have also seen the appearance ofvarious guideline documents aimed at optimising theprovision of services which are not only of soundengineering quality but acceptable (both financiallyand technologically) to the recipient communities aswell. The Blue Book, Green Book and Red Bookguidelines prepared by the CSIR take their titles fromthe colour of their respective ring binders, andrepresent some of the efforts made over this period toaddress the issue. This revised document has evolvedpartly as a natural progression from the previousguidelines, but has also been substantially revised andexpanded to present a holistic, integrated approach tosettlement planning.The previous edition of the Red Book, entitledGuidelines for the provision of engineering servicesand amenities in residential township development,was completed in 1992. Due to the political changestaking place in the country at the time, however, thedocument was not published until 1994. It wasfurthermore realised that the guidelines were nolonger capable of meeting the challenges facingdevelopers in the times of societal change which thecountry was experiencing. The book was considered tohave a number of shortcomings which restricted itsusefulness in the drive to produce sustainable andvibrant human settlements, as opposed to mereserviced townships (Austin and Biermann 1998). Someof the perceived shortcomings were: outdated andunwieldy urban-planning principles, insufficientinformation on various appropriate engineeringtechnologies, and a general lack of an integratedapproach to settlement planning. It was thereforedecided to gather feedback from users of the book bymeans of a series of countrywide workshops, wherethese and other problems could be debated byexperienced professionals.The purpose of this document is not merely to assistprofessionals in producing efficiently serviced“townships”, but rather to create sustainable andvibrant human settlements. This approach is reflectedin the new title of the book - Guidelines for HumanSettlement Planning and Design (Austin and Biermann1998). In this context, a “human settlement” isregarded as any built environment where people live,work and play, with the provision that only residentialareas, and other developments associated therewith,are considered in this book.Introduction Chapter 11


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNA “living document”: the Red BookworkshopsIn terms of its mandate, the Division of Building andConstruction Technology has undertaken to maintainthe Red Book as a continually updated “livingdocument” (Schlotfeldt 1995a). Standards should beseen as a reflection of society’s values at any giventime; moreover, values and priorities are not inflexiblebut rather in a constant state of change. Technologyalso develops and changes and the Red Book shouldreflect this evolution. A series of five workshops wereheld in February and March 1995 in Bloemfontein,Cape Town, Pretoria, Durban and Port Elizabeth,where users and other interested parties wereafforded the opportunity to discuss the applicability ofthe guidelines and provide constructive criticism with aview to the document’s improvement and furtherdevelopment. Other forums, such as conferences andmeetings of a number of professional societies, werealso used as platforms for discussion and informationconcerning the book.The workshops were attended by nearly 700 delegatesrepresenting a wide range of interests (e.g. consultingengineers, urban planners, local and regionalauthorities, provincial and central governmentdepartments, universities, technikons, developers,manufacturers, financiers and NGOs). The result of thedeliberations was a great number of valuablerecommendations and suggestions for improving theguidelines, as well as many requests for additionalguidelines on various subjects. All therecommendations received serious consideration andthe vast majority have been taken up in this reviseddocument. There was consensus amongst all partiespresent at the workshops that, in any development, aholistic, integrated planning process is an essentialrequirement and that planners, engineers and otherprofessionals need to work together right from theconceptual stage of a project to achieve this. It islargely as a result of the input from the planningprofession during these and later deliberations thatnot only was a framework for the redevelopment ofthe urban planning guidelines produced, but also theguiding philosophy for the entire document.Investment in infrastructure is crucial to the efficiencyand habitability of our urban areas. World Bankresearch (South Africa 1995) indicates that investmentin infrastructure stock has a significant impact on GDPgrowth, as infrastructure raises general levels ofwelfare and health. It is also realised, however, thateliminating - or even just reducing - the housingbacklog will simply be beyond reach if the highestlevel of infrastructure (i.e. fully reticulated water andelectricity supply, full waterborne sanitation, etc) isregarded as the norm. There needs to be space forincremental approaches to provide sustainable andaffordable levels of service while ensuring acceptableand adequate functionality. Creative and variedsolutions are thus required, and it is not necessary toconfine housing strategies to conventional methodsand technologies. A balance between establishedpractices and new ideas and developments is thusrequired.PURPOSE AND LEGAL STATUS OFTHIS DOCUMENTUrban planners and engineers are continuallyconfronted with the dichotomy of the needs oraspirations of communities versus their ability to payfor housing and services (Austin 1996). The centralgovernment has set limits on its ability to providegrants and subsidies for services. Local governmentswill therefore be largely responsible for makingprovision for access to most of the engineering servicesand amenities by persons residing within their area ofjurisdiction. Furthermore, these services and amenitiesmust be rendered in an environmentally sustainablemanner and must also be financially and physicallypracticable. Information is thus required on allavailable service technologies and complementaryspatial settlement planning, so that informed decisionsmay be made on what is most suited to a particularcommunity and what is sustainable.The need for this information is not confined totechnical professionals only. All those who arerequired to take decisions on policy at the variouslevels of government or within non-governmentalorganisations can benefit substantially by havinggreater insight into the possibilities and limitations ofvarious available options. Such insights will enablethem to interact more effectively with consultants andcommunity structures, and the Red Book is also aimedat providing these insights in a manner that is bothunderstandable and useful to non-technical persons.For sustainable progress, as well as for the generalhealth and well-being of the population, settlementsshould be coherently planned; there shouldfurthermore be a choice between a range ofaffordable technologies, particularly in the watersupplyand sanitation fields. Service levels should beappropriate, as a high level of service which fails (forwhatever reason) may well pose a greater threat topublic health and the environment than aninadequate lower level of service. Various factors, forexample high population densities or adversegeotechnical conditions, may also dictate thatconsideration be given to alternative types of servicetechnology. However, only proven designs should beused and, ideally, communities should be able toexercise choice within a range of approved designs. Inthis context, appropriate technology may be definedas “meeting the needs of a particular community at aparticular time”.2Chapter 1Introduction


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIn order to achieve the above objectives, engineersand urban planners need to be provided withguidelines, as opposed to standards. Guidelines areintended to assist decision-making, whereas standardsare enforceable absolute limits (Schlotfeldt 1995a). It isrecognised that both the rigid application ofguidelines as well as the setting of inappropriatestandards can have the opposite effect to thatintended. The inter-departmental coordinatingcommittee tasked with overall direction of the revisionof the Red Book, as well as the steering committeesinvolved, were of the opinion that the concept of“guidelines” should continue to prevail, and that theprovisions of this document could thus not be legallyenforceable. The use of these guidelines by the variousdisciplines involved in the design, supply andmanagement of serviced land for residentialdevelopment would be strongly encouraged, however.It should be noted that only “local” services andplanning issues are considered. Bulk services andamenities - for example main water supply pipelines,outfall sewers, treatment works, landfills, freewaysand so forth - are considered beyond the scope of thisdocument.The intention of the new Red Book is to provideperformance-based guidelines for informed decisionmaking.The purpose is essentially to indicate thequalities that should be sought in South Africansettlements, and to provide practical guidance onhow these qualities can be achieved. The document istherefore intended to be educative, providing ideasand useful information, and not as a substitute forinnovative planning and engineering practice(Behrens 1997).ROLES AND INTERACTION OFPROFESSIONALS INVOLVED IN THEBUILT ENVIRONMENTThe primary readers of this book will be the range ofprofessional and other persons that contribute to theplanning and design of human settlements (i.e.architects, urban designers, town and regionalplanners, civil, transportation and electrical engineers,energy practitioners, etc) from both the private andpublic sectors. The document attempts to integrateinformation that is relevant across different disciplinesand, unlike its predecessor, moves away from havingseparate and exclusive sections on “engineering” and“planning”.The fullest cooperation between the variousprofessionals engaged in human-settlement planningis crucial to achieving sustainability, and thus alsoreplicability (Austin and Biermann 1998). A commonstrategy is required in order for the developmentprocess to be geared towards meeting the particularneeds of communities in a manner which is acceptableto them, and not merely acceptable to the planner,designer, financier or local authority. The guidelinesrepresent a balanced and integrated approach tosettlement planning and, although unlikely to satisfyeverybody, represent the culmination of four years ofintensive planning, research, writing, debate,questioning, criticism and rewriting. Engineers,architects, urban planners and academics haveworked together and achieved basic agreement onthe requirements for housing the nation in asustainable manner.This document is the result of input from a wide rangeof participants. Relevant national and provincialgovernment departments were involved throughrepresentation on the coordinating committee. Localgovernment, the private sector, academics andorganised professional bodies participated throughthe various steering committees. Academic andpractising experts contributed by authoring sections ofthe book. Specialist workshops, involving a broaderspectrum of expertise, were held at key stages duringthe process to debate concepts and drafts. Universities,professional engineering and planning bodies,relevant national, provincial and local governmentdepartments and bodies, as well as selected practisingconsultants, all formed part of a beta-testingprogramme, where the final draft was distributed to asample of potential users of the book for comment.HOW TO USE THE DOCUMENTThis document is explicitly not intended to be anadministrative “check list” for local authority officials(Behrens 1997). It will instead provide guidance onappropriate practices and technologies. Emphasis isplaced on assessing “performance” (in relation toissues like health, safety, recreation, education andtrade) as opposed to simply assessing the quantitativedimensions of the plan to ensure some form ofcompliance with stated norms. Once again it isemphasised that these are guidelines, notspecifications. The document therefore does notremove professional responsibility from practitioners,and certainly does not replace the need forprofessional experience and judgement. The contentsshould therefore not be rigidly applied, but ratherperceived as an aid to preparing one’s own projectplans and specifications.Various national and provincial governmentdepartments, statutory bodies and local authoritiesmay also have their own sets of guidelines for use byplanners and engineers. It is not the intention of thisdocument to take the place of these other guidelines.Rather, the Red Book should be considered as beingsupplementary to them, because local conditions andexperiences can often dictate what procedure shouldbe followed in specific cases.Introduction Chapter 13


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNSTRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENTAlthough significant effort was made to approach therevision process in an integrated manner, thepresentation of the material in document formrequired it to be divided into manageable andreadable sections.Chapter 2 provides a guiding philosophical frameworkfor the entire document and discusses an appropriatecontext for settlement-making relating to the twocentral concerns of human- and nature-centreddevelopment. Performance qualities are identified,clarifying desirable achievements in settlementformation. The nature and planning of humansettlements is described and the importance ofstructure is emphasised.Chapter 3 focuses on settlements as systems made upof functionally interrelated elements. The chapter setsout the starting points for achieving positivelyperformingsettlements, the principles that areimportant in achieving highly functional settlementsand provides a synthesis of the principles as well as anapplication of the principles and the planningguidelines. Chapter 3 can therefore be seen asproviding the link between the framework presentedin Chapter 2 and the practical guidelines providedfrom, and including, Chapter 5.Guidance on the planning method and theparticipation required is given in Chapter 4, wherehuman-scale development and partnership-basedparticipation are advocated.Chapter 5 provides qualitative and quantitativeguidelines relating to the planned elements of asettlement system. Its sections relate to the followinginterrelated - and somewhat artificially separated -planned elements of settlement systems: (5.1)movement networks; (5.2) public transport systems;(5.3) hard open spaces; (5.4) soft open spaces; (5.5)public facilities; (5.6) land subdivision; (5.7) publicutilities and (5.8) cross-cutting issues. The purpose ofpresenting the various planned elements of settlementsystems separately, is to present useful informationrelating to settlement systems in an accessible anddistinguishable way, rather than to suggest that theseelements of the settlement system should be plannedin isolation.Section 5.8 focuses on cross-cutting issues that haverelevance across both the planning and engineeringspectrums. These include environmental design forsafer communities (5.8.1), ecologically sound urbandevelopment (5.8.2), and fire safety (5.8.3).Chapter 6 sets out stormwater management principlesin a manner which complements and reinforces theforegoing urban design principles and the followingchapters on road design, sanitation and solid wastemanagement. Road layout issues were preparedlargely in conjunction with the movement networksguidelines (5.1) with the result that Chapter 7 has beenconfined largely to detailed engineering issues whilethe geometric planning component has beenincorporated into section 5.1. Chapter 8 provides acomprehensive and modern approach to roadpavement design, construction and maintenance, withspecial emphasis on lower-order roads.The water supply and sanitation chapters (Chapters 9and 10) have been thoroughly revised in order tomake them more useful and relevant. The previouslyincorporated section on water treatment has beenremoved as it is considered to be a bulk service andthus beyond the scope of this book; it is furthermoreregarded as a specialised subject, which cannot begiven justice in a broad guideline document of thisnature. The details on waterborne sewerage designhave also been removed, with other design manualsbeing referred to instead. The guidelines haveconcentrated, rather, on providing designers withbroad background information on the multiplicity ofsanitation systems available, to enable them to applythe most appropriate technologies under the specificcircumstances, while providing sufficient referencematerial for their needs.The solid waste management section (Chapter 11)sketches the legislative background pertaining towaste handling and also sets out the different levels ofservice in a way which maximises employment andopportunities for entrepreneurship. On-site storage,transfer stations and recycling operations are alsodescribed. Landfills are not dealt with as they areregarded as a bulk service. However, broad guidelinespertaining to landfills, in so far as they are required forsettlement planning purposes, have been included.Guidelines on energy (Chapter 12) have beenpresented in two parts, the first part dealing withconventional grid electricity and the second withalternative and renewable energy sources. The lattersection includes details on “clean” technologies such assolar power and other appropriate energyopportunities for poor or small rural communities.Urban planning principles which facilitate theapplication of alternative energy technologies are alsoencouraged.CONCLUSIONThe concept of sustainability is a philosophy commonto all sections of this guideline document.Sustainability should always be the main concern inany type of development. This has the followingimplications (Miles 1995):• development projects should contribute totechnology transfer and skills development;4Chapter 1Introduction


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• beneficiaries must have effective control of theirenvironment;• an operational and sustainable product or systemmust be delivered; and• systems should be capable of being operated andmaintained using local resources.The emphasis has shifted from merely providingserviced erven in the most cost-effective manner to thecreation of sustainable living environments andthriving communities. New demands are being placedon professionals involved with the development ofhuman settlements, from the application of unfamiliartechnologies to social science and communityorganising skills, as well as technology transfer andskills development. It is expected that suchprofessionals will increasingly turn to guideline-typedocuments in order to obtain the requiredinformation. It is thus imperative that the revised RedBook remains a living document; constant input bypractitioners and researchers will ensure that this goalis achieved. Constructive criticism and comment fromusers of the document will therefore be welcomed.Introduction Chapter 15


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAustin, L M (1996). The Red Book: A tool for themunicipal engineer. Paper presented at IMIESASeminar. May, East London.Austin, A and Biermann, S (1998). Sustainable humansettlements: Engineers and planners get their acttogether. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual SAICECongress. April, East London.Behrens, R (1997). Brief to formulate appropriateguidelines to the planning and design of humansettlements. Division of Building Technology, CSIR,Pretoria.Schlotfeldt, C J (1995a). The “ Red Book”: Background,purpose and way forward. Paper presented at RedBook Workshops. February and March, Bloemfontein,Cape Town, Pretoria, Durban and Port Elizabeth.Schlotfeldt, C J (1995b). Blue plus green equals red:Bridging the housing gap. Building South Africa.April.South Africa, Office of the President (1995). Urbandevelopment strategy of the Government of NationalUnity. Government Gazette, Notice no 1111 of 1995,November.Miles, D (1995). Seeking sustainability: Lessons fromproject experience. Paper presented at 21st WEDCConference. September, Kampala, Uganda.6Chapter 1Introduction


Chapter 2A framework forsettlement-making2


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1CENTRAL CONCERNS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE STARTING POINTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2WHAT WE SHOULD BE TRYING TO ACHIEVE: PERFORMANCE QUALITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Efficiency of resource use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Opportunity generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Convenience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Equality of access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Quality of place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Sensory qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5PLANNING OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5The meaning of structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5The elements of structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5An approach to structure: minimalism and complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8A framework for settlement-making Chapter 2i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNiiChapter 2A framework for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this chapter is to provide a guidingframework for settlement-making. The chapterprovides a brief overview of planning and design inSouth Africa, which expresses the need for a newframework, before setting out the two centralconcerns - namely human and nature-centreddevelopment - which form the basis of the framework.The starting points to achieve positively performingsettlements are provided before performancequalities, clarifying the desired achievements insettlement formation (guided by developments in theplanning policy arena) are identified. These areapplicable to all the subsequent planning andengineering chapters. Finally, the importance ofstructure in the planning of human settlements isdescribed.BACKGROUNDFor some fifty years, the planning and design ofsettlements in South Africa has been dominated by thepolitical ideology of separate development and theplanning ideology of modernism.A central theme of the modernist movement is its basisin functionalist thought, which is dominated byconcerns with efficiency and technology. Efficiency islargely defined in technological terms, with urbansettlements seen as “machines”. Urban life iscompartmentalised into broad categories of activity(live, work, play, move), resulting in spatial separationof these activities.These ideologies have lead to the development ofmono-functional settlements, often fragmented andenvironmentally sterile. These settlements -particularly those created for the disadvantagedmembers of our society - are characterised by lowlevels of service and high levels of inconvenience; theygenerate enormous amounts of movement at greatcost in terms of money, time, energy and pollution;they are expensive for inhabitants, and the quality oftheir public environments is appalling. There is littleevidence of a cohesive spatial environment whichintegrates urban activities and structures.With the advent of the “new South Africa”, it isnecessary to reverse the effects of these ideologies.The challenge is to create a framework for settlementmakingwhich will enrich life in settlements and serveas an instrument of urban reconstruction anddevelopment. This has already been accepted in policyterms. The government’s Urban DevelopmentFramework (South Africa 1997) calls for “the physical,social and economic integration of our towns andcities” and stresses the need for higher density, morecompact and, in terms of land use, more mixed-usesettlements. Similarly, the Development FacilitationAct, No 67 of 1995 (South Africa 1995), inter alia, callsfor environments which• promote the integration of the social, economic,institutional and physical aspects of landdevelopment;• promote integrated land development in rural andurban areas in support of each other;• promote the availability of residential andemployment opportunities in close proximity to orintegrated with each other;• optimise the use of existing resources, includingresources relating to agriculture, land, minerals,bulk infrastructure, roads, transportation andsocial facilities;• promote a diverse combination of land uses, also atthe level of individual erven or sub-divisions ofland;• discourage the phenomenon of “urban sprawl” andcontribute to the development of more compacttowns and cities;• contribute to the correction of historically distortedspatial patterns of settlement in the Republic andto the optimum use of existing infrastructure; and• encourage environmentally sustainable landdevelopment practices and processes.This framework should begin to move us in thisdirection. It is based on the integration of the humanand nature-centred approaches to settlement-making.CENTRAL CONCERNSThe human-centred approach emphasises that a centralpurpose of planning is to ensure that thedevelopmental needs and activities of people living insettlements are catered for and, in particular, thatopportunities for people to achieve their full potentialthrough their own efforts are maximised. Thisapproach, rather than being purely cost - ortechnologically-driven, is people-driven and democratic.The nature-centred approach recognises that naturalsystems interact in highly synergistic ways, which mustbe respected if breakdowns in them are to beprevented. Human actions on the landscape, such assettlement-making, must thus be sensitive to ecologicalprocesses. Therefore, rather than imposing settlementdevelopment on the environment, this approachemphasises design with nature, thereby creatingsynergy between man-made and ecological systems.A framework for settlement-making Chapter 21


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTHE STARTING POINTSThere are three starting points for achieving positivelyperforming settlements.• The first is the importance of pedestrianmovement. A fundamental dimension of scale isrelated to movement on foot. The pedestriancondition describes the reality for the majority ofresidents in towns and cities in the country. Largenumbers of people do not, and will not in theforeseeable future, own private motor vehicles.Obviously, though, settlements cannot be onlypedestrian-based.Settlement growth brings with it higher orderopportunities, services and movement systems.Consistent with the principle of equity, particularlyin communities with low levels of car ownership,public transport becomes a necessity once thepedestrian scale is exceeded.• The second starting point is the importance ofthinking spatially. In pedestrian-scaledenvironments the public spatial environmentshould be viewed as the highest level of socialinfrastructure. In these environments a great dealof activity occurs in the public spaces, with theresult that the quality of the public-spatialenvironment profoundly affects the quality of life.Thinking spatially, in this context, requires that allpublic spaces, particularly streets, be viewed aspublic space.• The third starting point is the importance of aminimalist approach to settlement-making. Thisrequires that the basic structure and mostimportant actions required to create thepreconditions for a positively performingsettlement be defined at the outset of thesettlement-making process. Over-design of theprocess reduces spontaneous settlement-makingactivities.WHAT WE SHOULD BE TRYING TOACHIEVE: PERFORMANCE QUALITIESThe integrated approach on which the framework forsettlement-making is based, makes it possible toidentify performance qualities, which should guideplan-making and against which plans and settlementscan be monitored and measured.Environments reflecting these performance qualitieshave the following physical characteristics:• they are scaled to the pedestrian, althoughcommonly neither the pedestrian nor the motor carhas absolute dominance;• they are compact, having relatively high buildingdensities;• their structural elements are integrated and thecomposite parts reinforce each other;• they have a strong spatial feel, with well-definedpublic spaces; and• their spatial structures are complex, offeringchoices in terms of intensity of interaction, privacyof living conditions, lifestyles, housing options andmovement systems.Efficiency of resource useThe development of settlements requires the use of awide range of resources, including land, money,building materials, manpower, energy and water. As ageneral principle, it is essential that resources be usedas efficiently as possible.Opportunity generationPeople come to settlements to improve their personalwelfare. The opportunity to improve one’s lot derivesfrom the economic, social, cultural and recreationalopportunities resulting from the physicalagglomeration of people in settlements. However, thecapability of settlements to generate opportunities isnot only determined by numbers of people, it is alsoaffected by how settlements are ordered and made.Of importance to developing countries, such as SouthAfrica, is the need to create opportunities for smallscaleeconomic activity. The reality is that, within theforeseeable future, large numbers of people will notbe absorbed in the formal economic sector and willhave to generate their own survival activities, via thesmall-scale - and often the informal - economic sector.There are a number of ways in which spatial conditionsin settlements create opportunities for economicactivity.• The first is intensification. This requires thepromotion of higher unit densities than is the normunder the current model of settlementdevelopment. The case for increasing densities restson a number of grounds. Higher densities createmore opportunities for interaction, a climate inwhich economic activity - and small-scale economicactivity, in particular - can thrive. A further effect ofincreased densities is an increased local demand forgoods and services, promoting increasingspecialisation and diversification in the smallbusiness sector.2Chapter 2A framework for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe promotion of economic activity is also affectedby the efficiency of movement systems. Efficiencyof movement creates higher levels of support forgoods, services and social facilities, simultaneouslyensuring a wider range of goods and socialfacilities and increasing the viability of the servicesprovided. In this way higher densities play a crucialrole in achieving higher levels of convenience.Higher densities lead to increased support forpublic transport systems, improving their viability.Higher densities, by lowering unit costs, can alsocontribute to the more efficient use ofinfrastructure.Finally, higher densities can contribute to theefficient utilisation of land, the counteracting ofurban sprawl, a reduction in travelling and areduction in energy consumption and pollution.• A second way in which settlements maximiseopportunities is by integrating the different partsof the settlement, so that they contribute to eachother. When a settlement is fragmented into anumber of smaller, inwardly orientated parts, eachpart is largely reliant on its own internallygenerated resources. Consequently, levels ofservice and convenience may be low. By contrast,when the parts of a settlement are integrated,each part benefits from a much larger area. Newsettlements should accordingly not be viewed asends in themselves only. They should also beviewed as instruments of restructuring, in the sensethat they can be used to integrate a fragmentedsettlement environment.The above has implications for our thinking aboutmovement. The challenge is to establish andmaximise a continuity of movement systems, tyinglocal living areas together. Movement systems needto be viewed not just as movement channels, but asspatial structuring elements. This line of thoughtleads to the conclusion that maximising access is asimportant as maximising mobility.• A third way of increasing opportunities is byenabling the evolutionary development of morecomplex settlements. When this occurs, a diversityof large- and small-scale activities can find viablelocations within the settlement system.• A fourth way of creating opportunities is by usingthe generating power of larger activities to attractsmaller activities, both of which benefit from themovement flows that result from the presence ofthe other.ConvenienceGood urban environments are, by definition,convenient. They allow inhabitants to conduct dailyactivities quickly and easily. Inconvenientenvironments, on the other hand, impose on lifestyles,reduce choices and increase costs.Access lies at the heart of convenience. In this regard,access needs to be conceived of in terms of movementmodes. The first mode is pedestrian movement, whichis the lowest common denominator of movement andwhich describes the primary movement mode of largenumbers of people in South Africa. The second ismotorised movement in the form of public and privatetransport. Not all human activities and interactionopportunities exist within walking range. When thisoccurs, motorised transport becomes the moreconvenient movement mode.For millions of South Africans, who cannot afford amotor car, public transport is crucial to facilitatemovement. Although this does not deny the need toaccommodate motor vehicles in settlements, thestructuring of settlements, particularly for those whocannot afford private transport, should encourageand facilitate pedestrian movement and publictransport systems.Two forms of access are central to promotingconvenience.• The first form is access to the economic, social,cultural and recreational benefits which resultfrom the agglomeration of people. This requiresthe intensification of settlements, the generationof opportunities for a greater range of activitiesand choices promoting more complex levels ofspatial order and encouraging a greater range ofdevelopment processes. Movement is theintegrating structural element underpinning theabove.• The second is access to nature. Since settlementsare, as a rule, places of intense human activity, theopportunity to escape from this intensity and toexperience nature is of great importance to people.For many, for reasons of affordability, contact withnature has to be collective contact as it cannotalways be provided adequately within privategardens. In addition, the productive capacity of theland can be a vital settlement resource. For manysettlement dwellers the opportunity to use theland productively, or to engage in lifestyles whichincorporate dimensions of both urban and ruralliving, is crucial to their survival.A framework for settlement-making Chapter 23


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNChoiceSettlements which perform well are multifacetedplaces. They offer a diversity, and thus choice, ofplaces, lifestyles, activities and interactionopportunities.On the one hand, positively-performing settlementsoffer opportunities for human contact and interaction.Their activities and events play a major part in shapingthe identity of the settlements. Importantly,settlements provide opportunities where people canlive on their own but not be alone. They also providepeople with choices regarding the extent to whichthey wish to engage in social activity.On the other hand, people also require places whichare private, particularly in the sense of knowing who“the locals” and who the strangers are.The degree to which people wish to live in intensiveand vibrant environments - or quieter, more private,places - varies from person to person and over the lifecycleof households.The challenge is to promote environments whichprovide a diversity of choices, so that people do nothave “either-or” choices, but rather choices whichrelate to relative degrees of privacy or exposure. Thekey to this lies in hierarchies of movement, publicspaces and social institutions, and the design ofliving areas.Equality of accessIt is neither possible nor desirable for all parts ofsettlements to be the same. The reason for this is thatclustering tendencies emerge in the structure ofsettlements as they grow. Activities requiring publicsupport tend to cluster at the most accessible places.Nevertheless, it is important that all people havereasonably equal access to the opportunities andfacilities which support living in settlements.Spatially, two issues are central to this:• The first is the recognition that balance is not somuch a geographical as a structural concept. Theissue is not one of attempting to achieve an evendistribution of facilities over the surface ofsettlements. Rather, it is one of integrating publicfacilities and events with movement systems, sothat access is equalised.• The second issue is that of creating the accesspreconditions for more intensive activities tospread in a logical way, consistent with the growthof the settlement.Quality of placeQuality of place is attained by embracing uniquenessas opposed to standardisation. In terms of the naturalenvironment it requires the identification, a responseto and the emphasis of the distinguishing features andcharacteristics of landscapes. Different naturallandscapes suggest different responses. Accordingly,settlement design should respond to nature.In addition, quality of place can be achieved by sitemakingactions, including topographical moulding inareas where soil is easily movable, to create greaterdiversity in the land form; tree planting, to provideareas of shade and recreation; the use ofsupplementary sources of energy and buildingmaterials; wind protection and space definition; thecreation of water bodies as recreational features, sitesof aqua-culture and visual relief; and creating choicesof living condition.In terms of the human-made environment, quality ofplace recognises that there are points where elementsof settlement structure, particularly the movementsystem, come together to create places of highaccessibility and special significance. These are themeeting places of the settlement. Business andcommercial activities, schools, clinics, libraries,community halls and other facilities and activitiesrequiring exposure to large numbers of people areassociated with these places. In the best cases, theimportance of these places is recognised in that theybecome the focus of public investment, aimed atmaking them attractive, user-friendly, andcomfortable to experience.They also become the places that accommodatesymbolic statements, such as objects of remembrance.These, then, become the memorable places, whichshape lasting impressions of a settlement. Theirsignificance is strengthened by their dominantlocations in terms of the movement network and fromthe significance of the social events or rituals theyaccommodate.Sensory qualitiesPositively performing environments reflect powerfulsensory qualities. They are places which areaesthetically appealing and which add to the qualityof peoples’ lives.The quality of the public spatial environment plays acritical role as far as the sensory qualities ofsettlements are concerned. The public spaces andplaces are the primary areas within which peopleengage in, and experience, urban life.The role of public spaces in the lives of the urban pooris particularly critical. When people are poor, the fullrange of a household’s needs cannot be adequately4Chapter 2A framework for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNmet by the individual dwelling. Accordingly, asignificant part of their lives is played out in publicspaces. If properly made, these spaces can give dignityand a sense of permanence to environments. They areplaces where many social experiences occur and, in areal sense, they operate as extensions to the privatedwelling. The implication is that all public spaces, ofwhich the residential street is one of the importantforms, should be viewed and constructed as socialspaces.It is the integrated framework of public spaces thatenhances the sensory qualities of settlements.SustainabilitySustainability has two main dimensions. The onerelates to the relationship between the builtenvironment and the natural landscape. The other isthe degree to which the settlement reflects “timeless”qualities .• Settlements exist as adaptations of naturallandscapes and are dependent on resources drawnfrom a much larger area. Two issues are central toachieving environmental sustainability. The first isthe need to work harmoniously with the naturallandscape, rather than causing breakdowns innatural systems, such as filling in wetlands to obtaindevelopable land rather than developing higherlyingground. The second issue is the need to recyclewastes to the greatest possible degree. Forexample, stormwater runoff can be used forirrigation purposes, and treated sewage as fertiliser.• The second dimension of sustainability is thedegree to which the settlement reflects, in itsstructure and form, “timeless qualities”.Sustainable settlements accommodate growth andchange well, and are in turn enriched by processesof change. They have three primary characteristics.They are scaled to the pedestrian. They reflect astructural order, which allows logicalreinterpretation by successive generations. Theyhave a strongly spatial feel, with defined andgenerously made public spaces, spaces notdetermined only by immediate developmentneeds, but made with the recognition that publicspace is important in its own right.PLANNING OF HUMANSETTLEMENTS: THE ROLE ANDIMPORTANCE OF STRUCTUREThe meaning of structureSpatial structure is a concept used to interpret, designand make human settlements. The spatial structure ofa settlement results from an interplay between theformally planned (or programmatic) and thespontaneous (or non-programmatic) dimensions ofsettlement-making. The planned dimension isessentially quantitative. It requires the identification ofthe major elements of land use and the developmentof a land and engineering services budget.By contrast, the spontaneous, or non-programmatic,spatial structure is essentially qualitative, having at itscore a concern with the whole rather than the parts. Itreflects how people, over time, have addressed themaking of a place to meet their needs and enrich theirlives. Spontaneous environments reflect the timelessqualities referred to above. They do not depend onparticular levels of technology, or minimum levels ofpersonal means, to operate well.The term “structure”, as used here, refers to thecreation of the public environment: that realm whichis shared by all inhabitants, as opposed to the privaterealms of individual households and businesses. Ininvestment terms, this usually equates with publicinvestment in the spatial structure, to which privateinvestment and decision-making responds.The art of planning and design is to arrange theelements of structure into a system of references thatsupports the processes of living, and which establishesa spatial logic eliciting responses from the many actorswho contribute to settlement-making. Settlementplans should therefore be able to accommodateuncertainty and change, rather than simplyaccommodate the initial development programmethat necessitates the plan in the first place.The elements of structureIn conventional planning, the elements of structureare described in terms such as circulation networks,public transport systems, open spaces, public facilities,and public utilities (engineering services). However, inthe context of spontaneous settlement-making, it isuseful to describe the structural elements asconnection, space, public institutions and utilityservices. How each of these elements gives structure toa settlement is outlined below.ConnectionConnection refers to movement of all kinds,including fixed line systems such as roads, light -and heavy - rail systems, underground rail systems,A framework for settlement-making Chapter 25


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNas well as pedestrian and bicycle routes. As ageneral principle, movement should be seen as anactivity which occurs within space. The movementsystem, therefore, is the network of spaces throughwhich people move in various ways, from thepedestrian mode to modes specifically conceivedfor fast movement. It is primarily within thisnetwork of movement spaces that the public life ofa community takes place. Consequently, its makingshould be informed not only by technocraticconsiderations, but also by human andenvironmental considerations.The movement system has considerable structuralsignificance as it defines the pattern of accessibility,both within the settlement and betweensettlements. It is this pattern, in turn, which sendsstructural signals to individuals, entrepreneurs andplace-makers, and which significantly affects therange of choices and opportunities the settlementoffers inhabitants.SpaceSpace lies at the heart of the non-programmaticapproach to settlement-making. It is not just oneelement of a settlement programme, such as“public open space” (as designated in townplanning schemes), but should be approached aspart of thinking about the whole.Settlements are characterised by diversity. They aremany-placed places. Some parts are more public,others are more private, while others are moreneutral, serving broader, more diverse sets ofcitizens and urban activities. It is apparent,therefore, that there is a structural order insettlements. This order lies at the heart of theconcept of structure.Public spaces are the meeting places of people insettlements. The public spaces comprise the urban“rooms” and “seams” of connectivity. There alsoexists a continuum of spaces, which represents atransition from more public to more private living.The order in settlements thus not only relates toaccess, but also to degrees of publicness andprivacy. A similar order of publicness and privacyexists in relation to social institutions and activities,and places of perceived value.At the heart of settlement-making lies the creationof a continuum, or hierarchy, of public spaces andmovement systems, which attract, and give orderto, activities, events and elements in accordancewith their need for publicness or privacy.Space becomes particularly significant when one isconsidering movement at a local scale. At this scalethe concept of “road” needs to be replaced by theconcept of providing spaces which are comfortablefor people to be in, and within which movementcan take place. In spaces so conceived, neither thepedestrian nor the vehicle has complete dominanceor right of way.Public institutionsHistorically, the institutions which were mostvalued by society - such as institutions of learning,worship, exchange, markets and universities -served as the key structuring elements ofsettlements. The siting of these, in turn, formed thebasis for the locational choices of other, moreprivate, uses, such as housing. It is consideredimportant to revive this tradition. However, adifficulty is that, in modern times, societiesoccupying settlements have become increasinglyheterogeneous and diversified. As a consequence ithas become difficult to identify institutions whichhave generally recognised value. This does not,however, negate the importance of thinking aboutsettlement structure in this manner. In the absenceof certainty about what institutions will beprioritised by communities, the social space itselfbecomes the highest form of social institution.The location of institutions in relation to the otherelements of structure is also of critical importance.Commonly, institutions occur in central places, areeasily accessible in terms of movement patterns,and are announced by public spaces. The institutionabutting onto the space gives unique character tothe space and often attracts informal activities.Public utility servicesPublic utility services refer to those engineeringservices that are essential to the functioning ofsettlements. They include water provision, sewageremoval, stormwater disposal, solid-waste removaland electricity supply. These services are essential tothe maintenance of public health in settlements.They can be provided in various technologicalforms, all of which have different cost implicationsand environmental and geometric requirements.As a general principle, utility services should beprovided as efficiently and as cost-effectively aspossible, taking due cognisance of the human- andnature-centred approach to settlement-makingproposed herein. However, in terms of structuringsettlements, utility services should follow, not lead.An approach to structure: minimalismand complexityThe appropriate approach to settlement-making isminimalist. This approach requires that the minimumnumber of strong actions necessary to give direction tothe settlement-making process be clearly defined inthe framework plan.6Chapter 2A framework for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNA failure to clearly define the minimum actionsrequired will almost certainly destroy the quality ofthe whole. Essential public and private sectorinvestments may not materialise, leading tounfavourable and unintended outcomes and failure ofthe plan.However, if the plan for settlement-making goes toofar, freedom, and thus complexity, will be reduced. Ahallmark of positive environments is that they arecomplex. Complexity, however, cannot be designed.Environmental diversity results from freedom of actionand the iterative application of the ingenuity of manydecision-makers and actors in meeting their particularrequirements, as well as the needs of their fellowhuman beings.Spatial structure, in a sense, can be seen as theenabling “constraint” which gives direction, and somepredictability, to settlement-making processes,without defining their precise form or outcomes. It isthe function of structure to generate a range ofopportunities to which individuals and groups canrespond, and around which a diversity of humanactivities can take root.While growth and development processes take manyforms and are not always predictable, an enablingplan should nevertheless be aimed at unlocking theenergies, ingenuity and resources of settlementbuildersand implementing agencies. These includeindividuals, groups, communities, small and largedevelopers, utility companies, investors, semigovernmentalorganisations and a range ofgovernmental institutions and agencies.A framework for settlement-making Chapter 27


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYBaynham, C et al (1986). Urban design studio: CapeFlats redevelopment proposal. School of Architectureand Planning, University of Cape Town.Crane, D (1960a). The dynamic city, ArchitecturalDesign, April.Crane, D (1960b). Chandigarh reconsidered, AmericanInstitute of Architect’s Journal.CSIR, Division for Building Technology (1993).Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Servicesand Amenities in Residential Township Development.Pretoria.Dewar, D and Uytenbogaardt, R S (1995). CreatingVibrant Places to Live: A Primer. HeadstartDevelopments, Cape Town.Du Toit, S (1996). The scales of urban order. Papersubmitted to the City Planning and Urban DesignProgramme, School of Architecture and Planning,University of Cape Town.Gasson, B (1997). Evaluating the environmentalperformance of cities, in Davies, R J (ed), inProceedings of the Conference on Structuring theContemporary City: International Geographic Insights.IGU Commission on Urban Development and UrbanLife, Cape Town.Giurgola, R (1978). Louis Khan: Works and Projects.Imprinta Juvenis, Barcelona.Jacobs, A (1993). Great Streets. Cambridge, MIT Press,Mass.Jacobs, J (1962). The death and life of great Americancities. Jonathan Cape, London.Le Corbusier. (nd) The Athens Charter. Grossman, NewYork.Sharon, A (1973). Planning Jerusalem: The Old City andits Environs. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem.South Africa, Department of Housing (1997). Urbandevelopment framework. Pretoria.South Africa, Office of the President (1995).Development Facilitation Act No 67. GovernmentPrinter, Pretoria.Todeschini, F (1994). Cape Town: Physical planningtraditions of a settlement in transition, ArchitectureSA, March/April.Uytenbogaardt, R, Rozendal, N and Dewar, D (1989).Greater Marianhill Structure Plan.Uytenbogaardt, R, Rozendal, N and Dewar, D (1994).Marconi Beam Planning Proposals.Uytenbogaardt, R, Mayet, M, Dewar, D and Todeschini,F (1996). Kliptown, Schematic Urban Design.Uytenbogaardt, R, Dewar, D and Todeschini, F (1997).A philosophic approach to settlement-making.Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR, Pretoria.Hansen, N (1994). The problem of housing - Now andafter the war, South African Architectural Record,August, p 191.8Chapter 2A framework for settlement-making


Chapter 3Spatial and structural principlesfor settlement-making3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1NATURE OF THE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Structural principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Spatial principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4A SYNTHESIS OF THE PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Greenfield sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Urban restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Upgrading informal settlements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8KEY PLANNING GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8General observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8The movement network and public transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8The open space system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Public utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Cross-cutting issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Economic services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 3i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 3.1 Reinforcing modes of movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Figure 3.2 Hierarchical concentrations along routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 3.3 A synthesis of principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 3.4 The detail of the plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6iiChapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONThis chapter focuses on settlements as systems madeup of functionally interrelated elements. It builds onChapter 2 by providing principles important toachieving well-performing settlements, and guidanceon how they can be achieved. Chapter 3 can thereforebe seen as providing the link between the frameworkpresented in Chapter 2 and the practical guidelinesprovided in Chapter 5 and those that follow.In these guidelines principle and idea are addressed,where necessary, by means of generic diagrams, asthese are helpful in defining spatial relationships. Theydo not, however, represent designs. They are a-contextual. In this document the diagrams usegeometric conventions, such as the grid and the pinwheel,to clarify important relationships. It must bestressed, however, that the principles can be expressedin many different forms. It is the principle which isimportant, not the geometric form.NATURE OF THE GUIDELINESThe guidelines are essentially concerned withprinciple, idea and context.• “Principle” refers to a set of spatial “rules”, whichshould be applied in the settlement-makingprocess.• “Idea” refers to the relationships between elementsof structure, which best capture the desiredperformance qualities in the context of a particularproblem.• “Context” has two dimensions.- Time: Time impacts on the technologies whichcan be applied to, or which have to beaccommodated in, the challenge of settlementmaking.- Place: Place refers to the specifics of the natural,socio-economic and cultural environments.Context is the catalyst which transforms an ideainto design. It makes it possible to develop a varietyof different designs, based on the principles andthe idea.PRINCIPLESThe principles which are important in achieving wellperformingsettlements are of a structural and aspatial nature.Structural principlesThe principle of reinforcementIt is necessary to think structurally about allelements within the settlement. This means thateach structural element should reinforce theothers. This is illustrated in Figure 3.1.The figure illustrates how interconnected modesof movement (pedestrian, bicycle, train, tax, bus,car) are brought together into a single corridor,thereby creating a range of structuralopportunities. At points of major connectivity,where stopping points for all modes cometogether (marked 1 on the diagram) thepotential exists for the creation of a major placewith high-order urban activities, as these willtend to gravitate towards such points.The integration of the elements increases thepotential impact to a far greater extent than if they2 2 2ABC3 3 3 3 3 3111,5 to 2 kmLEGENDA. Road-based public transport and private vehicles on high order limited-access routes: bus, taxi and privatevehicles.B. Heavy rail-based public transport: train.C. Light rail-based and road-based public transport as well as private vehicles: tram, bus, taxi, private vehicles.1. First order centre. All modes of transportation.2. Second order centre. Mixed transportation: train, bus, taxi, private vehicle, walk.3. Local order centre. Local transportation: taxi, private vehicle, bicycle, walk.Figure 3.1: Reinforcing modes of movementSpatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 31


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNwere to be considered in isolation. Where two ofthe non-pedestrian links merge, a major place(marked 2 on the diagram) will also emerge, albeitof lesser intensity than 1. At places of localaccessibility (marked 3), however, local orderactivities, supported mostly by local demand, willcluster.The principle of continuityContinuities of green spaceHuman society functions in a landscape thatconsists of the original (or primeval) naturallandscape, as well as rural and urban landscapes.Access to all elements can be considered a basicneed for human beings. As a result, establishingcontinuities of green space becomes an importantelement in the settlement-making process. Apartfrom fulfilling an important human need, thisprinciple also promotes ecological diversity.Ecological systems are complex, with the migrationof species and their exposure to different habitatsforming integral components of the systems.Natural habitats should thus be continuous to allowfor this to occur. At a larger settlement scale, thepromotion and protection of such continuoussystems become important planning principles. At asmaller scale of settlement, green spaces in newdevelopments should contribute to emergingcontinuous green systems.Two additional points can be made about greenspace:• Green space within settlements should beproductive space. Green space requiresmaintenance. If maintenance becomes tooexpensive or, for any other reason, breaksdown, the space becomes environmentallynegative. In addition, in many areas, urbanagriculture has a vital role to play in the supportof urban systems. In this role green space is animportant supplementary source of nutritionand income for poorer people.• Green spaces can absorb outputs fromsettlements. In this regard they can be used forevaporation ponds to remove partially treatedwastewater; and as stormwater-retentionsystems.Continuities of movementThe movement, or flow, of people, finance, goodsand services is the energy network of settlements.Activities requiring the greatest degree ofexposure will tend to gravitate towards the mostaccessible points and links in the energy network.The movement network exhibits its own orderingstructure. At the settlement level the energypotential contained in the network is releasedthrough stopping, not through movement.Different movement modes have different patternsof stopping. Pedestrians and cars can theoreticallystop anywhere along a route, bus stops may bespaced at 500 m to 800 m intervals, and trainstations at intervals of 1,5 km to 2 km. Accordingly,these modes establish different rhythms ofaccessibility. The co-ordination of different modesenables certain points to be strongly reinforced,thus attracting and creating opportunities for theclustering of activities.By definition, routes which do not allow stopping,such as freeways, have little positive structuralimpact (as defined in these guidelines) at the locallevel. They serve as the integrators of space at theinter-settlement level. At the local level ofsettlement they tend to emphasise points of exitand entry, rather than lines of accessibility. At thislevel they sever - rather than integrate - space.The application of the principle of continuityconsists of the creation of a complex and diversepattern of movement and accessibility. This willenable all settlement activities, large and small,formal and informal, to find a place within thestructural system. The resultant land-use patternwill be highly synergistic, with each part of thesystem benefiting - and being benefited by - theother parts.Continuity of built formNew parcels of development should be integratedwith existing development to obtain agglomerationeconomies. There is, however, a scale dimension tothis. At places, the continuity should be consciouslybroken to ensure convenient access to green spaceas well as the natural and rural landscapes.Continuity of public spaceAs discussed earlier, public spaces should make up acontinuous network of space. Achieving a sense ofenclosure and definition is important in this regard.Every building, either through the building itself,its walls, or planting, should contribute to definingthe public space it abuts.The principle of discontinuityIn the settlement-making context the principle ofdiscontinuity refers to the promotion of breaks inparticular components of the urban system, toachieve particular effects.Discontinuities of movementAlong higher-order routes, discontinuities can beused to create special places, such as public squares2Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNand parks. The discontinuity principle can also beused to integrate natural and rural areas andexisting features into the urban landscape.Discontinuities of movement on lower-order routescan be used to create qualities of secrecy or privacy,particularly in that through-traffic is discouraged.Discontinuities of built formPublic space, such as a square or a park, can be usedas a device to interrupt built form, thereby creatingvisual diversity in the built environment.The principle of externalisationSocial facilities and higher-order urban activitiesshould not be “embedded” within residentialprecincts, but should be externalised by locatingthem along more continuous movement routes.This will ensure that the future of facilities is notentirely dependent upon the fortunes andresources of particular local communities. It willalso maximise the potential return on theinvestment in facilities, by making the facilitiesaccessible to a wider range of people. In addition,it will reinforce the private quality of theresidential areas. Lastly, it will contribute to theestablishment of symbiotic relationships betweendifferent activities and facilities.The principle of concentration along routesWhile intensive activities and facilities should beexternalised along continuous routes, it isimportant to recognise that development alongthem will not be even. The accessibility of differentpoints along routes is not the same, as there arepowerful tendencies for more intensive activities toconcentrate at the most accessible points alongmovement routes. These tendencies are illustratedin Figure 3.2.The principle of accommodating samenessand diversityThis principle relates to accommodating bothhomogeneity (sameness) and heterogeneity(diversity) in settlements. It is this principle thataccommodates both cultural and economicdiversity and expression within settlements. Itrecognises that in a democratic, multicultured,society all communities, individuals and culturesare to be accorded equivalent respect.This realisation has significant implications as far asthe approach to structure and space in thesettlement-making process is concerned.The connection between space and structure lies inthe recognition that different activities, cultures,and lifestyles have their own requirements, whichmust be met in the settlement-making process. As aresult, successful settlements are ones that reflectdiversity in terms of areas of sameness, areas ofdiversity or mixed-use development, areas ofcultural homogeneity and areas of cultural diversity.At a fundamental level, the requirements ofsameness and diversity relate to variations in theneed for privacy and exposure. Certain institutionsand public places are more “owned” by particulargroups, communities, lifestyles and cultures andare thus more private, while others are moreneutral or public in the sense that they servebroader, more diverse, communities. Thus, forexample, commercial activities and sport stadiums,when compared to religious activities, areheterogeneous. A mosque, or church, however, is“owned”, by a smaller, more specific set of people.In the sense that there is an order of homogeneityand heterogeneity in successful settlements, thereexists a similar ordering of space, which reflects atransition from more public to more private living.At the heart of positive settlement-making lies thecreation of systems of public spaces which orderactivities, events and facilities according to theirneed for exposure or secrecy, and the integrationof this system of spaces with the movementsystem, which, in itself, forms part of the system ofpublic spaces.In terms of the minimalist approach to planningand design, it is inappropriate to make centraliseddecisions about everything. Greater freedom, andFigure 3.2: Hierarchical concentrations along routesSpatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 33


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNthe more complex process of development whichresults from this, allow many actors to participatein and contribute to the settlement-makingprocess. The result of this approach is settlementmakingand planning in the form of a process, aprocess enabling and involving a diverse range ofdelivery agents.Spatial principlesThere are four spatial principles, which are central tocreating positive settlements. These are definition,scale, flexibility and intensity of space-use.DefinitionIn positive environments the public space is definedby buildings and other space-defining elements,such as walls and planting. This creates a sense ofenclosure. The contrast is free-standing elements ina formless sea of space.ScaleScale refers to judgement about relationships suchas size, distance and height. In settlement terms,reference is usually made to a “human scale”, whichis the scale that human beings feel comfortablewith. Although a quality that can be difficult todefine, it is one that should be striven for in modest,as well as bold, settlement-making processes.FlexibilityPositive environments reflect flexibility in theirspatial structures. The principle of flexibility thusrefers to the creation of spatial structures whichcan accommodate the unexpected demands madeupon them over time.Intensity of space useLand should be used as intensively as possible asthis has positive spin-offs for settlement-making.These include:• the creation of higher levels of support foreconomic and social goods and services;• the establishment of an economic climate inwhich economic activity can thrive;• the creation of the preconditions for viablepublic transportation systems;• the efficient use of infrastructure; and• the achievement of better utilisation of theland, contributing to compact urbanenvironments, reduced travelling and energyconsumption, as well as a reduction in pollution.Intensification does not imply a standardisation ofliving conditions, or uniform densities. In thecontext of the minimalist approach, a choice ofliving conditions, which is an important objectiveof settlement-making, is facilitated in a number ofways, such as:• by encouraging the development of areas ofdifferent character throughout the settlement;• by the presence of contrasts within thestructural system, with respect to space that isprivate and space that is public;• by the natural development or evolution of arange of urban densities; and• by an evolution of configurations of plot shapesand sizes, which result in the promotion ofdifferent housing types.A SYNTHESIS OF THE PRINCIPLESA synthesis of the settlement-making principles,discussed in the preceding sections, is depicted inFigures 3.3 and 3.4. The synthesis indicates how theprinciples can be integrated, thereby establishing a setof locational responses.Figure 3.3 depicts an intense, mixed-use, but primarilyresidential area. The area contains a wide range ofuses: housing, education and other social facilities,formal and informal economic activity, small-scalemanufacturing and small-scale agriculture.Economic activity, both formal and informal, is linkedwith the continuous intra-settlement route. It isbacked by a belt of schools. These play an integrativerole, since they serve pupils from a much wider area.Pupils can access them via public transport along themain road. The library, which serves a number ofschools and the community at large, is located on themain road. The informal play space is associated withthe schools but also serves the broader community. Inorder not to disrupt the continuity of building alongstreets it is located on the periphery.Opportunities for urban agriculture are created on theperiphery of the site. Stormwater runoff is organisedso that this area is irrigated. The agricultural areaforms part of the storm-water management system.A small-scale manufacturing hive forms the westernedge of the agricultural belt. This is associated withlarger scale manufacturing to the west of the site.All space is designated as social space. A continuoushierarchical system of public spaces organises thelocation of educational and other public facilities, allof which are externalised.4Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBand ofagriculturePredominantly residential precinctDiscontinuous routesBand of publicfacilities andcommerce1 151414101013B1 131414 10101610131 11 13 2 7 8 7 4 523 214Intra-settlement routeC23291121132101A51 66Figure 3.3: A synthesis of principlesThe residential precinct is primarily organised around a400 m by 400 m super-block module. There is no oneideal block size, as this will vary with context. Thechoice of the block and its internal organisationreflects an attempt to optimise efficiencies in terms ofpedestrian and vehicular movement. The organisingsystem is one of nesting blocks. At the larger scale,blocks are approximately 200 m by 200 m (althoughsome variation in size is necessitated by the need forspace-making), which is efficient in terms of vehicularuse. At the smaller scale, the basic block size is 80 m by80 m, a comfortable scale for pedestrians and onewhich is found in many cities of the world. Thesmallest blocks can also be accessed by car, but arechiefly pedestrian.A hierarchical system of discontinuous routes createvarying levels of privacy: there is a wide range of livingconditions in terms of publicness and privacy.The larger movement channels also serve as lineargreen spaces. They also accommodate vehicular andpedestrian movement and parking, which function aspart of the green system.The plan also shows how a variety of plot sizes andconfigurations, and thus house types, can beaccommodated and how higher densities can beachieved.Figure 3.4 shows areas A, B and C (indicated inFigure 3.3) in greater detail. Numbers inparenthesis refer to numbering in Figure 3.4.• The community facilities are externalised (1). Thereis a pronounced dimension of order in the system,with the largest and most important facilitiesassociated with the highest-order spaces. It is notnecessary to predetermine the form of thesefacilities. Communities can establish their ownpriorities.• The educational facilities comprise urban schools.Where possible, they should be atomised (i.e.broken up into parts), with community facilitiessuch as sports fields, halls, libraries, computercentres and laboratories being shared betweenschools and between school and community (2, 3).• Informal play spaces associated with the schools arelocated on the periphery, to maintain thecontinuity of the built form along streets (2, 3).Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 35


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The planted spaces can be used in many ways,including community events and parking (4).• The main road is made into a space toaccommodate parking (5).• Main market sites for informal trading occur athighly accessible points (6).• An intensive mixed-used zone, with flats aboveshops is promoted (7).• There is a service zone serving the shops (8).• There are communal gardens for agriculturalactivity (9).• Refuse-sorting points are planned. Their location isdetermined by the main refuse-removal route (10).• An important forecourt space is located at the endof a discontinuous route (11).• There are manufacturing hives (12).• In low-income, informal housing areas, corner sitesmay be used as communal bath-houses and laundrypoints (13).• Elongated planted spaces are shown. These aresocial places that operate as social extensions ofthe houses. They are important play spaces forchildren (14).21 111 13 2 7 8 724453211 6156A1151 1314 1 11014113161010113B9101223212111 1329CFigure 3.4: The detail of the plan6Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• An important public space gathers to it communityfacilities and commercial activity. As with 14, inthese spaces neither the car nor the pedestriandominates (15).• A fine-grained housing precinct which is effectivelypedestrian dominated (16).APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLESThe guidelines for settlement-making have beenformulated on the basis of principles. In theirapplication to a site, however, they can obviously becaptured in many forms and need to be applied on anintegrated basis. Some brief notes in this regard areprovided below.At present there are in essence three generic urbanconditions prevailing in South Africa. These aregreenfield or undeveloped sites, urban restructuring,and the upgrading of informal settlements. In each ofthese cases the form is different but the application ofthe principles should be the same.Greenfield sitesThe generic problem of greenfield developments is toprovide a spatial ordering system to guide growth(which may occur relatively quickly) on the site, whileintegrating it with surrounding urban systems to thegreatest degree possible.The plan for a greenfield site should seek to create anarea of settlement which is highly liveable and whichhas inherent qualities that will promote ongoingprocesses of consolidation and upgrading over time. Itshould be informed by the needs of the main affectedparties, including existing residents, entrepreneursand industrialists, as well as new residents. It should berecognised that each of these constituencies hasdifferent requirements of, and within, the settlementsystem, which need to be respected and protected.Existing communities and entrepreneurs need to bepart of an environment with which they are familiar,the new settlement needs to be closely tied intobroader city-wide systems but at the same time musthave its own logic, identity and, over time, sense ofcommunity and belonging.Urban restructuringAt the heart of urban restructuring is increasinginvestor confidence - for people to invest in theenvironment, from both an economic and residentialpoint of view. To improve the urban environment overtime, they must have confidence that the area isimproving and that their investment will be safe. Indepressed environments the application of theidentified settlement-making principles can play animportant role in creating a climate of confidence.In essence, restructuring involves a number of genericactions:• establishing a spatial structural logic or order bycreating spaces and achieving the greatest possiblecontinuities of movement at different scales - inparticular, breaking down the fragmented urbanpattern which is characteristic in South Africanurban settlements;• improving the quality of the public spatialenvironment;• creating new public spaces where they arerequired;• intensification, through housing-infill programmes,in order to increase thresholds of support and thuslevels of service.Urban restructuring also requires channelling of newdevelopment into existing areas in order to improvethem. This can be achieved by using new development,particularly housing, to increase densities in order toimprove levels of service (for example, along existingor new transportation corridors), or to make better useof existing investments (for example, in inner cityareas, around existing commercial and industrialnodes). This approach is consistent with the principleof reinforcement.Upgrading informal settlementsA common challenge in terms of South Africansettlements is that of upgrading informal settlements.In terms of greenfield sites the generic problem is toprovide, from the beginning, a public spatial structureto guide new development. In the case of informalsettlements, the problem is one of the later provisionof a public spatial structure to provide relief fromovercrowding, to create public gathering places, toguide public and private investment and to improvemovement systems. Whereas, in the greenfield case,housing and economic development is generated bymeans of infill development in the context of thespatial structure, in the case of upgrading projects thenegotiated relocation of residents and economicactivities may be necessary to create a spatial structureconsistent with settlement-making principles.KEY PLANNING GUIDELINESIn this section key planning guidelines are established,within the context of the minimalist approach tosettlement-making. The guidelines deal specificallywith those elements of the settlement-making processover which the planner has relative control.Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 37


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGeneral observations• Different communities have different priorities interms of social facilities. The important thing is notto predetermine the form of all facilities, butrather the positioning of social institutions valuedby the community. The precise nature and form ofmany of these facilities can be determined overtime by the community itself.• The principle of lump-sum funding should beadopted in financing new settlement-formation.Funds should preferably not be allocated in apredetermined manner (for example Rx amountfor roads, Ry for community halls) but should beallocated as a lump-sum to allow for negotiatedtrade-offs within the planning process.• Community facilities are important place-makingelements and they should be deliberately used, incombination with public space, to makememorable places.• Social facilities are dependent upon public supportand play an important integrating function in andbetween communities. They should therefore be“externalised”, by being located in places of highaccessibility, and made accessible to the local andsurrounding communities. In this way, they bringtogether people from a number of local areas andare not tied to the fortunes of any one community.• Realities of resource scarcity demand that publicspaces and buildings be used for more than onepurpose. This is consistent with the principles ofmultifunctionality and the sharing of resourcesbetween user groups.The movement network and publictransport• Public transport is essential in areas that arecharacterised by low levels of car ownership. As faras possible, new development in such areas shouldsupport public transport. Higher densities increasethe viability of public transport and should beencouraged along public transport routes.• Coordinating the stopping points and terminals ofdifferent movement modes significantly increasesthe attractive power of the zones in which they arefound. These zones are ideal for high intensity,mixed-use development.• Movement should not be seen as a separateelement but as an activity which occurs withinsocial space.• The degree to which movement dominates spacevaries from spaces which are entirely pedestriandominatedto spaces which are entirely vehicledominated.As a general principle, however, mostspaces within settlements should accommodateboth pedestrian and vehicular activity. However,entirely pedestrian routes, which vehicles cannotpenetrate, have their place in settlements.• Movement spaces should be flexible, to allow themto meet other demands - such as markets, meetingplaces and parking.• There is a strong ordering dimension to movement.At all scales, it is necessary to maximise continuitiesof movement, as this promotes choice andintegration. Land uses should be able to respondfreely to movement patterns as this encouragesdiversity and a mix of activities.• While being ordered, rigid approaches tomovement hierarchies, such as inflexiblestipulations regarding intersection spacing andaccess should be avoided, as these mitigate againstspontaneous settlement-making.• The most important social spaces are low-order,local streets and these, in particular, mustaccommodate pedestrian activities.The open space system• In the case of large city-wide green space systems,continuity is important to promote ecologicaldiversity.• Sports facilities form an important part of thegreen recreation system.• Formal sports fields, which function as greenspaces, should be located to ensure a maximumdegree of sharing of space, such as sharingbetween sports clubs, seasonal sports, schools andcommunities.• Passive recreational places where people can walk,picnic or reflect on life are important settlementfacilities. Wherever possible, these should take“natural” forms, which do not require maintenanceand should be associated with unique naturalfeatures such as forests or plantations, hills, riversand streams.Urban agriculture• Land for urban agriculture is particularlyimportant in settlements where people aredependent on their own produce for food andnutrition, or have to supplement their incomes.• Urban agriculture is an environmental featurethat can operate as an area of visual relief,particularly in situations where finance tomaintain “public open space” is not available.8Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• Space for urban agriculture should generally beprovided on the edge of the settlement, in ordernot to disrupt the continuity of the urban fabric.Public facilitiesEducation• The creation of environments which promotelearning forms an integral part of thesettlement-making process. Learning has bothformal and informal dimensions. Schoolingrelates to the formal dimension of education.Informal learning stems from exposing peopleto experiences outside the formal learningenvironment, such as experiencing nature,urban activities and social events. In thisrespect, the informal part of the learningexperience can be enhanced by integratingeducational facilities with the broadersettlement structure. This can be achieved bylocating schools, colleges, technikons, adulteducationcentres and universities close toplaces of intensive urban activities.• The concept of the specialised self-containedschool, accommodated on a spatially discretesite and serving only its pupil population, needsa rethink. Schools should be seen as resourcesserving both pupils and the broader community.In this regard schools can accommodate theschool population during the day and, wherepossible, adult education during the evenings.Similarly, halls and libraries can serve the schoolpopulation during the day and the broadercommunity during the evening, ensuring 18-hour usage of facilities.• The need for informal school play space can besupplemented by public space adjacent towhich the school is located. Formal sports fieldscan serve both the school and the broadercommunity.• In terms of their location, schools should be partof an accessible, city-wide system of educationfacilities. Accordingly, they should be locatedclose to continuous public transport routes. Thiswill make schools sustainable over a longerperiod, since they will draw pupils from a largerarea, thus becoming less susceptible tofluctuations in the local population.Health• Health considerations must inform alldimensions of settlement-making and design.Particularly important is ensuring clean air,potable water, the disposal of human and toxicwaste, air circulation, shelter and theprevention of overcrowding.• Health facilities should be accessible and shouldbe integrated with public transportation. Thiscan be achieved by locating such facilities closeto activity areas and regular places ofgathering.• The location of preventively orientated healthfacilities, such as clinics, in association withprimary and pre-primary schools, offersadvantages. Preventive functions, such asinoculation and nutritional programmes arebest delivered through schools. Where amultipurpose hall serves a number of schools, aclinic may be beneficially located within oradjacent to that hall.Meeting spaces• Both open-air public spaces and enclosed spacessuch as community halls are important parts ofsocial infrastructure. Halls should be located inassociation with public spaces as this will allowfor events in one to spill over into the other, orprovide alternatives in case of weather changes.• Halls should also be associated with otherpublic facilities, such as schools and markets.Given the limited number of public facilitieswhich can be provided in any one settlement, itmakes sense to concentrate these to create alimited number of special places, which becomethe memorable parts of the settlement.• The number and location of meeting placescannot simply be numerically derived. Rather, itis necessary to create “forum” places, placeswhich over time assume a symbolic significanceoutstripping their purely functional role.Religion• Religious facilities are “public” in the sense ofserving large numbers of people and being ofgreat significance to the communities that theyserve. They should, therefore, be accordedequivalent respect, regardless of theirdenomination.• They should be located at equivalent,significant places within the settlement. Theirsymbolic importance can be emphasised byusing them to define vistas and by associatingthem with significant natural landmarks.Public utilitiesPublic utility services are engineering services, such aspotable water and electricity into settlements, andsewage, refuse, stormwater and wastewater removalfrom settlements.Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 39


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNAs far as possible, it is necessary to work with nature interms of these “inputs” and “outputs”. Thus:• Water-collection technologies (e.g. roof tanks)should form an important part of the infrastructurein water-scarce areas.• Woodlots can form important supplementarysources of energy.• In certain places, solar energy is a viable alternativeenergy form.• Stormwater and partially treated wastewater canbe used for irrigation by being channelled toplaying fields and urban agricultural areas.Engineering services can be provided through a widevariety of technologies; all these have different costimplications. The choice of appropriate technologyshould, however, result from an examination of social,environmental and cost issues.Cross-cutting issuesCrime preventionIt is generally accepted that certain types of crimecan be limited if the environment is designedappropriately.• Ensure surveillance and visibility throughmultifunctional land uses, rather thanmonofunctional zoning, to ensure long hoursof use; provide inviting and well-definedoutdoor spaces conducive to users meeting andcommunicating; all paths and pedestrianroutes should be in areas where there issurveillance, good lighting, controlledvegetation and high levels of activity; smallopen spaces should be strategically locatedwithin the neighbourhood.• Owners/users should be encouraged to takeresponsibility for places by avoiding tracts ofvacant land without designated users orcontrol; design the public realm to increasepeople’s ability to read the built environment;networks of small neighbourhood parks arepreferred to uncontrolled large open spaces.• Limit easy access and escape routes for criminalsby carefully planning the location, size anddesign of large open spaces; avoid ending roadson vacant/undeveloped land; clearly markpedestrian routes.Environmental concernsThe following ecological factors need to beconsidered when designing human settlements:• Identify geological conditions and assess risksand costs associated with development on lessideal geological terrain.• Consider hydrological concerns, especially withregard to stormwater runoff and its directrelationship with urban development (e.g. plotsize, type of land use).• Take note of atmospheric considerations interms of orientation and layout of erven, theimpact of the prevailing wind direction, plus airand noise pollution.• Consider implications of development onbiodiversity.Emergency servicesThe main emergency services are ambulance, firefightingand police services.• Fire stations and ambulance depots should belocated near the intersection of majorcontinuous urban routes to facilitate rapidaccess to the movement network. Similarly,police stations should be centrally locatedrelative to the areas they serve.• At a local scale, it is not necessary to enableaccess to every housing unit by emergencyvehicles. However, in such cases, distancesshould be short enough for easy stretcherbearing,and for buildings to be reached by firehoses.• The public spatial structure, which includesstreets and public spaces, should bedeliberately used for fire-breaks. In informalhousing areas, which are not served byelectricity, provision should be made, as part ofthe essential public infrastructure, for spaceswhere fires can be made, as cooking frequentlyoccurs in these spaces.Economic servicesEconomic considerations should be taken into accountin all the planned elements of a settlement. Some ofthe related concepts and applications are discussedbelow.Employment generationIn South Africa employment generation is one ofthe highest priorities facing society. The reality isthat the majority of potentially economically activepeople have no option but to generate their ownemployment, usually in the form of “informalsector”activity. It follows that a pressing priority insettlement-making is to create opportunities for10Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNpeople to manufacture, trade and provide services.Settlement plans should ensure that sufficientintensity is generated at points in the settlementstructure to generate local markets. A plan shouldprovide an easily readable spatial structure whichunambiguously suggests major movementchannels and places of gathering, allowingentrepreneurs to respond to the structure created.As a rule, entrepreneurs will find their own place inthe structure and will provide their owninfrastructure where necessary. However, givenproblems of entry capital and urban managementin many settlements, it may be necessary toestablish urban markets and manufacturinginfrastructure by means of deliberate publicactions.Urban marketsUrban markets result from the physicalagglomeration of large numbers of traders inpublic spaces.There are a number of advantages in promotingmarkets by means of public actions.• The creation of urban markets enables smalloperators to gain access to viable locations.• The physical concentration of numbers oftraders increases their drawing capacity andenables them to compete with larger, formaloperators.• The agglomeration of large numbers of tradersestablishes the potential for other forms ofmutually advantageous co-operation, such asdelivery of bulk supplies from wholesalers, thesharing of vehicles, and so on.• Markets in low-income areas can provide animportant service to consumers, in that theyoffer variety and choice of goods and services topeople who are unable to travel large distances.• From the perspective of urban management,the creation of urban markets contributes tothe resolution of problems of hygiene.Markets should be located at points of maximumaccessibility. Particularly, they should seek a closeassociation with public transport and majorpedestrian flows. Wherever possible, they shouldbe associated with public transport terminals, suchas railway stations and bus and taxi ranks.The centrality of the market should be reinforcedby associating other forms of public infrastructure,such as clinics, halls, community resource centres,pension pay-points and services pay-points, with it.Engineering services required to maintainadequate levels of hygiene, including water, publictoilets, and refuse storage facilities, should also beprovided.Markets need not always be permanent. The use ofpublic spaces, including streets, for periodicmarkets, at certain times of the day, week or year isalso a positive, cost-efficient option.Manufacturing infrastructureMost of the arguments associated with theprovision of markets also apply to the provision ofhives for small-scale manufacturing.The critical elements of infrastructure are shelteredwork spaces, electricity, water and toilet facilities.The use of metered water and electricity enablesregulated usage by small-scale operators.From a locational point of view, small-scalemanufacturing needs to be associated with pointsof movement - in particular pedestrian activity.Because they are frequently single-personoperations, it is difficult for operators to separatemanufacturing and selling functions. Consequently,they should be associated with urban markets andother forms of trade agglomerations.Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making Chapter 311


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYBaynham, C et al (1986). Urban design studio: CapeFlats redevelopment proposal. School of Architectureand Planning, University of Cape Town.Crane, D (1960a). The dynamic city, ArchitecturalDesign, April.Crane, D (1960b). Chandigarh reconsidered, AmericanInstitute of Architect’s Journal.CSIR, Division for Building Technology (1993).Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Servicesand Amenities in Residential Township Development.Pretoria.Dewar, D and Uytenbogaardt, R S (1995). CreatingVibrant Places to Live: A Primer. HeadstartDevelopments, Cape Town.Du Toit, S (1996). The scales of urban order. Papersubmitted to the City Planning and Urban DesignProgramme, School of Architecture and Planning,University of Cape Town.Gasson, B (1997). Evaluating the environmentalperformance of cities, in Davies, R J (ed), inProceedings of the Conference on Structuring theContemporary City: International Geographic Insights.IGU Commission on Urban Development and UrbanLife, Cape Town.Giurgola, R (1978). Louis Khan: Works and Projects.Imprinta Juvenis, Barcelona.Jacobs, A (1993). Great Streets. Cambridge, MIT Press,Mass.Jacobs, J (1962). The death and life of great Americancities. Jonathan Cape, London.Le Corbusier. The Athens Charter. Grossman, NewYork.Sharon, A (1973). Planning Jerusalem: The Old Cityand its Environs. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Jerusalem.South Africa, Department of Housing (1997). Urbandevelopment framework. Pretoria.South Africa, Office of the President (1995).Development Facilitation Act No 67. GovernmentPrinter, Pretoria.Todeschini, F (1994). Cape Town: Physical planningtraditions of a settlement in transition, ArchitectureSA, March/April.Uytenbogaardt, R, Rozendal, N and Dewar, D (1989).Greater Marianhill Structure Plan.Uytenbogaardt, R, Rozendal, N and Dewar, D (1994).Marconi Beam Planning Proposals.Uytenbogaardt, R, Mayet, M, Dewar, D and Todeschini,F (1996). Kliptown, Schematic Urban Design.Uytenbogaardt, R, Dewar, D and Todeschini, F (1997).A philosophic approach to settlement-making.Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR, Pretoria.Hansen, N (1994). The problem of housing - Now andafter the war, South African Architectural Record,August, p 191.12Chapter 3Spatial and structural principles for settlement-making


Chapter 4Planning method andparticipation4


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1APPROPRIATE NATURE OF THE PLANNING METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1APPROPRIATE NATURE OF PARTICIPATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1ROLE-PLAYERS IN THE PLANNING PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2ROLE OF THE PLANNER IN THE PLANNING PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2THE PLAN-MAKING PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Identification and notification of interested and affected parties and other stakeholders . . . . . . . . . 3Negotiation of a participation strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Needs identification and prioritisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Site assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Setting of goals and objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Establishment of a crude land allocation budget. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Preparation of a conceptual plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Preparation of a framework plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Costing and budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Preparation of an implementation process plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Administering the plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6ADAPTING THE METHOD AND THE PARTICIPATION PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Planning method and participation Chapter 4i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNiiChapter 4Planning method and participation


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONBesides moving into a more democratic planningenvironment in South Africa, there is a definite moveaway from the blueprint nature of planning and to alesser degree, away from procedural planning. At thesame time, there is a shift away from non-participationand/or token processes to more inclusive andinteractive planning processes. The current trend inplanning is largely based on the satisfaction offundamental human needs, as stated in Chapters 2 and3. Accordingly, the “human scale developmentplanning method” is advocated. The form of publicparticipation proposed is that of partnerships as aform of citizen empowerment. This chapter takes thefollowing into account as its points of departure:• That there is current approved planning legislationsuch as the Development Facilitation Act (No 67 of1995) which emphasises a planning framework andprocess based on need, integration and communityparticipation.• That current and/or new planning legislation doesnot exclude existing planning legislation andreference to previous legislation such as guideplans, zoning schemes, ordinances, and so on.• Due to the multi-disciplinary nature of planning itmust be accepted that there is a tendency inplanning practice for planning and development tobe managed by project managers who are notnecessarily professional planners. The specific roleof the planner in the planning process has shiftedfrom purely technical to that of mainly a technicalexpert, coordinator, facilitator and advocate.• While the role of theory in understanding methodand participation is very important, context andrealistic circumstances prevailing in South Africamust also inform method and participation.• In the past, communities did not play an importantrole in planning and development. However,communities have a wealth of local knowledgethat they can offer as well as a naturalunderstanding of their needs, requirements, localconditions and relationships. This knowledge is avitally important part of planning anddevelopment.• There is a place for procedural planning methods,albeit not in the form that it was practiced in the1970’s, but in a more appropriate and relevant form.APPROPRIATE NATURE OF THEPLANNING METHODHuman scale development “is focused and based onthe satisfaction of fundamental human needs, on thegeneration of growing levels of self-reliance, and onthe construction of organic articulations of peoplewith nature and technology, of global processes withlocal activity, of the personal with the social, ofplanning with autonomy and of civil society with thestate” (Max-Neef 1991, p 8). These pillars must besustained on a solid foundation of creating conditionswhere people are the protagonists in their own future.The focus of planning method and participationshould be on the response to basic human needs.Human scale development assumes a direct andparticipatory democracy that nurtures thoseconditions that help to transform the conventional,paternalistic role of a state into a role that encouragescreative solutions flowing from the bottom up.APPROPRIATE NATURE OFPARTICIPATIONGovernance is a term that encompasses the relationshipbetween civil society and government. It should createan environment in which there is representativeness,legitimacy, accountability and transparency. Theachievement of sustainable development within cities isimpossible without competent, effective andrepresentative city and local government that works inpartnership with citizen groups, business, societies andnon-governmental organisations (NGOs) (Global Forum‘94 Conference 1994).One of the fundamental sources of conflict is thecompetition for scarce resources. Development inSouth Africa very often introduces scarce resourcesinto resource-starved communities and thereforefocuses on the existing power struggles in thesecommunities, because individuals and organisationscontrolling resources command political allegiance(Hindson and Swilling 1995). Power structures individed communities are part of reality and means ofdealing with them must be incorporated in anydevelopment process.At the one end of the participation spectrum, recipientcommunities are not involved at all in the decisionmakingprocess whereas at the other end of thespectrum, more radical planning processes such as thatadvocated by the organised homeless in the country,essentially find little need for government and professionalinput into their planning processes. Rather than any ofthese two extremes, a partnership approach to planning isadvocated in these guidelines.Partnerships provide the integrated planning frameworkwithin which development initiatives occur. Partnershipsalso ensure cooperation among stakeholders as the partiesPlanning method and participation Chapter 41


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN“agree to share the planning and decision-makingresponsibilities through structures such as joint policyboards, planning committees and mechanisms forresolving impasses ” (Arnstein 1996).Partnership-based planning processes provide morethan a mechanism for public participation. Theymobilise community expertise, commitment, andresources for joint action. It is agreed that there is nosingle correct way to create a partnership planningprocess, but trial and error and reviewing successstories offer some useful guidelines.The focus of participation is on delivery and not onideologies and/or political power; accordingly, a publicparticipation process is required that is flexible enoughto address the realities of the stakeholder participationand community dynamics, while keeping focus.ROLE-PLAYERS IN THE PLANNINGPROCESSThe “role” of each group involved in the partnership,being the community, the local authority (or decisionmakers/politicians)and the professionals is as follows:• The community has a wealth of local knowledgethat it brings to the project as well as a naturalunderstanding of the local conditions andrelationships. The community can identify needsand measure improvements. One of the importantroles of community representatives is todisseminate information into the broadercommunity. Professionals can also benefit fromcommunity representatives, as they collect andbring socio-economic and demographicinformation and personal experience from thecommunities, which can be used to inform theplanning process and strengthen the community’scase during negotiations. When the community isinvolved, proposals or plans are more likely to beacceptable.In a greenfield situation, “the community”includes surrounding stakeholders and/orpotential users of a settlement. In most instances,potential users are known, whether they are on awaiting list or waiting to be housed in publichousing or private developments. There is alwaysa sense of “the potential users”. Otherstakeholders include interested and affectedparties such as developers, local authorities, etc. Inin-situ or renewal situations, “the community” isusually already resident.• The decision-maker (or government organisation)has power by virtue of laws - laws that ensureimplementation. The local council can also providethe information centres required by all parties,including staff, financing, and other resources toencourage and improve public-participationprogrammes.• The professionals have technical expertise andexperience in land delivery. They can also fulfilvarious roles, such as that of facilitator,coordinator, advocate, etc. Included in this group isthe developer who could be a private developer orthe local authority.ROLE OF THE PLANNER IN THEPLANNING PROCESSThe traditional role of the planner is that of principalcoordinator, project manager and technicalprofessional in the settlement-development process.The planner operates within the realm of legalrequirements for township establishment, rezoningsand consent uses, and his or her technical role is inmotivating the changes in land use. In motivating theland use change, the planner needs to consult widelywith other professionals from other disciplines, andthe ability to think holistically and integrate variousinputs is essential. The traditional role of the plannerremains. However, with the involvement of thecommunity in the planning process, additional skillsare required. These skills do not necessarily residewithin a planner or any other one professional. If theplanner does have the necessary additional skills, suchas conflict resolution and negotiation, his or her rolecan be expanded. If not, the additional required skillscan be brought in as part of the project team, and theplanner co-operates and co-ordinates with allmembers of the team.THE PLAN-MAKING PROCESSOther than the broad directive that the plan-makingprocess should be centered on human needs anddriven by a partnership between the community, theprofessionals and decision-makers, these guidelinesare not intended to suggest a step-by-step planmakingprocess which needs to be strictly adhered tounder all circumstances, but rather to outline typicalactions necessary in plan-making, which can beadapted, ordered and applied under variousconditions and contexts at the discretion of thepartnership team. In addition, the dynamics broughtto the process by including the community cannot bepredicted or stifled and the plan-making process needsalmost to unfold as the process progresses,appropriate to that group of participants, at that pointin time, and for that particular set of needs andcircumstances. Despite this requirement for flexibilityin the process, there are a number of common keyactions which are typically followed in plan-making.Broadly, the actions stem from two kinds of decisionsequences: those concerned with making the plan andthose concerned with administering it.2Chapter 4Planning method and participation


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIdentification and notification ofinterested and affected parties and otherstakeholdersPartnerships work most effectively where there is anorganised power-base in the community to whichcitizen leaders are accountable (Arnstein 1996).Effective participation can be obtained ifrepresentatives, who have been elected throughdemocratic structures, are involved. It is, however,extremely difficult to develop and operate anorganisational system that reaches the majority ofcitizens; therefore one must use existing institutionsand their networks to achieve what needs to bedone, for example local councils, residentsorganisations, business organisations, NGOs and civicorganisations, etc. As community-based organisations(CBOs) and NGOs are not always well resourced, it isimportant to build up capacity in the communitiesone is working with, so as not to put resources solelyin the hands of professionals and have thegovernment merely be a facilitator (Schiceka 1994).The NGOs require particular consideration on the issueof how people need to be represented at local level.The NGOs are recognised as having an important rolein initiating, facilitating and sustaining communityaction. However, while promoting the initial steps indemocracy and participation, they can also be counterproductiveif they become self-serving and competefor resources themselves. Communities should bothvalue and capitalise on the inputs from NGOs.Representatives of communities should be electeddemocratically to prevent misrepresentation; however,the initiative should come from the communities.The means of notifying stakeholders is through• press releases;• scheduled meetings with representative bodies;• pamphlets/photos;• telephone calls; and• mail drop.Negotiation of a participation strategyOnce the groups have been identified, the publicparticipation requirements or strategy need to benegotiated with all parties including communities.One must not merely inform the community of its rolein a specific project. It is very important to set groundrules for participation where all the roles,responsibilities, participation limits and rights, as wellas the process, are understood and agreed upon upfront.Careful consideration should be given to the design ofthe consultation process, as the players could changeand then the only “fixed” issue is the agreed-uponparticipation process. As there are various levels ofparticipation, active and passive, the interested andaffected parties should not necessarily be the focus butrather the proposed participation process. Thereshould never be a barrier to participants’ joining atany stage during the participation process, but therules for joining should be specified in theparticipation strategy.Once the participation strategy has been agreed upon,it should be documented and signed as a partnershipagreement which can be referred to at any stage inthe participation process. The fundamental purpose ofthe partnership agreement is to facilitate the processof bringing together all stakeholders, for them toagree on the details of the type of development totake place and establish what each party has to offerthe development. Stakeholders should enter into apartnership agreement to establish a decision-makingforum directed at creating an environment ofcooperation, in addition to obtaining the commitmentof all. A partnership agreement should also be adynamic agreement, which should permit additionalstakeholders to become signatories at any pointduring the process. It is the document that formallyrecords the content and terms of this agreement.Thereafter projects should be implemented,monitored and evaluated in terms of theabovementioned agreement so that the objectives ofthis agreement are met.Local councils and decision-makers should havestrategies that outline their commitment to working inpartnership with communities. Such strategies shouldbe defined and have measurable objectives, promotingan interdisciplinary culture that values communityparticipation. Examples exist in the Local Agenda 21programme. Depending on the way institutions arestructured, their interactions will either facilitate orobstruct participation and partnership. It is vitallyimportant for members of communities to be able tomeet members of government, the decision-makers, inorder to facilitate participation. Institutions may needto alter their structures and modes of operation inorder to promote appropriate interactions.Mediation skills and mechanisms need to be built intoplanning and reconstruction because the possibilityexists at almost every stage of the developmentprocess that negotiations will break down. Theapproach to development is therefore the formulationof partnership agreements as a framework for conflictresolution. In order to reduce conflict it is importantfor the client to attend public meetings in the planpreparationprocess, in order to be exposed tocommunities’ needs and perceptions.A forum or steering committee should be establishedby the partners to ensure that adequate andappropriate planning occurs, that a process ofparticipation is established, and that a mechanism formanagement of the project is created, as well as toensure the implementation, monitoring and evaluationof the project in terms of the negotiated agreement.Planning method and participation Chapter 43


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNNeeds identification and prioritisationThe identification and prioritisation of needs is bestinformed by the people whose needs are to befulfilled. This action can be coordinated and facilitatedby a planner, a project manager or any other personwith facilitation skills. The community needs to be themain role-player and take the lead where possible andnecessary. Essential tasks in this action involve thefollowing:Capacity-building and empowermentIf required, capacity-building must happen prior tosetting goals, objectives, etc, for the project. Thecommunity needs to be aware of its minimumrights, responsibilities, technical considerations andthe options available to it. In addition it needs tobe aware of the operations and decision-makingprocesses of the client (local authority, governmentor a major developer).Sustainable development cannot be achievedunless problems and issues are addressed in acooperative and interdisciplinary way. Structuresand channels of communication that promote thisshould therefore be created (Global Forum ‘94Conference 1994). The degree to which citizens areactually placated depends on two factors: thequality of technical assistance they have inarticulating their needs and priorities, and theextent to which the community has been organisedto press for those priorities (Arnstein 1996).Disseminating informationSuccessful sustainable development programmesdepend to a large extent on the ability to makewise decisions on options and actions. Wisedecisions can be made only if good qualityinformation is available. It is thus very importantthat such an information system be put in place.Such a system could include resource andinformation centres, with appropriatetechnological and human-resource back-up (GlobalForum ‘94 Conference 1994).Choice of living conditionsThe best settlements are created when people havea wide range of choices in relation to livingconditions. Each new development should thereforecontribute to broadening the range of choices. Abasic decision is whether the range of choices iscreated on-site, or whether development on the siteprovides one option in a range of choices over alarger area. As a general principle, the larger the site,the greater the choice of living conditions becomesan issue.Site assessmentIn this action, the planner takes the lead ascoordinator and facilitator. Assistance fromcommunities is encouraged. Other professionals (suchas engineers, environmental planners, etc) will gatherthe data necessary to undertake their specialist tasks.All relevant information necessary to undertake adetailed site assessment or analysis of context needs tobe acquired. The site assessment needs to occur withinthe context of the identified needs, from a number ofperspectives.Site potential and relationshipsEach land parcel has unique relationships withother land parcels, each with their differentstructuring elements and relationships. Thepotential of each parcel in terms of theserelationships, and uses which could beaccommodated on it, need to be discovered.Site integration and/or discontinuityIt is essential to integrate the site with other landparcels. The principles of achieving continuities anddiscontinuities are central to the integrationprocess.The natural systemEach land parcel is unique in terms of the naturalsystem (geology, soils, topography, hydrology,climate, flora and fauna) which gives it itscharacter. These features need to be carefullyunderstood to determine the following:• The presence of important ecological systems,which should be protected to ensure theircontinued functioning.• The appropriate approach to development.There are two basic approaches. The first relieson a strong, imposed geometry to create place.The other, which is a more organic approach,gives less direct direction and is usually moreresponsive to the natural landscape. The chosenapproach is usually a combination of these basicapproaches.• The orientation. This is informed by aspectssuch as views, wind protection, the need tooptimise light and shade, shelter from theelements, and so on.• The engineering constraints. Natural conditionscan play an important role in determining whichengineering technologies should be used.• The availability of resources. Sites may containresources, such as building materials, which can4Chapter 4Planning method and participation


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNbe used in a development and which contributeto a unique sense of place.• The potential of natural place-making features.Water bodies can, for example, be used asplace-making elements.See also Sub-chapter 5.8.2 for further elaborationregarding ecological considerations.The higher-order planning systemThe site must be contextualised in terms of higherlevelexisting requirements of integrateddevelopment plans (IDPs)/local developmentobjectives (LDOs)/spatial development frameworks,integrated transport plans, local economicdevelopment and environmental plans applicablein the area.Setting of goals and objectivesThis phase requires the translation of needs intogoals and objectives that are realistic, given thenature and conditions of the site, parameters of thebrief and financial and time constraints. It isimportant for the planner to introduce and debatethe performance qualities to be achieved in thedevelopment of settlements, and for technicalprofessionals to ensure that stakeholders understandall aspects of the site assessment. The participationprocess should focus on• enabling interested and affected parties andauthorities to bring to the attention of the projectteam their concerns, attitudes and perceptionsabout the project and related investigations; and• ensuring that the interested and affected parties’concerns, attitudes and perceptions are addressedby the project team.Establishment of a crude land allocationbudgetHaving assessed the site and needs and set broad goalsand objectives, it is useful to calculate a coarse landallocationbudget, which includes• a determination of what activities and land usesshould be accommodated on the site; and• a determination of the approximate land areasrequired for the various components of thesettlement.Although the land budget cannot be calculatedprecisely, it is useful in that it establishes a generalsense of scale and it identifies the public andinstitutional elements that are appropriate to the site,over which the planner has relative control.Preparation of a conceptual planThis action involves the formulation of a conceptualspatial ordering system for the settlement. It requiresthe articulation of the main principles and ideasinforming the plan. The conceptual plan, which is anabstract device, has the following purposes:• it ensures clarity by enabling the idea to bequestioned and taking plan-making out of therealm of simple intuition;• it enables continuity by ensuring that therelationships between ideas are addressed;• it serves as a management tool by providing theframework to which plan-makers can refer insearching for solutions to particular problems andin the making of the formal plan itself; and• it provides the basis for discussion andincorporation of stakeholders views and inputs.Preparation of a framework planThe framework plan is made by refining theconceptual plan. This is the design stage of planmaking,and consists of a number of components:• The first involves working with nature. The specificsite conditions will mould the plan and suggestnew possibilities and options for the settlementmakingprocess.• The second component requires the refinement ofthe “land budget” and identifying those parts ofthe framework plan about which there is somecertainty, such as the investment of publicresources.• A third component is closely related to the aboveand requires the inputs of a range of expertsinvolved in the settlement-making process. Thisincludes a range of fields including engineering,urban design, ecology, demography, economics,finance, and so on.• The fourth component is involving stakeholders inthe plan refinement process. In some instances,trade-offs will need to be made and this must bediscussed and workshopped closely with stakeholders.• The last component consists of obtaining therequired approval of the local authority andrelevant government agencies before proceedingwith the implementation plan.Planning method and participation Chapter 45


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNCosting and budgetingThe cost of implementing the framework plan needsto be determined. An important part of this isdetermining who pays for different elements of thestructure envisaged in the plan. At this stage, thefinancial viability of the plan is tested by consideringthe availability of resources and by comparingexpenditure with the expected return on investment.This process may result in further refinements andadaptations of the plan.Preparation of an implementationprocess planThe “Process Plan” is an action or implementation planand is concerned with ensuring an efficientimplementation process. If the site is relatively large,an important part of the settlement-making process isensuring that a wide range of implementing agents,including local and provincial authorities, individuals,communities, housing utility companies, small andlarge developers, etc., is involved in the settlementbuildingprocess. Where appropriate, local labourneeds to be identified and invited to work ondevelopment. Tender documents need to be simplifiedto make them understandable by local entrepreneurs.The process plan should incorporate a land-releaseprogramme, a detailed management framework(incorporating institutional arrangements), and afinancial plan.Applications for land use changes and amendments tohigher order plans such as IDPs, LDOs or spatialdevelopment frameworks, need to be made if andwhere necessary.The management framework should incorporate landusemanagement recommendations, concerned withthe definition and application of appropriate rules tothe settlement-making process, including• land use or zoning restrictions, specifying the typesof activities permitted on the land;• coverage, height, density, floor area and accessrestrictions for specific sites; and• site layout and landscaping requirements.Land-use controls need to be applied cautiously, asthey are by nature cumbersome. The predeterminationof land uses often reduces flexibility,thus mitigating against spontaneous settlementmaking.The primary form of land-use control - at leastduring the initial stages of development - should bethe logic of the framework plan itself. Land uses willcommonly respond in a predictable way if thesettlement structure is clear and easy to read.In the South African situation, particularly where rapidsettlement-making occurs, consideration should begiven to a system where land uses acquire post hocrights; that is, legal rights are established after theparticular use is developed, and subsequent changes inland uses are handled on the basis of impact andnuisance.ImplementationA dynamic project manager plays the leading role inthe implementation phase. The project manager playsa key coordinating function. The planner’s rolebecomes one of monitoring, along with the otherstakeholders. Other key players include training anddevelopment facilitators and administrators.Implementation includes the following actions:• Preparing tenders;• Awarding tenders;• Site plans and preparation;• Building plans;• Beginning construction and development;• Managing and coordinating construction anddevelopment;• Financial management;• Landscaping; and• Provision of movement networks, engineeringservices, public facilities and utilities, and openspace.Administering the planIt is the primary responsibility of the local authority toensure that the desired performance qualities of theplan have been met but it is recommended that whenpeople become resident on the site, a sub-committeeshould be formed in conjunction with representativesfrom relevant authorities to monitor and evaluatedevelopment progress, performance and sustainabilityof the local area and fulfillment of basic needs.Since there is no one ideal form of plan, theadministration process must be a reactive one. Ideally,the process should be creative and interactive,allowing for adaptation of the plan as and whencircumstances may require, and where communitysupport for such changes exists.ADAPTING THE METHOD AND THEPARTICIPATION PROCESSThe proposed methodology was specifically designedfor the planning and development of greenfields areasbut is applicable to all development situations withcertain minor adaptations and changes in emphasis atcertain points in the process. While the methodologyand generic guidelines are similar for in-situ upgradingand renewal circumstances, some differences do exist,particularly relating to the process of participation,site-assessment, and implementation.6Chapter 4Planning method and participation


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIn the case of upgrading and renewal, the stakeholderidentificationstep is easier, as the primarystakeholders are physically resident in the area. Theactual participation process is likely to be morecomplex, however, due to the fact that the specificcommunity already has a history at that location,together with existing problems, issues and politics.The design and implementation of the participationstrategy and the setting of ground rules is of particularimportance to ensure that focus on the pertinentissues is maintained, and that only the relevant issuesand problems are considered.The degree of participation will vary according tospecific circumstances and particularly according to thewillingness and desire of the particular community tobecome involved. Existing provincial town planningordinances, in terms of which many land-use changesare still applied for, have specific requirementsregarding advertising and informing the public of theproposed development. These and other applicableprovincial legislation, should be regarded as theminimum requirements. The recently promulgatedenvironmental legislation, requires a greater degreeof stakeholder identification and involvement. Themethodology proposed in this chapter accommodatesthe entire range of degrees of participation, but it is inthe hands of the practising planner to decide, in termsof prevailing legislation and specific circumstances,what degree of participation is appropriate to eachsituation.Regarding site-assessment differences, in the case ofgreenfields development the emphasis will be on thenatural and physical characteristics of the site, whereaswith upgrading and renewal the emphasis will be onsocial aspects and the limitations and opportunitiesprovided by the already built physical environment. Asocio-economic survey is likely to be an importantcomponent of upgrading and renewal developments(Behrens and Watson 1996).The implementation process for renewal andupgrading is also more complex than for greenfieldsdevelopments as it may be necessary for people totemporarily move out of the area, be accommodatedelsewhere, and then move back into the area once theupgrading has been completed. The logistics ofmanaging this process are significantly more difficultthan in the greenfields situation.Planning method and participation Chapter 47


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYArnstein, S R (1996). A ladder of citizen participation.A I P Journal, July, p 216.Behrens, R (1996). From Red to Green, Green to Amber,and back to Red: A Critique of South African LayoutPlanning. Town and Regional Planning, No 40, April.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1996). Making urban places:Principles and guidelines for layout planning. UrbanProblems Research Unit, University of Cape Town.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1997). Comment on“Position paper on geometric design vis-á-visplanning” - Phase 1, Red Book Revision. UrbanProblems Research Unit, University of Cape Town.Catanese, A J and Steiss, A W (1970). Systemicplanning: Theory and application. Heath LexingtonBooks, Massachusettes.Claassen, P E (1994). Mechanisms for promoting socioeconomicdevelopment at the local level in SouthAfrica, Town and Regional Planning, No 36, April.CSIR, Division of Water, Environment and ForestTechnology (1996). Strategic EnvironmentalAssessment - A Primer.Dear, M J (1986). Postmodernism and planning.Environment and Planning Journal, Vol 4.Du Plessis, D J, Naude, A H and Shaw, A F (1994).System for the integrated management of urbansettlement and infrastructure development, Town andRegional Planning, No 36, April.Faludi, A (1986). Critical rationalism and planningmethodology. Pion Limited, London.Friedmann, J (1987). Planning in the public domain:from knowledge to action. Princeton University Press.Global Forum ‘94 Conference: Cities and SustainableDevelopment (1994). Manchester, 24 - 28 June.Healey, P et al (1982). Planning theory: Prospects forthe 1980’s. Pergamon Press.Healey, P (1992). Planning through debate: Thecommunicative turn in planning theory. TownPlanning Review, Vol 63, No 2, Liverpool UniversityPress.Hindson, D and Swilling, M (1995). Inter-departmentalcirculation, Planning Department, GreaterJohannesburg Transitional Metropolitan Council.Mammon, N and Burger, K (1998). Planning methodand participation. Unpublished report prepared forthe CSIR. Pretoria.Max-Neef, M A (1991). Human Scale Development -Conception, Application and Further Reflections. TheApex Press, London and New York.McLoughlin, J B (1969). Urban and Regional Planning:A Systems Approach.Ngugi, G N (1997). Planning and wilful communityaction. South African Planning Journal, No 42, June,pp 19-23.Planners and Public Participation (1996). SAITRPPosition Paper No 4, April.Planning elements for Local Agenda 21 (1997), Actionplanning (AP) Local Agenda 21 Network News Issue 5,January.Planning elements for Local Agenda 21 (1994).Partnerships Local Agenda 21 Network News Issue 2,November.Robinson, P (1997). Cato Manor: a legacy of SouthAfrica’s past or a model for reconstruction? SouthAfrican Planning Journal 42, June.Scott, D (1980). A review and analysis of urbanplanning theory with application in Natal. Final reportprepared for the Natal Town and Regional PlanningCommission, Vol 50.Schiceka, S (1994). Town and Regional planning withinthe PWV: General policy of the PWV provincialgovernment, Planinfo No 3, August.South Africa, Department of ConstitutionalDevelopment & Planning (1997). IntegratedDevelopment Planning for Local Authorities: A UserfriendlyGuide. CTP Book Printers, Cape Town.South Africa, Department of Environment Affairs(1992). Integrated Environmental ManagementProcedure. Pretoria.South Africa, Office of the President (1995).Development Facilitation Act No 67. GovernmentPrinter, Pretoria.South African Planning Institute News, (1997). March.Sowman, M (1994). Improving the practice of publicparticipation in environmental planning and decisionmakingin South Africa, Town and Regional Planning,No 36, April.8Chapter 4Planning method and participation


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNSowman, M (1996). Mizamu Yethu - Case Study.Environmental Evaluation Unit, University of CapeTown.The International Council for Local EnvironmentalInitiatives (nd). Local Agenda 21 Handbook. WorldSecretariat, Toronto.Van Schoor, C (1993). Conflict Resolution at Sandy Bay,SAITRP News Letter, September.Van Zyl, P S (1997). Secure the future - Innovate andmake a difference, South African Planning Journal 42,June.Western Cape Draft Planning and Development Bill No5085 (1996). Provincial Gazette Extraordinary, Provinceof the Cape, 24 October.Western Cape, Department of Transport and PublicWorks (1997). White Paper on Western Cape provincialtransport policy. May.Planning method and participation Chapter 49


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN10Chapter 4Planning method and participation


Chapter 5Planning guidelines5.1 Movement networks5.2 Public transport5.3 Hard open spaces5.4 Soft open spaces5.5 Public facilities5.6 Land subdivision5.7 Public utilities5.8 Cross-cutting issues5


Movement networksChapter 5.15.1


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1ELEMENTS OF MOVEMENT NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3THE ROLE OF MOVEMENT NETWORKS IN HUMAN SETTLEMENTS AND THE QUALITIES THEYSHOULD HAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3GUIDELINES ON THE CONFIGURATION OF MOVEMENT NETWORKS (IN GENERAL) TOACHIEVE THESE QUALITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3The relationship between vehicle-only, mixed-mode, and pedestrian-only links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3The configuration of links and junctions into networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5GUIDELINES ON THE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS THAT INFORM THE CONFIGURATION OF APARTICULAR MOVEMENT NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Higher order movement route connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Public transport service connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Network configuration requirements of vulnerable modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Network configuration impacts on local economic development processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Land-access requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Place-making considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Network configuration impacts on internal utility service reticulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12GUIDELINES ON THE ADAPTATION AND CONVERSION OF MOVEMENT NETWORKS TOACCOMMODATE CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The anticipation of patterns of movement demand within sub-metropolitan and localmovement networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The management of changing patterns of movement demand within sub-metropolitanand local movement networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Movement networks Chapter 5.1i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.1.1 Diagram illustrating a movement network as a series of overlaying “ways” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 5.1.2 Diagram illustrating the relationship between vehicle-only and mixed-mode links . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 5.1.3 Diagram illustrating the relationship between higher and lower order mixed-mode links . . . . . . .5Figure 5.1.4 Diagram illustrating the relationship between pedestrian-only and mixed-mode links . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.1.5 Generic network configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.1.6Conceptual examples of closed roadway system options within a multidirectional publicright-of-way network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.1.7 Hypothetical example of a multidirectional public right-of-way network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.1.8Figure 5.1.9Possible configurations of foot/pathway and roadway systems within a publicright-of-way network that respond to different traffic volume situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Possible use of measures in a public right-of-way network’s roadway system to managetraffic speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Figure 5.1.10 Roadway adaptations to manage traffic speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Figure 5.1.11 Roadway adaptations to manage traffic volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15iiChapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTION“Movement networks” are defined broadly as publicright-of-way networks, accommodating land-basedmovement by a range of movement modes. Earlierguidelines have referred to “movement networks” as“road layouts”.While the guidelines presented in the previous versionof the “Red Book” (1994) were intended forapplication in both high- and low-income residentialdevelopment, its guidelines on road layout planningwere drawn directly from the initial “Blue Book”(1983). It was acknowledged in the subsequent “GreenBook” (1988) that the “Blue Book” had been preparedfor “developed communities” or “municipaltownships”, not “developing communities”. In thereview of the previous “Red Book” (in 1995), its roadlayout planning guidelines were criticised for beingcar-oriented and for largely ignoring the movementneeds of those sectors of the South African populationwithout access to private motor cars.The intention of this sub-chapter is therefore toprovide guidance on the design of local areamovement networks in both higher and lower incomeareas that are primarily convenient for pedestrians andpublic transport users, while at the same timerestrictive of unwanted and potentially dangerousfast-moving through-traffic. The guidelines have beenprepared for application in predominantly residential,but also mixed, land-use developments that seek to beconsistent with current housing, transport and landdevelopmentpolicy objectives.A different approach to those of past guidelinedocuments has been adopted in that• public right-of-way networks (as opposed to roadlayouts) are the focus of planning and design;• reference to conventional road classifications suchas “access roads”, “collectors”, “local distributors” or“arterials” is avoided to prevent preconceptionsregarding the functions and cross-section of anyparticular public right-of-way; and• continuous, pedestrian-friendly, public right-ofwaynetworks are promoted ahead of conventionaldiscontinuous suburban road layouts.These differences are consistent with recent shifts ininternational practice - which have included site layoutdesign as one of a series of “travel demandmanagement” (TDM) strategies - often referred to as“transit-oriented” or “(neo)traditional” design. Thesedesign ideas have emerged largely in response togrowing automobile dependency and associatedefficiency and equity problems, and to the prospect ofglobal warming as a result of increasing greenhousegas emissions (to which vehicle tailpipe emissions are asignificant contributor). Government authorities andprofessional institutions in various parts of the worldhave begun either replacing or supplementing theirdesign codes to take account of these ideas. The list ofkey literature at the end of this sub-chapter providesreferences to some examples of these design codes.The sub-chapter is divided into five sections. The firstsection clarifies what is meant by the term “movementnetwork”. The second discusses the role movementnetworks play in human settlements, and the qualitiesthey should have. The third section provides guidanceon how these qualities can be achieved in theconfiguration of movement networks in general. Thefourth section provides guidance on the contextualfactors that should inform the configuration of amovement network on a particular site. The finalsection provides guidance on the adaptation andconversion of movement networks to accommodatechanging patterns of movement demand and right-ofwayfunctions.These guidelines should be read in conjunction withChapter 7 on geometric design, as well as theDepartment of Transport’s “Transport planningguidelines” (TPGs) - particularly TPGs 1, 5, 9, 12 and 14on “integrated transport plans”, “spatial planning”,“travel demand management”, “transport systemsmanagement”, and “traffic calming” respectively.Further guidelines on road design, which adopt anapproach similar to that of the earlier Blue Book, canbe found in the former Committee of Urban TransportAuthorities’ (now replaced by the Committee of LandTransport Officials) “Urban transport guidelines”(UTGs) - particularly UTGs 1, 5, 7 and 10 on “urbanarterial roads”, “urban collector roads”, “localresidential streets”, and “commercial and industriallocal streets”, respectively.ELEMENTS OF MOVEMENTNETWORKSLocal movement networks are made up of (a) links and(b) junctions of public rights-of-way or reserves. Theselinks and junctions contain overlaid systems of “ways”for different movement modes - including footways,roadways, pathways, cycleways, and sometimesrailways (see Figure 5.1.1). Viewing a movementnetwork as a network of public rights-of-way, asopposed to simply as a network of roads, is central tothe planning approach presented in this sub-chapter;it is argued to be essential to the design of localmovement systems that move away from being caroriented.Movement networks Chapter 5.11


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLinksFootwayCyclewayPathwayRoadwayPublic right-of-way reserveFigure 5.1.1: Diagram illustrating a movementnetwork as a series of overlaying “ways”This network of public rights-of-way within a localmixed land use development has numerous functions -including the facilitation of movement by differentmodes, accommodating utility services, providingcommercial activities with exposure to potentialconsumers, and so on. The configuration of movementnetworks and the functional differentiation of linkstherefore needs to be informed by a variety of socioeconomicfactors (e.g. the accommodation of streettrading, child play and social interaction), as well asmovement factors. Movement networks, based on afunctional road hierarchy that is tiered solely on thebasis of traffic distribution, do not take intoconsideration - and often cannot accommodate - allthe functions the network needs to perform.In order to avoid overlooking or excluding some of thefunctions they perform, public right-of-way links arebroadly categorised below on the basis of the usersthey accommodate. More detailed functionaldifferentiation should occur on a context-specific basis.• There are links within a movement network wherethe needs of longer distance vehicular trafficpredominate over those of other users andfunctions, and these links therefore need to bedesigned to accommodate motorised modes only.These vehicle-only links, corresponding with majorarterial roads or freeways, should be designed toprovide uninterrupted vehicular channels whichaccommodate the needs and requirements of fastmovinginter- and intra-settlement traffic. Theneed for uniform operating conditions and highlevels of safety requires, inter alia, control overdirect frontage access and intersection spacing, andfrequently grade separation at intersections.• On the bulk of the remainder of links within anetwork it is necessary to achieve a balancebetween the variety of social, recreational,economic and movement functions the linkperforms. These mixed-mode links, which may becollector or local roads, should therefore beplanned to reconcile the diverse requirements of amultiplicity of users, with the recognition thatinevitably no one function will operate withoptimum efficiency. In terms of vehicular trafficcirculation, different mixed-mode links perform avariety of access, collection, and even shorterdistance mobility functions. Higher order mixedmodelinks would be those designed toaccommodate the shorter distance distribution andstopping of relatively large volumes of mixedtraffic (often referred to as “activity” or “main”streets). Middle order mixed mode links would bethose designed to collect traffic onto vehicle-onlydistributors. Lower order mixed-mode links wouldbe those designed to provide access to individualproperties - some of which would be designedprimarily for pedestrians, and vehicle behaviourwould essentially be determined by a set ofpedestrian rules (e.g. woonerven). Conventionalhierarchical road classification systems thereforefall within this categorisation of higher, middle andlower order mixed-mode links - arterial roads fallwithin the category of higher order mixed-modelinks, collectors fall into the category of middleorder mixed mode links, and local streets (alsoknown as “access roads”) fall into the category oflower order mixed-mode links.• As some routes accommodate only motorisedmodes, other routes accommodate only nonmotorisedmodes (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists). Theentrances to such pedestrian-only links are typicallydesigned to prevent access by vehicles. The linksthemselves are, however, often designed to enablethe movement of occasional emergency or servicevehicles. The functions of pedestrian-only links canvary significantly, from those links abutting andaccommodating intensive commercial activities(e.g. “pedestrianised” streets in city centres), tolinks performing a primarily pedestrian- or bicycleaccessfunction within “superblocks” or across softpublic open spaces.An understanding of the potential range of functionsthat each link within a movement network may beexpected to perform enables the appropriate numberof lanes, the pavement structure, the footway width,the on-street parking provisions, and the intersectionconfigurations and spacings, etc, to be selected.Contextual factors that inform the derivation ofmixed-mode link functions include:• the existing and expected composition, volume anddestinations of motorised and non-motorisedtraffic on the “external” movement network2Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNsurrounding the site, the degree to which thistraffic may wish to pass through the site, and theroutes they select;• the number of consumers that may wish to passthrough the site, and the exposure of localentrepreneurs to potential non-local consumersalong the routes they may select;• the composition, volume and destinations ofmotorised and non-motorised traffic that is likelyto be generated and attracted by the expectedland use pattern on the site, and the routes theymay select; and• the alignment of existing and anticipated“external” road-based public transport services,how these services may be integrated into andthrough the site, and points at which modalinterchange is likely to occur.JunctionsJunctions, as in the case of links, perform a variety ofmovement and non-movement functions. With regardto movement functions, the carrying capacity of anurban roadway network is determined by intersectioncapacity, not by route capacity, and it is thereforeintersection performance that often determines theoperational efficiency of the roadway network as awhole. The non-movement functions of junctionsrelate primarily to economic activity. Each quadrant ofa junction is exposed to two adjacent movementroutes, and consequently is the site of maximumpotential consumer exposure in the immediate area.THE ROLE OF MOVEMENT NETWORKSIN HUMAN SETTLEMENTS AND THEQUALITIES THEY SHOULD HAVEThe role of a movement network in the process ofsettlement-making is essentially to provide the basicspatial framework within which a number of urbanprocesses that involve the physical movement orreticulation of people, goods and services, find spatialform. A measure of the performance of a movementnetwork should therefore be the degree to which thenetwork can effectively accommodate a variety ofchanging urban processes.The role of a movement network in the dailyoperation of a settlement system is essentially toenable the convenient, efficient, affordable and safemovement of people, goods and services and, in doingso, to satisfy the needs of a variety of users andfacilitate the effective operation of local spaceeconomies. A further measure of the performance of amovement network should therefore be the degree towhich the network minimises the demand formovement, and hence the degree to which ease ofaccess is increased. Movement should not be seen asan end in itself, but as a means through which needscan be satisfied.In performing these roles, a local settlementmovement network should have the following basicqualities:• A movement network should prioritise the needsof non-motorised modes most sensitive to distance,as well as the needs of public transport servicesdepended upon by those sectors of society withoutaccess to private motor cars.• A movement network should be able to maintainconvenience, safety and multiple-use patterns overtime, as the nature of movement demand andnetwork use inevitably changes.• As mentioned earlier, apart from a limited numberof links that accommodate the requirements offast, longer distance vehicular traffic, a movementnetwork should accommodate a range ofmovement demands and socio-economic functions.GUIDELINES ON THECONFIGURATION OF MOVEMENTNETWORKS (IN GENERAL) TOACHIEVE THESE QUALITIESIn order for movement networks to perform theseroles and have these qualities:• certain basic relationships need to be createdbetween vehicle-only, mixed-mode, andpedestrian-only links; and• public right-of-way networks need to beconfigured in particular generic ways.The relationship between vehicle-only,mixed-mode, and pedestrian-only linksThe purpose of interconnections between vehicle-onlyand mixed-mode links is essentially to provide higherspeedroute alternatives. They enable longer distance,higher-speed traffic to avoid mixed-mode links (orportions of mixed-mode links) that experiencerelatively high, but lower speed (i.e. “stop-start”),vehicular traffic volumes. In practice, lower levels-ofservice(i.e. slower and denser vehicular traffic) will beacceptable on links that have a higher capacity routealternative. Wherever possible (Figure 5.1.2):• Higher order mixed-mode links should thereforerun parallel to high-capacity vehicle-only links. Thisenables through-traffic to “opt-in” or “opt-out” oftravelling along the higher order mixed-mode link,depending on the range of urban activities towhich access is required.Movement networks Chapter 5.13


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The higher order mixed-mode link and the vehicleonlylink should ideally be close enough to make itrelatively easy for vehicles to move between thetwo routes, yet ensure that the fragmentary impactof the higher order facility, particularly if it is afreeway, does not prevent commercial and publicfacility activities from locating on either side of themixed-mode link.• Access interchanges between vehicle-only links andhigher order mixed-mode links, as well as systeminterchanges between vehicle-only linksthemselves, should be designed to facilitate safeand uniform operating conditions. Theseinterchanges perform a “mobility” function, whichprecludes locating any activities that require directfrontage access adjacent to the intersection. Thespacing of interchanges along vehicle-onlyfreeways should be determined by the need toprevent joining traffic streams from disruptingtraffic flow and reducing traffic speed, creatingunsafe operating conditions.Vehicle-only linkCollector/connectormixed-mode link‘Higher order’ mixedmodelinkFigure 5.1.2: Diagram illustrating the relationshipbetween vehicle-only and mixed-mode linksOn mixed-mode links that accommodate higher trafficvolumes, the following should be noted:• Intersections between two mixed-mode links thataccommodate larger volumes of traffic are pointsof greatest accessibility, and are therefore pointswhere commercial opportunities are often largest.The relative accessibility of a particular intersectionis determined not only by the type and nature ofpassing traffic, but by the ability of traffic to stop.Consequently, in order to create tradingopportunities, vehicles (including public transportvehicles) should be able to stop and park or offloadpassengers within a reasonable walking distancefrom the intersection, and buildings should not beprevented from fronting onto the intersection.• Taking vehicular access close to the intersection,however, increases the potential for conflict andshould be avoided. The volume of traffic on manyof these intersections necessitates some form ofintersection control which, in turn, througheliminating potential conflict points, enablesgreater use of four-legged junctions.On mixed-mode links that accommodate lower trafficvolumes, the following should be noted (Figure 5.1.3):• Intersection spacing should be influenced more by,inter alia, pedestrian circulation, block subdivisionand internal utility service reticulationconsiderations than by traffic circulationconsiderations. By limiting straight, unbrokenstretches of roadway in which vehicles are able topick up speed, network configurations can be usedas traffic calming mechanisms, which enhance theability of pedestrians to use streets for social andrecreational purposes.• Low traffic volumes do not usually justifyinvestment in intersection control, in the form oftraffic signalisation. T-junctions can therefore beused as a way of breaking long stretches ofroadway.• Intersections between two mixed-mode links thataccommodate smaller volumes of traffic, are lessaccessible and therefore provide opportunities forless intensive trade and collective servicing points.Activities should not therefore be prevented fromlocating close to the intersection.• The spacing of intersections should be greater thanon links carrying lower traffic loads. In order toavoid excessive disruptions to the traffic stream,greater intersection spacings can be achieved byaligning blocks parallel to - as opposed toperpendicular to - higher order links (and, whererequired, providing pedestrian-only access throughthe middle of these blocks).4Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN‘Higher order’ mixedmodelinkMixed-mode linkPedestrian-only link‘Lower order’ mixedmodelinkApproximate scale:0 100200 300Approximate scale:0 100 200mFigure 5.1.3: Diagram illustrating the relationshipbetween higher and lower order mixed-mode linksNote: The diagram illustrates public right-of-waylinks, not roadways. The junction of two right-of-waylinks does not therefore necessarily imply theintersection of two roadways. See Figures 5.1.8 and5.1.9 for illustrations of roadway systems that preventor manage through-traffic on lower order mixedmodelinks.The purpose of interconnections between mixed-modeand pedestrian-only links is essentially to maintain easymulti-directional pedestrian and bicycle access, insituations where the roadway network is discontinuousto prevent large quantities of vehicular through-trafficfrom using certain routes (Figure 5.1.4). The network ofpedestrian footways, crossings, pathways andcycleways should always remain convenient and direct.Intersections between mixed-mode and pedestrianonlyroutes typically take the form of footways joiningwith short pathways that run through longer blocks oropen spaces.Figure 5.1.4: Diagram illustrating the relationshipbetween pedestrian-only and mixed-mode linksThe configuration of links and junctionsinto networksA continuum of basic network-configuration optionscan be identified on the basis of network connectivity(Figure 5.1.5). On either end of the continuum areclosed and open networks. A closed network consistsof a hierarchy of links, within which links intersectonly with other links equal to - or one below orabove - it in the hierarchy. This system establishesclearly defined movement routes between any twopoints, but offers no equidistant alternatives. An“open” network on the other hand, consists of asystem of links of differing hierarchical importanceintersecting freely with one another. This systemoffers a choice of alternative equidistant routesbetween any two points within the network.Studies of the impact of open and closed networks ontravel behaviour and residents’ quality of life, haveindicated that different configurations have bothadvantages and disadvantages. On the one hand,studies have shown that while open networks (in'Open' networks'Closed' networksRectilinear multidirectionalnetworkDistorted rectilinearmultidirectionalnetworkRadial multidirectionalnetworkLooped hierarchicalnetworkBranched hierarchicalnetworkFigure 5.1.5: Generic network configurationsMovement networks Chapter 5.15


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNconjunction with mixed land-uses) improve levels ofaccessibility to local destinations, reduce total vehiclekilometres travelled and increase the walking andpublic-transport share of the modal split; they can alsoresult in numerous problems associated with theintrusion of fast-moving through-traffic (e.g. safetyand noise). On the other hand, studies have shownthat, while closed networks manage through-trafficeffectively, they can also isolate neighbourhoods andreduce the viability of smaller neighbourhoodcommercial activities, as well as increase trip lengthsfor non-motorised modes and necessitate road-basedservice vehicles to either back-track or frequentlyaccord priority to other vehicles.Central to the planning approach presented in thissub-chapter is the argument that the configuration ofpublic rights-of-way into networks that aremultidirectional, enables different way systems withinthe movement network to either incorporate or avoidthe above-mentioned advantages and disadvantages.It is possible, for instance, for a multidirectionalmovement network to maintain easy and directpedestrian and bicycle circulation in all directions(through the design of the footway, pathway andcycleway component of the network as an opensystem), while preventing or limiting the safety andintrusion problems associated with extraneousvehicular traffic (through the design of the roadwaycomponent of the network as a closed system - seeFigure 5.1.6).A multidirectional configuration (and the associatedpatterns of public and private land ownership) furtherenables the various “way” systems within themovement network to be adapted to become moreopen or closed as modal split and dynamic land-usedevelopment processes alter the nature and pattern ofmovement demand and the functions of particularlinks. Network configurations, to a large extent,determine the pattern of land sub-division, which inturn forms the basis for title registration and theallocation of development rights. Given that largescaleexpropriation and compensation is required inorder to significantly alter patterns of land ownershipand development rights, discontinuous or “dendritic”public right-of-way networks are extremely difficult toadapt and are inflexible. A multidirectional movementnetwork is thus able to prioritise the needs of nonmotorisedmodes and public transport users, as well asmaintain convenience, safety and multi-use whenconditions and movement needs change. It isimportant to note that a multidirectional movementnetwork is not necessarily an orthogonal grid.Figures 5.1.7, 5.1.8 and 5.1.9 provide an example ofhow the individual “way” systems within ahypothetical multidirectional movement network (seeFigure 5.1.7) can be configured to manage motorisedtraffic on lower order mixed-mode links througheither volume management measures (see d, e and f ofFigure 5.1.8), or speed reduction measures (see Figure5.1.9), while maintaining direct pedestrian and bicyclecirculation in all cases (see a, b and c of Figure 5.1.8). Itshould be noted that the management of traffic volumeand traffic speed is interrelated, and it is not theMultidirectional public right-of-waynetworkAlternate vehicular streets andpedestrian boulevardsLoopsCuls-de-sacFigure 5.1.6: Conceptual examples of closed roadway system options within a multidirectional public right-of-waynetwork6Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNintention of the figures to suggest that they should beconsidered independently. Studies on the impact oftraffic volume and speed management measures haveshown that speed reduction on particular links almostinevitably leads to volume reduction as well. The use ofroadway closures and diverters which restrict throughtrafficare therefore not regarded as mutually exclusivefrom the use of measures that reduce speed (e.g. tables,pinch points and chicanes), and vice versa.It should also be noted that in all the differentconfigurations represented in Figures 5.1.8 and 5.1.9, acontinuous footway and pathway network with 18pedestrian entrance/exit points is maintained. Thepathways are also all relatively short and straight, andsurrounding properties overlook them. The publictransport route is direct, and pedestrian access to thepublic transport stop is unhindered. In the case ofroadway systems, the minimum spacing between T-intersections involving minor arterials andservice/collector routes is ± 100 m, the minimum spacingbetween T-intersections involving collector and localaccess routes is ± 25 m, and the minimum spacingbetween cross-intersections involving collector and localaccess routes is ± 50 m.Soft open spaceGUIDELINES ON THE CONTEXTUALFACTORS THAT INFORM THECONFIGURATION OF A PARTICULARMOVEMENT NETWORKAn analysis of the pattern and mix of existing andanticipated land-use activity surrounding theparticular site, as well as the pattern and mix of higherorder land-use development that is to be encouragedwithin the site, will indicate spatial patterns ofmovement demand (known as “desire lines”) across,into and from the site. In order to identify movementdemanddesire lines, it may be useful to establish amap which indicates possible future patterns ofmovement demand (both motorised and nonmotorised)between existing and anticipated areas ofland-use activity. This desire-line map essentiallyconsists of bands which represent the majormovement flows between appropriately scaled zones -delimited on the basis of a simple grid, or on the basisof clusters of dominant land-use activity. Thebeginning and end points of the band indicate theorigin zone and the destination zone, and the width ofthe band indicates the relative magnitude of theanticipated movement demand. Such movementdesire-line maps can be prepared for different times ofthe day or week, in order to indicate temporalfluctuations in movement demand. An indication ofthe nature of these patterns of movement demand canbe used to inform• the need for, and alignment of, higher ordermovement routes across the site; andHardopen spaceApproximate scale:Hardopen space0 100 200 300mFigure 5.1.7: Hypothetical example of a multidirectionalpublic right-of-way networkThe exact configuration of a multidirectionalmovement network is dependent on context-specificfactors like topography, the distribution of trafficgeneratingactivities in surrounding areas, carownershiplevels, and the modal split of thepopulation on the site as well as the surroundingpopulation - these contextual factors are discussed inthe following section.• the need for, and alignment of public transportconnections across the site.An analysis of the pattern and mix of existing andanticipated land use within the site, the demographicand income profile of the existing and “target”population on the site, as well as the biophysicalfeatures of the site, will indicate, inter alia, land-accessrequirements, the nature of movement demands, andtopographical constraints on network configuration.In the case of in-situ upgrade projects, the existingpattern of informal movement channels will be amajor internal informant of movement-networkconfiguration. An indication of these requirementsand constraints can be used to inform• the modes of movement that will need to receivepriority in the configuration of the network;• local economic development considerations in theconfiguration of the movement network;• the land-access requirements associated with thepattern of land subdivision;• place-making considerations in networkconfiguration; andMovement networks Chapter 5.17


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN'Open' footway/pathway systemsProgressively 'closed' roadway systems withmeasures to manage traffic volume(a)(d)High traffic volume scenario Medium traffic volume scenario Low traffic volume scenario(b)(c)18 entrance/exit points18 entrance/exit points18 entrance/exit points(e)(f)10 entrance/exit points39 T vs. 13 cross intersections9 entrance/exit points34 T vs. 12 cross intersections5 entrance/exit points38 vs. 12 cross intersectionsLegend:minor arterialservice and collector routeslocal access routevehicular entrance/exit pointfootwaypathwaypedestrian entrance/exit pointpedestrian crossing facilitypublic transport stopFigure 5.1.8: Possible configurations of foot/pathway and roadway systems within a public right-of-way networkthat respond to different traffic volume situations8Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLegend:vehicle restriction measurearea with various traffic calming measurespedestrian crossing measurepublic transport stopminor arterialservice routelocal access route10 entrance/exit points39 T vs. 13 cross intersectionsvehicular entrance/exit pointFigure 5.1.9: Possible use of measures in a public right-of-way network’s roadway system to manage traffic speed• the network configuration requirements ofinternal services reticulation, particularly gravitybasedwastewater and stormwater drainage.Higher order movement routeconnectionsHigher order movement routes, in the form of vehicleonlylinks or mixed-mode links carrying greatervolumes and densities of vehicular traffic, which leadto, across, and out of the site, facilitate longer distanceintra-settlement connections. In many cases the needfor, and the alignment of, these higher ordermovement routes across the site will already havebeen identified in metropolitan or sub-metropolitanplans. In these cases, the proposed higher order routesneed to be accommodated within the site, and theplanning and design of the local movement networkneeds to be done in relation to these dedicatedalignments. Of particular importance, is the fact thatwhen these higher order routes take the form ofvehicle-only links, the opt-in-opt-out relationshipbetween vehicle-only and higher order mixed-modelinks, discussed earlier, needs to be considered.Public transport service connectionsPublic transport service connections that lead to, across,and out of the site represent an important way ofintegrating the local environment with the surroundingmovement system and land-use pattern. The planningand design of the local network should provideopportunities for increased coverage and penetrationof road-based public transport operations, throughextending these into and across the site. In order toidentify the need for increased public transportcoverage and penetration, it may be useful to establisha map which indicates areas that are served and notserved. The area served by public transport is delimitedon the map as that which is within convenient walkingdistance of public transport stops. A convenient walkingdistance is often interpreted as maximum walking timeof 5-10 minutes, and a maximum walking distance ofthat involving 400-500 metres. Such a map illustratesthe area of coverage, and suggests where additionalservice routes and stops might be placed.Network configuration requirements ofvulnerable modes• Public policies relating to desirable modal split, aswell as the existing or anticipated level of carownership among the site’s population (andassociated dependence on walking or publictransport services), will provide an indication of therelative importance that different modes will needto assume in movement-network design withinparticular contexts. In order to design networksthat are capable of prioritising particular - whileeffectively accommodating all - modes, it is usefulto consider the specific network-configurationrequirements of dominant modes (i.e. motor cars,walking, public transport vehicles).• Motor cars are the most flexible of all movementmodes, able to undertake any length of door-to-doortrip. It is argued therefore that the configuration oflocal movement networks should be informed by theneeds of more vulnerable, gradient - and distancesensitivemodes, particularly pedestrians.• Walking trips can only cover relatively shortdistances (i.e. 1-2 kms), and are often associatedwith the beginning and end portions of publictransport trips. Pedestrian movement isaccommodated primarily within footways,pathways and roadways. In order to facilitateefficient pedestrian movement, these “ways”should be configured in the following manner:- Footways should be configured into multidirectionalnetworks which enable pedestriansto choose relatively direct and equidistant triproutings, that either avoid or select roads thataccommodate greater traffic flows and greatercommercial land-use activity, and to orientateMovement networks Chapter 5.19


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNthemselves within settlements they do notknow well.- Blocks, within multidirectional networkconfigurations, should be short to medium inlength, to enable more intersections where carsmust stop and pedestrians can cross, and moredirect routing of walking trips. For ease ofpedestrian circulation, block lengths should bein the region of 100 m.- When block lengths are significantly longerthan 100 m (in the region of 200-300 m)because of land use or traffic managementconsiderations, short and direct pathwaysthrough the centre of the block (known as“pass-throughs”) should be provided, in orderto maintain the ease of pedestrian circulation.- When culs-de-sac (or road closures) areincorporated within the movement networkbecause of traffic management considerations,pathways should be provided which connectthe end of the cul-de-sac with the nearestfoot/roadway, in order to maintain multidirectionalpedestrian circulation.- On mixed-mode links where roadways andfootways are separated by kerbs, footwaysshould be provided on both sides of theroadway, and should connect with pathwaysthat cut across large soft open spaces, tofacilitate continuous and multidirectionalpedestrian circulation.- Pedestrians tend to choose travel lines of leastresistance - cutting corners and keeping theirroutes as direct as possible. Pedestrian pathwayswithin soft open spaces (that accommodatenon-recreational trip functions) shouldtherefore be as direct and short as possible.- On roadways experiencing relatively high trafficflows, pedestrian crossings should be providedat regular intervals, and should be located atpoints where pedestrian desire lines cross theroadway, in order to maintain adequate levelsof pedestrian safety.• Public transport vehicle trips typically take the formof shorter feeder, and longer line-haul or expresstrips. The number and spacing of stops establishesthe line-haul or express nature of the publictransport service. The network configurationrequirements of express public transport vehiclesare similar to the requirements of motor carsundertaking longer distance trips. Public transportvehicles are accommodated within roadways andrailways. In order to facilitate efficient publictransport movement, these “ways” should beconfigured in the following manner:- Effective line-haul public transport serviceoperations are quick, frequent and predictable.Roadways carrying road-based bus and light railservices should therefore be as direct as possible,to avoid the delays associated with continuousbacktracking, and frequent turning movementswhere giving priority to other vehicles needs tobe accorded. Direct road alignments also makethe introduction of dedicated public transportlanes less complex than on circuitous roads, andenable numerous service operations to berouted along the same road for portions of theirservice length - thus enhancing the frequency ofservices along the route.- Parallel road-based feeder public transportservice routes should be spaced at maximumintervals of 800 - 1 000 m, to maintain a maximumconvenient walking distance to these services of400 - 500 m.- At bus service terminals, vehicles may stand forsome time and need to turn around. It ispreferable to provide a turning area off theroadway, unless there is a suitable nearbyroundabout which can be used.- Where rail lines are an integral part of themovement network, or where a site is beingdeveloped adjacent to an existing railwaystation, every opportunity should be taken tostructure a set of road-based public transportroutes to interchange or end at the railwaystation, in order to facilitate inter-modaltransfer.Network configuration impacts on localeconomic development processesThe spatial organisation of local economies isinfluenced by a number of complex socio-economic,financial, security and development control factors. Itis important that the configuration of the movementnetwork maximises opportunities for smallentrepreneurs, and does not disadvantage, orpreclude, certain types of entrepreneurs and spatialpatterns of economic activity from occurring.Movement networks define the spatial pattern ofexposure and access to passing consumers, andtherefore influence spatial patterns of economicopportunity (i.e. points of greatest commercialviability that are largely, but not exclusively, dictatedby relative levels of exposure and access to passingconsumers). Movement networks that create a cellularsettlement structure and channel all throughmovementsonto arterials along which fronting accessand on-street parking is not allowed, for instance,tend to create a nodal (as opposed to linear, orrandomly scattered) pattern of economic opportunity.Given the limited number of such nodes within a localarea, this pattern of economic opportunity frequently10Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNgiving important objects visual dominance in thesettlement, they become reference points - therebyreinforcing their symbolic importance.• Road alignments can, where appropriate, respondto the natural features of the site, and incorporateit visually into the settlement. The alignment ofroads can be used as a means to create vistas tonatural features like established trees, koppies, ordistant mountain peaks, and to retain existinglandscape features.Network configuration impacts oninternal utility service reticulationsReticulated utility services, in the form of water supply,sewerage, stormwater drainage, electricity supply andtelecommunications are conventionally - eitherentirely or partially (in the case of mid-blockreticulation) - accommodated in road reserves. Theconfiguration of the movement network therefore hasan impact on the reticulation of these channels, pipesand cables. The aspects of movement-networkconfiguration that have the greatest impact onefficient service reticulation are: (1) road curvature,and (2) road gradient.The curvature (or horizontal alignment) of the roadreserve has the greatest impact on piped gravity-basedservices (i.e. sewerage and stormwater drainage), andabove-ground electricity and telecommunicationscabling. In order to facilitate the efficient reticulationof these services, movements networks should beconfigured in the following way:• Notwithstanding the need to follow contours, roadreserves accommodating below-ground pipes andabove-ground cables, or dictating the pattern ofreticulation in the middle of blocks, shouldgenerally be as straight as possible to facilitate theshortest relative service line lengths per erf, forstraight trenches, and to minimise manhole andpoling requirements. Curving road reserves requiremore sewer and stormwater manholes to provideaccess to pipes for cleaning (see discussion below),and necessitate extra poles in above-ground publiclighting and electricity-supply systems, to ensurecables do not hang over the roadway.• Notwithstanding the need for larger blocks toaccommodate a range of non-residential land uses,blocks should generally be ± 100 m long, to minimisethe number of sewer and stormwater manholes.The primary function of sewer or stormwatermanholes is to provide access to pipes so as to clearblockages. It is conventional practice to providemanhole access to a gravity pipe at horizontal andvertical changes of direction, junctions betweenmain and branch pipes (but not at junctions witherf connections in the case of sewerage), the headof a reticulation system, and at intervals on straightstretches of pipe. Manhole spacing on straightstretches of pipe is normally restricted to thelength of hand-operated cleaning rods (typically50 m), which are pushed along the pipe. Rods canbend to negotiate curves in a pipe but, if the curveis too tight (with a curve radius of less than 30 m),the rods tend to damage the wall of the pipe. Themaximum spacing of manholes on straightstretches of road reserve, where pipes are cleanedwith hand-operated rods, is therefore ± 100 m.When blocks are ± 100 m long, manhole accesswould be required at 100 m or so intervals toaccommodate the junctions between main andbranch pipes anyway. Limiting the length of blocksto ± 100 m therefore reduces the necessity formanholes on straight stretches of pipe.The gradient (or vertical alignment) of the roadreserve also has a great impact on gravity-basedservices (i.e. sewerage and stormwater pipes andchannels). In order to facilitate the efficientreticulation of these services, movements networksshould be configured in the following way:• T-junctions or culs-de-sac at the down-stream endof steep roads should be avoided, in order tomaintain “positive drainage” and avoid flooding.• Very steep or completely flat road gradientspresent problems relating to the circulation oflarger service vehicles (in the form of congestion),and the self-cleansing flow velocities of gravitybasedservices (in the form of clogging and roadscour). Maximum grades are set by vehiclemanoeuvrability requirements (provided thesurface runoff velocity that results from the gradeis less than 3 m/s), while minimum grades are set bydrainage requirements. Maximum grades varyaccording to the volumes and speed of traffic andthe nature of the terrain - generally grades shouldnot exceed 5-6% (or 1:20-1:16) in flat terrain, 10-12% (or 1:10-1:8) in hilly terrain and 12-15% (or1:8-1:7) in mountainous terrain. Minimum gradesof road reserves accommodating pipes shouldgenerally not be below 0,4% (or 1:250). In hilly andmountainous terrain, in order to achieve thesegrades, and avoid deep cuts and high fills, blocksand their associated fronting road reserves shouldfollow contour lines, and traversing roads shouldintersect roads above and below them at an anglesufficient to maintain an acceptable maximumgrade. When blocks are aligned with contours,provided toilets are located close enough to therear of the erf, mid-block sewer trenches can bedug to ensure that both lines of erven within theblock are served by the same sewer.12Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGUIDELINES ON THE ADAPTATIONAND CONVERSION OF MOVEMENTNETWORKS TO ACCOMMODATECHANGEAs indicated in the previous section, a range ofcontextual features will inform the configuration of asite‘s movement network. In particular, with regard tothe roadway component of the movement network,the actual and desirable level of car use and associatedmodal split of the site’s (and surrounding) populationwill inform the degree to which the system is open orclosed to through-traffic. This section discusses theanticipation of patterns of movement demand toinform the configuration of roadway systems and theadaptation and conversion of roadway systems toaccommodate changing modal split, and changingmovement patterns associated with dynamic spatialpatterns of land-use activity.The anticipation of patterns ofmovement demand within submetropolitanand local movementnetworksThe pattern of movement demand within a submetropolitanor local area is directly affected by thenature and form of the movement network. In thecase of a closed hierarchical roadway system, it ispossible to predict the volume and pattern of traffic(associated with a static spatial pattern of land use andmodal split) that will use each road in the system withsome degree of certainty, as the system presents nochoice of potentially equidistant routes between anytwo points. While it is not possible, in the case of amore open system, to predict the volume and patternof traffic with any degree of certainty - due to agreater choice of local and through routes - a moreopen system is more flexible and integrates the siteinto its surrounding environment better. There ishowever a trade-off between flexibility, integrationand cost. The ability of more numerous links within amovement network to accommodate a dynamic rangeof social, recreational, economic and movementfunctions over time, has capital cost implications - andin many instances greater road reserve width andstronger roadway pavement structure will be required.Every link in a network cannot therefore be designedto accommodate large increases in traffic volumes.To avoid the excessive road construction costsassociated with total flexibility and greater integration,it is necessary, within limits, to predict the possiblerange of movement demand conditions (or scenarios) amore open road network proposal may be expected toaccommodate. More specifically, the need is to identifythose links expected, in the short term at least, toaccommodate a wider range of functions and greatertraffic volumes. Without a reasoned estimate of thetraffic load a particular link or intersection will berequired to accommodate, it is not possible to makeinformed decisions relating to the design ofappropriate roadway cross-sections and pavements, orthe selection of appropriate intersection-controlsystems. The direction, volume and mode of movementgenerated and attracted by a proposed developmentwill be influenced by variables like household size andcomposition, areas of employment, levels of carownership, and use of public transport services. It isimportant that an understanding is gained of theextent of change which is realistically possible withinthese variables, so that the network can be designed toaccommodate such changes.Patterns of movement demand on vehicle-only links,as well as mixed-mode links expected to accommodatelarger volumes of traffic, can be predicted through afour-step modelling process, in which future trafficload, at a point in time (typically 15-20 years into thefuture), is assessed on the basis of a desirable, as wellas the existing, land-use pattern. It is important tonote that the modelling of future patterns ofmovement demand is sensitive to transport and landusepolicy. Extrapolations of current patterns ofmovement demand should therefore be tempered bythe settlement qualities to be created in a particularenvironment, and assumptions relating to the abilityof the public sector to manage transport-relatedmarket forces. The conventional “four-step” modellingprocess is dealt with in detail in the Department ofTransport’s TPG 7 and can be broadly summarised asfollows:• estimating the number of trips that will begenerated or attracted by each zone (often on thebasis of the anticipated population of the zonemultiplied by an average trip rate),• estimating the number of trips that will occurbetween different zones (often represented in theform of an origin-destination matrix, and a desirelinemap),• estimating the relative proportion of modesthrough which trips between zones will occur, andassigning the trips moving between differentzones, by different modes, to particular routes.Patterns of movement demand within a particular sitecan be crudely predicted through the following five-stepsimulation:• estimating the number of trips that will begenerated or attracted by each erf within the site(often on the basis of assumptions relating toaverage number of workers per household and perbusiness unit, and the average number ofschoolchildren per household);• estimating how many of these trips are local trips,and how many are into, and out of, the site;Movement networks Chapter 5.113


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• establishing trip directions on the basis of thelocation of major movement attractors (e.g. schools,employment and commercial centres) within the siteand in the surrounding area;• estimating the relative proportion of modes throughwhich trips in different directions will occur; and• assigning the trips moving in different directions, bydifferent modes, to particular routes.This simulation process can be conducted for peak andoff-peak conditions, to establish temporal variations inthe nature and pattern of movement demand. Thepatterns of movement demand identified can then beused to establish link volumes and turning movements.Given the uncertainty of future predictions of futureland-use development patterns and associatedmovement demand, and the need for movementnetworks to perform more than simply movementfunctions, it is important that the modelling processesdescribed above be used to test the likely consequencesof movement-network proposals, and not used as thebasis for formulating proposals (beyond minoradjustments to network configuration). Demand-drivenapproaches to movement-network planning and design,based on the traffic load forecast, run the danger ofeither entrenching existing inefficiencies andinequalities, or of simply basing proposals solely onpotentially erroneous predictions of futuredevelopment patterns.The management of changing patterns ofmovement demand within submetropolitanand local movementnetworksThe uncertainty of future predictions of movementdemandpatterns also makes it important to monitorchange (in terms of variables like traffic volumes,speeds and accidents) over time and, where necessary,to adapt or convert movement networks toaccommodate this change. It is important that initialmovement-network designs consider and facilitatepossible future adaptations. Such adaptations orconversions are essentially aimed (a) at managing or“calming” the increased volumes and speeds ofvehicular traffic associated with changing patterns ofmovement demand - more specifically to prevent largevolumes of high-speed, longer distance traffic fromcutting through quieter, predominantly residentialareas, and to slow traffic on roads that experience ahigh mix of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, and indoing so, (b) at maintaining the ability of links toaccommodate a range of movement and nonmovementfunctions. As mentioned earlier, anadvantage of multidirectional movement networks isthat a variety of traffic calming interventions can beapplied to convert the roadway network into a closedor speed restricted system which controls throughtraffic,while maintaining an open footway andcycleway network, and which still enables the roadwaynetwork to be converted back to an open systemshould this be required. The achievement of greaterflexibility therefore has implications for theoperational capacity of local authorities, in terms ofbeing able to monitor change, as well as for theconfiguration of movement infrastructure, and cost.Within local movement networks the ongoing trafficmanagementobjective is essentially to keep the speedof appropriate volumes of traffic low and, in doing so,to make the road as safe as possible for pedestrians.Traffic management, or calming, therefore takes twobasic forms. The first is the reduction of speed throughadaptations to the cross-section and horizontal andvertical alignment of the roadway. The second is thereduction of traffic volumes on certain roads throughconverting roadway network connectivity. It isimportant to note, however, that roadway adaptationscan also reduce traffic volumes by making the routeless attractive to through-traffic, and connectivityconversions can similarly reduce traffic speed.The introduction of these traffic managementmeasures are warranted when the monitoring ofpatterns of movement indicates that certain trafficspeeds or volumes along certain routes have increasedto levels that are not compatible with the range ofsocial and economic functions the route is required toperform (see TPG 14 on “traffic calming”).Internationally, speed reduction measures on localroads are typically deemed necessary when maximumspeeds exceed ± 30 km/h, and on mixed-mode arterialswhen maximum speeds exceed ± 55 km/h. Typically,volume-reduction measures are deemed necessary onlocal roads when traffic volumes exceed ± 600vehicles/h. At slower speeds, drivers have greateropportunity to perceive and react to a situation, thushelping to reduce the number and severity of collisions.Roadway systems can be adapted to manage trafficspeed, through the introduction of traffic-calmingmeasures as illustrated in Figure 5.1.10.Roadway systems can be converted to manage trafficvolume, through the introduction of traffic calmingmeasures as illustrated in Figure 5.1.11.Empirical studies on the effectiveness of trafficmanagement measures indicate that legal speed limits(in the form of “speed zones”) have little effect ondriver behaviour, and that it is rather the physical oroperational characteristics of the road that determinedriver behaviour. Traffic management measures shouldtherefore be self-enforcing. Studies suggest thatdifferent self-enforcing measures have variable impactson traffic volume and speed - apart from speed humpsand speed tables, “adaptation” measures tend to havea greater impact on traffic speed, than on trafficvolume, and “conversion” measures have a significantimpact on both speed and volume.14Chapter 5.1Movement networks


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe introduction of adaptation and conversionmeasures requires careful consideration, however. Iflocal area traffic management measures, particularlyconversion measures that alter network connectivity,are introduced on an ad hoc or area-specific basis, theycan have a negative effect on the performance of themovement network as a whole. For instance, theclosure of roadways that accommodate slower speeds,and shorter distance through-movements, increasestrip lengths, and can lead to congestion on vehicleonlyroutes, and can reduce the viability of abuttingformal and informal economic activities that dependon exposure to passing non-local consumers. Theadaptation of individual roads can simply divertproblems to nearby parallel routes, and theintroduction of speed humps can have a negativeimpact on the operation of road-based publictransport services and emergency service vehicles.Traffic management measures therefore need to bemonitored and applied on an area-wide basis.30Figure 5.1.10: Roadway adaptations to manage trafficspeed.* The partial of full closureof roadways at the endor middle of the road* The restriction of trafficmovement to selecteddirections only, in theform of diverters (alsoknown as diagonal roadclosures) and medianclosures* The conversion of twowayroads into one-wayroadsFigure 5.1.11: Roadway adaptations to manage trafficvolumes.Movement networks Chapter 5.115


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAppleyard, D, Gerson, M and Lintell, M (1981). Liveablestreets. University of California Press, Berkeley.Bernick, M and Cervero, R (1997). Transit villages in the21st century. McGraw-Hill, New York.Calthorpe, P (1993). The next American metropolis:Ecology, community, and the American dream, (sectionon “Street and Circulation System”). PrincetonArchitectural Press, New York.DETR (1998). Places, streets and movement,(forthcoming). Prepared by Alan Baxter andAssociates, Department of Environment, Transport andthe Regions, London.Ewing, R (1996). Pedestrian- and transit-friendlydesign. Joint Centre for Environmental and UrbanProblems, Florida Atlantic University. Prepared for thePublic Transit Office, Florida Department ofTransportation.Federal Transit Association (1994). Planning for transitfriendlyland use: A handbook for New Jerseycommunities. Prepared for the FTA, US Department ofTransportation.Institute of Transportation Engineers (1994). Trafficengineering for neo-traditional neighbourhooddesign. Informational Report, ITE, Technical CouncilCommittee 5P-8, Washington DC.Institute of Transportation Engineers (1998). Proposedrecommended practice: Traditional neighbourhooddevelopment street design guidelines, ITE,Transportation Planning Council Committee 5P-8,Washington DC.Katz, P (1994). The new urbanism: Toward anarchitecture of community. McGraw-Hill, New York.Pharoah, T and Russell, J (1991). Traffic calming policyand performance. The Netherlands, Denmark andGermany. Town planning review, Vol 62, No 1, January.Southworth, M and Ben-Joseph, E (1997). Streets andthe shaping of towns and cities. McGraw-Hill, NewYork.Tolley, R (1989). Calming traffic in residential areas.Brefi Press, Dyfed.Tri-Met (1996). Planning and design for transithandbook: Guidelines for implementing transitsupportive development, Tri-County MetropolitanTransportation District of Oregon, Portland.Urban Problems Research Unit (1999). Movementnetworks. Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR,Pretoria.Western Australia Planning Commission (1997).Liveable neighbourhoods: Community design code,Government of Western Australia, WAPC, Perth.16Chapter 5.1Movement networks


Chapter 5.25.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1EVOLVING PUBLIC TRANSPORT POLICY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SETTLEMENT-PLANNING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1White Paper on national transport policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Moving South Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2PRINCIPLES TO ACHIEVE THE FUNDAMENTAL RESTRUCTURING OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . 4PUBLIC TRANSPORT OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT SUPPORTIVE SETTLEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Planning settlements that are accessible to public transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Contextualisation and connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Public transport framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Integration of public transport and movement networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Integration of land use and public transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Providing for buses, minibuses and bus stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Public transport Chapter 5.2i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.2.1 The relationship between public transport services and residential density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18LIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.2.1 Urban densification options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.2.2Principles to achieve the public transport supportive structure necessaryfor fundamental restructuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.2.3 Example of four public transport network concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.2.4 Context and site analysis map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Figure 5.2.5 A transport framework for settlement planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Figure 5.2.6 Location of bus stops on major arterial roads of freeway standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Figure 5.2.7 A public transport feeder route in an open network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Figure 5.2.8 A public transport feeder route in relation to neighbourhood activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Figure 5.2.9 Car-oriented network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Figure 5.2.10 Modification of a closed road network to provide an open movement network . . . . . . . . . .15Figure 5.2.11 Land-use elements in relation to the transport framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Figure 5.2.12 Dimensions of bus bays and bus turning circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Figure 5.2.13 Road layouts reflecting evolving planning practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Figure 5.2.14 Relationship between bus stops and a commercial site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21APPENDICESAPPENDIX A PUBLIC TRANSPORT CATCHMENTS AS THE BASIS FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING . . . . . . .23APPENDIX BAPPENDIX CGUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PUBLIC TRANSPORT DEMAND ANDASSOCIATED PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN SETTLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24THE MOVING SOUTH AFRICA (MSA) STRATEGY WITH REFERENCE TO LANDUSE AND LAND MANAGEMENT ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26iiChapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONPublic transport policy, strategy, planning, operationsand management are all currently in a state of flux inSouth Africa. In the recent past, in most urban areasthe focus of public transport bodies was largely theprovision of basic services for low-incomecommunities, whose travel choices do not extend towalking, cycling or driving to their destinations. Inmost medium- to high-income areas, only rudimentaryservices exist which can barely be considered analternative to the motor car. Accordingly, publictransport services in South Africa have been designedto serve the perceived need to assemble labour fromdistant suburbs and satellite low-income dormitories,at centralised workplaces. There were, and still are,very few off-peak services. Public transport to servenon-work trip purposes has also been neglected. Inrecent years, public transport has come to bedominated by minibus taxis, which do not run toschedule and which have tended to follow the line ofleast resistance through the townships andsettlements, in order to give operators the opportunityof maximising the number of journeys, and thus theirprofits. Service to customers has not been of primaryconcern.The foregoing is the public transport context withinwhich the planners of new settlements will beoperating in the short to medium term (the next fiveto ten years). Settlement planners 1 will, however, bechallenged to assist transport authorities 2 in changingdirection and building cities and towns which facilitatepublic transport, and make it more accessible, viableand sustainable. It is, therefore, essential that theplanners of settlements in urban areas shouldunderstand the current and evolving public transportpolicies so that they can assist in facilitating settlementwhich is supportive of public transport. This guidedoes not deal with settlements in rural areas, althoughmany of the principles and standards are applicable.The next section provides a summary of relevantdocumentation about public transport, and gives anindication of the likely directions of change in thecoming ten years, to provide settlement planners withan understanding of the context within whichsettlement planning will be undertaken.EVOLVING PUBLIC TRANSPORTPOLICY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FORSETTLEMENT-PLANNINGWhite Paper on national transport policyThe strategic objectives of the White Paper which arerelevant to settlement-planning and which should beincorporated in future settlements are summarisedbelow:• Public transport travel distances and times for worktrips should be limited to about 40 km, or one hourin each direction. This means that new settlementsshould be located no further than 40 km from themajor work destinations. Further, as a generalguideline, settlements should rather be located asclose as possible to places of work and other urbanactivities so as to facilitate trips by bicycle or onfoot. Where this is not possible, settlements shouldbe located close enough to work destinations toenable public transport vehicles to make two ormore trips from the settlement to the work placeor school in peak-hour periods.• An objective has been set to promote the use ofpublic transport over private car travel with anambitious 4:5 ratio of public to private transportbeing set as a target. To assist in the achievementof this objective, settlement plans should havecirculation systems or movement layouts whichmake all dwellings accessible to public transport(see Sub-chapter 5.1).• Within the strategic objectives for improvingaccessibility, a target has been set of reducingwalking distances to public-transport facilities toless than about one kilometre. Most people takeabout 15 minutes to walk one kilometre, so thisobjective should be regarded as a minimum. A farmore desirable target for settlement-planning willbe to place every dwelling within about sevenminutes of a public transport boarding point(around 400-500 m).• A final strategic objective which should be takeninto account in settlement-planning is the object ofpromoting and planning for the use of nonmotorisedtransport. Accordingly, settlementsshould be planned as places with a variety of urbanactivities, containing workplaces, schools, shops,recreational and community facilities, anddwellings. They should also have movementnetworks which permit direct pedestrian access toactivities and public transport facilities (see Subchapter5.1).1 This applies to all professions involved in the planning and design of settlements.2 Transport authorities are provincial or municipal governments responsible for pubic transport and roads interms of schedule 4 of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act of 1996.Public transport Chapter 5.21


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe White Paper also contains a number of policystatements that should be taken into account insettlement planning. These include the following:• Land-development proposals (which includesettlement plans) should be subject to a spatialpolicy framework within an agreed developmentplanningprocess. This means that the settlementplan must be approved in terms of an integrateddevelopment plan (IDP), part of which is anintegrated transport plan (ITP) 3 . Accordingly,settlement planners will, at the outset, need toconsult transport authorities to ensure that theplanned settlement will be complementary to theintegrated transport plan (ITP), which includespublic transport strategies and operations.• Land-use development at local level (settlements)will be subject to development approval inconformity with integrated development plans.• The settlement plan should be cognisant of thedesignated public transport corridors and nodescontained in regional, metropolitan or urban IDPs.Thus, it will be necessary to contextualise thesettlement within such a spatial plan. Every newsettlement will be either adjacent to, or distantfrom, a major line-haul public transport corridor (inrare cases the public transport corridor may evenbisect a settlement). The form of the settlementshould be strongly influenced by its spatialrelationship to line-haul public transport corridors,modal interchanges and feeder corridors; in thisregard, specific guidelines on planning principlesand design standards will be provided in latersections. At this juncture, it is sufficient to note thatin terms of the White Paper, settlement plans willneed to give effect to the policy of locatingemployment activities within (or close to) the publictransport corridors and nodes (interchanges).Likewise, the settlement plan should facilitate theprovision of higher density and mixed land usesadjacent to public transport facilities.• A high density of development is important forpublic transport, in that it supports differentiatedpublic-transport provision and enhances operatingefficiency.LegislationLocal government and transport legislation is in thecourse of preparation and will establish institutionsand planning processes and procedures that will giveeffect to the White Paper’s objectives and policiesrelating to both urban settlement and publictransport. It can be expected, however, that localgovernment, land development and land transportlegislation will seek to promote integrated planning.This means that settlement plans will be subject topolicies set out in integrated development andtransport plans, as indicated earlier. Accordingly, inthe short term, settlement planners can be guided bythe objectives and policies set out in the White Paperwhich will, in due course, be given effect through theLand Transport Act. An important component of theAct will be the establishment of transport authorities,who will be responsible for planning for publictransport. Settlement planners must consult transportauthorities as an essential part of the planning process.Moving South AfricaMoving South Africa (MSA) (South Africa, Departmentof Transport 1998) was a project of the NationalDepartment of Transport, completed in September1998, which aimed to develop a long-term transportstrategy for South Africa. The strategies identified inMSA entitled “Towards a transport strategy for 2020”,will impact on settlement-planning. Appendix C tothis sub-chapter contains a summary of thesestrategies. The following are the main features of MSAwhich are significant to settlement-planning:• Line-haul, mass public transport will beconcentrated into relatively few public transportcorridors to provide conditions that will attracthigh-density mixed land uses. It is expected thatmost new urban employment activities will beencouraged to locate within such corridors.• The quality of public transport and the extent ofsocial support for the services will depend on themarket segments served in each of the corridors.Settlement planners should thus be aware of thecustomer segmentation in the settlement, as thiswill provide an indication of the type of servicethat can be expected.• Moving South Africa has developed a broad set ofguidelines for determining the type of publictransport infrastructure which will be appropriateto each corridor. These are only guidelinesbecause, in due course, transport authorities willexamine corridors on their own merits anddetermine their particular public transport policies.The guidelines will, however, influence settlementplanning.They are as follows:- High passenger-volume (also referred to as“ridership”) corridors with more than 40 000passengers per direction per day will probablysupport a rail - or dedicated public transportroad - infrastructure in congested areas. Publictransport nodes (stations and interchanges) inthese high-ridership corridors will besupported by feeder services rendered bybuses or minibus taxis.3 An Integrated Transport Plan is defined in guidelines prepared by the Committee of Land Transport Officials (COLTO).2Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN- Moderate-ridership corridors with 10 000 to40 000 passengers per day per direction arelikely to be served by a road infrastructure, withpriority or dedicated lanes for public transportover parts of the corridor. The line-haul servicesin these corridors will largely be provided bybuses, supplemented by both buses and taxis atnodal public transport interchanges.RailwayCompact city option- Low-ridership corridors will characteristicallyhave fewer than about 10 000 passengers perday per direction, and are likely to have someroad-based priority schemes. Many of theselow-ridership corridors will be feeder corridors.All the roads can be expected to be paved andthe line-haul function or feeder function willfall primarily to taxis or small road-basedvehicles.Settlement planners will need to ascertain where theexisting public transport corridors are located, relativeto the proposed settlement. In planning thesettlement it will be necessary to ascertain the type ofcorridor that will serve the settlement. This meansnegotiating with transport authorities to identifywhether there will be extensions to nearby line-haulservices, or whether the settlement will be served by afeeder service. In the case of the latter, the location ofexisting nodal points and modal interchanges will bean important consideration in the alignment of thelow-ridership feeder corridor serving the settlement.Likewise, the location of the corridor or feeder facilitywithin the settlement will need to give cognisance tothe accessibility standards discussed earlier.Figure 5.2.1 shows the urban densification optionsconsidered by MSA. MSA notes that high central-citydensities will enhance public transport use andsustainability, but in South Africa this solution isproblematic due to historic land tenure patterns.IndustrialHighwayVacantDecentralised nodeVacant landCentralised areaCorridor bandsCorridor densification optionPhysical barrierbufferHomelandMSA notes that the tendency towards continuingdecentralisation of workplace locations is complicatingthe task of creating “compact cities”. While it isargued that some compaction may be achievable as ameans of increasing density in some cities, and is notruled out, it is suggested that the predominant patternin South Africa should be the “corridor city”. MSAargues that the corridor approach fits more easily withexisting South African urban land-tenure patterns. Theappropriateness of the corridor approach is driven notonly by the already decentralised distant townshipsand the low density of inner-ring suburbs, but also byrecognition of the decline in central business district(CBD) vitality and the dispersion of development tosatellite nodes. The favoured corridor optionrecognises the existing vacant land between townshipsand suburban areas which should be taken intoaccount in settlement planning. These areas, ifdeveloped, can build on existing flows on majorcurrent corridors.HomelandFigure 5.2.1: Urban densification optionsSource: South Africa, Department of Transport (1998)MSA states that corridors already exist to some extentin South African cities and, accordingly, their strategyfocuses on densification of existing corridors and thecreation of new corridors for future urban settlementplanning.The short-term focus should be on reigningin the centrifugal tendencies in South African cities toPublic transport Chapter 5.23


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNprevent the future dispersion of development. MSAwill be looking for strategies to attract decentralisingactivity towards public transport corridors. Thisapproach should have a strong influence onsettlement-planning.PRINCIPLES TO ACHIEVE THEFUNDAMENTAL RESTRUCTURING OFPUBLIC TRANSPORTThe Department of Transport, through the CSIR, iscurrently assessing the processes and actions necessaryto achieve a fundamental restructuring of urbanpublic transport and create sustainable high-prioritypublic transport systems.Settlement planners may take it as given that theobjectives, policies and strategies outlined in thepreceding sections will be pursued through transportpolicy implementation, which should begin to shapeITPs as part of the process of urban development. Theideal of an interconnected network which serves avariety of destinations and is fully integrated willrequire a number of interventionist strategies and asupportive land-use structure. Evidence from citiessuch as Curitiba (Brazil) and Singapore suggests thatthis can be achieved only through strict adherence toprinciple and through an approach based on acommitted spatial and network form.The principles for fundamental restructuring are thefollowing:• Problem-solving approaches andprogrammes for restructuring publictransport should be incremental, practicaland focused on the long-term vision (thecorridor form of urban development)Within this principle there are two aspects with aland-use or settlement dimension:– Public transport efficiency criteria are the key tothe development of land-use. In time to come,transport planning and travel-demandmanagement will impact on spatial patterns inSouth African cities, helping to make the urbanland market more responsive to publictransport as a locational determinate.– The high-priority public transport network willform the structural component for focusedspatial development initiatives. Decentralised,retail and industrial developments and theirrelation to new settlements should be viewedas key elements in support of bidirectionalpublic transport flows. This will require a reviewof decentralisation node location, as futuredesign will be geared towards compactdecentralisation nodes.A public-transport priority network should bedeveloped (a few lines with frequent service arepreferable to many lines with infrequent service).This will mean that settlement planners shouldnote that, in most instances, the public transportcomponent of new settlements will be feederservices and transfer nodes, except where thesettlement falls within one of the higher-densitycorridors.• Appropriate nodes and technology shouldbe selected to provide cost-effective servicesat predefined service levels, based onprinciples of efficiencyThe public transport corridor and modal hierarchywill be assessed in terms of the length of thecorridor, the convergence of routes and therelationship to the surrounding routes. For thisreason it will be necessary for settlement plannersto consider more than just the nearest point ofaccess to public transport for the settlement. It willbe necessary to understand the entire transportnetwork or system when plugging a newsettlement into any urban area.Settlement planners must be aware that publictransport routes may be upgraded from feeder orlow-priority routes to high-intensity lines orroutes over time, as the urban area grows.Accordingly, the settlement must be designedwith some flexibility to facilitate the applicationof different technologies as the demand atparticular nodes and along the corridor grows.Where public transport routes are planned aspart of the settlement plan, the demandimplications of nodes and the potential forconcentrations of land use along the corridorlength, should be given attention during theplanning of the layout.• The potential for transfer between routesshould be maximisedModal transfer centres will serve as the focus forthe high-priority public transport network. Wheresuch points lie within - or at the edge of - asettlement, they should serve as focal points for themovement network in the settlement. Pedestrian,cycle and public transport feeder roads shouldconverge radially on central transfer points, whichshould be designed as pedestrian-friendly. Toensure that these points do not become clogged bystanding and waiting buses and minibus taxis,separate holding areas should be provided in thesettlement. Care must be taken to design theholding areas so that they do not cause unsightlyimpediments to movement within the settlement.The nodal transfer centres, whether stations orroad-based interchanges, should be planned andmanaged as mixed-use centres, containing retail4Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNfacilities, offices, community services, and evensome residential activities.• Seamless services that contribute to theconcept of a centrally operated andcontrolled public transport system shouldbe developedSeamless services have a uniform and shared fareand ticket system applied to all modes, andcustomers can transfer between travel modes witha minimum of delay and discomfort. This principlecan be supported by settlement planners if theyensure that a public-transport network, orpotential network, is provided which is direct andwhich is physically conducive to comfortable andconvenient transfer. In the design of the transportnetwork, every effort should be made to make theroute and facilities associated with it highly visibleand accessible to the community.• Commercial, retail and industrialdevelopment activities should be located atappropriate nodes (convergence points onthe public transport network), preferablywithin the priority corridor structureThese spatial components of the fundamentalrestructuring of public transport are illustrated inFigure 5.2.2, which highlights the principles thatshould be applied to achieve fundamentalrestructuring of public transport. Settlementplanners should be cognisant of the need forpublic transport nodes to be prioritised in terms oftheir location relative to the high-prioritynetwork, and should be based on meeting certainminimum thresholds of demand. A clearly definedapproach to settlement land-use planning isnecessary for the support of an efficient,structured public-transport system. Nodes whichfall short of the threshold of demand necessary tosupport a high-frequency public transport serviceshould have further development discouragedwithin them, both by zoning regulation and theuse of incentives and disincentives. This meansthat settlement planners need to understand atthe outset what the public transport thresholdsare, and should obtain this information byconsulting transport authorities about theirstandards for public transport in the vicinity.Existing townships, particularly dormitorytownships, provide a special case in terms of nodalstructure. It is important that settlement plannerswho will be responsible for extensions of townshipsand infilling should understand that these types ofsettlement generally lack any kind of economic oractivity node. They are, however, powerfulHierarchicalnetwork structurein support ofefficiencyprinciplesIntegratedseamless networksupported by jointfare structuresPublic transportnetwork supportshigh-priorityhigh-frequencyservicesPublictransportnetworkstructurePractical phasedprogrammesfocussed on along term visionPlanning and managementphilosophyFundamentalrestructuringprinciplesPublic transport priorityoverprivate carPublictransportsupportivespatialstructureCommercial retailand industrialdevelopmentrestricted to highpriority nodes ofcorridorsHigh densityresidentialdevelopmentencouraged withinhigh priority publictransport networkPublic transportinvestment shouldpreempt land-usechangeCar travel andaccess arerestricted whereappropriateMaximised potentialfor inter-routetransfersThe road hierarchyand associated spatialdevelopmentsupports publictransportPricing of publicversus privatetransport reflectspublic transportpriorityFigure 5.2.2: Principles to achieve the public transport supportive structure necessary for fundamentalrestructuringSource: Shaw (1998)Public transport Chapter 5.25


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNgenerators of demand for public transport. For thisreason it is suggested that potential nodes 4 beidentified within or immediately adjacent totownship areas. Under ideal circumstances,employment and amenity-related growth shouldbe located at these potential nodes. It must,however, be recognised that developers may beresistant to considering investing in such nodes,thereby constraining the ability to developefficient bidirectional ridership patterns. Thesettlement plan should make space available forthe relevant nodes to develop, even though theremay be resistance to invest at the outset.• High-density residential developmentshould be encouraged within the priorityhigh-frequency public transport corridorstructureSettlement planners need to understand thathigher-density residential development should beencouraged on unused or under-utilised landwithin the corridor structure of the high-prioritypublic transport network. While it is recognisedthat the current South African housing deliveryprocess does not encourage high-densitydevelopment, one of the most significant futurechallenges to settlement planners will be to finddelivery mechanisms and design solutions thatpromote higher-density residential development asa support mechanism for more efficient publictransport. This should apply particularly to theareas adjacent to high-frequency public transportcorridors and to nodes within all types of publictransport corridor.• Public transport priority and infrastructureinvestment should pre-empt initiatives withrespect to land-useIn the urban areas of the future, as the primary andfeeder public transport route network is developedthere will be a need for flexibility in the networkwithin settlements to enable lesser traffic routes tobe upgraded as demand increases. This is not to saythat large reserves need to be set aside toaccommodate possible future public transport, butthat the internal circulation or movement systemshould be designed so that ultimately road-basedservices can be provided with stops at 800 to 1000 mintervals, with each of the stops having nodality andgood access to the surrounding settlement forpedestrians.• The road hierarchy, and the associationbetween this hierarchy and spatialdevelopment, should support publictransportSettlement planners should be cognisant of thenegative aspects of creating car-orientated“closed” road networks which are designed toinhibit through-traffic. Provision must be made forthe penetration of neighbourhoods by publictransport. The road hierarchy should promotedirect public transport routing and, wherenecessary, public transport priority, and encouragesuitable pedestrian access to surrounding land uses.Small residential cells may be designed as “closed”networks, providing that cycle and pedestrianthrough-movement is facilitated (for details seeSub-chapter 5.1).In considering the public transport routes throughor adjacent to a settlement, settlement plannersare reminded to give consideration to the currentand proposed future function of the route,whether a primary public transport corridor or afeeder corridor. There is a need to separate theprimary public transport route from the private carbasedarterial road network, and vice versa. Publictransport priority and a public transport supportiveroad hierarchy are essential to the success of thepromotion of high levels of service for publictransport. Unfortunately, attempts to give priorityto public transport over a considerable portion ofthe road network are unworkable because of theextensive coverage which would be needed. Itwould only be possible where there was reallysignificant demand for public transport. However,areas of the network offering the highestaccessibility need to be transferred from mixedtrafficconditions to dedicated rights-of-way forpublic transport.If there is to be a priority node and/or corridorwithin a settlement, the planner should note theneed to make a distinction between the core andthe frame of the high-priority node. The coreshould be identified as the area of the greatestpedestrian activity. Parking should be omittedfrom the core in favour of dedicated pedestrianactivities. Parking facilities may be provided withinthe frame of a node.One of the most significant components ofsettlement planning in support of public transportin the future will be decentralised nodes. Theplanners of new settlements need to ensure thatnodes with large commercial floor space should notbe provided in areas not served by public transport.4 A potential node is a point in a public transport network where the public transport movement isconcentrated and transfers from one travel mode to another take place, providing conditions conducive forlocal economic development, based on the traffic at the node.6Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThus a settlement unconnected to the primary orfeeder network through nodes should not bedeveloped as a decentralised activity centre.• The pricing of public versus privatetransport should reflect public transportprioritySettlement planners need to recognise that atargeted approach towards the management ofboth accessibility and the associated form of thepublic transport is needed. A key element in thefuture management of accessibility in buildingSouth African cities will be to move away from anapproach in which infrastructure improvements arecommissioned to relieve congestion, irrespective oflocation. In future, infrastructure improvementsshould be based on the enhancement ofaccessibility, particularly by public transport.• Restrict car travel and access underappropriate circumstancesSettlement planners should restrict motor vehicleaccess within CBDs and other nodes. Along highprioritypublic transport routes the access ofpedestrians to fronting properties should bepromoted, whereas vehicle access should restricted.The Phase One report of the Department ofTransport’s fundamental restructuring projectcontains an assessment of four alternative cityforms with associated public transport networkstructures. The results, highlighted in Figure 5.2.3provide settlement planners with an overview ofthe impact of different city forms on passengervolumeconditions, average transfers per trip, tripsper capita and the directional mix of traffic.Settlement planners should, therefore, take painsto understand the network to which the settlementis to be attached.PUBLIC TRANSPORT OBJECTIVESThe following objectives should be applied to giveeffect to the principles outlined in the precedingsection, and to ensure that the settlement is conduciveto the provision of efficient and convenient publictransport:• providing for an urban structure of walkableneighbourhoods clustered together to form townsand cities of compatibly mixed uses, in order toreduce car dependence for access to activities;• ensuring that walkable neighbourhoods and accessExample of four public transport network conceptsRadial network conceptArterial corridor andfeeder conceptHub and spoke conceptDispersed radial conceptExample city:London, ParisExample city:CuritibaExample city:Gothenburg, StockholmExample city:PretoriaTheoretical ridership profile(morning peak):Theoretical ridership profile(morning peak):Theoretical ridership profile(morning peak):Theoretical ridership profile(morning peak):InboundInboundInboundInboundOutboundOutboundOutboundOutboundSuburbCBDSuburbCBDSuburbCBDNodeNodeInboundRidership conditionsRidership conditionsRidership conditionsModerate passenger turnoverHigh passenger turnoverHigh/moderate passenger turnoverOutboundAverage transfers per tripAverage transfers per tripAverage transfers per tripTownshipCBDNot availableCuritiba : 1,4Stockholm : 0,66Ridership conditionsLow passenger turnoverPublic transport trips per capitaPublic transport trips per capitaPublic transport trips per capitaAverage transfers per tripPretoria (Atteridgeville) : 0,23London : 328Curitiba : 202Stockholm : 322Public transport trips per capitaPretoria : 156Figure 5.2.3: Example of four public transport network conceptsSource: Shaw (1998)Public transport Chapter 5.27


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNto services and facilities are designed for all users,including those with disabilities;• facilitating development that supports theefficiency of public transport systems, with safe anddirect access; and• providing a variety of plot sizes and housing typesto cater for the diverse housing needs of urbandwellers at densities that can support the provisionof viable public transport.The design and layout of a settlement can have aprofound influence on its sustainability. A number ofobjectives need to be pursued which will contributetowards creating living environments that are moreaffordable for residents. The design should• reduce dependence on cars by encouraging walking,cycling and the use of public transport; and• give access to facilities for all users of theenvironment, and provide opportunities for locallybased business and employment.As a global phenomenon, recent neighbourhooddesign concepts have been given titles such as “transitorienteddesign” (TOD), “traditional neighbourhooddesign” (TND), “green-house neighbourhoods” and“urban villages”. In each case the underlying objectiveis to create neighbourhoods which reduce dependencyon private vehicles and are more energy-efficient.GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORTSUPPORTIVE SETTLEMENTSPlanning settlements that are accessibleto public transportThe process of planning for public transport includessite and contextual analysis, right down to the detailsof street alignment and form, plot sizes and shapes.The “coat-hanger” around which the settlementshould develop is the public transport network. Thisshould be supported by a movement network whichshould, as a priority, facilitate multi-directionalpedestrian movement, focused on a highly accessiblepublic transport system.In respect of the public transport component ofsettlement-planning, the planning should takeaccount of and address the following questions:• How big is the settlement, how will it be developedand at what density?• Where is the settlement, relative to the mainactivities in the urban area in which it is situated?• Where is the settlement located relative to existingpublic transport, either rail- or road-based?• How will the settlement be connected to theexisting public transport network, whether road orrail or both?• Will the settlement be sufficiently large for themain public transport line-haul system to beextended through it, or will it be located to oneside of the major public transport route, or at somedistance from the corridor, requiring a feederpublic transport service?• What will be the likely demand for public transportgenerated by the settlement?• Where will the main access to public transport bewithin the settlement?• What will be the spacing of public transport stopsin the settlement?• How can the settlement be planned so that themovement system provides the maximum access topublic transport?• What is the relationship between the movementsystem for the settlement and the proposed publictransport services?Obviously, these and other questions will inform theplanner with regard to the integration of themovement and public transport networks. Specificguidelines on the site and contextual analysis, as theyrelate specifically to public transport, are provided inthe following section.Contextualisation and connectionThis should be undertaken at an early stage to identifyopportunities and constraints presented by the site.The processes take into account all constraints - such asopen space, topography and servitudes - and includean analysis of the regional structure andneighbourhood form in existing surrounding areas. Ofrelevance to the public transport planning is thefollowing:On a map (as exemplified in Figure 5.2.4), and whererelevant, quantify the following information:• existing and planned neighbourhoods, towns andregional centres;• other significant features such as regional parks;• freeways, arterial roads, public transport routes,bus stops and rail stations; and• the location of rail stations.8Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNMap, describe and where relevant, analyse, thefollowing information:• servitudes and street reserves;• linkage to and from the site;• distance and direction to public transportinfrastructure; and• distance and direction to local shops and schools.The foregoing context and site analysis applies only topublic transport. Obviously there are other contextualand site-analysis factors which need to be taken intoaccount by settlement planners, including topography,drainage, vegetation, etc.Figure 5.2.4 exemplifies the concepts ofcontextualisation and connection. It shows the siteand the spatial relationship between the site andexisting urban development, indicating the location ofthe main transport infrastructure, existing and futureroads and road reserves and future developments ofSoshanguveSoshanguvestationK20 0,75 1,5kmExistingsettlementsFutureurbansettlementPWV 9RailwayK4400m400mKlip-kruisfonteinFutureroadreserveFuturefreewayArterialroadsRoad 2758800mFutureCBDK63FutureregionalparkStationThe siteFigure 5.2.4: Context and site analysis mapPublic transport Chapter 5.29


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNregional significance, such as a future CBD and railstation and a future regional park. This example issuperimposed on an actual settlement, but theelements (such as the proposed future regional park)are hypothetical. The figure illustrates some of thesite conditions that will influence the movement andpublic transport network. Topography and theinfluence of slope are not shown, but the planner iscautioned to note the importance of topography tothe public transport movement system (see Subchapter5.1). It is obvious from this context and siteanalysis how the site needs to be developed to tie inwith the existing settlement and infrastructure. Thefreeway shown in the figure represents a constraint onthe development of the site. This constraint wouldrequire settlement planners to negotiate with roadand/or transport authorities, to provide measures toeliminate severance and to help minimise theenvironmental impact of the freeway on thedevelopment of the settlement. In this instance,settlement planners should persuade road authoritiesto provide freeway bridges or underpasses to link thecommunities on either side of the freeway. In thesituation depicted in the figure, the entire layout andsettlement plan will be influenced by the number andtype of movement connections which the roadauthority may be willing to provide. Differentcircumstances will prevail, and there may be caseswhere the local authority or transport authority willrequire the site developer to pay for providinglinkages. This decision usually hinges on the stage ofthe planning of the future freeway.Public transport frameworkPlanning information requirements should address -but not be limited to - the following matters:• the contents of the Integrated Transport Plan,including policy statements on the public transportnetwork, rail concessions, bus contracts, minibusinitiatives and public transport infrastructure;• public transport demand (the origins anddestinations of trips) the placement of bus routes,proposed bus stop locations (including calculationsof walkable catchments served within a 400 metreradius);• all existing/proposed rail station locations(including calculations of walkable catchmentsserved within an 800 m radius;• provision for pedestrians and the disabled;• an actual or potential cycle network plan;• layouts to facilitate effective traffic managementaround schools and to facilitate safe access toschools;• traffic management in and around proposedactivity centres;• measures to control traffic speed; and• proposed intersection controls, including prioritysystems signalled by the use of a clear movementhierarchy.Guidance on the technique to use walkablecatchments as the basis for accessibility planning andcalculating catchments is listed in Appendix A.Examples of processes for restructuring publictransport demand for different settlement types andmarket segments are provided in Appendix B.An example of the recommended process for thedevelopment of settlements supportive of publictransport is illustrated in Figure 5.2.5.In consulting with transport authorities to ascertainfuture proposals in respect of road and railinfrastructure, as well as public transport services, theplanner is cautioned to note that, in some cases, thesettlement should influence and modify plannedtransport facilities. Some hard-nosed negotiation maybe necessary. A hypothetical public transportframework is illustrated in Figure 5.2.5.It will be noted from Figure 5.2.5 that the main publictransport corridor is to be found to the west of thesettlement and comprises a commuter railway line,which provides for long distance movement, and a“road-based” activity spine within the corridor, toprovide for regional movement between stations andbetween different districts of the urban area. In thiscase, the location of the road-based activity spine maybe questioned because it duplicates and competeswith the rail service. An alternative location further tothe east and bisecting the settlement may bepreferable, to provide a viable threshold for the roadbasedpublic transport service. The regional, roadbased“activity spine” needs to be well connected tothe rail at interchanges and stations. The figuredepicts a future station at the centre of a proposedfuture central business area. Such a station should beserved by feeder road-based public transport in whichcase there will be a need to plan for a public transport,interchange to facilitate this process. Although notpart of the settlement plan, the station and the publictransport interchange will exert a strong influenceover the road alignments in the settlement, asdepicted in the figure. The technique of using 800 mcatchments around stations, and 400 m catchmentsaround bus stops, has been used to provide thestructuring elements or transport framework for thesettlement. The figure shows the activity nodes in thecentre of the public transport catchments, which arethe focal points on the feeder routes and should bespaced at 800 m intervals. Such a design will providefor flexibility, even if feeder routes are not initially10Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNSoshanguveNSoshanguvestationK20 0,75 1,5kmRailwayActivity spineline-haulpublic transportPWV 9Klip-kruisfonteinStationBus/minibusfeederroutesModalInterchangeRailcatchment= 800mFuturearterialBusminibuscatchments... = 400mK63Line-haulbus stopFeeder bus stopFuturefreewayFigure 5.2.5: A transport framework for settlement planningprovided in both directions. For example, the bus stopspacing could initially be lower on the activity spine,with all feeder routes from the settlement feedinginto the public transport interchanges, associated withrail stations rather than into stops at 800 m intervalson the activity spine as indicated in the figure.has made provision for the freeway to be crossed ataround one kilometre intervals. This is an importantprinciple and standard which should be adhered to inurban areas in order to minimise severance and theenvironmental impact of freeways.It is important that flexibility should be provided in thedesign. It will be noted that the transport frameworkPublic transport Chapter 5.211


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIntegration of public transport andmovement networksBus laneStopAll purpose roadWhen designing a movement network in support ofthe public transport network, the different patterns ofmovement of buses, freight vehicles, cars, bicycles andpedestrians should be borne in mind (the readershould refer to Sub-chapter 5.1 for guidance onmovement networks). Typically, cars and goodsvehicles seek to make direct journeys at the highestpossible speed. The aim should therefore be to getthese vehicles from a neighbourhood to a throughrouteas quickly as possible. Buses and minibuses, onthe other hand, are required to serve passengers andto offer an attractive and convenient alternative to cartravel. Buses should be able to proceed directlythrough the centre of neighbourhoods, picking up andsetting down passengers as close as possible to theirorigins and destinations.Buses and minibuses normally travel along publicroads shared with other traffic. Such roads are usuallyclassified by traffic engineers within a functional roadhierarchy. Bus operations can be expected to be foundon many of the strata. Accordingly, settlementplanners should provide public transport networks onroads on which the traffic functions and characteristicsof the road are harmonised with the moderate speed,mixed-traffic and pedestrian-crossing requirements ofsuch a facility. Guidance on public transport in relationto the road hierarchy is provided below:Bus bayStopMotorway(1) Bus stops on interchange slip roads (for services enteringor leaving an urban motorway)Bus stopRamped footwayBus stopFootwayFootwayBus stopBus stopRamped footway(2) Bus stops for through services at an interchange• Major arterials. The arterial network in intendedto accommodate major traffic movements and tolink the major districts of towns and cities.“mobility” routes, which have a limited number ofinterchanges or intersections and a large degree ofaccess control to fronting properties. Major arterialroads such as urban freeways and dualcarriageways are not suitable for bus services andshould only be used for limited-stop and expressservices. In the case of limited stop and expressservices operating on freeways, stopping placesmay be provided as indicated in Figure 5.2.6.• Minor arterials. Minor arterials feed traffic fromthe major arterials into and from the main urbandistricts and provide the linkage between them.These are generally the ideal roads for line-haulbus and minibus taxi movement. While there areusually some restrictions on frontage access andrestraints on street parking on this type of road,particularly during peak hours, the standard ofintersection spacing tends to be lower and there isconsiderable cross-traffic and pedestrianmovement, and there are many pedestrianfootways at the roadside. The amount ofinteraction and cross-traffic produces a reducedspeed differential between buses and other traffic,meaning that buses can stop at the kerb withoutcausing undue delay or danger for other roadRamped footwayBus stopBus stopRamped footway(3) Bus slip roads and stops at points between interchangeFigure 5.2.6: Location of bus stops on major arterialroads of freeway standardSource: Greater Glasgow PTE (1973)users. Bus lay-bys should, however, be provided,and in congested areas on this type of roadwaypriority lanes should be provided for road-basedpublic transport.• Collectors. Collector roads are the link betweenthe urban main road system (arterials) andneighbourhoods. These should penetrate theneighbourhoods and, together with minorarterials, are the appropriate level in the roadhierarchy upon which public transport services,particularly feeder services, should be provided.The majority of stopping bus and minibus feederservices will be found along the collector type of12Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNroad, which should preferably be at least 7,3 mwide. Widths in excess of this tend to encouragehigher speeds which are not desirable on mixedtrafficfacilities.• Activity streets. Hitherto, such streets have notformed part of the urban road hierarchy and havenot been planned, but have evolved. They arestreets that experience mixed traffic and intensefronting land use activity. Many activity streets startlife as high-mobility arterials but, because of theirhigh accessibility, become congested and attractcommercial land use. Access-seeking traffic beginsto predominate over through-traffic. Activity streetsare the ideal locus of road-based public transportservices. Settlement planners should provide layoutsand land-use plans which facilitate the emergenceof “activity streets” as the basis of public transportcorridors. The scale, geometric characteristics anddimensions of an “activity street” cannot bespecified prescriptively. An activity street could varyfrom collector-road scale, with a narrow crosssection,typical of a European village “high street” toa minor arterial in a generous cross-section. Typically,there should be interaction between one side of thestreet and the other, with much pedestrian crossing,so the scale of the street should be modest.• Local (access) streets. Public transport should beprecluded from using this type of street, whichshould be designed to facilitate mixed trafficwithin neighbourhoods in safety and at low speed.The specifics of the design and layout of the road andmovement networks are dealt with in section 5.1.The following section provides some additionalguidelines in respect of the local road and movementnetworks in relation to public transport. Figure 5.2.7shows a public transport feeder route bisecting aneighbourhood unit with a radius of 400 m. The centre,or point of highest accessibility, is the point at whichpublic transport services will be provided. It is evidentfrom the layout that, because of the open road network,public transport is highly accessible along the publictransport route. The figure also indicates that, ideally,higher-density mixed land-use should be providedadjacent to the route. It also shows that service roadscan be provided for access to fronting shops.Figure 5.2.8 shows a variation of the same network toillustrate the point that intensive neighbourhoodactivity should be located at the centre or mostaccessible part of the neighbourhood, whereas moreextensive activity, some of which may have an interneighbourhoodfunction, may be located further awayat the periphery, but will still be accessible on foot, toresidents in the neighbourhood. An example of thelatter is a primary school.Figure 5.2.9 shows a “closed” street network which ischaracteristic of residential networks provided in therecent past. This type of network is a “car-orientednetwork” in that pedestrian movement is channelledalong the streets and the only access to the centralPublictransportfeederroute“Open” movement network with high density mixedland use in support of public transportFigure 5.2.7: A public transport feeder route in an open networkSource: WAPC (1997)Public transport Chapter 5.213


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN“public transport road” is the intersection at the centreof the figure. It is evident that such a layout will beinconvenient to pedestrians, particularly those tryingto access the central road from the closed loops.The “closed” network depicted in Figure 5.2.9 can bemodified to facilitate pedestrian access to the centralpublic transport feeder routes at appropriate points,while retaining the closed road network whichprecludes through traffic (see Figure 5.2.10). This is bymeans of mid-block pedestrian or cycle gates placed atstrategic locations on the facility. The figure alsoshows bus lay-bys provided in a widened reserve at themost accessible point. Such ”closed” street networksmay be desired by some communities as animpediment to vehicle-based through traffic, and topreserve the security and or environmental benefits ofclosed networks. Settlement planners should,however, bear in mind that open networks designedwith appropriately scaled reserves and narrow roadstend to inhibit through movement and have greaterflexibility. Through traffic tends to be curtailed wherespace for parking is limited and the streets aredesigned to facilitate pedestrian movement, streetparking and slow vehicle movement.The foregoing examples provide some guidance as tohow the public transport framework interfaces withthe neighbourhood movement and street networks.Extensiveactivity(local)Intensiveactivity(neighbourhood)“Open” street and movement network in relationto land useFigure 5.2.8: A public transport feeder route in relation to neighbourhood activitiesSource: WAPC (1997)14Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNCar orientednetwork“Closed” street network inconvenient forpedestrians and public transportFigure 5.2.9: Car-oriented networkBus lay-byPedestrian/cycle gatePublictransportfeeder route“Closed” street network with “open” movementnetwork facilitating access to public transportFigure 5.2.10: Modification of a closed road network to provide an open movement networkPublic transport Chapter 5.215


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIntegration of land use and publictransportLand-use elementsTo attract customers to public transport, plannersneed to understand the influence of land use andurban design on travel behaviour. As indicated inthe previous section, better integration of land useand public transport is possible when publictransport considerations are included in settlementplanning. Municipalities have the legal authorityand regulatory instruments to enforce urbandevelopment that is supportive of public transport.In terms of integrated development plans, it isimportant that development proposals should bereviewed in the light of traffic generation,potential public transport ridership, and ease ofoperation for public transport. This section of theguidelines describes what public transportorientedland development means in terms ofurban structure, road networks and designstandards which are favourable to public transport.Changes to by-laws and regulations governing landdevelopment should be contemplated by allmunicipalities as part of their integrateddevelopment plans.Figure 5.2.11 shows some typical land-useproposals which would be supportive of publictransport. At the centre of the public transportcatchments are cross-roads on the public transportnetwork. These roads may be mixed-traffic minorarterials and/or collector roads linked to thearterial road system. They are focused on accessibleactivity nodes at the centre of the neighbourhoods,based on a 400 m walking distance for residents.The activity nodes will largely attractneighbourhood retail and community facilities butwill also be the location of bus stops. The figurealso shows that, particularly on the most significantpublic transport route leading to the proposedfuture central business district, mixed high-densityland uses may be planned to support publictransport, and in some circumstances, tradingactivity may be encouraged. The figure shows howthe feeder routes converge on the major nodes.The central node should combine central placeactivity, retail, office and service functions, as wellas a modal interchange. It is evident that thecentral area should be highly accessible by roadbasedpublic transport.It should be noted that the street network withinthe major public transport corridor is an existingstreet network, which may be incompatible withthe principles being propounded in this guideline.It is inevitable that, as major public transportcorridors evolve in urban areas, there may be aneed for redevelopment to encourage higherintensity land uses in support of the activity in thecorridor. Activity nodes are likely to develop ataccessible points in the corridor, as indicated in thefigure.Factors contributing to viable andsustainable public transportThere has been extensive research to demonstratethat the features of public transport-friendly urbandesign include development density, the land-usemix, the configuration of the urban road networkand the design of movement or circulation systemswhich accommodate both pedestrians and publictransport vehicles. Throughout this guidereference has been made to settlement planners,but it is increasingly realised that urban settlementsshould be the product of multi-disciplinary workinvolving landscape architects, architects, urbanplanners and designers as well as traffic andtransport engineers. Greater effort is required todesign streets from a holistic perspective, asadvocated in this guideline, taking account of allforms of movement, including bicycles,pedestrians, cars, and public transport.It is important to remember that the use of publictransport involves pedestrian movements at eitherend of the public transport trip. An unpleasantpedestrian experience will inhibit growth in publictransport patronage. Accordingly, very importantfactors in promoting public transport are perceivedproximity to the boarding point of publictransport, walking distance to the final destination,the overall street and site designs, pedestrianfacilities, and amenities on the sidewalks.Development densityThe two aspects of settlement density which areimportant to public transport are the location ofdense or less dense settlements, relative to publictransport services, and continuous density along apublic transport route.In general, as residential and employment densitiesincrease, so do the number of passengers perkilometre along the route also increase, justifyingmore frequent or higher levels of public transportservice. This helps to make public transport muchmore attractive.At metropolitan or city-wide scale, it is importantthat settlements should be continuous; that is, theyshould not be permitted to “leap-frog” agriculturalland or parkland, as was formerly the case with thelower-income dormitory settlements in SouthAfrica. Municipalities affected by discontinuousdevelopments will experience higher costs percapita for infrastructure such as roads and sewers.This will also apply to public transport services. Insettlement planning, the costs of new public16Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNFigure 5.2.11: Land-use elements in relation to the transport frameworktransport services should also be factored into theassessment of the municipal infrastructure requiredfor the settlement.Relationship between density and thelocation of employmentFuture settlement planning should take cognisanceof the need to develop balanced communitiescontaining employment activities within thecommunity. The settlement should seek to clusterbusinesses and employment activities into a fewareas of significant development, to help createthe critical mass which public transport requires toserve areas cost-effectively. Scattered travelpatterns should be avoided so that public transportreflects movement towards a single centre.Empirical research has found that public transportridership increases markedly when a threshold ofone employer per 100 m 2 , in a centre with morethan 10 000 jobs, is attained. Public transport istherefore heavily influenced by the critical mass ofemployees, but also by the availability of freeparking. Where parking is restricted, publicPublic transport Chapter 5.217


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNtransport ridership is also enhanced. One of themost serious impediments to the use of publictransport in urban areas is the decentralisedsuburban “business park”. Settlement plannersmust be cognisant of the detrimental effects ofsuch land uses on public transport, and ensure thatemployment is centred within public transportcorridors.There are two factors that discourage the use ofpublic transport in office or business parks; namely,there is little incentive for employees to considerusing public transport when there is free parking,and office parks are usually located some distancefrom existing public transport services.Relationship between public transport andresidential densityFor public transport to be feasible a minimumthreshold population is necessary. However,because of the variety of residential marketsegments in South Africa and the relationshipbetween residential and employment activities, ithas not been easy to establish minimum thresholdsfor residential density. In lieu of clear thresholdsand guidelines it is advisable for settlementplanners to take note of relationships establishedabroad. For example, Table 5.2.1 shows publictransport services related to residential density as aresult of empirical studies in North America.According to Pushkarev and Zupan (1997) thedesired threshold for dwelling densities per hectareis around 10 for hourly local bus services, rising toaround 40 dwellings per hectare for very frequentpublic transport services at intervals of less than 10minutes.Mixed land use and public transportMixing land uses means combining commercial andother uses of various types - for examplepermitting personal services and restaurants to belocated near industry or commerce. Residentialsettlements should include convenient serviceswithin walking distance. The opportunity to walkto and from bus stops and accomplish errandsconveniently is a further motivation to use publictransport rather than to drive. The central or focalpoints within any neighbourhood which form partof a settlement should comprise the nonresidentialland uses such as convenience stores,retail shops, parks, schools and other amenities.The mix of land uses in close proximity to aneighbourhood centre will enable people toaccomplish several trip purposes, often by walking.Current zoning often requires strict land-usesegregation, resulting in large distances betweendifferent activities, increasing single-purpose trips.This can be discouraged by settlement plannerswho provide conditions conductive to the use ofpublic transport.Providing for buses, minibuses and busstopsAlignment of public transport routesPublic transport routes should be planned to followa reasonably fast and direct itinerary passing asclose as possible to the centres of neighbourhoodsserved by the route. Circular routes should beavoided. Streets used as bus/minibus routes shouldhave a maximum gradient of 1 in 15 (6,7%). Wherewarranted by demand for public transport, parallelbus routes outside town centres should not be lessthan about 800 m apart, in order to provide eachroute with a reasonable catchment area.Planning to facilitate bus services in newsettlementsSettlement planners should take intoconsideration the fact that areas of intenseTable 5.2.1: The relationship between public transport services and residential densityTYPE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICEGROSS RESIDENTIAL DENSITY (DWELLINGS/ha)Frequent Service (5-10 minute service intervals) 37Frequent bus service with some express routes(15 minute intervals)22Local bus (daytime 30 minute intervals and extendedservices at 60 minute intervals) 17Local bus (daytime 60 minutes intervals) 10Source: Pushkarev and Zupan (1977)18Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNpedestrian activity such as health clinics, old agehomes, schools and bus centres are best locatedwith ready access to the public transport services.As noted elsewhere in this guide, the walkingdistance to the nearest bus stop should not bemore than 400 m from the furthest house. Highdensityhousing developments should be situatedcloser to the roads along which buses willoperate. Development to a depth of at least 200 mon both sides of bus routes is desirable.Settlement planners should ensure that properfacilities for buses and minibuses are provided fromthe outset. The following principles need to beborne in mind:• roads, which may be used as bus or minibusroutes, should connect activity centres directlyand be suitable as regards width, alignmentand construction;• corner radii should take into account the factthat buses have a large swept turning circle (inthe order of 20 to 25 m in diameter);• bus bays and turning areas should be providedas appropriate (see Figure 5.2.12);• the minimum width of road for bus operationsin new developments should be 7,3 m, or 9 mwhere there are more than 30 buses per hourusing the road; and• where possible, bus services should havebalanced traffic in both directions at peak time.This can be achieved by having employmentareas concentrated at nodes along the main buscorridors.Figure 5.2.13 shows different road layouts,reflecting the history of planning practice. Thegrid network found in townships that developedbefore 1950 provided direct pedestrian access toservices, shops and public transport.Sub-divisions over the last 30 years have tended tofocus on the internal neighbourhood structure,with roadways designed to reduce travel speedsand discourage through traffic. This type of layouttended to discourage the use of public transport.This current guide seeks to provide a compromiseor a combination that provides the best of bothworlds - namely a movement network that catersfor direct pedestrian movement in all directionsand a road network which inhibits through traffic.These variations are depicted in Figure 5.2.13.Factors that encourage pedestrian activity andhave a direct impact on the attractiveness ofwalking to bus stops and waiting for buses include• barrier-free routes, with crosswalks, overpassesand ramps;0,8mR= 13m6m24,5m20m3,25m20m 11m3,25m23m46m0,5mA. RoundaboutR=9m20m3,3m11m20mR=15mStandard singlebus bayStandard doublebus bayBus bay forhigh speed roadsB. BanjoFigure 5.2.12: Dimensions of bus bays and bus turning circlesSource: Greater Glasgow PTE (1973)Public transport Chapter 5.219


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBus route• good lighting and an environment which isperceived to be safe, because it is overlooked byhuman activity;• sidewalks, seating and shelters; and• pleasant views and other attractions, includinglandscaping and plantings.The convenient location of bus stops is significant,and they should be placed relative to buildingentrances. This aspect is as important to publictransport customers as convenient parking is to carusers.Modal choice and relative cost efficienciesfor infrastructure and operationsBus routeCollector roadLocal roadArterial roadAlthough this subject is beyond the scope ofsettlement planners, they should be aware thatlayout of the movement network and the spatialarrangement of land uses can impact bothpositively and negatively on public transport.Where modal choice is a consideration, painsshould be taken to avoid duplication of publictransport infrastructure such as stops andterminals.The relationship between public transportand commercial sitesCommercial sites in settlements which aresupportive of public transport usually face thestreet and provide easy access for customersapproaching by foot rather than by car.Bus routeBusstopPedestrianpathFigure 5.2.13: Road layouts reflecting evolvingplanning practiceSource: BC Transit (1995)Design features which encourage pedestrian flowinclude continuous sidewalks, trees and benches,and street furniture that provides a buffer betweencirculating traffic and the sidewalk. Figure 5.2.14shows the ideal relationship between a commercialactivity site and public transport.Bus stopsThe information that follows applies to both busesand minibuses. The location of bus stops must beplanned as part of the movement network at theoutset, to achieve the best arrangement. Thespacing of bus stops needs to be a compromisebetween the achievement of as high an operatingspeed for buses as possible and the placement ofstops within an acceptable walking distance oftraffic generators, attractors and transfer points.Bus-stop spacing depends on the density ofroadside development. Where development is notintense, such as in residential suburbs, stops shouldbe around 800 m apart. In nodal activity centreswhere there is a high concentration of trip ends,stops should be closer together, with an averageseparation of around 300 m. If there is more than20Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPPActivitysiteParkingin rearActivitysitePedestrians prefer short distances fromeither automobiles or transit; and transit tripsare shorter when there is no route diversionTransitrouteFigure 5.2.14: Relationship between bus stops and a commercial siteSource: BC Transit (1995)one bus service along a road, transfer is facilitatedif all the services use the same stop, providingcongestion is avoided.Bus stops close to railway stations should bearranged to provide the minimum walking distancefor transferring passengers. At business centresstops should be sited so that buses depositpassengers at the main frontage of the centres.For reasons of road safety, bus stops on oppositesides of a single two-way carriageway should bestaggered by a least 45 m, so that buses stop tailto-tail.This dimension may be reduced where laybysare provided.CONCLUSIONIf settlement planners are to succeed in providing anenvironment which is conductive to the use of publictransport, the greatest attention to detail should beprovided in respect of the development itself and itsrelationship with surrounding areas. The greatestattention should be provided for pedestrian amenity.Site design features that make public transport moreattractive are required but, given the pressures on theroad system, it is time to de-emphasise land-use designfor the convenience of car users, and refocus towardspedestrian movement and public transport. Publictransport-friendly designs can be achieved withoutdetrimental results for car users.For the convenience of passengers, stops nearintersections or junctions should be located as closeas possible to the junction consistent with safety.Generally, bus stops should be located at the farside of the junction to minimise interference withleft-turning traffic and to maintain traffic-signalefficiency. If public transport is to be promoted,facilities should be provided at bus stops. Theseinclude shelters. In siting shelters, care must betaken to maintain adequate sight distance fordrivers emerging from side roads. Recommendedminimum distances are as follows:SPEED LIMIT (km/h)MINIMUM DISTANCEAFTER LEFT TURN (m)50 2365 3180 38Public transport Chapter 5.221


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYArmstrong-Wright, A (1986) Urban transit systems:guidelines for examining options. World Bank TechnicalPaper No 52. The World Bank, Washington DC.BC Transit (1995). Transit and land use planning.Surrey, British Columbia.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1998). Movement networks.Urban Problems Research Unit, University of CapeTown.Bernick, M and Cervero, R (1997). Transit Villages inthe 21st Century. McGraw-Hill, New York.Calthorpe, P (1993). The next American metropolis:Ecology, community, and the American dream.Princeton Architectural Press, New York.COLTO (Committee of Land Transport Officials (nd).Guidelines for the preparation of an integratedtransport plan TPG 1.Department of the Environment and Transport (1994).Planning policy guideline: Transport PPG 13, HMSO,London.Department of the Environment, Transport and theRegions (1998). Plans, streets and movement: Acompanion guide to Design Bulletin 32; Residentialroads and footpaths, HMSO, London.FTA (1994). Planning for transit-friendly land use: Ahandbook for New Jersey communities. Federal TransitAdministration, US Department of Transportation.Greater Glasgow PTE and Strathclyde Regional Council(1973). Guidelines for bus operation in urban areas,Glasgow.IHT (forthcoming). Planning for public transport indevelopment. Institution of Highway andTransportation, London.MCA Urban and Environmental Planners (1998).Planning and design of public transport systems.Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR. Cape Town.Pushkarev, B S and Zupan, J M (1997). Publictransportation and land use policy, Indiana UniversityPress, Bloomington, Indiana.PTRC (1991). Urban transport in developing countries.PTRC Education and Research Services, London.Shaw, A (1998). Fundamental restructuring of theplanning management and operation of urban publictransport networks. Report No CR 98/018. Division ofRoads and Transport Technology, CSIR, Pretoria.Simpson, B J (1994). Urban public transport today. E &FN Spon. London.South Africa (1996). White Paper on NationalTransport Policy. Department of Transport.South Africa, Department of Transport (1998). MovingSouth Africa: Towards a transport strategy for 2020,Pretoria.TRC Africa (1999). Public Transport.report prepared for the CSIR. Pretoria.UnpublishedTri-Met (1996). Planning and design for transithandbook: Guidelines for implementing transitsupportive development. Tri-County MetropolitanTransportation, District of Oregon, Portland.TRL (1993). Public transport in third world cities, Stateof the Art Review/10. HMSO. London.Westerman, H L (1996). The relationship between roadand land use planning. Austroads Project RSM 34,University of New South Wales, Sydney.Western Australia Planing Commission (WAPC) (1997).Liveable neighbourhoods: community design code,Western Australian Planning Commission, Perth.22Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNAPPENDIX APUBLIC TRANSPORT CATCHMENTS AS THE BASIS FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNINGSource: Western Australian Planning Commission (1997)Walkable catchments, when depicted on maps, show the actual area within a five minute walking distance fromany centre or bus stop, or ten minutes from any major transport interchange, such as a railway station. The centreshould ideally be an activity node for either a neighbourhood or a local community served by public transport. Thewalkable catchment helps in planning a settlement in such a way that it is easy to evaluate the ability to movethrough the urban area to access centres.Walkable catchment calculations are expressed as the actual area within five minutes walking distance, as apercentage of the theoretical area within a five minute walking distance. The theoretical five minute walkingdistance is shown as a circle with a radius of about 400 metres around a focal points, such as a crossroad. Thisprovides an area of 50 hectares. When calculating a ten minute walking distance, the radius used is about 800metres, resulting in a circle with an area of 200 hectares (see diagram below). The higher the percentage of actualto theoretical five minute or ten minute walk, the better the “walkability”. A good target for a walkablecatchment is to have 60 per cent of the area within the stipulated walking distance.Process for calculating walkable catchments.1. On the settlement site map draw circles of 400 metre radius around desired focal points, and 800 metre radiuscircles around rail stations which are either existing or planned.2. Starting from the centre, measure along the centre line of all planned streets to a distance of 400 metres.3. Estimate the boundary of the plots within a 400 metre walk. This will provide the actual area from which thecentre can be accessed along the planned streets within a five minutes walk.4. In the case of stations the same exercise may be completed for a ten minute walking distance using 800 metresas the distance measure. On each circle the result will be a map showing the actual distance within both thefive minute walk and the ten minute walk from rail stations.5. Using a grid of scale hectares,calculate the approximate areaand hectares and the landaccessible within a five or tenminute walk and express this as apercentage of either the 50 or 200hectare circles. The percentagewill indicate the efficiency of thelayout.Note that the walkable catchmentshould always count the area of landused for dwellings, but not includepublic open space contained in theaccessible area.It should be noted that in fine-tuningthe calculations, there are practicalinfluences, such as short-cuts throughparks or along pedestrian paths.These should only be included wherethere is a high degree of surveillancefrom adjoining development andwhere there is good lighting.Similarly, the walkable catchmentmay need to be reduced where thereis poor surveillance and routes mayultimately be perceived as unsafe.NPublic transport Chapter 5.223


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNAPPENDIX BGUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PUBLIC TRANSPORT DEMAND AND ASSOCIATED PUBLICTRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN SETTLEMENTSSource: South Africa, Department of Transport (1998)The demand for public transport in any settlement is related to car ownership (affected by household incomes),the form of development (density, proximity to services, etc) and the quality of the services. Settlement plannersneed to understand public transport demand, in order to size facilities appropriately. In short, in planning asettlement, it is necessary to understand whether the public transport component is scaled to mini-bus taxis orbuses or trains. The following examples may be helpful. They are based on differing combinations of the 400metre radius of “walkable” neighbourhoods.Conditions1. A “walkable” public transport catchment of 400 m radius, encircling an area of 50 ha.2. A “walkable” public transport catchment of 800 m radius for rail, encircling an area of 200 ha.3. In the dwelling density range which is common in South Africa, of between 5 and 30 dwellings per hectare,around 60 per cent of a neighbourhood can be expected to be developed for residences. Thus in a 50 haneighbourhood the following may be expected:plot sizes of 200 m 2 = 30 du/ha = 1 500 unitsplot sizes of 600 m 2 = 10 du/ha = 500 unitsplot sizes of 1 000 m 2 = 6 du/ha = 300 units4. Plot sizes usually approximate car ownership and household income, with the smaller plot sizes being associatedwith lower income and car ownership.AssumptionsThe following assumptions may be applied to public transport demand estimation for a low income settlementbased on parameters observed in Cape Town in the current “Moving Ahead” transport study:1. Size of settlement = 50 ha (400 m walking radius).2. Income of residents = < R40 000/household/year.3. Non-residential development= 2 ha office/retail= 4 ha industrial= 4 ha schools and parks= 10 ha roads and public spaces.4. Residential modal split = 85 per cent public transport.5. Office and retail modal split = 60 per cent public transport.6. Work trip generation rates for households earning < R40 000 per annum = 1,6 trips to work/day.7. Average trip length = 14 km/trip.8. Directional split = 70 per cent from neighbourhood to city centre; 30 per cent from neighbourhood to outernode.24Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNCalculationsPublic transport trip productions for a settlement of 30 du/ha (gross):1. Total number of households = 10 000 m 2 /ha x 0,6 = 1 500 du (200 m 2 stands).2. Commuter trip generation (TOTAL)Residential generation = 1,6 x 1 500 = 2 400Office/retail attraction = 2,0 x 250 = 500Industrial attraction = 4,0 x 100 = 400 .3. Commuter trip generation (PUBLIC TRANSPORT)Residential generation = 2 400 x 0,85 = 2 040Non-residential = 900 x 0,6 = 540.4. Total trips to work = 2 580.Deductions1. In the above example the demand for movement out of the settlement in peak work commuter periodsamounts to around 1 500 to 1 700 passenger trips (2 040 trips generated, with some having local and othersexternal destinations). There are 540 total neighbourhood trip attractions).2. Around 1 600 peak period (x 3 hour) commuter trips would approximate a maximum peak hour demand ofabout 1000 trips per hour.3. With a road-based public transport supply policy of 5 minute intervals for bus services in the peak, this wouldtranslate to a demand of about 12 buses per hour.4. In a transport corridor comprising five such neighbourhoods on a single route, the capacity to meet suchdemand (5 000 passenger trips) would amount to 50 buses per hour.5. In such conditions, a transport authority would need to consider higher capacity public transport options, eachof which would impact on traffic movement in the corridor. Such options might include:• articulated buses;• bus priority and traffic management schemes; and• alternative transport nodes modes such as light or heavy rail.6. In the foregoing circumstances the transport planning authority should be involved in planning the settlementto ensure that conditions on the ground facilitate effective public transport.7. The above example represents an extreme case of a neighbourhood where residents would be heavilydependent upon public transport.ForecastIt is not advisable for settlement planners to make long-term forecasts of demand for public transport. As a crosscheck,however, the calculations outlined in this Appendix can be used as a consistency check to determine whencritical thresholds are likely to be reached in respect of public transport. At that stage, the necessary infrastructureadjustments can be made.Public transport Chapter 5.225


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNAPPENDIX CTHE MOVING SOUTH AFRICA (MSA) STRATEGY WITH REFERENCE TO LAND USE AND LANDMANAGEMENT ISSUESSource: South African, Department of Transport (1998)Urban transport focuses on three categories of strategic action:The first action is the densification of transport corridors. This requires the substantial reversal of apartheidland use planning to halt dispersion, but it is essential to achieve needed economies of scale in the transportsystem. The strategy will need an aggressive mix of controls and incentives, and will require appropriatelyintegrated coordination of the many institutions with a stake in the urban arena.Land use patterns are the single greatest driver of the poor performance of the urban transport system in meetingcustomer needs, and so any solution will require either altering land tenure or working within its existing context.Distance, density, and employment location are all facets of land use that affect the layout of South African citiesand, subsequently, the economics and service levels of public transport.Corridorisation lowers overall system costs - not only for transport but for other infrastructure, too - and alsoenables lower subsidies, raises travel speeds, and improves frequencies.Today there is still a tendency towards continuing decentralisation, especially of workplace locations, which furthercomplicates the task of creating compact cities. Some degree of compact city may be achievable in some areas ofsome cities, and the MSA strategy does not rule out the option in some circumstances. However, the predominantpattern should be the corridor city. The corridor approach fits more easily with the existing South African urbanland tenure patterns. Its appropriateness is driven not only by the decentralised distant townships and the lowdensity inner-ring suburbs, but also by a recognition of the decline in CBD vitality and the dispersion ofdevelopment to satellite nodes. This pattern recognises the existing vacant land occupying the space between mosttownships and suburban areas, and also builds on existing flows along major current corridors.Corridors already exist to some extent in South African cities. Therefore, the strategy focuses on densification ofexisting corridors and creation of new corridors for major new developments. It is essential to prevent the furtherdispersion of development, and to create incentives for any decentralisation away from the CBD to occur withinthe corridor context. The major trade-off against the corridor densification strategy is the higher cost of land fornew housing projects closer to the CBD. Analysis shows that transport and other utilities generate savings over timewhich compensate for the increased cost of land.Housing targets are driving the need to build on cheap, available land, which is causing dispersion. Transport andother utilities have to be provided to serve these dispersed housing developments, bearing increased long-termcosts.Because of the uniquely local nature of land use decisions, the most challenging part of implementing the corridorvision will be the co-ordination across and within government to overcome the obstacles. Some national policies,as in housing, encourage continued dispersion, based on the economics of land acquisition. These policies will needto be harmonised to fit into a paradigm that encompasses the systems cost of all community infrastructure, not justone component like housing or electricity.The MSA strategy recognises many other obstacles exist to corridor densification, and overcoming these potentialpitfalls will require strong co-operation across government. In particular four different public entities will need toact in close co-operation and co-ordination:• National Government must provide the overall strategic vision for urban development, including transport. Itmust also create a framework for absorbing systems costs and aligning the incentives for different nationaldepartments to follow the framework. Out of this activity will come guidelines for internalising systems costswithin land developments.• Provincial Government must create broad provincial land use strategies that account for full systems cost, withinthe context of the national government framework. In addition, they will need to orient the subsidy policy tosupport the corridors, and are responsible for urban roads.26Chapter 5.2Public transport


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The Roads Agency will need to align investments in national roads in urban areas with the local corridorstrategies developed by local entities.• Local Government and Metropolitan Transport Authorities will be responsible for developing land use andtransport plans, and will now need to be integrated into planning for major commercial and residentialdevelopments. The subsidy allocation procedure must be linked into the corridor densification strategy.The second action works to optimise modal economics and the service mix. Investment in corridors isprimarily roads-based, because densities of new corridors are unlikely to support new rail lines. The strategy is oneof regulated competition, with integration of modes facilitated. Optimising modal economics requires addressingthe use of road space, and the strategy proposes tough road space management to prioritise public transport. Aprincipal lever of the recommended strategy is that of subsidies, which will be targeted and providing affordableaccess to the stranded and subsidising the most economic mode on each corridor.The third strategic action entails improving firm-level performance, a task which predominantly fallsto private firms. The strategy requires effective regulation of all modes, especially minibus-taxis and theenforcement thereof. It emphasises tendering for subsidised routes and other forms of contract management, withbuilt-in incentives for productivity innovation and reinvestment.Implementing the strategy will require overcoming some significant obstacles. Changing the nature of land-useplanning, road space management, planning and regulation, and subsidy targeting will need agreement on theobjectives and strong political will.Public transport Chapter 5.227


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN28Chapter 5.2Public transport


Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces5.3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1AIM OF THIS CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE ROLE OF HARD OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1FUNCTIONS OF HARD OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Social functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Economic functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Movement functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Political or symbolic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2DIFFERENT GENERIC FORMS OF HARD OPEN SPACES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Mixed-mode streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Pedestrian-orientated streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Squares/plazas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Parking areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Public transport stops and stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3THE INFLUENCE OF USER GROUPS ON THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF HARD OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . 3GUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF CERTAIN GENERIC FORMS OF HARDOPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3General qualitative guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4General quantitative guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Specific qualitative guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Specific quantitative guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Management guidelines to promote multifunctional use of hard open spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Hard open spaces Chapter 5.3i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.3.1 Integrated hard open space system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Table 5.3.2 Public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Table 5.3.3 Private and public domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Table 5.3.4 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Table 5.3.5 Continuity and rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Table 5.3.6 Scale and proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Table 5.3.7 Environmental factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Table 5.3.8 Location and typologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Table 5.3.9 Vertical edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Table 5.3.10 Horizontal surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Table 5.3.11 Public furniture and signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Table 5.3.12 Ratios and thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Table 5.3.13 Dimensions and distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45iiChapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONPublic space includes almost all land that does notbelong to private institutions or individuals. Soft openspace (addressed in Sub-chapter 5.4) is the unbuilt or“green space” flowing almost in natural lines throughthe settlement. Hard open space, on the other hand,is accessible and built public space within the builtenvironment and can be viewed as either semi-publicor public hard open space.Within existing developments, open spaces are usuallythe result of space-left-over-after-planning. Theyshould, however, be effectively designed from theoutset in order to serve as purposeful public spaces. Agreenfields development thus poses the opportunityfor hard open space to be designed with a purpose initself. Purposeful spaces should respond to user need,be carefully accommodated and sensitively designed.Then only can they be sustainable spaces that can beeffectively used by future generations.With the renewal or upgrading of existing areas, hardopen spaces should be redesigned to better fulfil thepublic’s demand for a quality environment withaesthetic appeal and a functional purpose. During therenewal/upgrading process, existing left-over-spacesbetween buildings can be redesigned to serve aseffective public spaces that only serve aswalkthroughs. Through renewal programmes thesespaces and their directly linked areas could be given anew lease on life.AIM OF THIS CHAPTERIn encouraging the effective functioning and urbanityof cities and thus also hard open space, it is importantto provide guidelines for development, which is theaim of this chapter. These guidelines illustrate howcertain generic forms of public space should beplanned to avoid being merely meaningless leftoverspace.In using these guidelines it is important to note thatthe specifics of a situation (the contextualdeterminants, such as context, site, climate, functionand cultural determinants, and the symbolic aspects,such as culture, identity of place, user characteristics)should be considered in the planning and designprocess. Even though this chapter focuses on aneighbourhood/sub-metropolitan level, the guidelineshave to be applied in a broader context within ahierarchy of hard open spaces. Through theinterpretation of contextual and culturaldeterminants, certain distinctive elements of hardopen spaces can be derived, evolving towards a uniquerelationship between the place and the contextualenvironment in which it functions. It is vital for thereader to bear in mind that the guidelines shouldmerely serve as tools. They provide a means to an endand, to produce successful hard open spaces, theyshould be combined with the designer’s own creativityand ingenuity.THE ROLE OF HARD OPEN SPACEIn terms of settlement systems, hard open spaces fulfila crucial role in providing continuity through variousother elements of settlements. The public space (hardand soft) between buildings is the heart of the builtenvironment and one of the fundamental form-givingelements of settlements. Through the integration ofboth the soft and hard open space systems with thebuilt environment, a certain urban structure is created.The quality of public spaces is the result of the planningand development of a settlement. Densification andthe reduction in the size of private space make theavailability and quality of the public space system ofutmost importance to the public realm.A vital relationship exists between movementnetworks and hard open space, as the movementnetwork is mostly encompassed by, or accommodatedwithin, public hard open spaces.According to Rapoport (1977) the relationshipbetween different spaces is as important as the spaceitself. This relationship is twofold as, on the one hand,it has to do with the continuity and flow of spacebetween different scales or levels of spaces and, on theother, it has to do with flow of space from private topublic domains.This continuity between hard open spaces and softopen spaces is very necessary if the different settingsfor social, economic and environmental developmentare to be integrated.FUNCTIONS OF HARD OPEN SPACEIn order to effectively derive and utilise guidelines forthe planning and design of hard open spaces, thepoint of departure should be the functions takingplace, or which ought to be taking place, within hardopen spaces. Function should altogether relate to theability of the open space to foster healthy publicliving. It has to promote activities as diverse aspossible in a multifunctional manner, in order toproduce a vibrant environment for people.In terms of structure there exists a continuum of hardopen spaces with different degrees of publicness.These vary from semi-public hard open spaces to publichard open spaces. Based on the degree of publicness,function will vary between these spaces.For discussion purposes the functions of hard openspaces can be broadly classified on the basis of eitheractive or passive use, encompassing social functions,movement functions, economic functions and politicalor symbolic functions.Social functions• Social functions include activities such as play, sportand recreation. Open spaces are especially used bychildren for play and recreation. A possibilitywhich has not been adequately capitalised on, yet,is the conversion of open spaces to hard surfaceplaygrounds for games like basketball, etc.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.31


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• Cultural entertainment (Moughtin 1992, p 89), suchas performing musicians and artists, also forms partof social functions taking place on hard openspaces.• Another important social activity of hard openspaces is lingering or resting. Public places shouldfunction as magnets which draw people tothemselves or to the associated public facilities.With the correct mix of surrounding land usesthese spaces could become attractions and visitors’destinations.• Hard open spaces, due to their locality betweenprivate spaces and public spaces, are veryfunctional meeting and socialising places(Moughtin 1992, p 89) for business people, shoppers,the unemployed, friends and the elderly during theday, and largely for the young at night. The spacesare particularly important to the least mobilesections of the population as very visible places tomeet and enjoy conversation with others.Economic functions• The function of street vendors (trading) is aneconomic activity taking place on hard open spacesthat has become a vital part of the South Africanurban experience. Street vendors are dependenton open spaces such as streets or public transportfacilities where there is a flow of pedestrians, andthey are in direct contact with their customers.• Hard open spaces also cater for outdoor markets indesignated areas, as well as through themultifunctional and temporary use of parkingareas, streets and sidewalks (Rapoport 1977, p 100).• Hard open spaces are the ideal setting forgatherings like festivals or market places(Moughtin 1992, p 89), which function in parallelwith the space as an agent for social interaction.• Access to facilities such as public services, civicbuildings (clinics, libraries, etc.) and shoppingspaces are an important function of hard openspace (Moughtin 1992, p 89).Movement functions• Hard open spaces provide access to public facilitiesand transport, not only via walkways andsidewalks, but also to places for waiting andintermodal transfer at stops or stations.Political or symbolic functions• Hard open space can provide a venue forceremonial occasions and parades.• An important symbolic function of hard openspaces is the provision of suitable, identifiable andaccessible settings for civic buildings.DIFFERENT GENERIC FORMS OFHARD OPEN SPACESMost of these briefly discussed generic forms of hardopen space can and should be used and managed asmultifunctionally as possible.Mixed-mode streetsMixed-mode streets are streets that contain a mix ofmotorised and non-motorised users. Although thesestreets are in part dominated by vehicular movement,they include the hard open space components ofsidewalks, bicycle paths and space for the provision ofengineering services. Variations and uses of sidewalksand road reserves can be exploited. Road reserves can,for example, be applied to better locate informaltraders by making sidewalks wider and catering forsidewalk parking.Pedestrian-orientated streetsPedestrian-orientated streets can be regarded asstreets set out for the main purpose of pedestrian use,such as the “woonerf” concept and arcades. Variationson use and function are available, including playstreets, streets closed (temporarily or permanently)and alleys used for trading, markets, recreation andentertainment.Squares/plazasVarious forms and uses for squares and plazas exist.The most common uses are as atriums, courtyards,intimate inner-city parks, markets, meeting places, andspaces for entertainment, sport and recreation.MarketsIt is impossible to distinguish between permanent andinformal markets, such as informal trading onsidewalks or markets in parking areas or streets.Retailing forms an important part of hard open spaces,and includes convenience and specialist markets.• In terms of movement or access, hard open spacesare usually located at points of relatively highaccessibility.• Hard open spaces also encompass spaces such asintersections and traffic junctions.• Parking is an important activity that takes place inhard open space.2Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNParking areasParking areas are also considered hard open spaces,but their present use leaves much to be desired.Parking in the street and in front of shopping centres,office blocks, churches and public buildings is mostcommon. Opportunities exist for a variety of uses;especially with regard to different times of night andday and different days of the week.Public transport stops and stationsVarious forms of hard open space relate to stops andstations for public transport, such as bus stops, taxiranks and bus depots. These spaces can also be usedmultifunctionally for informal markets and meetingplaces.THE INFLUENCE OF USER GROUPS ONTHE PLANNING AND DESIGN OFHARD OPEN SPACEIn order to identify various user groups, a hierarchy ofactivities could be set out (Van Zyl 1997). The first ofthese sets of activities is “necessary activities”. Theseactivities include those that are more or less essentialaspects of living - shopping, waiting for a person,running errands. A second category of activities is“optional activities”. These are activities participatedin if there is opportunity and if time and place make itpossible.Users can be identified by the level of theirparticipation in necessary or voluntary functions,whether static or dynamic. Users can also be identifiedin terms of their demographic characteristics (age,gender, race, income group, culture, ethnic group,children, teenagers) or in terms of their locationspecificactivity, in which case activity equals the user,such as the selling of vegetables.Some of the various user groups that need specialmention and attention in the design of hard openspaces, as well as some of their specific needs, are:• children need formal and informal play areas, andsafety;• elderly people need convenient access, seating,safety and shelter;• youth need space for activity, safety,multifunctional uses, socialising and lingering;• lower income groups need to utilise hard openspaces, such as streets, as part of the urban room;incorporating socialising and playing space.It should, however, be borne in mind that the time atwhich activities take place can vary between day andnight, as well as between weekdays and weekends,and this will influence the user group involved. So aspecific hard open space can cater for different groupsat different times or simultaneously.Various cultural and income groups also use hard openspaces differently and have different perceptionsregarding open space, urban qualities, environmentalquality and cognitive domains of space (Rapoport1977, pp 24-5).GUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNINGAND DESIGN OF CERTAIN GENERICFORMS OF HARD OPEN SPACEGeneral guidelines applicable to hard open space ingeneral are set out first. These are followed byguidelines specific to the following generic forms ofhard open space:• mixed-mode streets;• pedestrian-orientated streets;• squares;• markets;• parking areas; and• public transport stops and stations.For both general and specific categories, qualitativeguidelines are defined first, after which quantitativeguidelines for each generic form follow. In the case ofthe specific category, qualitative guidelines refer to:• location and typologies;• vertical edges;• horizontal surfaces;• public furniture; and• signage.Quantitative guidelines for the specific categoryrefer to:• ratios and thresholds; and• dimensions and distances.The guidelines are provided in tabular form and,where applicable, illustrated diagrammatically.• disabled people need adequate ramps and accessas well as safety;• traders need public facilities, shelter and publicamenities;• shoppers need public facilities, convenience andaccess;• higher income groups need hard open space thatprovides the setting for private space; andHard open spaces Chapter 5.33


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.3.1 Integrated hard open space system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Table 5.3.2 Public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Table 5.3.3 Private and public domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Table 5.3.4 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Table 5.3.5 Continuity and rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Table 5.3.6 Scale and proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Table 5.3.7 Environmental factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Table 5.3.8 Location and typologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Table 5.3.9 Vertical edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Table 5.3.10 Horizontal surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Table 5.3.11 Public furniture and signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Table 5.3.12 Ratios and thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Table 5.3.13 Dimensions and distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45iiChapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGeneral qualitative guidelinesTable 5.3.1:Integrated hard open space systemCreate an effective hardopen space system thatintegrates the differentelements of a settlementto contribute to ameaningful urbanstructure.• Provide physical,visible and perceptualconnectivity betweencluster and linearopen spaces.Establish strong andlegible linkagesbetween various hardopen spaces. 1• Align the hard openspace system and softopen space systemwith main publicbuildings, such ascommunity centres orplaces of worship. 2• Ensure quality ofcontextual linkagesthrough thecontinuation ofspecial activities orfunctions. 3• Enhance structuralsimilarity of thestreet throughassociationalsymbolism (personalexperience) andcultural symbolism(common areas ofunderstanding inculture) to ensurethat as many peopleas possible can relateto the space. 44Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.2:Public facilitiesFor a meaningful urbanstructure, link symbolicelements or publicfacilities to certain hardopen spaces in relationto their importance andcharacter.• Create special publicplaces, as publicspaces and publicinstitutions are thefocal point ofcommunity life.Public furnitureshould support thedesired character ofthe space.• Concentrate buildingswith public facilities,amenities andcollective servicepoints adjacent topublic spaces. 1• Locate publicbuildings in relationto formal publicspaces and importantmovement routes.Hard open spaceshould announce thebuildings andaccommodateinformal activitiesthat respond to thesebuildings. 2• Balance thecomposition ofbuilding groups, andplace the focal pointnear the middle ofthe group (Moughtin1992, pp 56-7). 3• Locate symbolicand/or focal points inthe middle of acluster space or atthe terminationpoints of a linearspace.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.35


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.3:Private and public domainsEnsure definition of thepublic space througheffective design of aninterface between publicand private domains.• Thresholds should actas sharedenvironments(meeting places) ortransitional spacebetween public andprivate space. 1• Visual permeabilitythrough an interfacecan enrich the publicdomain and willaffect the wayprivate space is used.It becomes acontrolling andenabling constraint. 2• Enhance the visibilityand legibility of therelationship and thetransition betweenprivate and publicdomains (Rapoport1977, p 23). 36Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.4:EnclosureEnsure appropriate senseof enclosure that is on ahuman scale and fits intothe context within whichthe space is situated.• Enclosure is neededfor the public spaceto act as an urbanroom. 1• The degree ofenclosure and natureof enclosing elementsdetermine thecharacter of thespace. 2• Proportion shouldnot be vehicledominated. Use treesas enclosing elementsand to create ahuman scale. 3• Define the boundaryof the space bymeans of a unifiedwall or a series ofpavilions linked withlandscaping. 4Hard open spaces Chapter 5.37


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.5:Continuity and rhythmContinuity and rhythmof and within spacesshould enhance legibilityand interest.• Create rhythmic andspatial progressionalong a spacethrough thecomposition ofactivities or change inland uses (Moughtin1992, p 58). 1• Establish acontinuation ofspecial activities orfunctions that exist inthe node, within thelinkages towards thenode.• Perception of hardopen spaces is relatedto the concepts ofspeed andcomplexity.Movement relates tocomplexity and thenumber of changesthat take placewithin a specific unitof time (Rapoport1977, p 241), Due tothe relative slowmovement ofpedestrians, a greaterdegree of complexityand a large numberof changes areneeded. Fastervehicle movementrequires moresimplicity and lesschanges per unit oftime. This holdsimplications for therichness of detail tobe provided onbuildings. 28Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGeneral quantitative guidelinesTable 5.3.6:Scale and proportionVisual recognition andsurveillance.• Height of detail onbuildings that couldbe appreciated fromcertain distancesaway from thefacade:- Up to 2 m high tobe appreciatedfrom 0,5 m away.- Up to 4 m high tobe appreciatedfrom 2,5 m away.- Up to 6,5 m highto be appreciatedfrom 5 m away.- Up to 12 m highto be appreciatedfrom 10 m away. 1• To maintain contactfor safety betweenpedestrians on streetlevel and people inadjacent buildings, amaximum of 5 m isrequired. To ensureprivacy forinhabitants ofbuildings at thisdistance, the streetshould be atminimum 0,6 m lowerthan the ground levelof the building. 2• To maintain privacy, aclear distance of atminimum 11 m isneeded, otherwisevisual obstructingelements, such astrees, should beprovided. 3Hard open spaces Chapter 5.39


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.6:Scale and proportion (continued)Visual recognition andsurveillance (continued).• Human scale:- Intimate humanscale: 12 m(maximum distanceto see facialexpression);- Normal humanscale: 21 to 24 m(25 m at maximumto recognise aface);- Public human scale:140 m (135 m atmaximum todistinguish ahuman);- Monumental scale:1 500 m (maximumdistance for vista).Enclosure. • Buildings should beseen as a whole froma distance that is twiceits height at a 27°angle.• Relationship betweenradius and height toensure enclosure(Moughtin 1992,pp 100-1);- Full degree ofenclosure is 1:11;- Threshold forenclosure is 1:2(beyond thisproportion spaceleaks out);- Minimumenclosure is 1:3(prominent objectsare perceivedbeyond the space);and- Loss of enclosure is>1:3 (space loses itscontainingfunction). 410Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.7:Environmental factorsSolar access. • Locate highestbuildings to thesouthern side of theopen space, withlower buildings ortrees (as enclosingelements) on thenorthern side. 1• To provide adequatesolar access to abuilding, the distancebetween twobuildings should bedetermined with thefollowing: tan(latitude of the area+10 ° ) divided by theheight of theadjacent building tothe north. Forexample, at Midrand(with a latitude of22 ° ) the following isapplicable:- If the adjacentbuilding is 2,85 mhigh (one storey),the distancebetween the twobuildings shouldbe 4,6 m.- If the adjacentbuilding is 5,7 mhigh (two storeys),the distancebetween the twobuildings shouldbe 9,1 m.- If the adjacentbuilding is 8,85 mhigh (threestoreys), thedistance betweenthe two buildingsshould be 14,2 m. 2Hard open spaces Chapter 5.311


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.7:Environmental factors (continued)Wind protection. • An obstruction suchas trees can providethe necessaryprotection againstwind. The groundarea protected, isgenerally 10 timesthe height of theobstruction. 3Specific qualitative guidelinesTable 5.3.8:Location and typologiesMixed-mode streetsEnsure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Design the roadnetwork toaccommodate variousand diverse functions.• Meeting of specialstreets should resultin squares and focalpoints (Moughtin1992, p 80). 1• Concentrate intensiveactivities alongcontinuous vehicleorientatedandpublic-transportroutes. Locatemajority of publicbuildings also alongthese routes. 2• Locate buildings closeto the street toincrease pedestrianactivity, reduceresident isolation,and foster pedestrianservices such as retailoutlets along streetsconnecting higherdensitydevelopments.12Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Increase intensity anddiversity in the streetreserve.• High informationroutes areexperienced as short,but remembered aslong. Ensurecomplexity andinterest along roadsand in space alongroutes (Rapoport1977, pp 217-220).• Create rhythmic andspatial progressionalong an axis/street,via composition ofactivities or change inland uses (Moughtin1992, p 59).• Block lengthsinfluence access andeconomic thresholds.Design optimal blocklengths to fosterdiverse activity andeconomic viability.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.313


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Increase intensity anddiversity in the streetreserve.• Effectively design thewhole reserve,including the spacesbetween the roadsurface and thebuilding entrances.Design for and makea distinction betweenthe following:- building zone(arcades,canopies,commercial signs,enclosed cafesand sidewalkcafes);- sidewalk zone(sewers, gratings,kerbs, urban art,benches, bicycleracks, hawkerstalls, informationkiosks, trees, cycleareas, pedestrianareas, newspaperstands, telephonebooths, firehydrants, trafficsigns, refuse bins,mail boxes,planters, streetlighting, parkingmeters and busshelters); and- vehicular zone(banners,manholes, trafficsignals, on-streetparking,decorativelighting andtelephone poles). 314Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Define the street as asafe and unique publicspace.• The general patternof buildings shouldhelp to define thestreet. 4• In pavilion-typebuildings, use trees todefine the street. Thestreetscape designshould incorporate aconsistent theme,strengthening theassociation ofunrelated buildings.When a street is notstrongly defined at itsedges, focal points -at the ends or atregular intervals -could provide a senseof place. 5• Land uses shouldenliven the street andensure surveillance ofit. Parking structuresshould not dominatestreet frontages. 6• Distinguish betweenso-called front-andbackuses anddefinition, whichtake place within thestreet realm, butwhich differ forvarious urban usersand cultures. 7• Intersections androad crossings shouldbe designed to besafe for pedestriansand vehicles. Thisincludes the design ofsidewalks andcrosswalks, trafficsignals and otherintersectiontreatment. 8Hard open spaces Chapter 5.315


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Define the street as asafe and unique publicspace (continued).• Modify existingleftover space toaccommodate easypedestrian crossing ofstreets. 9• Where pedestrianroutes cross streets,ensure visibilitythrough landscapingand signage. 10• To enhance safetyfor pedestrians onsidewalks(Untermann 1984,pp 25-28):- minimise conflictwith cars;- cater for thedisabled;- provide sidewalks;- provide parking,between road andpedestrian;- the busier thestreet, thebroader thesidewalk shouldbe;- place kerbbetween sidewalkand street; and- design road todiscouragespeeding.16Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Accommodate a varietyof users in the street.• The effectiveseparation ofpedestrian andvehicular movementshould be at a scalewhich encouragesactivity andpedestrian comfort.Pedestrian-orientated streets• For movement, thestreet should includea surface for cars,together with bicycleand pedestrian lanes.• Other facilities to beaccommodated arethose for informaltraders, small-scalebusinesses (such asdecorative kiosks forflowers), landscapedstrips and spaces ofrelief and relaxationin bustling areas.Ensure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Create a symboliclocation for a specialstreet through itsrelative locationwithin a geographicalarea.Increase intensity anddiversity in the street.• In pedestrian arcades,provide spaces ofrelief and relaxationin bustling areas.• In pedestriandominatedstreetsrelated to residentialuses, such as thewoonerf street,provision should bemade for other uses,such as recreationand socialisation,which are related tothe main residentialuse.• Visitor parking can beprovided in thestreet.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.317


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streets (continued)Define the street as asafe and unique publicspace.• Design detail todiscourage trafficthrough the area,and speeding.• Design soft moundsand plant treesseparating footpathsand buildings fromthe road.• Footpaths shouldpreferably bedesigned adjacent tobuildings thatoverlook them, asopposed to blankwalls (Cartwright1980, p 32).Accommodate a varietyof users in the street.• Concentrate publicfacilities according tofunctionalrelationship, tofacilitate sharing ofresources (halls,playing fields,equipment).• The street ascommunal area canprovide the settingfor the integration ofcollective services inlower-incomeresidential areas.18Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)SquaresEnsure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Locate largest andmost importantbuildings inassociation withlargest and mostimportant squares.• Create symboliclocation by relativelocation within ageographical area.• Enhance legibility ofthe structure(Rapoport 1977, p116; Lynch and Hack1984) via the localityof squares atmovement-decisionpoints.• Give importantsquares, dominancein the settlement(Moughtin 1992, pp56-7) - for example,by letting buildingsthat surround them,occupy high groundor dominate theskyline.• Provide contrastinghard open spaceswith greater or lessactivity.Increase intensity anddiversity in the square.• Integrate indoor andoutdoor spaces tomake them moreuseful. Plan spaces tobe small and informalin character andquality, so as to beinviting, comfortableand non-oppressive.• Use of the squareand activities in thesquare depend onthe activities at theedge, especially onthe ground floor.Develop restaurants,small shops and retailstores around thesquare; exclude largebanks, travel agentsand offices thatattract fewpedestrians.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.319


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Squares (continued)Increase intensity anddiversity in the square(continued).• Urban squares couldbe used as markets,with either thecentral area of thesquare or the edgesas demarcated spacefor trading.Define the square as asafe and unique publicspace.• Design identifiablegateways as legibleentrance points tothe square (Rapoport1977, p 95). Entrypoints should behighly visible andlinked to majorcontextual routes(Rapoport 1977,p 383).• Ensure surveillance ofthe square throughits visibility fromadjacent buildings.• From a central pointone should be able toappreciate all sides ofthe square. 1• To enhancememorability,buildings that aresimple in geometricshape should beplaced together(Moughtin 1992,p 72). One prominentbuilding shoulddominate the group.20Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Squares (continued)Define the square as asafe and unique publicspace (continued).• To contextualise thesquare and designthe correctproportion within thecontext, take thetypology ofsurrounding buildingsinto account. Giveattention to size,height, unifyingelements, theme,shape of space androof lines. Continuityin height of buildingsaround a squareenhances enclosure.Enclosure is reducedwith the degree ofdifference in buildingheight.• Design for a sense ofpermanence, throughrobustness ofbuildings, which arecompatible for adiversity of uses.• Enclosure depends onthe way buildings aregrouped. Create asense of enclosure,especially on corners,otherwise space getsfragmented. 2• One or two sides of asquare should beenclosed withbuildings. The othersides could beenclosed bysomething else, suchas trees. 3• If the physical senseof enclosure is less,the sense ofplace/activity/meaningshould be higher.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.321


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Squares (continued)Accommodate a varietyof users in the square.• Enhance the symbolicmeaning of citysquares.Accommodatesymbolic elementsand places (statues,objects ofremembrance andmemorable places)that reflect sharedcommunity valuesand events.• Encourage the use ofbandstands, publicdisplay areas,outdoor dining space,roller-skating andother features thatattract crowds.• Encouragerecreational facilitiessuch as theatres,restaurants, cafes,movie houses, andlibraries with latenighthours, hotels,and teenage meetingrooms, extending theusage of the squareto night-time.MarketsEnsure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Incorporate marketsat points of greatestaccess in the urbanstructure, such as atmodal interchangesand intersections.• Ensure thepermeability of, andshort cuts through,the market.22Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Markets (continued)Increase intensity anddiversity in the market.• Plan the market toconvey a sense ofpermanence. Thisshould be achievedwith compatiblebuildings that canaccommodatechanging uses overtime.• Create opportunityfor formalcommercial andinformal tradingactivities. Theconcentration ofactivities willencourageinteraction andgenerate economicexpansion.• The size of themarket will changeover time. Expansionand contraction ofthe market can occurover short periods.The market should,however, be plannedin such a way as toretain its intensity atall times. As phasedgrowth takes place,the market shouldoperate as a totalityat each stage of itsdevelopment.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.323


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Markets (continued)Define the market as asafe and unique publicspace.• The gateways to themarket place shouldconvey a friendlyinvitation, where asense of belongingcould be experiencedby users.• The market shouldhave an acceptablesense of place thatshould be defined bymeans of a primaryspace, supported bysecondary spaces. 1• The primary spaceshould form themajor communalspace around whichmarket stalls shouldbe positioned. Avertical elementshould preferably beplaced at its centre.This should form areference point thatwill enhance legibilityof the market. 2Accommodate a varietyof users in the market.• Markets with smallscaleactivities requireless formal marketinfrastructure.Market activity maybe intermittent andcould take ondifferent forms. Thespaces should thus bedesigned to be asmulti-functional aspossible.24Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Parking areasEnsure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Organise parking insmall lots around theperimeter of the coreof activities andmovement. Parkinglots should lead tothe core and shouldprovide pedestrianaccess to all streets. 1• Integrate a parkingarea with thesurrounding areathrough linking it tonatural movementroutes andaccommodating shortcuts. 2• Parking should belocated in smallerareas closer todestinations,especially in higherdensity developmentand at local shops. 3• Parking shouldpreferably be locatedaway from the streetat the back ofbuildings. If parkingis provided at thefront, a maximum oftwo rows of parkingshould be provided.Parking structuresshould not dominatestreet frontages. 4 25Hard open spaces Chapter 5.3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Parking areas (continued)Increase intensity anddiversity in the parkingarea.• Manage activities inparking areas forvarious uses andeffective utilisationof space throughdifferent times of theday, such as theclosing of parkingareas to act asmarkets in theevening or play areason weekends.• Type and intensity ofuses can vary overtime as the demandfor parking increasesor decreases(differences betweenday and night, timesof the day, days ofthe week or month).• Accommodatedifferent uses thatincrease latency andallow for socialchange withoutphysical change.Define the parking areaas a safe and uniquepublic space.• The way buildingsare arranged aroundthe parking areashould ensureadequatesurveillance. 5Accommodate a varietyof users in the parkingarea.• Allow for informaltraders to tradewithin the parkingarea in an organisedway.• Accommodatemultifunctional useof elements withinthe parking area,such as trees.• Accommodatepedestrian routesthrough the parkingarea. 626Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.8:Location and typologies (continued)Public transport stops and stationsEnsure a meaningfullocation in terms of themovement network andurban structure.• Locate publictransport stops andstations onconvenient routesbetween differentland-use activities.• Locate stops orstations at points ofhighest accessibility.Integratedintermodal transportnodes and changeoversshould bepromoted to ensuresustainable physicaldevelopment.• Incorporate stationswithin theirsurroundings bymeans of theeffective utilisationand design ofexisting leftoverspace. 1• Stations and stopsshould be located atmore frequentintervals and closer todestinations inhigher-density andmixed-usedevelopments.Increase intensity anddiversity at the stops andstations.• Organise informaltrading around thestop and within thestation.Define the stops andstations as safe andunique public spaces.• Attend to the qualityof the stops in termsof safety, shelter,character or imageand visibility.Accommodate a varietyof users at the stops andstations.• Provide adequatespace and facilitiesfor informal tradersat stops and stations.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.327


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edgesMixed-mode streetsCreate easy access to andfrom the street.• Permeability of publicspace can beenhanced throughthe provision ofmaximum alternativeroutes (Bentley et al1987, p 10). Smallblocks give morechoice of routes thanlarge blocks. 1• Enhance permeabilityby not absolutelysegregatingpedestrian andvehicular movement.• Design forpermeability andaccess to occur atvisible entrances.• Provide shortcuts tointermediate distancesubstitutes, such asbus, bicycle and taxi.Establish appropriateinterfaces.• The building facadeshould be linked tohuman activitiesalong the route toensure visibility ofpedestrians and thussurveillance of thestreet. Surveillance ofthe street should alsobe facilitated fromupper storeys. Theway this edge ismade will alsodetermine the feelingof the upper-storeyspace. 2• Arcades provide adefined human spacebetween the buildingand the street.Arcades should alsoprovide shelteragainst bad weather.28Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edges (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Establish appropriateinterfaces (continued).• Interfaces can ensurecoherence andinterest, and willprovide a visualstimulus to passersby.Colonnades asinterface couldprovide a coherentsimple rhythm on theoutside (which relatesto fast-movingvehicles) andcomplexity on theinside (which relatesto pedestrians).• Interface betweenpedestrians and carsshould be definedthrough a row of onstreetparking orthrough landscaping(Untermann 1984,pp 25-28). 3• Garbage receptaclesor unsightlyequipment should bescreened, especiallyfrom pedestrianmovementroutes.Ensure a unified andinteresting edge surfacedesign.• Unify street designand street frontagesof buildings to createa special street withan identifiablecharacter. Newbuildings should fitinto the existingcontext and attentionshould be given tosimilar elements suchas roof lines, baywindows andwindow proportion(Moughtin 1992,p 2, 143). 4• A number ofdistinctly identifiableelements alongroutes should beprovided, withcontinuity of shopfronts (Moughtin1992, pp 56-57). 5 29Hard open spaces Chapter 5.3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edges (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streetsCreate easy access to andfrom the street.• Access for pedestriansand bicycles shouldbe made easy, whileaccess for vehiclesshould be moredifficult andcontrolled. Uselockable bollardswhere applicable. 1• Access for vehiclesmust be madedifficult. 2Establish appropriateinterfaces.• In residentialdevelopments, it ispreferable not tohave any fences orwalls on the streetboundary. However,should fences be putup, it is proposedthat palisade fencingthat providemaximum visibility,be erected. Thisshould ensuresurveillance of thestreet. 3• Transition frompublic to privatespace should beappropriately madethrough the provisionof perceptual locks.This will contribute tothe clear distinctionbetween anddefinition of publicand private spaces. 430Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edges (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streets (continued)Ensure a unified andinteresting edge surfacedesign.• To organise a unifiedcharacter, it isproposed that theinterface be designedas a single entity.SquaresCreate easy access to andfrom the square.• Provide direct accessto and continuedroutes through thesquare. 1• Design forpermeability with asmany shortcut routesthrough the squareas possible. 1• Link the square tomajor contextualroutes. 1Establish appropriateinterfaces.• Establish a boundarywhich can be a wall,windowed façade ornatural features suchas trees. Do notdesign large expansesof blank walls. 2• The interface shouldaddress issues ofhuman comfort, suchas shelter from sun,wind and rain and achoice between sunand shade and publiclighting. 2Ensure a unified andinteresting edge surfacedesign.• Enhance the sense ofenclosure with unityin walls and similararchitecturaltreatment ofbuildings (Moughtin1992, p 72). Localstyles and materialsshould be usedconsistently. 3• Squares should creatediscontinuity orinterruption in thebuilt form in order toprevent boredom.When approached atan angle, the effectcan be dynamic. 3Hard open spaces Chapter 5.331


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edges (continued)MarketsCreate easy access to andfrom the market.• Edges of marketsshould providemaximumpermeability for easyaccess to and frommarket activities. 1Parking areasCreate easy access to andfrom the parking area.• Provide adequatestacking space forvehicles waiting toturn into the parkingarea.• Provide amplededicated pedestrianroutes wherepedestrians canaccess the parkingarea.• Conflict betweenpedestrians andautomobiles shouldbe reduced throughlocation and designof vehicular andpedestrian access toparking facilities. 1Establish appropriateinterfaces.• Design boundaries asmeeting placesbetween differentdomains. Theboundary should actas interface betweenpublic space andprivate space orbetween inside spaceand outside space.• Design edges to beused for shelteragainst wind or rain.Ensure a unified andinteresting edge surfacedesign.• Plant shade trees inthe parking strip tocontinue the treesfound insurroundings.32Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.9:Vertical edges (continued)Public transport stops and stationsCreate easy access to andfrom the stop or station.• Enhance convenienceand safety throughprovision of the mostdirect pedestrianaccess to and frompublic transportfacilities.• Reduce the walklength with short cutsto intensify activity,and to supportintermediate distancesubstitutes, such asbus, bicycle and taxi.Establish appropriateinterfaces.• Integrate bus or taxistops for shelter andsafety in the designof the interface ofthe adjacentbuilding.• Interfaces such asoverhangs canprovide shelter toinformal traders orpeople waiting fortransport.Ensure a unified andinteresting edge surfacedesign.• Provide a landscapedsetback for ranks,depots and stationsfrom the street.Table 5.3.10: Horizontal surfacesMixed-mode streetsEnsure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.• Paving materialsshould provide safewalking surfaces.• Provide clearmarkings forpedestrian crossingsat intersections. 1• Walking routesshould be provided aslevel as possible,avoiding unnecessarychanges in elevationthat can causeaccidents.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.333


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.10: Horizontal surfaces (continued)Mixed-mode streetsCreate diversity andinterest.• Pedestrian activityareas should receivespecial pavementtreatment withcoordinatingmaterials andpatterns to create aspecific character forthe precinct. 2• Design simplecontinuous routeswith complex viewsespecially forpedestrian movement(Rapoport 1997, pp217-8). 3• Planting andpavement treatmentin pedestrian streetsshould be related toactivities and uses inadjacent buildings.• Street landscaping, inparticular, should beselected anddesigned accordingto a special theme fora given area,providing a sense ofplace in addition toits other amenities.Consider specificconditions of surfaces.• Functionality ofsurfaces in terms ofkinaesthetic elementssuch as change oflevel, curves withimplications forspeed of movementand tactile elementssuch as texture underfoot, should be takeninto account.• Climatic elementssuch as air movementand extremetemperatures shouldbe considered. Sunexposure should beconsidered for earlymorning and lateafternoon.34Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.10: Horizontal surfaces (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streetsEnsure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.• Adequate provisionshould, for example,be made forparaplegics, elderswho want to sitdown and youthswho want to play.Create diversity andinterest.• A combination of softand hard surfacesshould be provided,with certain surfacesbeing dedicated for amain use such as thecarrying of vehicles.However, secondaryuses should bepromoted anddesigned for.Consider specificconditions of surfaces.• A variety of surfaces(hard and soft)should be providedto increase maximumchoice of use.• Surfaces should be asmaintenance-free aspossible.• Be aware of theinfluence of climaticconditions on chosensurfaces. Attentionshould, for example,be given tostormwater runoffand excessiveheating.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.335


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.10: Horizontal surfaces (continued)SquaresEnsure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.• Avoid sunken squareswith difficult access,which make peoplefeel uncomfortable.Keep squares level orjust slightly belowsidewalk grade.• Ensure easy access forparaplegics to allfacilities around thesquare.• Choose surfaces thatwill most likelyaccommodate sportsactivities such asroller-skating.Create diversity andinterest.• Movement spaces aswell as resting placesshould form part ofthe route. Thedifferent kinds ofspaces should bereflected in thepaving pattern. 1Consider specificconditions of surfaces.• Sunlight anddrainage must beevaluated andappropriatelyaddressed aslimitations orpotential assets indesign.MarketsEnsure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.Create diversity andinterest.• Traders with trolleysshould be able to geteasy access to themarket.• Demarcate positionof stalls throughdifferent pavingpatterns.Consider specificconditions of surfaces.• Design surfaces foreasy cleaning.36Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.10: Horizontal surfaces (continued)Parking areasEnsure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.• Provide dedicatedpedestrian walkwaysseparate from theparking surface,between the buildingand the parkingarea. 1Create diversity andinterest.• For 30º, 45º and 60ºparking, the trianglein front of eachparking bay shouldbe landscaped. 2• Brick paving, asopposed to concreteblocks or asphalt,should be consideredto provide a moreinteresting surfacetexture and pattern.Consider specificconditions of surfaces.• Use landscaping andtrees to reduce theimpact of large areasof asphalt.Public transport stops and stations• Where appropriate,parking surfacescould consist of grassblocks to give asofter, parklikeimage.Ensure accessibility andconvenience fordifferent user groups.• Provide for use ofstops and stations bywheelchairs anddisabled people.• Pedestrian crossingsat stops should haveclear markings. Takeroad conditions,traffic intensity andspeed into account inthe detail design.Create diversity andinterest.• The paving patternshould assist indefining the publictransport stop as aunique public space.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.337


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.10: Horizontal surfaces (continued)Public transport stops and stations (continued)Consider specific• When it rains,General conditions quantitative of surfaces. guidelines surfaces should notgather water or bemuddy in order forpeople not to wait inthese conditions andthen board publictransport.Table 5.3.11: Public furniture and signageMixed-mode streetsProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Provide adequatebicycle racks nearentries of buildingsto prevent vandalismor theft.• Provide adequateseating space.Planters as part ofthe landscaping canalso be designed forthis purpose.Coordinate signage. • Street signs and otherinformation signsshould be uniform toprovide a uniqueprecinct character.• Signs should clearlyconvey their messagebut should be locatedand sized not toblock views to andfrom adjoiningbuildings. Theyshould also not beexcessive in size andnumber.38Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.11: Public furniture and signage (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streetsProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Furniture shouldsupport theenvisaged characterof the street.• Furniture couldinclude fountains,litter bins, busshelters, benches,lighting or basketballrings, depending onthe context withinwhich the street issituated.Coordinate signage. • Signage shouldsupport the creationof a unified characterfor the street andconvey informationto local residents. Anotice board could beused for thispurpose. 1• Within a woonerftype of street,signage shouldmainly convey themessage to vehiclesthat they shoulddrive slowly, due to anumber of otherusers occupying thestreet for differentreasons.• Within an arcade,signage will mainlybe geared topedestrians,indicating wherewhat can be found. 2Hard open spaces Chapter 5.339


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.11: Public furniture and signage (continued)SquaresProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Some permanentbenches should bearranged in order forgroups of people totalk to one another. 1• A choice of seatingshould be considered,such as movablefurniture. Movablechairs make idealseating because eachuser can determinethe direction he orshe wants to face,and move it to gainprivacy, sit in or outof the sun or have abetter view. 2• Provide seating inpassive areas next toactive areas, toencourage people tolook towards eitherside. Design forinteraction amongpeople sitting down,and avoid conflictbetween peoplewalking and sitting. 3• Appropriate levels oflighting should beused to enhancesafety and accent andhighlight landscaping.Accent lighting,directed upwards intotrees, provides lowintensity, but oftendramatic illuminationof nearby pedestrianareas. 4• Use sustainablelighting featureswhere light energy isnot dispersed into theair.• Regular intervals oflights should bemaintained andincorporated intostreetscapeimprovements.40Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.11: Public furniture and signage (continued)Squares (continued)Provide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture(continued).• Light poles andfixtures should fitinto and preserve thehistorical character ofthe streetscape.Coordinate signage. • Provide informationthrough signage thatis colourful,interesting andtheme-based.MarketsProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Market facilities andservices should bespread evenly inclusters over themarket area, to beaccessible for all.• Secondary spacesshould provide thesettings for thelocation of theseclusters of communalservices.• Communal services tobe provided arestandpipes, solidwaste bins, publictelephones, publictoilets, and meteredelectricity dispensers.These should beintegrated.• Electricity will beneeded for lightingor manufacturedappliances. Waterwill be needed toclean the marketarea, also whereanimals areslaughtered. Water isalso needed forlaundry or vegetableareas, washingbasins, cooking, andgeneral hygiene.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.341


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.11: Public furniture and signage (continued)Markets (continued)Provide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture(continued).• Any extensive publicinvestment in marketinfrastructure shouldrespond to marketdevelopment, ratherthan precede it(Behrens and Watson1996, p 217).Parking areasProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Where parking areasabut the sidewalk, alandscaped setbackshould be provided,with adequatefurniture such asbenches.Coordinate signage. • Signage to parkingareas should becoordinated withsignage of thebuilding or thestreet, depending onits direct relationship.Public transport stops and stationsProvide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture.• Provide adequateshelters against rain,sun and wind, ifpossible. 1• Provide places forwaiting wherechange intransportation modestake place and atintersections.• Provide space forresting, eating ordrinking whilewaiting fortransportation.• Provide benches atbus stops or shelters.Comfortable designand location of streetfurniture shouldadhere to the needsof potential users.42Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.11: Public furniture and signage (continued)Public transport stops and stations (continued)Provide functional andaesthetically pleasingpublic furniture(continued).• Provide adequatelighting to improvesafety.• Provide enough andappropriate litterbins.Integrate and coordinatesignage.• Integrate signagewith shelters atpublic transportstops. 2Specific quantitative guidelinesTable 5.3.12: Ratios and thresholdsMixed-mode streetsOn-street parking. • In areas of high carownership, twovisitors’ parkingspaces should beprovided onsite, inaddition to on-streetparking.• In areas of low carownership, on-streetparking may besufficient.Pedestrian movement. • 4,5 m per personallows a clear view ofthe ground ahead,for comfortableadjustment to meetchanging conditions.This serves a capacityof 1 000 pedestriansper hour (Untermann1984, p 54). However,different contextswould allow fordifferent walkingspaces. 1• Stairs reduce walkingspeed to about onethird the speed oflevel conditions andconstrict traffic flows.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.343


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.12: Ratios and thresholds (continued)SquaresWalking space. • Walking on sidewalksand squares differ.On squares, thecrucial spatialdimension is squaremetres; the morespace available toadjust one’s route,the faster apedestrian can walk.Less than 1 m 2 perperson can force apedestrian to stopand less than 0,5 m 2is totallyunacceptable. Thegreatest densitypossible per m 2 is6 people. 1MarketsMarket size. • Markets that aredesigned to be small,with no capacity toexpand, very often failas they are too smallto attract customers.Markets shouldaccommodate at least70 operators to beeconomically viable(Behrens andWatson 1996, p 217).Parking areasParking ratio per landuse.• Dwelling unit of 1habitable room:1,0 space/unit.• Dwelling unit of 2habitable rooms:1,0 space per unit.• Dwelling unit of 3habitable rooms:1,25 spaces per unit.• Dwelling unit of 4habitable rooms:1,5 spaces per unit.• Visitors: 0,5 space perunit.• Hotels and motels:1 space per habitableroom + 10 spaces per100 m 2 .44Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.12: Ratios and thresholds (continued)Parking areas (continued)Parking ratio per landuse (continued).• Residential hotels,boarding houses, etc:0,6 spaces perhabitable room.• Old-age homes,orphanages, etc: 0,3spaces per habitableroom.Landscaping. • Minimise the impactof parking areas onthe livingenvironment throughthe provision of atleast 1 shade tree per3 parking bays. 1• 10% of the parkingarea should belandscaped.Table 5.3.13: Dimensions and distancesMixed-mode streetsTravelling distances. • Design short andnarrow residentialblocks of ± 100 m x30 m to ensurepermeability and easypedestrian access.• Shoppers carryingpackages or tendingto children are moreaware of time anddistance than peoplewho linger. Keepwalking distance andmaximum length of awalkway up to amaximum of 140 m.• 20% - 25% ofpersonal trips areunder 1,6 km inlength. 20% are 1,6to 3,2 km, with only12% - 15% being 3,2to 4,8 km. Thus,almost one half of allurban trips are lessthan four kilometreslong. This hasimplications for theintensity ofinformation to beprovided.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.345


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distancesMixed-mode streets (continued)Travelling distances. • Human scale is lostwith a linkage longerthan 1 500 m(maximum distanceto establish vista).Ramps and stairs. • Clear space of rampsshould not benarrower than 1,2 m,allowing a person in awheelchair to passanother person.Ramps should havecontinuous handrailsand should form anintegral part of thedesign of thebuilding, not merelybe an add-on. 1• Ramps can have aslope of between 5%(1:20) and 8% (1:12).• For continuouswalkways, cross-slopesof 1:12 should beavoided, with apreferred slope of1:16.• Stairs should beavoided where largevolumes of foot trafficmust beaccommodated. Onstairs, a railing shouldbe provided on atleast one side with aheight of at least 450mm (Untermann1984, pp 29, 41).46Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Ramps and stairs(continued).• On stairways, the risein height should notexceed 165 mm. 1,1 mis recommended as aminimum stairwaywidth to allowpassing in theopposite direction.The ideal proportionsfor outside steps aredetermined by theindicated formula. 2For long slopes, alevel rest-platformshould be installed ata maximum distanceof every 20 treads.This platform shouldbe long enough for aperson to walk threepaces, which isapproximately 1,8 m.Sidewalk widths. • With walking onsidewalks, the widthis a crucial dimension,since passing ispossible only whenthere is enoughwidth to pass easily(Untermann 1984,pp 25-28).Recommended widthfor sidewalks inmixed usedevelopment is 3,5 mto 4,5 m, clear of anystreet furniture(Cartwright 1980,p 42).Public furniture andlandscaping.• The minimum heightfor signs overpavements should beno less than 2,1 m(Cartwright 1980,p 99). 3• Planters, kerbs, railsand other raisedsurfaces can be usedfor seating. Anyheight up to 600 mmwill work, with400 mm being thebest. A width of atleast 160 mm isappropriate.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.347


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)Mixed-mode streets (continued)Public furniture andlandscaping (continued).• Appropriate distancesof plants to be placedfrom the facade ofbuildings are thefollowing:- Flowers andclimbers: 0,5 mto 1 m away;- Substantialbushes:minimum 1 maway; and- Small decorativetrees: minimum2 m away.• The bigger theground surface of theplants, the wider thesidewalk should be toensure safety andease of movementfor pedestrians. 4Pedestrian-orientated streetsWidths and slopes. • The maximumgradient of bicycletracks should be 5%(1:20), with amaximum cross-fall of2,5% (1:40).• The maximumgradient of footpathsshould be 1:12 andthe minimumgradient should be1:200 (forstormwater), with aminimum cross-fall of1:30 (3,3%).• The minimum widthof dedicatedpedestrian walkwaysin these streets is0,8 m.• When planting slopeswith grass, bear inmind that maximumslopes for mowingmachines should notexceed 1:1.5, whilefor tractors theyshould not exceed 1:3(Cartright 1980, p 13).48Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)Pedestrian-orientated streetsWidths and slopes(continued).• The minimum widthof a one-way bicycletrack is 2,75 m andfor a two-way track itis 3,6 m (Cartwright1980, p 43).• The maximum widthfor a dedicatedpedestrian walkwayis 12 m.Distances. • To maintaincoherence and safety,the maximum lengthof a pedestrianorientatedstreetshould be 140 m,which is themaximum distancefor discerning action.Public furniture. • Bollards should notbe higher than800 mm to avoidinterference withmotorists’ sight lines(Cartwright 1980,p 67).• A distance of 1,20 mbetween bollards willbar any car fromaccess (Cartwright1980, p 67). 1 49Hard open spaces Chapter 5.3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)SquaresScale and proportions. • Hard open space witha certain sense ofenclosure: below thethreshold of 18 ° thespace loses its senseof enclosure as onecan see beyond itsedges (Moughtin1992, p 99).• Limit plaza size tocreate small, humanscaledspaces. Amaximum size of235 m 2 is appropriatewith several smallplazas better thanone large one.• To maintain a senseof enclosure, theangle between twobuildings, attached ordetached, should notexceed 135º. 1• Scale of squares(Moughtin 1992,p 42):Large plazas: 21-24 mTown or villagesquare: 57 m x 143 mCity quarter: 800 mradius. 2Landscaping andfurniture.• Provide one linearmetre of seating forevery m 2 of squarearea (Paumier 1990,p 33).• To enablecommunication,benches should be amaximum of 1,2 mapart. The minimumdistance for normalconversation is 0,6 m.To ensure that nointeraction takesplace, benches shouldbe a minimum of 3 mapart (Bentley 1987,p 74). 350Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)Squares (continued)Landscaping andfurniture (continued).• Bollards with thedimensions of 500mm (height) and aminimum of 300 mm(width) can alsodouble as seating(Cartwright 1980,p 67).• Design litter binspreferably not higherthat 800 mm. Shouldthey be any higher,there would beseating constraints onthe bins and childrenwould have difficultyin dumping theirrubbish (Cartwright1980, p 111). 4• Plan for at least 20%of the square to belandscaped.MarketsTravelling distance. • Distances from publictransport facilities,home and workinfluence thepositioning ofmarkets andeconomic thresholds.- Driving thresholdof 5-minute drive@ 60 km/h:market can belocated 3,2 kmaway (Untermann1984).- Walking thresholdof 5 minute walk@ 6,4 km/h:market can belocated at 0,5 kmaway (Untermann1984).Hard open spaces Chapter 5.351


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.3.13: Dimensions and distances (continued)Markets (continued)Market layout. • Dead spaces and stallfacades longer than35 m, should beavoided. Shorterblocks between 18and 25 m are moreappropriate (Behrensand Watson 1996,p 215), with 8 mbeing the optimumlength forfunctionality andpermeability. A zigzaglayout caneffectively facilitatemovement on bothsides. 1Public transport stops and stationsWalking distances. • In some cases peoplecannot walk longdistances. Pedestrianscarrying packages ortending to childrenare more aware oftime and distanceand may be willing towalk an absolutemaximum of 300 m(Untermann 1984).• Increase the numberof formal publictransport stops, asthis may decrease theappearance of ad hocstops, especially byminibus taxis.Shorten the walklength to a maximumof 150 m in highdensity and mixeduseareas. In lowerdensities, stops canbe located further(up to 400 m apart).52Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNManagement guidelines to promotemultifunctional use of hard open spacesCritical issues are currently facing many cities alike. Ifwe want to secure the liveability and vitality of urbansettlements, the preservation of public spaces and thetransformation of hard open spaces to serve newpurposes and accommodate multifunctional uses, iscrucial. However, these spaces have to be effectivelymanaged in order not to become neglected andconsequently vulnerable to the many pressures ofcontemporary urban development.Despite limited local authority powers and resources,local authorities have to practise sound judgementand good management in terms of monitoring thesuccess of hard open spaces and responding toconsumer needs. A positive and integrated approachto planning, designing and managing space isessential. It is essential to prioritise key issues andconcentrate efforts where they will produce tangibleresults.Through involvement and commitment, communities,the private sector (developers, banks, investors) andlocal governments can and have to play an active rolein initiatives to protect and manage hard open spaces.URBED (1994, p 151) proposes the following to beincluded in local authorities’ planning processes withregard to open spaces:• Form multidisciplinary management groups for allopen spaces, integrating all relevant departments(planning, economic development, engineering,parks and recreation, cultural services).• Periodically review the situation in a representativeforum.• Promote research and study tours on the city’spublic spaces.• Publish promotional material and encouragetourism and multifunctional usage.There is thus a very important strategic planningcomponent involved in giving care and attention tohard open spaces. This should be coupled with a strongmarketing campaign to attract investment.Apart from planning and design, the followingmanagerial aspects should be considered:• Who is responsible for factors that affect thefunction and appearance of hard open spaces?• Who is responsible for activity and timemanagement?• Who is responsible for funding (maintenance,management)?It should be borne in mind that the use of hard openspace could change over time due to changes in usergroups and land uses. Multifunctional use can thusmore easily be accommodated and managed within aspace with a sense of permanence (well defined withinurban structure) and robustness (compatiblebuildings). Spaces should be able to accommodatechanging use over time, diverse activities andtemporary diversity with a change in intensity.In addressing the crucial issues of effectivemanagement, it is believed that hard open spaces canplay a vital role in ensuring vibrant and sustainableurban settlements.• Do profile and performance analysis on usage,pedestrian flows, attractions, access, and theamenities within hard open spaces.Hard open spaces Chapter 5.353


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAlexander, C (1977). A pattern language.University Press, New York.OxfordAttoe, W and Logan, D (1989). American urbanarchitecture: Catalysts in the design of cities.University of California Press, Los Angeles.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1996). Making urbanplaces: Principles and guidelines for layout planning -contemporary policy issues. UCT Press, Cape Town.Bentley, et al (1987). Responsive environments: Amanual for designers. The Architectural Press, London.Cartwright, RM (1980). The design of urban space: AGLC manual. The Architectural Press, London.Chermayeff, S and Alexander, C (1963). Communityand privacy. Penguin, Middlesex.CSIR, Division of Building Technology (1985).Guidelines for the provision of engineering servicesand amenities in residential township development.Pretoria.Curran, R J (1983). Architecture and the urbanexperience. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Francis, M et al (1984). Community open space:Greening neighborhoods through community actionand land conservation. Island, Washington.Goldsteen, J B (1994). Designing America: creatingurban identity. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Gosling, D and Maitland, B (1984). Concepts of urbandesign. St Martin’s, New York.Holm, Jordaan and Associates (1998). Hard OpenSpaces. Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR,Pretoria.Iwashita, H (1988). Pocket Park. Process Architecture.Process Architecture Publishing, Tokyo.Jordaan, G J (1987). An urban design strategy forplacemaking in city centres. A discourse submitted tothe Faculty of Architecture of the University of theWitwatersrand, Johannesburg.Kostof, S (1992). The city assembled: the elements ofurban form through history. Thames & Hudson,London.Kostof, S (1991). The city shaped: urban patterns andmeanings through history. Thames & Hudson, London.Lynch, K and Hack, G (1984). Site planning. 3rdEdition. MIT, London.Miller, C G (1988). Carscape. Washington Street Press,Columbus, Indiana.Moughtin, L (1992). Urban design: street and square.Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.Patricia, T and Adler, D (1984). New metric handbook,The Architectural Press, London.Paumier, C B (1990). Designing the successfuldowntown. Urban Land Institute, New York.Rapoport, A (1977). Human aspects of urban form.Oxford Pergamon Press.Rubenstein, H M (1992). Pedestrian malls,streetscapes, and urban spaces. John Wiley, New York.Southworth, M and Ben-Joseph, E (1997). Streets andthe shaping of towns and cities. McGraw-Hill, NewYork.Sugar House, Master plan document prepared for theSalt Lake City Corporation.Tibbalds, F (1992). Making people-friendly towns:improving the public environment in towns and cities.Longman, United Kingdom.Turner, T (1996). City as landscape: a postmodern viewof design and planning. Spon, London.Unknown (1985). Design guidelines for the pedestriancorridor and major public open spaces. City ofBellevue, Bellevue.Untermann, R K (1984). Accommodating thepedestrian: Adapting towns and neighbourhoods forwalking and bicycling. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork.URBED (1994). Vital and viable town centres: meetingthe challenge. HMSO, London.Uytenbogaardt, R, Dewar, D and Todeschini, F (1997).A philosophic approach to settlement-making.Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR, Pretoria.Van Zyl, WC (1997). Activities and behaviour of usersof public open space. Unpublished report. Town andRegional Planning, University of Pretoria.White, R R (1994). Urban environmental management:environmental change and urban design. John Wiley,New York.Wiseman, C (1981). Street Furniture: How can itsdesign be upgraded, in Urban Open Spaces. Rizzoli,UJA.54Chapter 5.3Hard open spaces


Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces5.4


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE ROLE OF SOFT OPEN SPACES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Soft open space needs of settlement ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Soft open space needs of identifiable user groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1GUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF NETWORKS OF SOFT OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7GUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF GENERIC FORMS OF SOFT OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . . . 9BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Soft open spaces Chapter 5.4i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.4.1 Spatial diagram illustrating multi-functionality and flexibility, protection, and linkage . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.4.2Spatial diagram illustrating the basic cross-sectional components of a riverineenvironment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Figure 5.4.3 Sportsfield markings and dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16LIST OF TABLESTable 5.4.1 The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Table 5.4.2 Guidelines for the planning and design of networks of soft open space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Table 5.4.3 Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9iiChapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONSoft open spaces are open, or unbuilt, spaces within asettlement, with a predominantly vegetated or poroussurface. Access into soft open spaces ranges from theirbeing totally unrestricted, to temporarily or userrestricted,to entirely private. This sub-chapter isconcerned with local and sub-metropolitan public andsemi-public soft open space, and to a lesser extentwith larger private soft open spaces that arefunctionally and aesthetically related to public softopen space.THE ROLE OF SOFT OPEN SPACESThe role of soft open space in settlement systems isessentially to (a) enable ecological processes tocontinue to occur sustainably and safely withinenvironments significantly altered by human action,and (b) accommodate a variety of socio-economiccommunity needs, and to a lesser extent to providebarriers that contain and manage settlement growth.These roles are not necessarily exclusive to particularspaces as, ideally, outdoor spaces should perform asmany roles as possible.Soft open space needs of settlementecosystemsThe elements that are common to all ecosystemsinclude flows of energy and the cycling of materials,self-regulatory mechanisms with positive and negativefeedbacks, and linked subsystems. These flows,feedbacks and linkages within, and betweensettlements and their surrounding biophysicalenvironment can be conceptualised as a settlementmetabolism, made up of a variety of “extractive” and“absorptive” demands.“Extractive” demands are inputs of renewable andnon-renewable resources, extracted from thebiophysical environment. They can take the form of,inter alia, daily inputs of clean water, air, food, fibre,and energy which are required to satisfy thesettlement metabolism. Once resources are extracted,they are either consumed, stored or transformed intoexportable products or wastes.“Absorptive” demands take the form of thebreakdown, processing and recycling of solid, liquidand gaseous wastes and heat that inevitably arise asthe by-products of urban metabolic processes, whichare absorbed by the biophysical environment. Theycan take the form of, inter alia, daily outputs ofsewage, garbage and smoke. The release of theseoutputs often requires the installation of a system ofutility services, particularly to deal with liquid and solidwaste. Since these waste products cannot generally beexported to other regions, they usually have to beabsorbed and recycled within the immediatebiophysical environment.Soft open spaces play a key role in enabling these“extractive” and “absorptive” processes to functionsustainably within settlements. In terms of extraction,they facilitate the renewal of resources through therecycling of biodegradable wastes, and the productionof food, fibre and fuel. In terms of absorption, theyfacilitate the purification of wastes through thecleansing and regulating of water, and the filtering ofair. In order for these ecological processes to functionwithin settlements, soft open spaces should be (a)appropriately located, (b) sufficiently large, (c)sufficiently interconnected, and (d) appropriatelyvegetated.• In terms of location, soft open spaces shouldincorporate particularly sensitive naturalenvironments, like wetlands, rivers, coastlines andremnant patches of indigenous flora, which arenecessary to maintain the diversity of indigenousflora and fauna habitats within a settlement.• In terms of quantity, soft open spaces should besufficiently large, to maintain the seed banks andbreeding stocks necessary to preserve the flora andfauna, and to enable the biophysical environmentto renew resources and absorb and recycle liquidand solid waste. In other words, a balance needs toexist between the natural and built environment soas not to overload the system and exceed thecapacity of the soft open space system to performits life-enhancing and regenerative role.• In terms of connection, soft open spaces should besufficiently interconnected to enable local fauna tomove and breed. Settlement formation fragmentspreviously intact natural habitats, and can lead tothe isolation of indigenous species within asettlement.• In terms of vegetation, the surfacing of soft openspaces should be suited to its ecological location.The choice of vegetation within a soft open spacedetermines the variety of habitats for animal life,and hence the diversity of flora and fauna.Soft open space needs of identifiableuser groupsIn planning soft open spaces that can perform theirother role of accommodating a variety of humanneeds, an understanding of the range of current andanticipated end-user needs within and surrounding asite is necessary. In order to achieve this understandingit is useful to consider needs in terms of individual usergroups. It is important to note, however, that no onesoft open space has, or should have, one identifiableuser group - a central argument to be made is thatbetter soft open spaces accommodate the greatestpossible number of user groups and needs.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.41


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNEmpirical studies of the needs of different user groupsclearly illustrate that need is both diverse and dynamic.User needs typically vary considerably according tosuch factors as age, gender, culture, income and levelsof mobility and, consequently, the needs of anindividual, as well as the composite needs of aparticular geographical community, change over time.There are nevertheless many needs that are commonto all users:• All users require a degree of comfort from thenatural elements, and the choice of a shady or asunny place to rest.• All users need to feel safe. Feelings of safety andsecurity relate both to protection from fast-movingvehicular traffic, and to the avoidance of hiddenplaces of refuge where potential muggers orrapists may lurk.• All users require opportunities for passiveengagement with other people. In other words,people need accessible and well-known publicplaces where they do not have to be alone, wherethey know something will always be happening,and where they can engage in “people watching”and maybe even establish social encounters.• All users also require opportunities to escape fromintense concentrations of people and activity.A problem with the literature available on soft openspace is the limited availability of empirical studiesspecific to South Africa. The available literature dealstypically with different age, gender and incomegroups - there is comparatively little empirical workthat discusses how needs vary across cultural and socioeconomicgroups. Table 5.4.1 summarises the needs ofuser groups as dealt with in the literature.• All users require opportunities for activeengagement with other people and with spaces. Inother words, people need accessible and wellknownpublic places in which to wait for, and makearrangements to meet, their friends, as well asspaces in which games and sports can be played.Table 5.4.1: The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups2-5 YEAR-OLD CHILDRENPsychological needsPhysical needs• To feel secure - young children often have difficultytolerating visual separation from their parents orminders. Visual separation is in fact often the mainsource of anxiety.• To play - young children tend to play inventive, orimitation, games by themselves, and usually focustheir attention on a fairly small play space.• Visual, aural and tactile stimuli, to explore andexperience new sensations.• Play spaces located close to benches orembankments that survey the space.• Stimulating (but safe, in terms of height and waterrisks) play objects that can expand their growingsense of spatial relations, and around which theycan invent games. Spaces and objects should bescaled to their size and strength.• Soft play surfaces to prevent injury.• Protection from fast-moving vehicular traffic.2Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.1: The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups (continued)Appropriate soft open spacesFrequency and access needsThe psychological and physical open space needs of 2-5 year olds can be met in relatively small play spaces (±60 m 2 ). Children can play virtually anywhere andeverywhere. Appropriate play spaces can thereforetake the form of parts of other open spaces likewidened footways on roads experiencing light trafficvolumes, or squares. The implication of this is thatchild play should be a consideration in the planningand design of all public open spaces.2-5 year olds tend to play on a daily basis. Attemptsshould therefore be made to locate public open spacesthat address the needs of pre-school children, within ±500 m of spatial concentrations of these users (e.g.créches).6-12 YEAR-OLD CHILDRENPsychological needsPhysical needs• To play: 6-12 year olds tend to play in groups, andtherefore focus their attention on a larger play space.• A sense of adventure (i.e. unpredictability in theway certain spaces are designed, e.g. hedgemazes): 6-12 year olds need to be able to discover,and be stimulated by, new spaces and objects, andbe inventive in developing games. A sense ofadventure is especially important for youngerchildren, as physical and creative play developsmotor skills and innovation, which are necessaryfor physical as well as intellectual development.• To be challenged by the space (e.g. crossing riverson stepping stones or logs, without falling in andgetting wet).• Challenging play objects, and discovery spaces - thereis less pretence in the play of 6-12 year olds than inyounger age groups. More objects and playequipment are therefore required, and play spaces(sometimes needing game markings) need to belarger to accommodate contact games (150 -1 000 m 2 )and ball games (300 -1 500 m 2 ). Spaces and objectsshould be scaled to their size and strength.• Soft play surfaces to prevent injury when falling orwrestling.• Protection from fast-moving vehicular traffic.Appropriate soft open spacesFrequency and access needsThe psychological and physical open space needs of 6-12 year olds can be met in relatively larger playspaces, which enable a clear flow of movement andenable “big play” activity (150 - 1 500 m 2 ). The mostobvious examples of such spaces would be“adventure” playgrounds, parks or linear parkwayswith streams, and playspaces in schools. Like 2-5 yearolds, they can, however, play virtually anywhere.Children aged 6-12 years tend to play on a daily orweekly basis. Attempts should therefore be made tolocate public open spaces that address the needs of 6-12 year olds within ± 500 m of spatial concentrationsof these users (e.g. primary schools or homes).Soft open spaces Chapter 5.43


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.1: The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups (continued)13-19 YEAR OLD TEENAGERS AND YOUNG ADULTSPsychological needsPhysical needs• Passive engagement with people - older childrenand young adults are also more likely to go topublic places on their own to seek chanceencounters with other children or young adults (i.e.to “hang out”).• Active engagement with people - as children growolder their need for space, expansive team games,and sports practice, increases.• Play surfaces, sometimes with game markings(300 - 1 500 m 2 ). With older children, play equipmentincreasingly becomes less important thanuninterrupted play space.• Visible and busy places in which to socialise, whichare comfortable to sit in and talk.• Challenging and stimulating spaces and objects.• To be challenged by the space.Appropriate soft open spacesFrequency and access needsThe psychological and physical open-space needs ofolder children and young adults can be met in adiverse range of soft open spaces. Parks, linearparkways and sportsfields can meet more activeengagement needs, while pocket parks in morecentral locations can meet more passive engagementneeds.Older children and young adults tend to meet andplay on a daily or weekly basis. Attempts shouldtherefore be made to locate public open spaces thataddress the needs of older children and young adults,within ± 500 m of spatial concentrations of theseusers (e.g. secondary schools, homes). Specialised orless frequently used spaces (e.g. sportsfields used forrelatively less frequent competitive sports events) canoften be located further away, and accessed by bicycleor public transport.ELDERLY PEOPLEPsychological needsPhysical needs• Passive engagement with other people - retiredpeople tend to use public spaces in a frequent,routine manner, mainly in the morning and earlyafternoon, when there is sunshine and leastcompetition for seating with teenagers andchildren.• To be visually stimulated by aesthetically pleasingenvironments.• Seating around the perimeters and near theentrances of spaces, as it is here that there is oftena greater feeling of safety provided by passers-by,and friends are more likely to be spotted.Maximum comfortable walking distances also tendto be shorter for elderly people than for youngeruser groups, so seating close to entrances is moreconvenient.• Seating in sheltered areas that offers choicebetween shade and sun, and protection from thewind.• Stimulating public art, and game markings (e.g.chess, shuffleboards).• Flat or gently sloping pathways.4Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.1: The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups (continued)ELDERLY PEOPLE (continued)Appropriate soft open spacesFrequency and access needsThe psychological and physical open space needs ofelderly people can be met in all public open spaces,but to a lesser extent in active recreation spaces likesportsfields.Elderly people tend to use open spaces on a daily andweekly basis, and tend to tire more rapidly fromwalking than younger groups. Attempts shouldtherefore be made to locate public open spaces thataddress the needs of elderly people within ± 400 m ofspatial concentrations of these users (e.g. old-agehomes, or neighbourhoods accommodating manyelderly people).WOMENPsychological needsPhysical needs• To feel safe - the specific needs of women in publicopen spaces focus primarily on the issue of crimeand safety. Very often, as a result of the incidenceof sexual assault and harassment, women areafraid or reluctant to use public open space ontheir own. Women need to feel a sense of controlin public spaces, in terms of being able to orientatethemselves easily and leave the space quickly, andsee who else is in the space.• Spaces that do not contain hidden refuges orcorners, and have dimensions that enable womento identify potential dangers easily.• Spaces with numerous possible exit points, whichare overlooked by surrounding activities.• Comfortable places, close to play spaces, in whichto sit and mind small children in the case of childmindingparents.• Hardened pathways for pushing prams, in the caseof child-rearing parents.WHEELCHAIR USERSPhysical needs (detailed guidelines are provided in SABS Code of Practice 0246:1993)• Hardened (but not slippery) pathways along the thoroughfares of spaces, as well as to more secluded spaces.• Flat or gently sloping pathways that do not exceed a gradient of 1:12, and have a cross-sectional camber (orbanking) that does not exceed 1:60.• Pathways that are sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs. As wheelchairs are typically 70 cm wide,the minimum width should be in the region of 90 cm.Physical needsVAGRANTS• Seating, and soft surfaces on which to lie, as open spaces are inevitably used by vagrants as a place to liveduring the day. In addition, public open spaces are sometimes used as places to sleep during the night, whennight shelters are either unused or unavailable. The permanent presence of large numbers of vagrants,however, often discourages other user groups from using the space, and compromises often need to be sought.• Protection from the sun, wind and rain.• Water points and, where applicable, ablution points.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.45


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.1: The soft open space needs of identifiable user groups (continued)WORKERSPsychological needsPhysical needs• Relief from intense commercial, business andindustrial activity. Workers mainly use public openspaces for active and passive engagement duringtea and lunch breaks, as a stimulating and pleasingplace to meet, relax and eat.• Spaces that are easily accessible from places of work.• Sheltered spaces that provide a choice betweenshade and sun, wind protection, seating and softsurfaces to lie on.• Stimulating public art.Frequency and access needs• Workers take lunch breaks on a daily basis. Attempts should therefore be made to locate public openspaces, that address the needs of workers, within ± 300 m of spatial concentrations of these users (e.g. officeblocks, industrial parks).The roles relating to ecological and human need havethe following implications for the way soft openspaces within settlement systems should be plannedand designed (Figure 5.4.1):Figure 5.4.1: Spacial diagram illustrating multifunctionalityand flexibility, protection and linkage• Soft open spaces should perform a variety ofhuman and ecological functions, and theconfiguration of these spaces should be able toaccommodate changing functions over time. Thesoft open space system therefore needs toaccommodate a diversity of open space forms,that can be shared by a diversity of user groups.Multi-functionality has two dimensions - a singlesoft open space should be able to performdifferent functions, and a space performing aparticular function should serve a variety ofdifferent users.• In order for vital ecological processes - likedrainage, groundwater recharge, or air and waterpurification - to continue functioning within humansettlements, and for flora and fauna speciesdiversity to be maintained, key natural areas needto be protected from development, andincorporated into a settlement’s soft open spacesystem. Understanding the qualities of the naturalenvironment in each place, integrating it in thedesign of settlements, and respecting thefunctioning of its dynamic systems, are all critical inmaking human settlements both sustainable andunique.• Larger soft open spaces and remnants of naturallandscapes need to be linked by corridors of softopen space. These linkages facilitate a range ofcontinuous recreational opportunities, and act asconduits for indigenous species, potentiallyfacilitating the movement of pollinators and thedispersal of seed from one space to another. Thismovement of pollinators and seed enables naturalsystems to be protected far more effectively than inthe case of unconnected natural remnants.Despite the need for multifunctionality, the diversityof ecological and human needs discussed abovenecessitates that not all spaces are the same. Networksof soft open space can be made up of the followingtypical forms: pristine areas, parkways, parks,sportsfields, servitudes, and urban agriculture. Thefollowing two sections provide, respectively, guidanceon the planning and design of networks of soft openspace, and guidance on the planning and design ofindividual forms of soft open space.6Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNING ANDDESIGN OF NETWORKS OF SOFT OPENSPACEImportant considerations in the planning and designof networks of soft open space are: (a) location, (b)quantity (i.e. how much space there should be relativeto other land uses), (c) connection (i.e. how individualspaces should connect with each other), and (d)vegetation (i.e. the nature of surfaces, and the balancebetween “pristine” and “artificial” landscapes).Table 5.4.2: Guidelines for the planning and design of networks of soft open spaceLOCATIONSustaining ecological processesAccommodating user needsThe location of networks should incorporate remnantpatches of representative indigenous flora, andsensitive natural areas like wetlands, slopes, rivers andcoastlines that are critical to the continued operationof natural systems.Empirical studies indicate that the needs of frequentspace users can be accommodated in most forms ofspace. The question of how far users should have towalk or travel in order to gain access to soft openspace amenities therefore relates more to access to anetwork of space, than access to individual genericspace forms. A distance of 500 m is recommended asthe maximum a person should have to walk to gainaccess to the network. When determining thepedestrian catchment area of a public soft open spacenetwork in accordance with a maximum 500 mwalking distance, it is important to avoid simplymeasuring off the relevant walking distance on acompass and drawing a perfect circle around thespace. Barriers like water courses, railways lines andlimited access freeways often inhibit pedestrianmovement, making a circle around the space anunrealistic reflection of the potential pedestriancatchment area.QUANTITYSustaining ecological processesAccommodating user needsNetworks of pristine or natural open space should besufficiently large, to maintain the seed banksnecessary to preserve the flora and the breedingstocks necessary to preserve fauna species, and toenable the biophysical environment to renewresources and absorb and recycle liquid and solidwastes. This is a contextual issue, depending on thenature of the resources or wastes in question, and thediversity of habitats for indigenous flora and fauna.Networks should be sufficiently large toaccommodate the amount and frequency of need, yetsufficiently small to avoid reducing gross residentialdensities to levels that do not provide the necessarythresholds of support. Quantity relates more to thetotal amount of space within a settlement and theaccess that users have to this space than to the sizeand dimensions of individual forms of space.Appropriate quantities of space are a contextualissue, with geographical location and residentialdensity being important considerations. Decisionsrelating to quantity cannot therefore be made purelyon the basis of formulas or on cumulative totalsresulting from the mechanistic application ofstandards for individual space types. Internationalcomparisons indicate that open space should typicallyaccount for between 10% and 17% of land in adevelopment - depending on factors such aspopulation density and proximity to natural openspace.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.47


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.2: Guidelines for the planning and design of networks of soft open space(continued)QUANTITY (continued)Sustaining ecological processesAccommodating user needs (continued)An important way of reducing the land required toaccommodate user and ecological soft open spaceneeds, is the sharing of amenities by different users,and the multifunctional use of the space. SouthAfrican society can no longer afford the luxury, withinan urbanising area, of having certain spaces set asidefor single open space use. Wherever possible,different but compatible uses should beaccommodated on the same open space. In essence, ashift in concern from quantity to quality is required.CONNECTIONSustaining ecological processesAccommodating user needsNetworks of soft open space should be sufficientlyinterconnected to enable the movement ofpollinators and the dispersal of seed from habitat tohabitat. These connections are necessary at a range ofscales. At the larger scale they connect naturalfeatures such as mountains, coastlines and rivers. Atthe smaller scale they connect remnant patches ofindigenous habitats.Networks of soft open space should be connected tocreate continuous recreational walking, jogging, andcycling opportunities, not possible in spatiallyisolated spaces.VEGETATIONSustaining ecological processesAccommodating user needsThe vegetation covering those portions of a networkof soft open space that primarily accommodateecological need should obviously be as pristine ornatural as possible, and when these portions of thenetwork have been significantly degraded, they needto be rehabilitated. The advantages of locallyindigenous vegetation relate primarily tomaintenance costs, pollution avoidance, theenhancement of uniqueness in settlement formation,and biodiversity. Indigenous vegetation typicallyrequires less irrigation and fertiliser than exoticspecies.The vegetation covering of those portions of anetwork that primarily accommodate human needessentially need to incorporate areas of shade andwind protection, soft durable surfaces for playinggames, and hardened durable pathways for frequentpedestrian, bicycle and wheelchair movements. Whenpossible, local indigenous plant species that havethese characteristics should be used in landscaping. Insituations where indigenous plant species are notsuited to the requirements and functions of the openspace, exotic species that are suited to the climate ofthe region, and which do not present an invasivedanger to pristine environments, should be used.Whenever possible, established trees should beincorporated into landscape designs.8Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNGUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNINGAND DESIGN OF GENERIC FORMS OFSOFT OPEN SPACEImportant considerations in the planning and designof generic forms of soft open space are:• location - where different forms of soft open spaceshould be located within human settlements;• access - the maximum distance users should haveto travel in order to use different forms of softopen space;• size and dimensions - the area, width and length ofdifferent forms of soft open space;• use capacities and thresholds - the number andfrequency of users a space can accommodatebefore the space begins to degrade, and thenumber and frequency of users that are requiredfor efficient utilisation;• edges - the boundaries and definition of differentforms of soft open space;• surfaces - the appropriate horizontal covering ofdifferent forms of soft open space; and• public furniture - the physical objects in differentforms of soft open space.Table 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open spaceLOCATIONParkways • Parkways can be located along water courses, adjacent to floodplains determined by the1:50 year floodline, in order to act as part of the major stormwater management system.• Parkways can be located as links between larger spaces, and can incorporate buffer areasaround incompatible or unsafe land uses.Parks • Larger parks should be located in areas with no or limited access to natural amenities (inthe form of mountains or coastlines). They should be fairly evenly distributed throughouta settlement, and where possible, connected by parkways.• Larger parks can be juxtaposed to, and incorporate, urban agriculture, fuelwood planting,solid waste disposal and nature conservation sites, in order to enhance multifunctionalityand visual interest.• Smaller parks can be located within easy walking distance (i.e. ± 300 m) of workers situatedwithin busy commercial and industrial centres in order to create contrasting spaces of reliefwithin predominantly residential areas, so as to create easily surveilled child-play spaces,and within school clusters, which create safe, shared playtime spaces.Sportsfields • Larger competitive sportsfields should be located within clusters of schools and close toprivate sports clubs, in order to facilitate the sharing of amenities between different usergroups and to avoid under-utilisation. Schools can have allocated times of use during theday, while sports clubs can use the amenities mainly during the evening.• Competitive sportsfields should be located close to public transport services, in order tofacilitate the access of visiting teams.• Sportsfields can be located on low-lying land adjacent to water courses and incorporatedinto parkways, in order to act as part of the major stormwater management system inthe event of severe storms.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.49


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)LOCATION (continued)Playspaces • Wherever possible, playspaces should be incorporated with other public open spaces (forreasons of multifunctionality).• Playspaces can be located within clusters of primary schools and close to pre-school andday-care facilities, in order to facilitate the shared use of these amenities as safe andstimulating play-time areas.• Playspaces can be located within parks, relatively close to entrance points (but awayfrom busy perimeter roads) and traversing pathways, so that they are areas of greatestpublic surveillance and safety.Urban • Urban agriculture can be practised on land located next to sources of irrigation water,agriculturein the form of rivers and stormwater retention ponds.• In instances where lower-income farmers need to walk to the cultivated lands on a dailybasis, urban agriculture should be located close to residential areas.• Where appropriate, urban agriculture should be located close to markets.• Urban argriculture is a useful way of productively utilising residual under-utilised landsuch as servitudes.ACCESSParks • As larger parks serve sub-metropolitan as well as local users, maximum distances willsometimes be greater than maximum walking distances (i.e. ± 500 m or 10 min). Theimplication of this is that parks will often need to be accessed by bicycles or public transport.• As smaller parks are likely to be used on a daily basis by children, elderly people andworkers, and are accessed by foot, they should be located within 300 m to 700 m ofusers. The maximum time spent walking to a smaller park should therefore beapproximately 10 min.Sportsfields • School sportsfields should be located within easy walking distance (i.e. ± 300 m) ofschool buildings - with primary schools requiring closer locations than secondary schools,and should be located within 500 m to 1 500 m of other user groups (e.g. sports clubs).Playspaces • Playspaces should be located within easy walking distance (i.e. ± 300 m) of primary schoolbuildings and créches, and should be located within 500 m to 1 500 m of other users. Asplayspaces sometimes serve children from surroundings areas, maximum distances willoccasionally be greater than maximum walking distances (i.e. ± 500 m or 10 min.).10Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)SIZE AND DIMENSIONSPristine areas • It is not possible to generalise about the ideal size for pristine areas, or the width ofeffective corridors, as these will vary between flora and fauna communities. Whereappropriate, land preserved as a pristine area should be nodal, as opposed to linear, inorder to minimise exposure to human activity.• In the case of wetlands and drainage courses, setbacks which protect development fromflood waters should ensure that development is restricted to at least above the 1:50 yearfloodline. The setback also makes provision for a vegetated strip which protects watercourses from pollutants, prevents bank erosion, secures habitat for birds and otherwildlife, and provides recreational opportunities through trails. The required width ofsuch a strip depends on soil and water-travel characteristics, slope, climate, vegetationtype, and the scale and density of proposed development (Figure 5.4.2).Parkways • The length, and therefore size, of a linear parkway depends on the particular context.Widths should, for surveillance and safety reasons, not exceed ± 300 m, with a width of25-50 m making it easier for more vulnerable users to identify and avoid potentialdangers.Parks • The area and dimensions of a park vary according to the functions the park is intendedto perform, and to proximity to the natural environment. Larger parks should be able toaccommodate a variety of collective events like carnivals, fairs and concerts. Parks thatare between 6 ha and 10 ha in size, with widths of between 200 m and 300 m, andlengths of between 300 m and 500 m, are generally flexible enough to accommodatethese events.• The area and dimensions of smaller parks also vary according to the functions they areintended to perform. Smaller parks should, however, be small enough to maintain asense of intimacy, and enable easy visibility and recognition (i.e. ± 25 m maximum). Suchparks should therefore be between 450 m 2 and 1 000 m 2 in size, with widths of between15 m and 25 m, and lengths of between 30 m and 40 m.Sportsfields • The area and dimensions of a sportsfield cluster vary according to the quantity andrange of sports to accommodated, their respective field dimensions, and the degree towhich field markings can be overlaid to reduce space requirements. The specific fielddimensions of common outdoor sports are illustrated in Figure 5.4.3. It should be notedthat the dimensions of larger field sports like cricket, rugby and soccer can varyconsiderably, and that only competitive matches need the specified field dimension andmarking. Non-representative team games, social league games and other informalsporting activities do not necessarily require the specified field dimensions.• soccer: 65 m X 105 m (6 825 m 2 )• rugby: 69 m X 125 m (8 625 m 2 )• cricket oval: 128 m X 128 m (16 384 m 2 )• hockey: 50 m X 87 m (4 350 m 2 )• volley ball: 9 m X 18 m (162 m 2 )• basketball: 14 m X 26 m (364 m 2 )• netball: 15 m X 30 m (450 m 2 ).Soft open spaces Chapter 5.411


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)SIZE AND DIMENSIONS (continued)Playspaces • The area and dimensions of a playspace vary according to the nature of the playequipment (e.g. whether or not small animals are kept within the space), and whether ornot the playspace is part of a larger soft open space. Playspaces should however be smallenough to enable easy supervision and recognition (i.e. ± 25 m maximum). Playspacesshould therefore be between 450 m 2 and 1 000 m 2 in size, with widths of between 15 mand 25 m, and lengths of between 30 m and 40 m.• It should be kept in mind that the size and surface of playspaces could have an impact ontheir use, especially in areas where sufficient resources are not available to keep them ina state conducive to play activities. The result could be that smaller play spaces are usedfor rubbish dumping, parking, etc. It might prove to be more suitable in some instancesto develop these as hard open spaces to allow for various games requiring a hard surface.USE CAPACITIES AND THRESHOLDSPristine areas • It is important that the frequency and the volume of users do not reach a point wherethey compromise the environment and interfere with the natural functioning of theecosystem - this varies according to context.Sportsfields • The use threshold of sportsfield clusters depends on the size of the cluster, the numberof schools and sports clubs that share the amenity, the capacity of the fields, the surfaceof the fields and the levels of use that are required to maintain efficiency.• Different surfaces have different capacities. When considering the sharing ofsportsfields, it is necessary to establish whether certain levels of sharing are feasible froma surface capacity point of view. In Cape Town, for example, a (kikuyu) grass playing fieldcan typically accommodate only six matches or practices per week, before the surfacebegins to degrade.Playspaces • Playspaces primarily serve the open-space needs of children. The use threshold ofplaygrounds depends on the demographic characteristics of the local community, andwhether or not schools and créches make formal use of these amenities.EDGESParks and • Parks and parkways should be defined by perimeter roads and fronting buildings, inparkwaysorder to improve surveillance and safety. Visual access or visibility is important in orderfor people to feel free to enter a space.• Parks and parkways with direct road access should be protected by traffic barriers (e.g.trees, bollards or railing), in order to prevent cars from parking in the space, and preventsmall children from running into busy streets. Trees, in particular, provide a definitevisible line of transition between built areas and open spaces, and provide shade andwindbreaks.• The fencing of parks facilitates collective events where entrance fees are charged (e.g.fairs, open-air theatre). It is important that only a few parks in a settlement are fencedoff, to minimise restrictions on public access, and that entrance points relate toapproaches from public transport stops and major pedestrian desire lines.12Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)EDGES (continued)Sportsfields • Sportsfield clusters should be defined by perimeter roads and fronting buildings, inorder to provide surveillance and safety. Depending on the nature of the amenitysharing,fencing to limit public access to specific user groups may be required. In theseinstances surrounding properties can back onto the space directly without adverselyaffecting safety.Playspaces • Free-standing playgrounds should be defined by fronting buildings, in order to provideshelter from the wind and sun, and enable adults to survey the space from surroundinghouses.• Free-standing, unfenced playgrounds with direct road access should be protected bytraffic barriers (e.g. trees, bollards or railing), in order to prevent cars from parking inthe space, and prevent small children from running into busy streets.Urban • In most instances urban agriculture needs to be fenced in order to prevent theft andagriculturevandalism, and protection from stray animals.SURFACESPristine areas • Surfaces should be left in a natural (i.e. locally indigenous) state, and river banks shouldbe vegetated with riparian vegetation to decrease and slow water runoff.Parks and • Surfaces should match the frequency with which the space is used. Heavily utilisedparkwaysspaces should be paved or gravelled, while less utilised spaces can have a soft surface.• Surfaces should include hardened, tractive pathways of ± 90 cm with gradients notexceeding 1:12, in order to facilitate the easy movement of wheelchair users, pedestriansand cyclists. Pathways should run through and across the space, in order to createcontinuous walks and limit any fragmentation of urban areas as a result of the space,and should also lead to more secluded viewing sites.• Portions of larger parks (± 50 m x ± 50 m) should be left unplanted and open, in orderto accommodate informal ball games and other forms of play that require free space(e.g. kite-flying).• Retention and retarding stormwater ponds should be incorporated as water features, inorder to improve the landscaping and recreational interest of the space, and for the dualpurpose of stormwater attenuation. Paths crossing water courses, in the form of bridgesor stepping stones, should be made into challenging child-play objects.• Plant and tree landscaping should avoid the creation of hidden places of refuge, in orderto reduce opportunities to commit crimes in the space.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.413


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)SURFACES (continued)Sportsfields • Surfaces should be appropriate to the range of sports to be accommodated. The use ofan indigenous grass is preferable for ecological reasons. While the cost of establishingindigenous grasses, like buffalo, is often significantly higher, maintenance is cheaper. Insome cases, an artificial surface (e.g. astroturf) could be appropriate. Astroturf can beused 24 hours a day, but the capital cost is high. It does not, however, need regularmaintenance or reinstatement.• There should be a differentiation between playing fields. In some instances (e.g.climatic conditions), less important, non-competitive fields can be surfaced withearth. The advantage of earth surfaces is that there is no limit to use, andmaintenance costs are reduced.• Where possible and appropriate, field markings should be overlaid in different colours,to enable the same space to be used for a number of different sports.• If parking space is provided within the sportsfield cluster, hard surface field markings(e.g. basketball, netball) can be overlaid onto the space so that the parking area can alsobe used as a sports facility when demand for parking is low.Playspaces • Areas of intense play and heavy use, requiring high durability, should have a hardenedsurface, while areas where children are likely to fall and hurt themselves should have asoft surface.• Surfaces should demarcate playspaces for children of different age groups. Small softspaces suit young children of pre-school age in their predominantly passive engagementactivities, while larger soft spaces suit the more robust contact games of older children.Servitudes • To reduce maintenance costs, and increase habitats for indigenous flora and fauna,servitudes should be surfaced with indigenous vegetation.PUBLIC FURNITUREParkways • Public furniture can include benches and waste bins at viewing sites.Parks • Public furniture in larger parks can include benches and waste bins close to entrancesand play areas for less mobile elderly people and minding parents, child play equipmentaway from busy perimeter roads, and ablution blocks where required.• Public furniture in smaller parks can include children’s play equipment, public art or astimulating water feature to add to the uniqueness and character of the space, benchesand tables (for lunch eaters, newspaper readers, board games, etc.), and game markings(e.g. hop-scotch).Sportsfields • Public furniture can include benches and stands for spectators. In the case of public fieldsshared with sports clubs, adults who work during the day can only play sport at night,and therefore often need lighting as well.• Depending on the size of the sportsfield cluster, and the range of user groups, collectiveservice points in the form of changing-rooms with toilets and taps can be provided.14Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.4.3: Guidelines for the planning and design of generic forms of soft open space(continued)PUBLIC FURNITURE (continued)Playspaces • Public furniture can include interactive and challenging play objects (e.g. woodenbuilding blocks, stepping stones), play equipment (e.g. slides), and benches overlookingplay areas.• Free-standing playgrounds with formalised use arrangements may require water pointsfor drinking and toilet facilities.Urban • Appropriate public objects in spaces used for urban agriculture are likely to relate toagriculturewater irrigation systems and storage facilities for farming implements.Horizontal componentFloodplainVertical componentDevelopment zoneRiparian vegetationDevelopment zoneTransition zonePristine zoneTransition zonePristine zone:Transition zone:An undisturbed natural environment with locally indigenous riparian vegetation andnatural habitats for flora and founaA porous vegetated strip which enables water infiltration, further protects the watercourse from pollutants, prevents soil erosion, and provides altered habitats for floraand fauna - the zone contains 'soft' land-use activities like sport and recreationalamenities, and organic plant cultivationApproximate scale:0100 200mFigure 5.4.2: Spatial diagram illustrating the basic cross-sectional components of a riverine environmentSoft open spaces Chapter 5.415


69mGUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNRugby125m15m14m9m30m26m18mNetball Basketball Volleyball87mHockeyCricketSoccer105m50m128m65mFigure 5.4.3: Sportsfield markings and dimensions16Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAltman, I and Zube, E H (eds) (1989). Public places andspaces, pp 33-37. Plenum Press, New York.Behrens, E and Marnewick, G (1996). Settlementsunder the floodlines. Muniviro, Vol 13, No 2, pp 9-12.Behrens, R (1998). Research in progress. UrbanProblems Research Unit, University of Cape Town.Boys, J (1984). Women and public space, in Matrix, A,Making Space: women and the man-madeenvironment, Pluto, London.Burgess, C (1997). Guguletu Park, Contract DocumentsTender Specification, April, NY. 133.134.Butler, G D (1958). Recreation areas: Their design andequipment, Ronald Press, New York.Calthorpe, P (1993). The next American metropolis.Ecology, community and the American Dream.Princeton Architectural Press.Carr, S, Francis, M, Rivlin, L G and Stone, A M (1992).Public space, University Press, Cambridge.Cooper, Marcus C and Francis, C (eds) (1990). Peopleplaces: Design guidelines for urban open space, VonNostrand Reinhold, New York.Cranz, G (1981). Women in urban parks, in Stimpson,C R, Dixler, E, Nelson, M J and Yatrakis, K B (eds),Women and the American city, University of ChicagoPress.De Lange, F W and Vorster, J C (1989). Walkingdistances by income group, by mode and by trippurpose, PG1/89. South African Roads Board,Department of Transport: Chief Directorate NationalRoads, Pretoria.Dewar, D and Todeschini, F (1996). Urban managementand economic interaction. The African institute forPolicy Analysis and Economic Integration, University ofCape Town.Eriksen, A (1985). Playground Design, Van NostrandReinhold, New York.Ewing, R, Heflin, C C, DeAnna, M and Porter, D R(1995). Best development practices doing the rightthing and making money at the same time. JointCentre for Environmental and Urban Problems, FloridaAtlantic University / Florida International University.Ferguson, R (ed) (1994). Urban revisions: currentprojects for the public realm. MIT, Cambridge,Massachussetts and London.Franck, K A and Paxson, L (1989). Women and urbanpublic space: research, design and policy issues, inAltman, I and Zube, E H (eds), Public places and spaces.Plenum Press, New York.Gasson, B (1993). Rapid urbanisation resulting in theneed for low cost neighbourhoods. Theenvironmentally viable city: a performance concept.Conference paper, School of Architecture andPlanning, University of Cape Town.Gasson, B (1998). Research in progress, School ofArchitecture and Planning, University of Cape Town.Guma, M (1985). Sotho male initiation rites in anurban setting. Dissertation submitted in partialfulfilment of the requirements for the degree ofBachelor of Social Science (Honours) in SocialAnthropology, University of Cape Town.Heseltine, P and Holborn, J (1987). Playgrounds,Mitchell Publishing Company Ltd, London.Howe, D A (1992). Creating Vital Communities:Planning for Our Ageing Society. PlanningCommissioners Journal, Issue 7, p 1.Kennedy, M and Kennedy, D (eds) (1997). Designingecological settlements, ecological planning andbuilding: Experiences in new housing and in therenewal of existing housing quarters in Europeancountries, Dietrich Reiner, Berlin.Le Grange, L and Robins, S (1997). Wetton /Landsdowne Road corridor area: The identification ofculturally significant places and opportunities,prepared for the City Planner’s Department, CentralSubstructure, Cape Town.Lee, R G (1972). The social definition of outdoorrecreation places. In Burch, B (ed), Social behaviors,natural resources and the environment, pp 68-84.Harper & Row, New York.Leggett, S (1977). Planning flexible learning places,McGraw-Hill, USA.Lofland, L (1984). Women and urban public space,Women and Environments, Vol 6.Matthews, M H and Vujakovic, P (1995). Private worldsand public spaces: Mapping the environmental valuesof wheelchairs users, Environment and Planning A, Vol27, No 7, July.Monchaux, S (1981). Planning with children in mind: anotebook for local planners and policy makers, NewSouth Wales Department of Environment andPlanning, Sydney.Soft open spaces Chapter 5.417


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNMoore, R C, Goltsman, S and Iacofano, D (1987).Planning, design and management of outdoor settingsfor all children, MIG, Berkeley.Nguta, F (1992). Khayelitsha residents’ opinion on theneed for natural open space and the future ofdriftsands as a multi-use area, National BotanicalInstitute, Kirstenbosch, Cape Town.Ninham Shand in association with MLH, Oberholzer, B(1993). Constantia valley riverine open space study.Phase 2: Spaanschemat, Grootboschkloof andPrinskasteel Rivers. Local Council of the ConstantiaValley, October.People Opposing Women Abuse (1997). Rape inJohannesburg; The results of an ongoing surveillanceproject (Press Release). POWA, Johannesburg.SABS 0246:1993. Code of practice for accessibility ofbuildings to disabled persons. South African Bureau ofStandards, Pretoria.Schnebli, D (1972). Environments for children, in KepesG (ed), Arts and the Environment. Braziller, New York.Spirn, A W (1986) The granite garden: Urban natureand human design. Basic Books, New York.Urban Problems Research Unit (1996). Principles andguidelines for local public outdoor space provision.Phase 1 Project Report. Environmental Planning Unit,Town Planning Branch, City Planner’s Department,Cape Town.Urban Problems Research Unit (1998). Soft openspaces. Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR.Pretoria.Valentine, G (1990). Women’s fear and the design ofpublic space, Built Environment, Vol 16, No 4.Van den Berg, O and Vergnani, T (1986). Providingservices for pre-school children in South Africa. Reportof an investigation conducted on behalf of theSouthern African Association for early ChildhoodEducation. University of the Western Cape.Weinstein, C S and Davis, T (eds) (1987). Spaces forchildren: The built environment and childdevelopment. Plenum, New York.Wilkinson, F (ed) (1980). Innovation in playenvironments. Croom Helm, London.Wright, P H (1996). Highway Engineering. 6th Edition,John Wiley, New York.Underwood, R T (1991). The geometric design of roads.Macmillan, Melbourne.18Chapter 5.4Soft open spaces


Chapter 5.5Public facilities5.5


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSTHE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF PUBLIC FACILITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1TYPES OF PUBLIC FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Functional categories of public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Relationships between public facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3QUALITATIVE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6The principle of reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6The principle of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6The principle of discontinuity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6The principle of externalisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6The principle of hierarchical concentration along major routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7The principle of hierarchical association of public space and public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Determine the nature of the residential settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Prepare an inventory of existing public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Prepare a profile of the target population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Public facilities Chapter 5.5i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.5.1 Functional categories of public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Table 5.5.2 Compatibility matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Table 5.5.3 Quantitative guidelines - Educational facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Table 5.5.4 Quantitative guidelines - Health facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Table 5.5.5 Quantitative guidelines - Recreational facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Table 5.5.6 Quantitative guidelines - Cultural facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Table 5.5.7 Quantitative guidelines - Administrative facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16LIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.5.1 Relationships between public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.5.2 Educational facility cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5iiChapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTHE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF PUBLICFACILITIESThis sub-chapter gives guidance on the planning ofpublic facilities within residential settlements. Publicfacilities are defined as those basic services whichcannot be supplied directly to the individual dwellingunit and as a result are utilised away from theindividual residential dwelling unit within the publicenvironment. Public facilities satisfy specific individualor community needs - including safety and security,communication, recreation, sport, education, health,public administration, religious, cultural and social.Public facilities, as the name implies, are generallyregarded as the responsibility of government, whethercentral, regional or local, and more often than not areprovided by government institutions. However, publicfacilities are also provided privately, when thegovernment-provided services are perceived to beinadequate.(especially in less mobile communities) through theuse of mobile public facilities - such as clinics, postoffices and public telephones. Through mobilefacilities the ideal of allocating scarce resources,whilst at the same time serving the greatestnumber of people, can be achieved.Functional categories of public facilitiesPublic facilities can also be defined in terms of thefunction that they serve (i.e. education, health,recreation, culture and administration). Table 5.5.1illustrates the hierarchical categories and also indicateswhether the facilities are publicly or privatelyprovided, and the order of the facility.TYPES OF PUBLIC FACILITYPublic facilities can be classed as higher-order, middleorder,lower-order and mobile, depending on the sizeof the area that they serve.• Higher-order public facilities:These facilities generally serve the entire region,metropolitan area or city (e.g. hospitals,universities) and are not provided for in the layoutplanning process for single residential settlements.The location of these public facilities is determinedby analysing the most suitable and accessiblelocation for the greatest number of people.Essentially, these facilities are planned in terms ofan overall development framework.• Middle-order public facilities:These are facilities which serve a number of diverseand different communities (e.g. high schools,clinics). These facilities are essential to individualresidential settlements, but the facilities serve athreshold population which exceeds an individualsettlement, and therefore are supported by anumber of settlements.• Lower-order public facilities:These are facilities which are utilised by a single ora limited number of residential communities (e.g. acréche or pre-primary school) and which aregenerally provided for in the design and layout ofresidential settlements.• Mobile public facilities:These are facilities which move from one locationto another, serving a large number of communities.Many problems with regard to the spatial locationof public facilities are increasingly being solvedPublic facilities Chapter 5.51


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.1: Functional categories of public facilitiesFUNCTIONAL CATEGORY OF PUBLIC FACILITY NATURE OF FACILITY PROVISION: PUBLIC OR PRIVATEEducational facilitiesCréche/nursery school Local/middle order Generally privately providedPrimary school Local/middle order Generally public provided, butmay be privateSecondary school Middle order Generally public provided, butmay be privateTertiary facilities (colleges, technikons Higher order Generally publicly providedand universities)Adult learning centres Middle order Generally public provided, butmay be communalHealth facilitiesMobile clinics Mobile Publicly providedClinics Middle order Publicly and privately providedHospitals Higher order Publicly and privately providedRecreational facilitiesPlaygrounds Lower/middle order Publicly providedSports fields Middle order Publicly providedSports clubs Middle order Usually privately providedSports stadiums Higher order Publicly providedCultural facilitiesLibraries Middle order Publicly providedCommunity centres Lower/middle order Publicly providedReligious centres (churches, Lower/middle order Privately providedsynagogues, mosques, etc.)Administrative facilitiesCemeteries Middle order Publicly providedMagistrate’s court Higher order Publicly provided2Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.1: Functional categories of public facilities (continued)FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY OF PUBLIC FACILITY NATURE OF FACILITY PROVISION: PUBLIC OR PRIVATEAdministrative facilities (continued)Municipal offices/pay points Middle order Publicly providedPost offices Middle order Publicly providedPolice stations Middle order Publicly providedFire stations Middle/higher order Publicly providedOld age homes Middle order Publicly providedChildren’s home Higher order Publicly providedInformation centres Middle order Publicly providedRelationships between public facilitiesTable 5.5.2 is a compatibility matrix which attempts toidentify the degree of compatibility between variouspublic facilities when related to one another. Thedegrees of compatibility are defined below.PupilsCommunityPupils• Compatible: There are interrelationships orlinkages between the facilities and they can belocated close to, or clustered with, one another.• Neutral: There are no obvious linkages orinterrelationships between facilities; their locationtogether would have no benefits or disadvantages.• Incompatible: The facilities are unsuitable to belocated in close proximity or adjoining one anotheras their uses are contradictory.Complex and intricate patterns and relationships existbetween various public facilities. An example ofrelationships and interrelationships between variouspublic facilities is given in Figure 5.5.1.The relationships depicted in the example refer to• individual facilities (e.g. individual school buildingswith their own individual playing or exercise areas);and• shared facilities, including- specialised facilities (e.g. main hall, mainlibrary), and- sport facilities (e.g. swimming pools, tenniscourts).PupilsSchoolSportsgroundSchoolHallWorkshopLibraryCommunitySchoolSportsgroundSchoolPupilsFigure 5.5.1: Relationships between public facilities(Smit and Hennessy 1995)The shared facilities will not exclusively serve theschools but also be accessible to the public.It is these interrelationships that present theopportunity for the clustering of facilities. Essentiallythere are two types of facility cluster:Public facilities Chapter 5.53


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.2:Compatibility matrixFACILITIESEducational facilitiesCreche/Nursery schoolPrimary schoolSecondary schoolTertiary facilitiesAdult learning centresHealth facilitiesMobile clinicsClinicsHospitalsRecreation facilitiesPlaygroundsSports fieldsSports clubsSports stadiumsCultural facilitiesLibrariesCommunity centresReligious centresCemeteriesAdministrative facilitiesMagistrates courtMunicipal officesPost officesPolice stationsFire stationsOld age homeChildren's homeInformation centresKey:CompatibleNeutralIncompatibleFACILITYEducational facilitiesCrech/Nursery schoolPrimary schoolSecondary schoolTertiary facilitiesAdult learning centresHealth facilitiesMobile clinicsClinicsHospitalsRecreational facilitiesPlaygroundsSports fieldsSports fieldsSports stadiumsCultural facilitiesLibrariesCommunity centresReligious centresCemeteriesAdministrative facilitiesMagistrate courtMunicipal officesPost officesPolice stationsFire stationsOld age homeChildren's homeInformation centresMultipurpose facility clustersA multipurpose facility cluster is a multifacetedfacility under one roof or more, which offers a rangeof services such as social services, recreation, health,economic activity, in one location. Multipurposefacility clusters are generally located together withone or the other structural elements of urbansettlements (at a transport stop/interchange, urbansquare, market, sports field, etc).The multipurpose facility cluster concept providesfor a flexible grouping of facilities at an accessiblelocation. Each cluster is essentially a social hub andthe size and number of services provided willdepend on the demand and needs of surroundingliving environments.Multipurpose facility clusters can range frommetropolitan development nodes to local clustersof telephones, bus stops and post boxes.The specific composition of a single facility clusteris dependent upon:• its location relative to the transport network;• its location within the metropolitan area;• the size of the community/(ies) from which itdraws support;• community-identified needs; and• the size of service area for facilities.The advantages of establishing multipurposefacility clusters are outlined below:• convenience, as all services are located in onecentre and people can accomplish a number oftasks within a single journey, which equates tosavings in terms of money, time and effort andhas the net effect of improving quality of life;• a reduction in the cost of providing publicfacilities through the sharing of resources,equipment and land;• exposure for public facilities and encouragement4Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNof their use;• integration of different communities;• a reduction of inequalities in the provision offacilities;• the provision of greater security; and• the offsetting of transport costs.ParkingDramaCommunityart centreMusicSchoolThe hubSchoolGymsCommunityrecreation& phys edFunctional clustersAnother concept which is becoming increasinglypopular in terms of public facility provision is thecreation of functional clusters of facilities. Theconcept applies to all functional categories ofpublic facilities; however, most research hasfocused on educational and related facilities. As aresult, the proposals detailed below referspecifically to education. They could, however, beapplied to other functional categories of publicfacilities.Current thinking proposes to externalise theprovision of educational facilities from within localareas and cluster them together around a hub ofshared specialised facilities. In terms of this concepta number of educational buildings are looselyclustered together with residential and commercialfacilities, around a hub of specialised facilities. Thehub is easily accessible in terms of public transport.The specialised hub is a communal facility that canbe used by the entire community. The schoolplaygrounds and fields are shared among theschools and are also available for use by thecommunity after hours and on weekends.Individual schools within the education cluster canbe enclosed separately if so desired, but the sharedfacilities should be easily accessible to the publicand should be integrated into the builtenvironment. These shared facilities need not bephysically attached to individual schools but shouldalways be easily accessible - not more than a fewminutes’ walk.The functional cluster concept is illustrated inFigure 5.5.2.ParkingSchoolFigure 5.5.2: Educational facility cluster(after Leggett et al 1977)The advantages of clustering functional facilitiesare summarised as follows:• convenience, as all services are located in onecentre;• the sharing of high-cost elements can reducecosts considerably (e.g. specialised facilities likelaboratories and space-extensive facilities likelibraries) ;• exposure for public facilities and theencouragement of their use;• the integration of different communities;• a reduction in inequalities in the provision offacilities;• the offsetting of transport costs;• a cutting down on the amount of land required;• the promotion of full use of buildings;• lower building costs;• lower running costs;SchoolPlayfields• minimum maintenance costs;• a large catchment area, less susceptible tolocalised demographic changes.Public facilities Chapter 5.55


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNQUALITATIVE GUIDELINESThis section involves an elaboration of the principles ofreinforcement, continuity, discontinuity, externalisation,concentration and hierarchical association, as outlinedin Chapter 3. These principles form the basis of urbanstructuring and have vast implications for theorganisation of public facilities.The principle of reinforcement• Public facilities should be located adjacent to publicspaces. The net effect of the association of thesetwo structural elements is that the urban form isstrengthened and defined creating a logicalpattern within the urban settlement which is easilyrecognised by its inhabitants. As a general rule themost important and largest of public facilitiesshould be associated with the largest and mostimportant open spaces.• Public facilities can be used to define hard openpublic spaces and create a sense of definition andenclosure, as well as to improve the security of thepublic open space by providing surveillance fromthe public-facility buildings.• Higher- and middle-order public facilities should belocated in dominant positions relative to openspace and movement systems - especially those thatcater for public transport. This has the effect ofstrengthening their importance and significancefor the community as they become symbolic focalpoints within settlements. This can be achieved byaligning roads to key public facilities (i.e.community centres and religious facilities) to createvistas and enable the associated informal activitiesto spill out into the adjoining open spaces.• Through the reinforcement of these structuralelements, convenience, choice and efficiency inresource use are achieved.• The clustering of a number of public facilitiestogether can lead to intensive utilisation by a largenumber of people, and, through the creation of“load centres” can generate the largest demand forutility services. Clusters of public facilities cantherefore be used to “pull” service mainseconomically through a settlement, with thefacilities - and the public spaces they abut -accommodating a range of services often notsupplied to single residential erven.The principle of continuity• Soft open spaces should be linked togetherthroughout settlement systems in order to form acontinuous web of recreation space leading throughthe built environment. Public facilities can beclustered adjacent to these open spaces, which canthen be accessed by defined pedestrian paths leadingthrough the open space system. In addition, theopen space can serve a dual purpose in that it canprovide recreational playgrounds and sportsfields forclusters of schools and the community.• A diverse and continuous network ofmultifunctional open and flexible movementroutes should weave through settlement systemsand connect public facilities. The placement ofpublic facilities at regular and convenient intervalsalong these routes will ensure that they are easilyaccessible by all modes of movement.• Those public facilities which serve numerouscommunities or the region as a whole will need tobe located along major transport routes, whichform part of the public transport systems andwhich are punctuated by public transport stops atfrequent intervals. This will ensure that publicfacilities are easily accessible to all sectors of thepopulation. The location of public facilities alongthese routes will provide exposure of the facilitiesto the greatest number of people, therebyencouraging their use.The principle of discontinuity• Higher-order and middle-order public facilitiesshould be located on stop-start activity streets, inorder to create thresholds high enough to supportfacilities and also ensure that the people can gaindirect and easy access to facilities.• Public spaces (public facilities and open spaces) canbe used as mechanisms to create areas of intenseactivity and tranquil settings, thereby creating arange of spaces from very public through to veryprivate. These provide for variation within theurban fabric and add interest and diversity tosettlements.The principle of externalisation• Public facilities should be placed in positions ofmaximum exposure along major transportationroutes. The exposure of these facilities enablescomplex patterns of facility use between differentneighbourhoods and serves to integrate ratherthan isolate residential neighbourhoods.• The clustering and sharing of facilities is not onlymore efficient but can also have a positive impacton development and result in increasing privateinvestment, as it creates potential sites for localbusiness and generates more concentrated activityand travel patterns.• Public facilities that are functionally related can belocated in clusters outside predominantlyresidential areas, to allow for resource-sharing and6Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNthe multifunctional use of buildings and space,thereby creating efficiency in layout plans byreducing the amount of space required for thefacilities - reducing costs and reducing the numberof trips required to access certain public facilities.• If facility provision is integrated with publictransport, and several facilities are locatedtogether in one place which is easily reached by caror foot, this will:- provide convenience as the number of trips isreduced;- save resources as different services can sharespace;- transmit signals for future investment;- provide advantages in terms of the efficientprovision and operation of public transport;and- provide advantages for utility-servicesreticulation.The principle of hierarchicalconcentration along major routesPublic facilities serve different purposes and thereforethe location of a public facility will depend on thespecific function that it performs. One needs toevaluate what purpose and function the facility willserve and then decide on the best location. Behrensand Watson (1996) define the following five categoriesof public facility on the basis of locational requirement:• Public facilities that distribute emergency vehicles(ambulances, fire engines, etc) should be locatedon higher-order multifunctional routes thatintersect with regional or primary distributors.• Public facilities that need to be visible andaccessible to the greatest number of people requireeasy access to public transport stops andinterchanges and high levels of exposure to moreintense activity routes (i.e. libraries, communitycentres, post offices etc).• Public facilities that need to be visible andaccessible to the greatest number of people, butlocated in a safe, quiet environment require easyaccess to public transportation stops andinterchanges, but should be locate a block or twoback from intense activity routes (i.e. primary andsecondary schools, day-hospitals and clinics).• Public facilities that need to be accessible topedestrians and that need safe and quietsurroundings should be located within theresidential area within walking distance of theresidents homes (i.e. créches and churches).• Public facilities that need to be as visible and asaccessible to pedestrians as possible should belocated within walking distance of the userhousehold on busier road intersections.The principle of hierarchical associationof public space and public facilities• The main focusing elements of integrated land-useenvironments are public facilities, as they are thecollective communal gathering places for thesurrounding population.• Public facilities that are provided for in settlementscan be divided into two categories - those thatserve a single group or community (homogeneousfacilities) and those that serve multiplecommunities (heterogeneous facilities):- Homogeneous facilities are very local in natureand are generally found within residentialsettlements and serve a particular community(i.e. a church or créche);- Heterogeneous facilities, on the other hand,serve a variety of different groups and are morepublic in nature. These tend to be found inlocations that are accessible to the greatestnumber of people. The location of these publicfacilities should be closely linked to thetransport system (especially public transport).• The clustering of public facilities will result in theformation of facility clusters, ranging frommetropolitan development nodes to local clusters.The hierarchy of such centres is closely liked to theirlocation and accessibility, with the higher-ordercentres being located at points of maximumaccessibility (i.e. intersection of major transportroutes).PROCEDURAL GUIDELINESWhen planning for public facilities for residentialsettlements it is necessary to analyse the site andtarget population in order to determine the type ofpublic facilities required for a specific development.The following procedures should be undertaken inorder to determine what facilities are required.Determine the nature of the residentialsettlementBefore any planning is done, one needs to determinewhat type of development is being planned and in thisregard it is important to distinguish between“greenfield” sites and “infill” sites.Public facilities Chapter 5.57


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• Greenfield sites are large vacant tracts of land andusually involve the provision of a large number ofnew housing units; as a result these sites willrequire a number of new public facilities to servethe needs of the future residents.• Infill sites generally involve filling up the vacantland in and around existing settlements; in thesecases there are usually facilities in close proximityand the development tends to be small in nature.Therefore the planning of public facilities for differentforms of settlement will vary.Prepare an inventory of existing publicfacilitiesIn order to determine what facilities are required bythe target community, one needs to evaluate whatfacilities exist in the surrounding areas, whether thesefacilities are operating at full capacity, and whetherthey will be adequate to serve the needs of theproposed new living environment.One will need to create a public facilities plan showingthe existing and proposed public facilities in the area.This will give an indication of what is available andwhat is over- and underutilised, by providing anindication of what is required within the new livingenvironment.The creation of an inventory applies not only to thelower and middle-order facilities, but also to thehigher-order and mobile facilities as, if they provide agood service and are easily accessible (especially bypublic transportation), these will be utilised bycommunities.Prepare a profile of the targetpopulationIt is necessary to have a complete profile of thepopulation for which the public facilities are intended,in order to determine what facilities that communityrequires. An incomplete population profile can resultin facilities which are inappropriate (i.e. the provisionof a créche in an area where the population is ageing).One needs to determine the following:• Age and gender profile (gender ratios, householdage structure and size).One needs to determine what age group andgender one will be serving, in order to determinewhat types of facility will be required (i.e. anageing population will require access to healthfacilities, as opposed to educational facilities).• Income profile (household expenditure andincome).The income and various areas of incomeexpenditure of the target group for which thepublic facility is intended need to be determined inorder to establish whether the community canafford the public facility and whether it isappropriate.• The level of public facility provided.This needs to accord with what the community canafford and must be prioritised by the communityitself, in order to ensure that limited financialresources are converted into services that arerequired and which will be well utilised by thecommunity.• Cultural profile.The mix of population in a given area is likely todetermine what public facilities are required. Thesocial structure will ultimately shape the demand forpublic facilities, eliminating the need for some, andplacing greater emphasis on the need for others.• Discuss community priorities.In some instances the target community hasalready been identified and their needs and wantsin terms of public facilities can be determinedthrough public participation and survey. This willgive a clear idea of what a particular communityrequires in terms of public facilities. Where a targetcommunity does not exist, one can analyse similarsurrounding communities in order to determinewhat types of public facilities are needed.QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINESIn the past, public facilities were provided through theapplication of a set of standards relating to theprovision of different types of public facility. Thesetended to be rigid and inflexible and, as a result, it wasdecided instead to provide a set of guidelines for theprovision of public facilities (see Table 5.5.3 - 5.5.7). Asthe name implies, these are meant to guide theplanning of public facilities and cannot be applieduniformly across the board. The context must beevaluated and the guidelines adapted to suit thespecific situation at hand.International comparisons indicate that publicfacilities and amenities should together generally takeup between 15% and 25% of land in a development(Behrens and Watson 1996). Of this combinedamount, ± 33% should be taken up by public facilities,and ± 66% taken up by public open spaces. An idealbreakdown of private (i.e. housing, commerce andindustry), and semi-public (i.e. roadways andfootways) use of land is in the region of 50-60%private, 15-25% semi-public and 15-20% public. Thefollowing tables provide guidelines in respect oflocation, access, size and dimensions and thresholds.8Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.3:Quantitative guidelines - Educational facilitiesFacility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsCréche/nurseryschoolThese arecommunity-specificfacilities whichshould be withinwalking distance ofresidential units.Facilities can beclustered with preprimaryschools,primary schools,community centres,etc. (This does,however, result inthe externalisationof facilities beyondindividualresidentialsettlements).Should be accessibleby pedestrianpathways withouthaving to crossmajor streets.Where streets arecrossed these shouldbe minor streets.Maximum traveltime: 10 minutes(whether by foot orvehicle).A maximumwalking distance of750 m.Minimum size forfacility: 130 m 2• 50 m 2 per 45children served.• Minimum areaper playlot: 20 -30 m 2 .• One third of thetotal area shouldbe used forcirculation,administrativeand ancillaryuses.Estimatedminimumpopulation:5 000.Public facilities Chapter 5.59


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.3:Quantitative guidelines - Educational facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsPrimary schoolShould be locatedwithin easy reach ofthe local areaswhich it is intendedto serve. As a resultit needs to belocated close to, butnot necessarilyalong, a publictransport route.Primary schools canbe combined with anumber of otherfacilities to form acluster (i.e. a highschool, communityhall, playground,park, etc).Should ideally beaccessible by foot,bicycle and vehicle.Maximum traveltime: 20 minutes(whether by foot,bicycle or byvehicle).Maximum walkingdistance: 1,5 km.Buildings andrecreational spaceare the twocomponents of aschool whichphysically occupythe site.The minimum sizeof a primaryschool site isestimated at2,4 ha and ismade up asfollows:Buildings: 1,4 haRecreationalspace: 1 ha.Estimatedminimumpopulation: 3 000- 4 000.If exact numbersare known, onecan do acalculation basedon the following:• 40 pupils perclassroom and50 m 2 perclassroom.• One third of thearea forcirculation,administrativeand ancillaryuses.• Recreationalarea: 1 ha(playing fields).10Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.3:Quantitative guidelines - Educational facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsHigh schoolSchool should besituated on amajor transportroute with publictransport stops.Maximum traveltime: 30minutes.Maximumwalking distance:2,25 km.The minimumsize of a highschool isestimated at 4,6ha and is madeup as follows:Buildings: 2,6 haRecreationalspace: 2 ha.Estimatedminimumpopulation: 6 000- 10 000.If exact numbersare known thenone can do acalculation basedon the following:• 40 pupils perclassroom and 50m 2 per classroom.• One third of thearea forcirculation,administrativeand ancillaryuses.• The recreationalarea can becalculatedaccording to thetype of sports tobe offered - referSub-chapter 5.5,Table 5.4.3, forthe dimensionsof sportsfields.Tertiary facilitiesRegional facilitieslocated alongmajor transportroutes withpublic transportstops.Regional scale of facility means that it would be planned for interms of a development framework and not when designingspecific living environments.Public facilities Chapter 5.511


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.3:Quantitative guidelines - Educational facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsAdult learningcentresAdult learning centres are not usually provided as stand-alone facilities and generally“double up” with some other form of facility (i.e. a community centre, hall, school etc).No figures have therefore been given as the most efficient provision is through doublingup where existing space is adapted for adult learning classes.Table 5.5.4:Quantitative guidelines - Health facilitiesFacility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsMobile clinicMobile facilitieswhich move fromcommunity tocommunity -therefore there isno fixed location.Must be accessibleby foot.Maximum walkingdistance: 1 km.These are selfcontainedunits.Space is, however,required to parkand operate theclinic: this can bedone from a localpark, communitycentre, church, etc.A mobile facilitywill serve apopulation of about5 000 people.12Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.4:Quantitative guidelines - Health facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsClinicClinics should beaccessible to thegreatest number ofpeople and as suchshould be locatedclose to publictransport stops.The facility neednot be locatedalong a major routeand can be locateda block or two back,in quietersurroundings.Maximum walkingdistance: 2 km.Where it is notpossible for thefacility to be placedwithin walkingdistance, it must beeasily reached viapublic transport,with a maximumwalk of 5 minutesfrom the publictransport stop tothe facility.Maximum traveltime of 30 minutesto reach the facility.The size of the clinicwill vary accordingto the number ofpeople the clinicwill serve - the morepeople the greaternumber of servicesrequired, and as aresult the larger thefacility.The followingguidelines aresuggested:• 0,1 ha per 5 000people• 0,2 ha per10 000 peopleAn estimatedminimum of 5 000people.• 0,5 ha per20 000 people• 1 ha per 40 000people• 1,5 ha per 60 -80 000 people.HospitalsThese are regionalfacilities, whichmust be locatedalong majortransport routes inclose proximity topublic transportstops.Regional scale of facility means that they would be plannedfor in terms of a development framework and not whendesigning specific living environments.Public facilities Chapter 5.513


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.5:Quantitative guidelines - Recreational facilitiesFacility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsPlaygroundsSportsfieldsSports clubsSee Sub-chapter 5.4 Table 5.4.3These are generally privately provided and therefore fall beyond the scope of thisdocument.Sports stadiumsRegional facilities,located along majortransportationroutes in closeproximity to publictransportationstops.Regional scale of facility means that they would be planned forin terms of a development framework and not when designingspecific living environments.Table 5.5.6:Quantitative guidelines - Cultural facilitiesFacility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsLibrariesShould be easilyaccessible,preferably on mainthoroughfareconvenient to maintraffic andtransportationroutes.Libraries can becombined with anumber of otherfacilities to form aconvenient clusteri.e. schools,community centres,etc.Libraries should bewithin walkingdistance of thecommunities theyare to serve.Walking distance:1,5 km - 2,25 km.Where it is notpossible to providethe facility withinwalking distance, itshould be within 5minutes walkingdistance of a publictransport stop.Maximum traveltime: 20 - 30minutes.Libraries require aminimum of twobooks per capitaand the size of thelibrary will dependupon thepopulation beingserved.The suggestedminimum size is130 m 2 .Libraries can servepopulations of5 000 - 50 000.14Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.6:Quantitative guidelines - Cultural facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsCommunitycentresA community centreprovides a varietyof services to anumber ofresidentialcommunities and, assuch, it should beeasily accessible tothese communities,preferably on amain thoroughfarein close proximity topublic transportstops.Where possible,community centresshould be withinwalking distance.The suggesteddistance is 1,5 km -2,25 km. Where itis not possible toprovide the facilitywithin walkingdistance it shouldbe within 5 minuteswalking distance ofa public transportstop.The estimatedminimum size is5 000 m 2 .This may varyaccording to theamount of sharingundertaken withother publicfacilities such asparks, libraries,playgrounds, andschools.A minimumpopulation of about10 000 people.A maximum traveltime of 20 - 30minutes isrecommended.Religious centres(churches,synagogues,mosques, etc)The location willgenerally dependon the communitybeing served andthe existingfacilities in the areasurrounding thesite.Churches can beclustered with otherpublic facilities suchas playgrounds,community centres,halls, etc, in orderto promotemultifunctionality.Churches aregenerallycommunity facilitiesand should belocated withinwalking distance formembers.Maximum walkingdistance: 1,5 km.The maximumtravel time by footor public transportor vehicle: 20minutes.There is no commonuniform agreementas to the adequatesize of a church site.The size will dependon the facilitiesprovided (i.e. ifthere is a religiousschool attached, thesite will be muchlarger).A site can thereforerange from 150 m 2 -3 000 m 2 .It is estimated thatapproximately2 000 people arerequired to supporta single church.CemeteriesCemeteries are generally not considered as a land use which is compatible withresidential land use and, as a result, they are not dealt with in this document.Public facilities Chapter 5.515


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.7:Quantitative guidelines - Administrative facilitiesFacility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsMagistrates courtThis is a provincial facility and courts are planned and provided for by the provincialadministration.Municipaloffices/pay pointsThese facilitiesrequire high levelsof exposure andmust be easilyaccessible by publictransport.Should be accessibleby public transport.Maximum traveltime: 30 minutes.The minimum sizefor municipaloffices is3 000 m 2 .A minimumpopulation of50 000 people.Post officesPost officesgenerally serve anumber ofcommunities and, asa result, need to bevisible andaccessible to thesurroundingpopulation. As such,they should belocated alongactivity routeswithin easy walkingdistance of publictransport stops.Where possible,communities shouldbe able to accessthe post office onfoot - the maximumwalking distance is2 km.The maximumtravel time perfoot/vehicle: 30 - 40minutes.These havegenerally movedinto commercialshopping nodesand, as such, therental will be adetermining factorwhen deciding on aminimum size.The minimumrecommended sizeis 500 m 2 .Estimated minimumpopulation:11 000 people.Police stationsCommunity policestations should belocated central toall the communitieswhich they arerequired to serveand should be on amain thoroughfare- so that emergencyvehicles can beeasily dispatched toadjoiningcommunities.Where possible,people should beable to access theircommunity policestation on foot - awalking distance of1,5 km isrecommended.Maximum traveltime: 20 minutes.Varies between0,1 ha - 1 ha,depending on thetype of facilityprovided.Estimated minimumpopulation:25 000.16Chapter 5.5Public facilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.5.7:Quantitative guidelines - Administrative facilities (continued)Facility Location Access Size and Use capacitiesdimensions and thresholdsFire stationsFire stationsdistributeemergency vehiclesto the area and as aresult, they shouldbe located onhigher-ordermultifunctionalroutes that intersectwith primary orregionaldistributors.Fire stations are ahigher-order facility- not generallyplanned for withina residentialcommunity nor onethat residentswould requireaccess to on aregular basis.Average erf size:1,2 ha.Estimated minimumpopulation: 60 000people.Old age homeOld age homes are generally provided by the private sector, based on need anddemand, and are therefore not dealt with in this guideline.Children’s homeThis is a regionalfacility and wouldbe provided interms of adevelopmentframework basedon statisticsregarding homelesschildren.Not applicable tothe planning ofresidentialsettlements.Average erf size:2 ha.One children’shome is requiredper 200 000 people.CommunityinformationcentresThese are aimed atprovidinginformation tocommunities on thevarious services andactivities availableto them. Theyshould be easilyaccessible, andvisible to as manypeople as possible.They would belocated on busierroad intersections.They should bewithin 1 kmwalking distance ofresidents or easilyaccessible by somemeans of publictransport with amaximum journeytime of 15 minutes.The size of thefacility will dependupon fundsavailable but thebuilding need notbe bigger than100 m 2 .Estimated minimumpopulation:22 000 people.Public facilities Chapter 5.517


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAmerican Public Health Association (1960). Planningthe neighbourhood. Public Administration, USA.Association for Consulting Town and Regional Planners(1994). Ruimtelike riglyne vir uitlegbeplanning virmiddel- en lae inkomstebehuising. TPA, Pretoria.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1996). Making urban places- Principles and guidelines for layout planning. UCT,Cape Town.CSIR, Division of Building Technology (1995).Atteridgeville Centre for the Disabled. CSIR, Pretoria.CSIR, Division of Building Technology (1994). StanzaBopape Health & Community Centre. CSIR, Pretoria.CSIR, Division of Building Technology (1995). Guidelinesfor the provision of engineering services and amenitiesin residential townships. CSIR, Pretoria.DeChiara, J and Koppelman, L (1975). Urban Planningand Design Criteria. Van Nostrand Reinhold.Devas, N and Rakodi, C (eds) (1993). Managing fastgrowing cities. Longman, Singapore.Gauteng Department of Education (1996). Norms andguidelines for reservation of school erven. GautengProvincial Administration. Johannesburg.Green, C and Hennessy, K (1996). Joint Efficienciesassociated with the clustering of school and associatedfacilities in a high-density activity corridor. CSIR,Pretoria.Hack, G and Lynch, K (1984). Site Planning Good CityForm. MIT.Jackle, J A, Brunn, S and Roseman, C C (1976). Humanspatial behaviours: A social geography. Duxburg.Leggett, S, Brubaker, C W, Cohodes, A and Shapiro, A S(1977). Planning flexible learning places. McGraw-Hill.Lynch, K (1981). Good city form. MIT.Massam, B H (1980). Spatial search. Permagon.Nation, S (1996). Interim report: Guidelines onCommunity learning centres. CSIR, Pretoria.Nation, S (1996). Research report: Survey ofAtteridgeville schools. CSIR, Pretoria.Roth, G (1987). The private provision of public servicesin developing countries. Oxford University.Smit, W and Hennessy, K (1995). Taking South Africaneducation out of the ghetto: An urban planningperspective. UCT Press and Buchu Books, Cape Town.South Africa: Department of Transport (1996). Shorttomedium-term accessibility improvement strategiesfor low-income areas. DoT, Pretoria.Suid-Afrika, Departement van Samewerking enOntwikkeling (1985). Ruimtelike Standaarde virUitlegbeplanning. Departement van Samewerking enOntwikkeling. DSA, Pretoria.Turner, A (ed) (1980). Cities of the poor. (Chapter byAlan Turner on Planning and Development Standards.)Croom Helm. London.Van der Schyff, Baylis, Gericke & Druce (1998). Publicfacilities. Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR,Pretoria.18Chapter 5.5Public facilities


Chapter 5.6Land subdivisionK25.6


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR LAND SUBDIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Allow for density and diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Consider the range of housing types required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Consider the site context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Accommodate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Enhance the use of resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Block size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Land utilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Erven size and arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Generic block subdivision options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Land subdivision Chapter 5.6i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.6.1 Diversity created by different lot sizes and shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 5.6.2 Conceptual diagram depicting the grid layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.6.3 Conceptual diagram depicting the loop subdivision layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.6.4 Conceptual diagram depicting the cul-de-sac subdivision layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.6.5 Conceptual diagram depicting the woonerf subdivision layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Figure 5.6.6 Conceptual diagram depicting the cluster subdivision layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Figure 5.6.7 Optimising service infrastructure through erf layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9iiChapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONOne of the most basic design decisions facingsettlement planners, is how the land will be dividedand used to provide for new development. Factorsthat influence this decision include the physicalconditions of the site, market forces, surroundingpatterns of development, and regulatory limitations.The size of the site also often influences developmentoptions; large parcels of several hectares can offermany opportunities for creative and diverse landplans, while small sites usually offer a more limitednumber of possibilities.More formally, a subdivision could be defined as thedivision of any improved or unimproved land for thepurposes of sale, lease, or financing. For this reasonlegal processes have been established to ensure thefollowing:• proper registration and title for individual parcelsof land;• accurate identification of land by way of survey;• establishment of rights to tenure and occupation;• security for financing/cost recovery;• identification of boundaries for development;• a formal procedure of conducting subdivision; and• allowance for taxation.The abovementioned are achieved throughapplication of various forms of legislation such as theProvincial Ordinances, Deeds Registry Act, LandSurvey Act, and more recently the DevelopmentFacilitation Act.In simplified terms, the role of subdivision in thiscontext is as follows:• to identify public versus private land;• to create portions of land (erven) which suit thepurposes for which they are intended (i.e.industrial versus residential versus open spaceversus undeveloped land etc);• to establish a vehicle for implementation of policyor overall planning philosophy; and• to identify land which is unusable for settlementpurposes either as a result of physical ortopographic limitations.QUALITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR LANDSUBDIVISIONAllow for density and diversity• Encourage higher densities at strategic points (likepublic transport stops and adjacent to higheramenity areas such as parks), and along significantpublic transport routes. The higher densities wouldprovide the economies of scale to support thefacilities and/or transport service. This could beachieved by providing for smaller lots, and lotscapable of supporting higher density developmentat these positions and along these routes in thesettlement.• Larger land uses like sport stadiums, large “green”spaces, industrial and large commercial sites shouldoccur at the edges of districts where they do notdisrupt the fine-grain mix of uses. There, they canbe “shared” by a number of districts.• A diversity of stand sizes should be provided toaccommodate a range of activities but thefollowing points should be kept in mind:- the need for business and home-basedenterprises to locate in close proximity toconcentrations of economic activities (takingadvantage of agglomeration economics) andalong arterial routes (to ensure optimal accessand exposure);- the ability of land-uses and building forms toact as noise buffers to external noise sourcessuch as major roads, railways or industries;- the capacity of potential mixed-use lots, initiallydeveloped for housing, to efficiently convert toor add a business use; and- opportunities to allocate highly accessiblestrategic sites on transport routes to larger scaleindustrial or distribution uses.It is therefore necessary to try to attain the highestresidential densities and greater mix of land use alongmajor connection streets and in close proximity tocommercial concentrations.Land subdivision Chapter 5.61


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNConsider the range of housing typesrequiredSouth Africa’s human settlements portray a range ofdelivery systems and a variety of ways in whichcommunities participate in the housing process. Theculmination of these lead to a wide variety of housingtypes. Housing types differ in terms of materials,permanence, design, internal and external finishes,size and density, layout on the site and in relation toeach other, number of stories and functions. There arealso certain house types geared specifically towardsthe rental market and others which are for privateownership. The determination of house type isdependent on:• residents or households, understood within theirsocietal context and described in terms of suchqualities as age, gender, opinions, beliefs and skillsof members;• the dwelling and how it is used by householdmembers;• existential context or setting of the householdwhich includes relations with various socialgroupings, including family groups,neighbourhood groupings, labour associations;wider political and economic conditions of thesociety; and a household’s material conditions,including qualities of site and climate and thehouseholds access to resources; and• the individual dwelling within the broadersettlement, with qualities of form, substance,function, meaning and locality.• It is therefore necessary to provide a range ofresidential lot sizes to suit the variety of dwellingand household types within the area, anddimensions that meet user requirements. A varietyof both lot sizes and housing types throughoutsettlements facilitate housing diversity and choiceand meet the projected requirements of peoplewith different housing needs. Figure 5.6.1 is arepresentation of a layout that achieves a diversityof lot sizes and shapes.Figure 5.6.1: Diversity created by different lot sizesand shapesConsider the site contextIt is important to keep in mind that land subdivisiondoes not occur in a vacuum but is largely influenced bythe surrounding natural features as well as the existingadjacent settlement structure. The success of a site’ssubdivision in achieving a distinct identity and “senseof place” can be measured in terms of how well thedesign relates to the specific site and its wider urbancontext. The context and site analysis are thereforecrucial means through which the design will achievethese outcomes, and will also identify any featuresthat will add value to a development by accentuatingits “uniqueness” or “character”.The purpose of context analysis is to ensure that newsubdivision and development is connected to, andintegrated with, surrounding natural and developedareas, including planned and committed developmentfor adjacent sites. The site analysis will ensure that sitefeatures (natural and cultural assets) and constraints(including noise, soil erosion, poor drainage, salinesoils and fire risk) inform the layout decisions toenhance local identity.Natural featuresThe land form and its features on which asettlement is developed, are the foremostdeterminants of that settlement’s form. Inconsidering the landscape, we are seeking itscharacter. The prominent features of thelandscape (ranges of hills on the horizon, plateaus)can be employed actively as sites or passively asvistas. They can be used as major vista objectivesfrom points within the city or as special sites forbuildings. Some are better left in their naturalstate.2Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTopographyLand subdivision should aim to accentuate diversityin land form, and the topography of the site is themost important structural element to start with.Topography is a major determinant of a site planbecause topography influences the type and cost ofdevelopment, controls the direction and rate ofwater runoff, adds variety to the landscape,influences the weather and climate, and affects thetype of vegetation and wildlife. High costs relatingto grading and site improvements are associatedwith hillside sites. From an environmentalperspective, as the slope increases, erf sizes shouldalso increase to prevent excessive run-off. Wherethe cost of improving lots needs to be kept to aminimum, gently rolling, well-drained land is mostdesirable. Very flat sites present problems of sewerand storm drainage that can raise costs ofimprovement. Flat sites must be sculptured intocontours and elevations that create variety in thesiting of the houses as well as a functioninginfrastructure system (ULI 1990).Soil conditionsIf the soil conditions are good for cultivation thereis a reason for large private plots, allotments orother areas the residents can use for foodproduction. Heaving clays or collapsible sandsoften require costly foundation solutions. In orderto cover these costs and make the development inlower income areas more viable, erf sizes need tobe decreased to provide more cost effectivesolutions.Streams and flood plainsStream patterns need to be taken into account inthe subdivision of a site in order to ensure that thesubdivided land drains effectively. No subdivisionmay take place within the 50-year flood plain ofstreams and rivers, which often results in this landbeing set aside for open space.Plant coverIt is important to retain as much of the existingplant cover as possible during the subdivisionprocess. Established foliage (mature trees) gives an“established” feel to a new development and couldbe preserved in most cases in a land subdivision,with minimal cost implications.FrontageWhenever possible within the subdivision layout,residential erven should be orientated to maximisethe northern aspect. In the case of blocksubdivision of smaller erven, it is preferable toorientate the blocks to run east-west rather thannorth-south as fairly narrow dwelling units withina north-south block configuration tend to overshadowone another. However, in some instances(e.g. KwaZulu-Natal) it is not always possible ornecessary to have erven subdivided in order tomaximise the northern aspect.WindChanges in wind direction during the variousseasons can be utilised within subdivision layout toassist, to a limited degree, with creating a moredesirable micro-climate within the settlement. It isoften to the overall settlement advantage if blocksubdivision can be orientated to allow cool summerbreezes to move through the settlement whilewinter winds are diverted. The influence of windson the settlement pattern can be seen to beparticularly important in the coastal regions whichtend to be more susceptible to wind patterns.Micro-climates should also be taken into accountwith particular reference to land sea breezes andanabatic and katabatic winds which couldinfluence the micro-climate.NoiseA site constraint that has a profound impact on thequality of place of a settlement and which can berectified by layout and land-use planning is noisepollution. Effective noise buffering can beachieved where settlements - abutting externalnoise-sources such as arterial routes, railways orindustries - provide lots capable ofaccommodating:• non-residential uses which provide a shield toresidential uses behind;• home-business uses with the workplaceproviding the buffer; and/or• dwelling layouts which locate the more noisesensitiverooms away and protected from thenoise source (see also Ecologically sound urbandevelopment, Sub-chapter 5.8.2).Cultural featuresNo population group or community is completelyhomogeneous, but different people have varyingneeds, preferences, aspirations, tastes andexpectations. The relevant characteristics, needsand constraints of the community or anticipatedtarget market are crucial informants that shouldguide land subdivision - especially with regard tolevels of affordability (income profile) andcommunity and individual preferences (e.g. itshould be determined whether provision must bemade for agricultural activities, whether there willbe need for large communal stands, etc). A furtherLand subdivision Chapter 5.63


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNexample could be if the community tends to livewithin an extended family structure, larger ervenwould need to be created to allow for theincremental development of the dwelling unit.Whether the community is highly mobile or not isan additional feature which would result inalternative subdivision layout patterns.An aspect that needs consideration in this regard isthat of social networks. These networks should bereflected in the planning layout in order toincrease the complexity and enrich the physicalplan. The subdivision of an area into blocks,streets, courtyards and houses, should becoordinated with the size and organisation ofcommunities, street committees and other groupswith common interests. A strong connectionbetween such groups and the plan couldencourage residents’ own initiatives and influencethem to take more responsibility for their livingenvironment (Hifab 1998).Accommodate changeFor settlements to be flexible over time, the layoutmust be able to accommodate mixed and changingland uses. It is therefore important to ensure that areasonable variety of house types is attainable, inorder to ensure adaptability over time. It is alsonecessary to plan for future/expected developmentsthat will impact on the settlement like a major urbancentre or railway station. In these cases, lotdimensions and development should be designed tofacilitate future intensification.When undertaking land subdivision one needs toprovide a certain number of larger erven toaccommodate various public facilities. In the past thesefacilities were usually located in a centralised positionwithin the residential precincts. These facilities, due totheir location, are unable to cater for changingcommunity needs as they serve a limited range of users.If those users’ needs change, the facility could becomeobsolete. If, however, the erven that are toaccommodate community facilities are located alongroutes of high accessibility, the facilities’ catchmentarea increases and is also more diverse, and the chancesof its sustainability over time therefore increases.Enhance the effective use of resourcesTo enhance the land and energy resource efficiency ofa layout the following design factors should beconsidered:• maximise the number of solar-oriented lots;• maximise the number of lots;• minimise the slope of roadways and lots; and• minimise total costs for on-site infrastructure.QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINESBlock sizeThe geometry of the block and the size andrelationship between blocks is a basic determinant ofurban form. While it does have inherent flexibility ofarrangement and use, it is also the source of greatdifficulty where urban accent is needed. A block canbe too long or too short - too long to provide rhythmicrelief and lateral access, and too short to allowsubstantial development. The size of blocks will beinfluenced by the expected nature and mix of land-useactivity on the site and the attempt to optimiseefficiencies in terms of pedestrian and vehicularmovement.The subdivision of settlements into a specific blocktype has an impact on the movement and circulationsystems within the settlement. The large scaleproduction of motor vehicles has also resulted in thedevelopment of superblocks which allowed for areduction in the number of intersections to facilitateoptimum traffic movement along the length of theblocks, while at the same time reducing traffic flowsthrough the residential precincts. The standardapplication of the superblock layout to the majority ofresidential settlement layouts has proven problematicin areas of low car ownership, as the superblock hasbeen found to constrain pedestrian movement.In areas of low car ownership, fairly short blocks ofapproximately 100 m in length are most appropriate.As the block length decreases, the number of throughconnection increase for pedestrian movement. On theother hand, shorter block lengths imply that morestreet area needs to be constructed, which in turnincreases the costs and also results in fewer ervenbeing provided with a resultant loss in gross density.Block widths have not been found to exhibit the sameproblems as block lengths, as the maximum widths ofblocks usually does not exceed 60 m in length. Aconsideration in establishing appropriate block widthsis safe road intersection spacings. It has, however,been identified that intervals of between 30 to 40 mare necessary, in order to provide for adequate drivervisibility and safe clearance (Behrens and Watson1996).The scaling down of large blocks could be beneficial increating a sense of belonging, especially for children.In a low-income development like Joe Slovo Village inPort Elizabeth (Hifab 1998), micro-community units of10 to 20 people make their own plot cluster layouts.The bigger the group, the larger the combinedresources which can be used for the common activities.Smaller groups might work more easily together. InJoe Slovo Village, 12 families are found to be a suitablenumber to form a micro-community around a commonspace. The group decides on the layout and how to4Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNuse the central space, e.g. as a park, a playground, orfor gardening, etc.Land utilisationIn order to assess the efficiency of land utilisationwithin the proposed block subdivision, Behrens andWatson (1996) have identified the following methodsto access layout efficiency:• Network length: area ratioThis ratio measures the length of road network inrelation to the area served. In general, the lowerthe value of the ratio the more efficient thenetwork. A suggested target value is 150 - 230m/ha.• Network length: dwelling unit ratioThis ratio measures the length of road networkrelative to the number of dwellings within agiven area. In general, the lower the value ofthe ratio the more efficient the network. Thearea and dwelling unit ratios need to beconsidered in conjunction, because narrowererven in a two erf-deep block, implies a longerroad network for the same erf area. A suggestedtarget value is 5 - 10 m/du.• Frontage: depth ratioThis ratio measures the width of an erf relative tolength. In general, the greater the ratio (i.e. theshorter the erf frontage) the more efficient thelayout. Narrowing erf frontages and reducing plotsizes effectively reduces the network length per erfand increases erf densities. A suggested targetvalue is between 1:5 and 1:3.• Residential densityDensity measures have two interrelatedcomponents. The first is the density of residentialdwellings. Gross residential density expresses thenumber of dwelling units divided by total site area,and net residential density expresses the number ofdwelling units divided by that part of the site takenup by residential use only. The second is thedensity of population, expressed as the number ofpeople divided by the site area. Appropriatedensities are specific to a range of social, economicand environmental factors - with a gross density ofover 50 du/ha likely to be appropriate in mostdeveloping urban areas of South Africa.• Land utilisation indexThe index, or land use budget, identifies theproportional use of land. Land uses areconventionally broken down into residential,commercial, industrial, public facilities, publicamenities and movement. Appropriateproportions of land uses, particularly commercial,industrial and public amenity uses, are contextspecific. However, as a rule of thumb, at the localarea layout scale, residential, commercial andindustrial uses should take up approximately 55%of land, public facilities and amenitiesapproximately 25%, and movement less than 20%.These tools of evaluation may be used to assess thebenefit of the use of various block designs in aproposed subdivision layout. It should, however, becautioned that these indicators should only be used asa guide. The context of the site which is to besubdivided, as well as both the physical and culturalcontext of the site, may result in one form ofsubdivision being preferable to another. This isdespite the land efficiency index indicating that analternative subdivision is preferable from a technicalefficiency perspective.Erven size and arrangementsThe housing type or land use which is to occupy the erfgenerally determines the dimensions and the extent ofthe required erf. Single detached and semi-detacheddwellings usually should have a minimum erf width of8 m while the minimum width of erven for rowhousing is identified by Behrens and Watson (1996) asbeing not less than 5 m to ensure that acceptable sizedrooms can be created. Multi-unit developments suchas cluster housing and blocks of flats, offices or shops,have much wider and larger erven and can evenoccupy an entire block.According to Chakrabarty (1987) an erf dimension witha frontage: depth ratio of 1:2 is generally acceptable.Behrens and Watson (1996) identify that ratios ofbetween 1:5 and 1:3 are also acceptable. It is howeverimportant that the erf is of suitable dimensions for thestructure being accommodated on it.In order to achieve higher densities the size ofsubdivided land can be reduced. According to Dewarand Uytenbogaardt (1995) erf sizes of 60-100 m 2 areentirely adequate for habitable purposes. Byencouraging vertical expansion into 2, 3 and 4-storeywalk-up forms, the density of an area can be increased.The increase in density should go hand-in-hand withthe provision of effective public and recreational spacesand streets to counter the lack of space on the smallerstands. When planning for erf sizes of theseproportions, specific attention needs to be given todetail such as privacy, ventilation, roof slopes etc. Forexample, when making use of shared walls betweendwelling units (party walls) due to the cost and spaceadvantages, sound privacy could be a problem andproper care must be taken to minimise this.As smaller stands reduce the potential for on-siteagricultural activities, providing extra rooms for subletting,running a small business from home etc.,larger stands that provide the opportunity to use theavailable area for these types of income-generatingactivities also need to be provided. This should,Land subdivision Chapter 5.65


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNhowever, not be seen as a reason why all stands shouldbe big enough to accommodate this kind of activitysince not all of them will be used for that purpose.Generic block subdivision optionsGrid layoutThe impact of residential density on the cost of serviceprovision is different for each service. The total cost ofwater and sewerage provision, for example, increasesas density increases, with larger and more expensivepiping requirements. On the other hand, becausecosts are shared by more users, the net cost is lower.The cost of other services such as street lightingremains fairly constant irrespective of density (Behrensand Watson 1996). It is also found that certain servicesonly become viable at a certain density, such as publictransport, for example, which requires densities in theregion of 50 to 100 dwelling units per hectare to beviable.As density increases, so servicing costs of a particularland subdivision would increase. Increased densitiesresult in an increase in the number of serviceconnections which have to be installed and possibly ahigher standard of services to cope with the increaseddemand. Bulk service contribution payments whichare usually made to the local authority for theconstruction of the bulk services network to deliverservices to the proposed subdivided site, are based onthe proposed density of the development on the siteand consequently the increased demand. The exactformulae which local authorities use to determine bulkservices vary between local authorities and also varyaccording to the service which is being provided.Figure 5.6.2: Conceptual diagram depicting the gridlayoutPositive aspects• The grid layout is possibly seen as the mostpermeable form of settlement layout, as trafficand pedestrians are able to penetrate andcirculate indiscriminately within the settlementarea.• The grid subdivision pattern does notnecessarily have to fit a rigid rectilinear pattern,but could also follow a more curvilineararrangement.• By virtue of its accessibility, the grid subdivisionpattern tends to allow for the stimulation ofgreater economic opportunities, especially atthe intersections of the grid.• Grids may be aggregated or disaggregated intocoarser or finer levels of resolution.Negative aspectsThe high degree of accessibility within the gridlayout tends to have negative cost implications inrelation to other block subdivision patterns. It isdifficult to achieve the same network length: arearatios, network length: dwelling unit ratios, andresidential densities of alternative subdivisionpatterns.Aspects to ensure optimal design• Short block lengths tend to increase theservicing costs, at the same time they also resultin a high number of cross streets increasingtraffic hazards and travel time through the area.6Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The longer the block becomes the smaller thenetwork length per dwelling unit becomes, thesmaller the average road length, and the lowerthe costs of road development and servicereticulation. The length of the block is,however, a trade-off with pedestrian movementwithin the settlement. Blocks cannot beexcessive in length as pedestrian movementthrough the overall grid system decreases asblocks increase in length.• Crosswalks through long blocks may beprovided especially where a nearby shoppingcentre, school or park is located in order toprevent a larger number of residents of aneighbourhood being forced into circuitousroutes in order to reach their destinations. It is,however, important that if crosswalks areutilised, they are clearly identifiable and wellmaintained.• By reducing the width of the erven whilekeeping the erf size constant, it is also foundthat a more economic grid block subdivision canbe created. It should, however, also becautioned that the width of the erven cannotbe narrowed without taking into account thefunctionality of the erf and the proposedhousing type to be located on the erf.• In order to further increase the width of theblock in relation to its length, the introductionof pan-handle stands to produce a 4-stand deepblock can be seen as an alternative.Loop subdivision layoutPositive aspects• Loop layouts can be seen as a common form ofaccess street.• The loop type layout provides greater efficiencyin terms of network length : area ratios,network length : dwelling unit ratios, andresidential densities, than the grid subdivisionpattern.• In high-mobility areas the loop subdivisionpattern reduces vehicular movement throughthe residential environment.Negative aspects• The loop subdivision pattern is usuallyassociated with the creation of superblocks,which tend to constrain pedestrian movement.• Loops have been found to increase the numberof intersections on distributor roads.Aspects to ensure optimal design• As in the case with the grid subdivision layout,the loop subdivision layout can also be mademore economical by narrowing the width oferven and increasing the block length withinthe loop.• In order to lessen the number of intersectionswhich loops may make with the surroundingdistributor road, the shape of the loop may bealtered to the “P-loop” design which effectivelyreduces the number of intersections by half.Cul-de-sac subdivision layoutFigure 5.6.4: Conceptual diagram depicting the culde-sacsubdivision layoutFigure 5.6.3: Conceptual diagram depicting the loopsubdivision layoutPositive aspects• The length of the cul-de-sac can be seen to havelittle impact on cost efficiency, as the entirelength of the road is fully utilised.Land subdivision Chapter 5.67


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The cul-de-sac type layout also assists in theseparation of traffic and pedestrian movementin close proximity to the houses.Woonerf subdivision layout• In certain cases the cul-de-sac can also beutilised as an activity or play area, reducing theamount of additional open space required inthe overall layout, which in turn would impacton the overall land budget.• Servicing costs can be reduced as the ervensurrounding the cul-de-sac are serviced by wayof an extension of the main service line.Negative aspects• Where culs-de-sac are relatively short, localauthorities tend be hesitant in taking over themaintenance of such small areas of road.• Refuse removal is also a concern of the localauthority, as waste removal trucks are too largeto enter the cul-de-sac if no turning circles areprovided. In these cases the residents may berequired to place their waste on the access roadat the entrance to the cul-de-sac.• It is also important that stormwater be carefullyconsidered within this type of design in order toensure that it can drain out of the cul-de-sac.• Problems have also been identified in terms ofcirculation within culs-de-sac in that access tothe interior erven can be impeded by ablockage at the open end, and that traffic atthe open end can become undesirably high ifthe streets are too long and access to a largenumber of homes are provided.• Culs-de-sac can be highly negative when utilisedin the design for subdivisions in communitieswhich rely heavily on pedestrian circulation, inthat they tend to constrain the free movementpedestrians through the settlement.Aspects to ensure optimal design• The only significant efficiency aspect which canbe identified is, as in the previous examples, toreduce the width of the stand whilemaintaining the size of the erf.• The restrictions which culs-de-sac exhibit to themovement of pedestrians through thesettlement can be alleviated to some degree ifpedestrian crosswalks are provided betweenthe heads of two adjacent culs-de-sac.Figure 5.6.5: Conceptual diagram depicting thewoonerf subdivision layoutPositive aspects• This type of sub-division is characterised byfairly small stands usually of approximately150 m 2 in extent. Therefore fairly high netdensities of up to 62 dwelling units per ha canbe achieved according to Kitchin (1989).• Houses are usually attached or semi-detached,facing onto a paved court. Although vehiclesare allowed to move along the street, theirprogress is restricted by the street design whichis orientated more towards pedestrianmovement and other activities.• The accommodation of play areas within theroad reserve should impact positively on theland-use budget, as less land will need to be setaside for open space.Negative aspects• As with the cul-de-sac design it has been foundthat stormwater runoff needs to be carefullyconsidered, as large built and paved areas resultin increased runoff.• The different boundary setbacks of the housingunits as well as the paving and landscape designof the play court areas can result in an increasein the total layout cost.8Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNCluster• In order to ensure that stable foundations arecreated in these cases at affordable cost levels,dwelling units have to be accommodated in arow-housing type of configuration.• It has been identified by GAPP Architects (1997)that densities of over 55 dwelling unit per grosshectare can be achieved using this type ofsubdivision design.• Access to the individual units is by way ofpedestrian walkways, with a centralised parkingcourt provided for residents who may own a car.It is seen as sufficient access for communitieswho rely predominantly on pedestrian mobility.Negative aspectsFigure 5.6.6: Conceptual diagram depicting thecluster subdivision layoutPositive aspects• Where physical characteristics of the site to besubdivided, such as slope or dolomiticconstraints, prevent the creation of thestandard subdivision layout, alternativepedestrian-based layouts may have to beconsidered.• The consequence of the site constraints (forexample dolomitic risk zone requires suitablestructural base and standard of services) wouldbe that the individual erven would be onaverage between 60m 2 to 90m 2 in extent.• Due to the density and coverage of the site,mainly hard spaces are created which wouldhave to be designed carefully.ServicesThe subdivision and block layout have very tangibleimplications on the cost and maintenance of services(Figure 5.6.7). Not only the size of stands, but also theshape thereof has an influence on the layout and costof services. The overall cost for infrastructure providedFigure 5.6.7: Optimising service infrastructure through erf layoutLand subdivision Chapter 5.69


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNalong any given street stays more or less the sameregardless of the number of stands serviced along thestreet. Therefore, the narrower the street frontage ofthe stands, the more dwelling units share in the cost ofthe services and the lower the infrastructure cost perdwelling unit. It is therefore usually better to providenarrow, deep stands.It is generally accepted that manholes are required atapproximately 100 m interval for the maintenance andrepair of services such as sewerage as well asoptimising the cost for the installation of such services.It is also necessary that block lengths are kept asstraight as possible as any changes in direction of theservices requires an additional manhole to be added(see sub-chapter 5.1).Service reticulation can also be seen to influence themore detailed subdivision of the block into individualerven. Services can either be reticulated in the middleof the block or running within the road reserve. Themid-block reticulation of sewerage, water supply,electrification and telecommunication cables is oftenfavoured in lower income areas for cost reasons. Bynot having to contend with traffic loads and otherservices in the road reserve, services located at midblockcan be laid at shallower depths.Apart from these advantages there are some hitchesassociated with mid-block reticulation, resulting fromits location. Gaining access to the services in the midblockis often found to be problematic with ownersrefusing access to council workers purely due toowners being at work during the day. Illegal seconddwelling units which are constructed to the rear ofstands are often over the mid-block services, whichresults not only in additional inaccessibility but theweight of the structure on the services may also resultin damage.When erven are smaller than 10 m in length, itbecomes inefficient to design conventional two-erfdeep blocks, as the block widths of 20 m have provedto be dangerous from a vehicular perspective.Numerous subdivision patterns, like pan-handle ervenor blocks with pedestrian-only routes, can increase thenumber of erven between road reserves. The latterassumes that erven within the centre of the block willnever require private vehicular access. Four-erf deepsubdivision patterns offer servicing advantages, asmore erven can be serviced from a single servicerunning in the road reserve. It should be notedhowever, that households often prefer erven withstreet frontages because of the trading opportunitiesthey offer, better security by being in the public viewand the awkward toilet locations that can result oninner erven.10Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAtkins, G (1981). Principle of planning and clarificationdesign for low income housing developments inZimbabwe. Ministry of Local Government and Housing- Housing Development Services.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1996). Making urban places- Principles and guidelines for layout planning. UCTPress.Chakrabarty, B K (1987). Conventional PlanningPractice and Optimisation in Residential Layout. ThirdWorld Planning Review. Vol 9, No 2, pp 117-133.Chakrabarty, B K (1991). Optimization in residentialland subdivision. Journal of Urban Planning andDevelopment. Vol 117, No1, pp 1-14.DeChiara, J and Koppelman, L (1975). Urban Planningand Design Criteria. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Dewar, D and Uytenbogaardt, R S (1995). Creatingvibrant urban places to live: A primer. HeadstartDevelopments, Cape Town.GAPP Architects and Urban Designers (1997). WinnieMandela upgrading project: A pre-feasibility report ona strategy for developing 4000 higher density unitswith special emphasis on walk-up apartments,prepared on behalf of Khayalami MetropolitanCouncil.Hifab International AB (1998). Assessment of the SouthAfrican Housing Programme - Draft Report.Swedesurvey Inregia.Kitchin, A K (1989). Alternative Township Layouts (andHousing Configurations) - A report on an analysis ofcertain FHA Projects and other information with aview to ascertaining specific areas for furtherattention.Lynch, K and Hack, G (1984). Site Planning. MIT Press.Spreiregen, P D (1981). Urban design: The architectureof town and cities. Krieger publishing company,Florida.Turner, A (Ed) (1980). Cities of the Poor. Croom Helm,London.Urban Land Institute (ULI) (1990). Residentialdevelopment handbook. ULI, Washington.Van der Schyff, Baylis, Gericke and Druce (1998).Subdivision. Unpublished report prepared for theCSIR. Pretoria.Western Australia Planning Commission (1997).Liveable neighbourhoods: Community design code,Government of Western Australia, WAPC, Perth.Land subdivision Chapter 5.611


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN12Chapter 5.6Land subdivision


Chapter 5.7Public utilities5.7


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSPUBLIC UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1FOCUS AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Utilities: A means to an end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Site- and community-specific characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Linkages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2QUALITATIVE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Hierarchy of collective utility points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Planning of utilities to optimise fulfilment of entrepreneurial, social, recreation and otherneeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Collective utility points primarily serving lower-order collective public utility points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Thresholds and time and distance standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Planning, space and engineering considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Upgrades, operation and maintenance, links, and detailed design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Collective utility points primarily serving higher-order collective utility points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12THE GUIDELINES - A CAUTIONARY REMARK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Public utilities Chapter 5.7i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.7.1 Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7LIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.7.1Figure 5.7.2Conceptual diagram of key spatial relationships relating to collective utilities withingreenfield projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Conceptual diagram of key spatial relationships relating to collective utilitieswithin upgrade projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5iiChapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPUBLIC UTILITIESThe purpose of this sub-chapter is to describeguidelines for the planning of public utilities. Utilitiesare, for the purposes of this sub-chapter, defined asengineering services including water, sanitation, roads,stormwater drainage, energy supply, solid-wasteremoval, communications in the form of telephones,and postal collection and delivery.Collective utilities and residential utilities are definedas follows:• Collective services (utilities) are those servicesconsumed off-site, to satisfy either community ordomestic service needs. Community service needsrelate to movement, drainage, public safety,outdoor manufacturing, market trading and socialinteraction. In the case of domestic needs, theservice is transported to the household site forconsumption within the dwelling or on the site. Inthe case of community needs the service is usedwithin the public environment. Collective servicesinclude water supply in the form of publicstandpipes, sanitation in the form of public toilets,roads and stormwater drainage, energy supply inthe form of metered electricity dispensers in publicmarkets, the lighting of public places (includingstreet lighting), solid waste removal in the form ofrubbish collection points, and communications inthe form of public telephones and post-collectionpoints.• Residential services (utilities) are those servicesconsumed on-site, to satisfy domestic householdservice needs. The service is used either in theindividual dwelling, or on the site. Residentialservices include water supply in the form of houseor yard taps, sanitation in the form of in-house orout-house toilets, energy supply in the form ofelectricity or gas, solid waste removal in the formof kerbside rubbish collection, and communicationsin the form of private telephones and postaldelivery (Behrens and Watson 1996, p 81).Many forms of collective utilities are described in theavailable literature. But, invariably, these are designedand built for single utilities, e.g. as water points,communal ablution blocks, or as post-delivery points.The purpose of this sub-chapter is to go beyond thesesingle-utility views, and show how multi-utilitycollective points can provide convenience, beattractive in their own right, and go a long way toresolving the health threats presented by the litter,poor drainage and physical danger so prevalent incommunities, especially where large numbers ofpeople gather every day (e.g. taxi ranks and informalmarkets).FOCUS AREASThe sub-chapter has four focus areas, as follows:• Utilities in settlements are only a means to an end.• The provision of utilities cannot be divorced fromsite-specific and community-specific characteristics.• Link and internal infrastructure (utility) provision,the process of settlement formation, and theplanning and design of collective utility systems.• The processes of planning and design,construction, operation and maintenance, and theupgrading and eventual replacement of utilitysystems.Utilities: A means to an endUtilities in settlements, whether collective or tohouseholds, are only a means to an end. The “end”can be variously defined but it certainly includes, forthe households living in that settlement, greaterhealth and safety and greater access to incomeearningopportunities and amenities. Understandingof this is essential in• addressing the end by the most appropriate means(which may not be an engineering service, buteducation, or institutional change);• integrating the utility with other means to thesame end; and• selecting levels of service and standards.The decision to provide utilities in a settlement, andwhat utilities, how and when, must be part of anintegrated decision-making and (particularly)prioritisation process; then the investment in a utilitymust be part of a package of interventions.Site- and community-specificcharacteristicsThe provision of utilities, whether collective or tohouseholds, cannot be divorced from site-specificcharacteristics (e.g. topography) or from communityspecificcharacteristics (e.g. institutional structure,affordability). For example, one community may haveno need for collective utilities, whereas another may beunable to afford (in the financial sense) anything butcollective services.No one should have difficulty with the concept thatsite-specific characteristics such as topography arefundamental to the provision of utilities. It may,however, be of value to consider why and howcommunity-specific characteristics would affect theprovision of utilities. For example, the assumptionPublic utilities Chapter 5.71


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNthat certain health- and safety-related ends will beachieved if certain levels of service of utilityinfrastructure are provided, and that, ifcomplementary services are also provided, it willconstitute a sufficient holistic package of health andsafety, might be true for more affluent South Africans.The assumptions are, however, probably not true forthe less affluent. In a total public sector budget forhealth and safety services, for example, too muchemphasis on only one aspect (say, water andsanitation) could - for the less affluent - reduce theresources available for other services. There is anevident need for a holistic view of the range of urbanservices (including utilities) before decisions are madeon basic need levels, and before investments are made.LinkagesThis focus is on the relationship between link andinternal infrastructure (utility) provision on the onehand and the process of settlement formation on theother, as well as on the planning and design ofcollective public utility systems.These links, together with the fourth focus area, lie atthe heart of this sub-chapter. These two foci leaddirectly to the development of appropriate guidelineson: (1) the integration of issues relating to theprovision of utility infrastructure, and issues relating toland-use planning and settlement formation; and (2)the planning and design of collective public utilitysystems - indicating key functional interrelationshipswith other planned elements.ProcessThe focus concerns the process of planning and design,the construction, operation and maintenance process,and the upgrading and eventual replacement of utilitysystems, whether collective or to households.It must be noted that selection of utilities and theirlevels of service, and the planning and design of theselected utilities, are, wittingly or (often) unwittingly,made in the context of a set of planning, design,construction, operation, maintenance and upgradingassumptions. These assumptions relate to the followingquestions:• How will the utility, its level of service, and thechosen technology suit conditions expected inpractice? Examples of these conditions are- geotechnical and groundwater conditions;- type of housing and its density; and- frequency of use of the utility (for example: howmany persons per utility, and how much of eachday are they using the utility?).• How will the utility be constructed (i.e.workmanship)?• How will the utility be operated and maintained?- by the individual users; or- by the corporate agency (community, NGO,private company, local government)?• Other elements upon which the success ofalternatives is dependent (principally, assumptionsas to institutional capacity, enforcement ofregulation, monitoring of use, adequacy of fundingfor operation and maintenance, and so on).• What complementary services are required? Forexample, if a collective water service is provided,will sanitation also be provided, or at least a meansof dealing with sullage, and vice versa?It must further be noted that the (majority) reportedexperience of operation of collective utilities in SouthAfrica is that incorrect use of these facilities, abuse andvandalism are widespread; also that maintenanceoften ranges from insufficient to non-existent. Thisshould heavily influence design and constructiondecisions, and should also require that the process ofcollective utility provision, including that of utilitymanagement, be done with greater care.QUALITATIVE GUIDELINESHierarchy of collective utility pointsA hierarchy of collective utility points ranges over acontinuum from• lower-order collective utility points withinprimarily residential areas, mostly used on singlepurposetrips from the house to the utility pointand back; to• higher-order collective utility points at publicgathering points such as at modal interchanges,public markets or community centres, often usedon the way to or from home or to (in addition topatronising the utility point) work, school,recreation, shopping or some other destination(s).In practice, it is found that the following differ greatlyfrom the one end of the hierarchy to the other:• thresholds and catchments;• space standards;• numbers of users at any one time;• distribution of use through the day and throughthe week; and2Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• the type of utility needed, and the combinations ofthese with each other and with other facilities.As an example, consider the lowest-order end of thehierarchy. The great majority of the usership of afacility in a residential area is often that residentwithin a catchment defined by a walking distancewithin (depending on the facility) a number ofminutes of the facility. If the population within thatwalking distance is large enough (i.e. above thethreshold), the facility is potentially sustainable.However, the usership of a facility at a publicgathering point - for example a modal interchange - isless dependent on the walking distance to that facility,and thus on its catchment, than it is dependent on thenumbers of people who change modes at thatinterchange, the attractiveness of other facilities (e.g.the market) there, and so on. An example at thehigher-order end of the hierarchy would be a modalinterchange at a major road intersection at the edgeof an urban area - few people have their homes closeby, but many people spend time there waiting fortransport - and thus need and would probably makeuse of the utilities there.A significant implication of Chapters 2 and 3 is that, asnew settlements are planned and existing settlementsare grown in terms of these concepts of settlementformation, land uses will mix to a far greater degreethan at present. Given that, there will be more publicgathering points at lower levels and thus more needfor collective utility points that serve both residencesand public gathering.Where a full range of residential utilities cannot forvarious reasons (of which affordability is often one) besupplied to each residential site, it may be worthwhileto supply some of these at an accessible, collectivepoint. If these utilities could also satisfy the collectiveneeds of a taxi rank or a market, that would be moreefficient - but such a situation would be the exception.However, it is very likely that, at even a lower-ordercollective utility point, a couple of small entrepreneurswill set up - selling food, or providing a repair service,for example. This emphasises both the hierarchicalnature of the demand for utilities and the need toprovide a hierarchy of collective utility points.The design of any collective utility point will besimplified by an assessment of the design demandseparately by the extent to which it concerns bothlower-order and higher-order collective utilitydemand, and then by their aggregation. Thisdistinction is important in terms of design elementssuch as the location and utility mix of the collectivepoint. Thus the following section deals primarily withlower-order collective public utility points, and thesection after that with higher-order collective utilitypoints.Planning of utilities to optimisefulfilment of entrepreneurial, social,recreation and other needsIn Chapter 3, the planning of settlements to createfavourable spatial conditions for entrepreneurs hasbeen laid down as a primary determinant ofsettlement-planning. In addition, how collectiveutility points can be located to reinforce theseentrepreneurial conditions and maximise their accessto users has been specified as a very significantcontribution that this sub-chapter can make tosuccessful settlement-planning. However, howcollective utility points can be located to support andenhance social, recreation, education, safety and otherneeds in a settlement, is of equal importance.Several mutually reinforcing means are describedwhereby conditions can be optimised to fulfilentrepreneurial, social, recreation, education, safetyand other needs. Principally these are(1) concentrate local through-movement on stop-startactivity routes;(2) provide accessible public spaces which createopportunities for collective activity;(3) incorporate public markets as an element ofessential public infrastructure;(4) cluster facilities (including utilities) to enableresource-sharing;(5) integrate open spaces with utility services; and(6) align trunk utilities to important routes.(1) - (4) Location of collective utility pointsto maximise their access to usersCollective utility points (e.g. public standpipes,public telephones, post collection points, solidwastecollection points, metered electricitydispensers, and public toilets) should be clusteredaround public markets and hard open spaces, tocreate favourable small-scale manufacturing andtrading conditions. Also, in cases where theseutilities perform residential functions as well, theyenable local residents to satisfy several needs in asingle trip. The clustering of utility points providesthe utilities necessary for small trading operations,and attracts potential consumers to specific pointsin space.Public facilities are intensively used by largenumbers of people, and, through the creation of“load centres”, can generate a large demand forutilities. As a result they can be used to “pull”service mains economically through a settlement,with facilities and the public spaces they abut,Public utilities Chapter 5.73


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNaccommodating a range of utilities often notsupplied to individual residential erven (e.g.telecommunications, solid-waste collection, postaldelivery).Settlement layouts should locate public marketsand squares, and their associated collective utilitypoints, to ensure that all households haveconvenient pedestrian as well as motorist accessand that a single trip can satisfy a number of needs- entrepreneurial, social, recreation, education,safety and other needs. In order to achieve this,planners and engineers require an understandingof the range and threshold requirements of, andfunctional relationships between, the differentcollective utilities.(5) Integrate open spaces with utilitiesThe design of public open space networks should beintegrated with the design of utility infrastructurenetworks. In particular, interconnected soft openspace systems should be integrated with majorstormwater management systems (i.e. openstormwater channels, retention and retardingponds, etc.). Open spaces and clusters of playingfields, should take up low-lying land subject toperiodic flooding, acting as overflow facilities in theevent of severe storms, while stormwater outfalland storage facilities should be used as landscapingfeatures within the amenity network (See Subchapter5.4 on Soft Open Spaces).(6) Align trunk utilities to important routesWhere possible, trunk utility lines should bealigned to more intensive movement routes whichlink public facilities and non-residential land uses,and electricity sub-stations (which transform highvoltagecurrent into low-voltage current for thepurpose of residential reticulation) should belocated close to public facility clusters (i.e. “loadcentres”).In this way, full water, sewerage, electricity, publiclighting and telecommunication connections can,from the beginning of the infrastructure-provisionprocess, be made to commercial services, smallscalemanufacturers, and public facilities likeschools and health clinics. Similarly, in cases whereadequate road surfacing is not affordable on allroads, public facilities should be connected by anetwork of surfaced roads to ensure the effectiveprovision of regular road-based services.In situations where water reticulation to residentialareas is not designed for additional fire fightingflows, water supply ring mains with greatestcapacity and pressure should, where possible, bealigned to intensive activity routes. This will ensurethat, at the very least, public facilities like schoolsand community centres are adequately covered byfire hydrants and associated fire-fighting services(See Sub-chapter 5.8.3 on Fire Considerations).Figure 5.7.1 and Figure 5.7.2 illustrate the above.Figure 5.7.1 Conceptual diagram of key spatial relationships relating to collective utilities within greenfieldprojectsSource: Behrens and Watson 1996, p 1034Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNFigure 5.7.2 Conceptual diagram of key spatial relationships relating to collective utilities within upgradeprojectsSource: Behrens and Watson 1996, p 111They indicate the spatial relationships of utilitieswithin, respectively, a “greenfield” and an“upgrade” project.QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINESCollective utility points primarily servinglower-order collective public utilitypointsDensities, alternatives and hierarchiesThe effect of two contextual factors needs to bemade clear in respect of any standards for lowerordercollective public utility points.The density of the areaFor example, in densely populated areas, 15-25dwelling units per standpipe (a rough guide of thethreshhold for a standpipe) can be achieved byplacing a standpipe at the end of each street, andat a maximum distance of 100 m. In more sparselypopulated areas, a walking distance greater thanthe Redistribution and Development Programmestandard of 250 m should not be exceeded, almostirrespective of the threshhold. The walkingdistance will probably prevail over threshholdcriteria.The availability of residential utilitiesFor example, in an area which (say) lacks a door-todoorpostal service and solid-waste collectionservice, but where residential sites each have a toiletand a standpipe, the need for collective toilets andstandpipes will be much lower than where these arenot provided on residential sites. However, at aresidential area collective utility point where saysolid waste, postal and telephone facilities areprovided, collective toilets and standpipes willnevertheless have to be provided for the users ofthe telephones, nearby entrepreneurs and theircustomers, and passers-by.Table 5.7.1 provides only a rough guideline, and thecontext of the specific area being served must beinvestigated, particularly with respect to densitiesand alternative options to the collective utility.In addition, the place on the hierarchy of thecollective points being designed must be borne inmind. For example, if a lowest-order point, toserve 20 dwelling units, includes one waterstandpipe, a second-order point centred aroundsolid-waste collection, public telephones and postboxes could adequately also have only onestandpipe. Although the other utilities here maybe serving 200 or more dwelling units, thestandpipe is not also serving 200 dwelling units,Public utilities Chapter 5.75


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNbut is the standpipe for only its immediate area of20 dwelling units - and for passers-by, etc, asdescribed above.Thresholds and time and distancestandardsDesign decisions regarding public utilities relatemainly to (i) the population catchments they serve(conversely the thresholds that they require in order tobe sustainable), and hence the numbers of each facilityrequired in any given area, and (ii) the distance thatuser households have to travel to gain access to them.The specific demographic and socio-economic profileof each community should be used to plan and provideits public utilities, as indeed it should be used for anyother public facilities, especially those servingprimarily residential areas. For example, it is possiblethat a greater proportion of investment would berequired for pre-school facilities within the first fiveyears of a new settlement than for secondary andtertiary education.Behrens and Watson (1996) point out that standardsfor individual facilities and amenities areconventionally assessed by considering their “optimal”spatial requirements in isolation of each other. Thisleads to a number of problems. For example,formulating space standards in isolation restricts thepotential of resource sharing and multi-functional useto reduce land requirements. In conditions of resourcescarcity this is essential - in cases where neither thelocal authority nor the relevant governmentdepartment can afford to develop the plannedfacilities or maintain public open spaces, land remainsvacant and unattended.Planning, space and engineeringconsiderationsIn the absence of detailed information regardingutility performance standards, Table 5.7.1 providesrough guidelines on location, time and distance, sizeand dimensions and user threshold standards. Whenused in conjunction with user threshold standards, theset of time and distance standards can act asbenchmarks to check the accessibility of utilitylocations. For these utility points, which are accessedprimarily by pedestrians, the standards assume anaverage walking speed of 3 km/h, or 50 m/min.Depending on the supporting threshold population,some facilities should be sited in locations accessible topedestrians, while others should be sited in locationsaccessible to public-transport users, as well as to alimited number of pedestrians in the local area. Timeand distance standards are therefore more applicableto lower-order, pedestrian-orientated facilities - thelocations of higher order facilities are determinedmore by the public transport system, or by otherreasons for the public to gather, than by time anddistance ranges.Upgrades, operation and maintenance,links, and detailed designProvision for upgrading• The assumption up to now is that public waterstandpipes (for example) are needed becausethe residential stands do not have their ownstandpipes, or that these are over-used (e.g.several families on each stand, sharing one tap).In another example, there has been theassumption that postal delivery boxes areneeded because there is no door-to-doordelivery service. This situation may change ifthe services are upgraded - the need forcollective utility points would reduce to theextent that each household now received aservice at its door or to its site. The designguidelines for these higher levels of service maybe found in Chapter 6 onwards (the postalservice is not addressed).• The conversion of collective to on-sitehousehold services should take place throughincremental in-situ upgrading projects as thecommunity circumstances improve. The needfor communal toilets, ablution facilities, laundrycentres and standpipes placed at walkabledistances from houses would fall away as onsite(residential) services are provided. Thepublic spaces on which these stand could thenbe rezoned for residential, business orinstitutional purposes. The prevailingcircumstances would dictate.• With respect to piped services, the design of thelink mains, trunk mains and the pipe networkfor formal townships should allow forupgrading to individual site connections,leading directly to greatly increased waterdemand in the future. This design philosophy,together with the phased construction/provisionof water mains and pipelines only alongimportant movement routes and to collectivewater utility points, will provide ample capacityto satisfy the peak demand at the publicstandpipes.• The design approach of pipe networks forinformal settlements should take cognisance ofthe permanent or temporary nature of thesettlement, and the final layout if thesettlement is to be upgraded. If a settlement istemporary, the pipe network should bedesigned to satisfy the minimum (RDP 1994)levels for walking distances and consumption.6Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.7.1: Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility pointsUTILITY LOCATION ACCESS SIZE AND USE CAPACITIES ANDDIMENSIONS THRESHOLDSCollective waterstandpipes• Collectivestandpipes areplanned atpositions inresidential areasto satisfy theminimum servicelevels, but shouldalso be informedby communityneeds.• For maintenanceconsiderations itmight bepreferable toplace collectivestandpipes onprivateresidential sites(maintenanceresponsibility onowner - seeChapter 9).• Alternatively, thestandpipes couldbe constructedon public openspace adjacent toa residential sitewhose ownerwould take onthe maintenancetask.• In denselypopulated areasa maximumdistance of 100m and a walkingtime of twominutes arepreferable.• In more sparselypopulated areas,a walkingdistance of 250m (DWAF 1994,p 15) should notbe exceeded.• Water standpipeand structureshould becustomised tosuit thecommunityneeds.• Considerationsincludeacceptable liftingheights, animalwatering,whethercontainers arewashed atstandpipes,whetherhosepipes areused to fillnarrow-mouthedcontainers, needfor bulk filling,etc..• Considerprovision ofseating or atleast an area forqueuing orwaiting (the areaaround thestandpipes isoften used forsocialising).• In denselypopulated areasa norm of 15-25dwelling unitsper standpipe isacceptable.Public utilities Chapter 5.77


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.7.1: Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility points(continued)UTILITY LOCATION ACCESS SIZE AND USE CAPACITIES ANDDIMENSIONS THRESHOLDSCommunal bathhouses• Sites shouldprimarily bechosen forconvenience ofaccess to theircatchment areain terms ofpotential users.• Siting shouldtake account ofadaptation andre-use, andwhetherimproved utilitiesshould beprovided toresidential sites(e.g. conversionto change roomsfor sportsfields).• Securityconsiderations areextremelyimportant (seeSub-chapter 5.8.1on EnvironmentalDesign For SaferCommunities).• Walking distanceand time of200 m and fourminutesrespectively.• Bath housesrequire sites withareas in theorder of200-300 m 2 .• Public bathhouses couldhave showersand laundryfacilities, andalso toilets. Thelaundry basinscould beprovided insideor outside.• These can bebuilt as part ofthe samestructure as, butwith a separateentrance from,other publicbuildings, so asto sharesupervisory staff.• A waiting areacan be providedunder a lean-tooutside ratherthan inside thebuilding.• One communalbath house couldservice amaximum of 50dwelling units or280 people.8Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.7.1: Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility points(continued)UTILITY LOCATION ACCESS SIZE AND USE CAPACITIES ANDDIMENSIONS THRESHOLDSCommunal toilets • Sites shouldprimarily bechosen forconvenience ofaccess to theircatchment areain terms ofpotential users.• Sites on whichcommunaltoilets areplaced could beconverted toresidential orbusiness siteswhen upgradingof utilities takesplace.• Where possiblethey should belocated next tofacilities likeschools, clinicsand libraries, sothat when (if)individualisedsanitation isprovided, theycan simply beincorporatedinto the publicfacilities. In thisway redundantservice provisioncan be avoided.• Walkingdistance andtime of 75 mand 1,5 minutesrespectively.• Varioussanitationtechnologies aredescribed inChapter 10. Thefactors whichinfluence thechoice of eachof the particularsanitationsystems aredetailed.• Subject to theconstraintsinfluencing thechoice, most, ifnot all, of thesesanitationsystems can beused forcommunaltoilets.• If residentialsites do not havetheir owntoilets, it isproposed that areasonable levelof conveniencefor the users ofpublic toilets canbe attained ifthe ratio is amaximum oftwo households(12 people) pertoilet.• If the communaltoilets aresupplementaryto toilets onresidential sites,their numbercan be reducedaccordingly.Public utilities Chapter 5.79


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.7.1: Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility points(continued)UTILITY LOCATION ACCESS SIZE AND USE CAPACITIES ANDDIMENSIONS THRESHOLDSSolid-waste• Sites should • Walking• Hard-standing • A maximum ofcollection points primarily bedistance and areas need100-150chosen fortime of 100 m ± 24 m 2 for the dwelling unitsconvenience of and two minutes trucks loading should beaccess to their respectivelyand off-loading serviced by onecatchment area (skip).the containers. solid-wastein terms of• Size ofcollection pointpotential users.containers vary (skip).• Small containersfrom 85 l to • Average solidcan be placed on6 m 3 capacity waste generatedsidewalks,• Smallerby low-incomewhereas largercontainers (up urbanskips requireto 210 lhouseholds islarger sites.container) are 0,2 m 3 /capita/(See alsomounted on an year at anChapter 11)axle/pivot shaft average densitymounted on two of 300 kg/m 3 -supportingand for middleincomepillars toprevent dogs householdsoverturning0,75 m 3 / capita/them.year withdensity of215 kg/m 3 .• Example: If lowincomehouseholds(average of 5,6persons/household)Sources of information: WHO 1979; CSIR 1994; Behrens and Watson 1996; Kerr 1989; Kerr 1990; generate Ninham 22 Shand l1997; various personal communications)per week(1,12 m 3 /year),the number ofhouseholdsserved by acontainerserviced weeklywould be:- 4 per 85 lcontainer- 9 per 210 lcontainer- 270 per 6 m 3container(skip).(See alsoChapter 11)10Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.7.1: Quantitative guidelines for lower-order public collective utility points(continued)UTILITY LOCATION ACCESS SIZE AND USE CAPACITIES ANDDIMENSIONS THRESHOLDSPostal collectionand delivery points• Preferable tohave smallerpostal collectionand deliverypoints evenlyspacedthroughout theresidential area.• Need to behighly visibleand accessible tothe populationserviced.• Should belocated alongactivity routeswithin easywalkingdistance.• Walkingdistance andtime ofrespectively250 m and fiveminutes.• Appropriatedimension of a50 box structureis 0,6 m wide x0,9 m long onplan.• Pillar-type postboxes areusually providedfor postingletters, butparcels, insuredmail, etc, needto be handed ina post offices(see Sub-chapter5.5, Table 5.5.7).• One postcollection point(one collection/delivery box persubscriber) couldserve 200-1000dwelling units.Public telephones • Need to behighly visibleand accessible tothe populationserved.• Should belocated alongactivity routeswithin easywalkingdistance.• Walkingdistance of200 m.• Telkom SA provides public telephonesafter a needs analysis and projectedfuture demand exercise has been doneto confirm the viability of the specificinstallation.Sources of information: WHO 1979; CSIR 1994; Behrens and Watson 1996; Kerr 1989; Kerr 1990; Ninham Shand1997; various person communications)Public utilities Chapter 5.711


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• The opportunities for upgrading thetechnology of sanitation, in the form ofdescriptions of each of the sanitationalternatives, are dealt with in Chapter 10.Should the upgrade be to toilets on eachresidential site, the need for public toilets willfall away and the site on which these have beenerected can be transferred to privateownership.• As informal areas are upgraded and developedinto formal settlements, the transportable postbox structures can “move” with the users andcan be made a permanent structure.• The upgrading of refuse collection services, tocollection from the sidewalk outside individualsites, would make redundant the facilitiesprovided at solid-waste collection points. Thesecould either be relocated to other areas still inneed of such facilities, or removed, and theservice would cease.Operation and maintenanceCorrect operation and maintenance, to enable theutility to provide at all times at least a minimumlevel of the intended service, is extremelyimportant. However, the operation andmaintenance of the collective utility point canoften be a problem.To reduce the incidence of utilities being out ofaction, and hence reduce construction, operationand maintenance costs, as well as inconvenience tousers, public participation should attempt toensure “ownership” and identified responsibility ofindividuals or households for the operation,maintenance and cleaning of the utility that theywill directly depend upon. The likely effectivenesswill be increased if training of local inhabitants inthe operation and maintenance of the utilityaccompanies the infrastructure development.Conversely, design of the utility should takecognisance of the capacity and resources of localinhabitants to facilitate this local operation andmaintenance. With respect to operation andmaintenance, there are thus two issues:• it must be established who is to be responsible;and• design the components for easy operation andmaintenance.Even more important than training in maintenanceof the collective utility point, because it mustinvolve all users, must be training in the use of thearea. It must be inculcated that good operationalpractices and maintenance are the responsibility ofeveryone who comes to the utility point. Thuseverybody must see it as their duty to (forexample):• turn taps off after use;• clean up the area - remove rubbish;• remove sediment from the standpipe apron,and ensure that the outlet to the soakaway isunblocked at all times; and• notice when taps are dripping even afterhaving been turned off, and to notify (and toknow whom to notify) those responsible forroutine maintenance, so that they can replacethe washer or other faulty component.Despite all precautions, however, problemsfrequently arise in practice. A periodically out-ofordercollective utility can lead to the users callingfor its replacement by an on-site service, whetherthis option is affordable or not, or undesirable forany other reason. This is despite there beingnothing intrinsically unacceptable about the levelof service provided by the collective point, but itsoperational record has given it (and, often, othercollective utilities) a bad reputation.Personal safety is an important issue in respect ofsome collective utility points, especially bathhouses and communal toilets. There are manyreported instances of users feeling unsafe at theutility point and/or on the walk there and back. Itis because users have been attacked (the bathhouses even became the hiding places of criminals)that some of the few bath houses of the past weredemolished (Huchzermeyer 1996, pp 26, 27) (SeeSub-chapter 5.8.3).Link infrastructureFor load capacities of link infrastructure, theappropriate chapters from Chapter 6 onwardsshould be referred to.Detailed designThe detailed design of collective utility points isbeyond the scope of these guidelines. (Refer, forexample, to Ninham Shand (1997), for a recentdiscussion of more detailed issues on collectivewater points.)Collective utility points primarily servinghigher-order collective utility pointsDesign considerationsOpportunities for trading, small-scale manufacturing,repairs and servicing, and other economic activitiesexist at places where large numbers of people12Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNgather or through which large numbers ofpedestrians move.Reference in this section is thus to guidelines forcollective utility points primarily serving publicgathering places such as at modal interchanges,bus and taxi ranks, areas of high-volume pedestriantraffic (inner city), major vehicle-entry points toresidential areas, along major pedestrian routes torailway stations, etc, public markets or communitycentres. These utility points are, often, also usedon the way to or from home or to (in addition topatronising the utility point) work, school,recreation, shopping or other destination(s).Design decisions regarding these relate mainly to• planning considerations, particularly thelocation of one component relative to another(e.g. high-use utilities at a rail station should beas close as possible to the main pedestrian routebetween the platform exit and the taxi rank);• space standards, particularly related to thenumbers of users at any one time, and thedistribution of use through the day andthrough the week;• engineering considerations;• provision for upgrading;• operation and maintenance; and• link infrastructure.Whereas the guidelines of the previous sectionswould obviously not be of value in determining thelocation of collective utility points at publicgathering places, they are of value in determiningthe number of each at the various gatheringplaces.The forms and functions of public gathering placeswill vary enormously from one location to another,and each resultant physical form of the collectivefacility must vary accordingly.In the planning of new local mixed-use areas,provision should be made for space for sites fortrading, but nothing should be designed and builtuntil trading has begun on the site and potentialshoppers are living in the vicinity.With respect to the planning of space for and thedesign of utilities, there are major differencesbetween public gathering places, including tradingcentres, in outlying settlements and those in themore established parts of the city, including theinner city. The inner city collective utility need ismostly for management of what is already there,and its upgrading, whereas in outlying settlementsthe need is to facilitate economic development.Engineering considerations for the inner city andoutlying areas are also different. The extensivepresence of underground services below sidewalks,which calls for care in the excavation offoundations for stalls, is one example. The outlyingareas, on the other hand, are often withoutengineering services. There is often thus a need tobring utilities to the outlying market areas but insuch a way that these also cater for local residents.In another example, there are space constraints inthe inner city - thus it might not be acceptable toplace a refuse skip on a sidewalk in the inner city.The planning of the market areas, taxi and busranks, public toilets, access for service andemergency vehicles, pedestrian routes andcirculation areas lies within the field of urbandesign and architectural disciplines. In existingtrading areas, railway stations, bus and taxi ranks,information can be gathered by means of vehicleand pedestrian movement counts, which will assistin the planning process.Planning, space and engineeringconsiderationsUtilities for the public gathering places must bedesigned in accordance with the engineeringguidelines contained in Chapter 6 onwards. Totake public toilets in modal interchanges areas asan example, provision of these should be linked tothe number of people passing through, gatheringor trading, etc. Thus large pedestrian standsrequire more utilities. For information ondetermining the numbers of toilets, SABS 400:1990is of value.Small-scale manufacturing, repair services andcooking activities require electricity (or otheralternative energy sources). Electricity supply canbe provided through pre-paid card or codeoperateddispensers, which are mounted undercover in lock-up stalls hired by the entrepreneurs.In other respects, the comments in Table 5.7.1 applyhere as well.Provision for upgrading, operation andmaintenance, links, and detailed designCertain facilities/services fulfil a need of thecommunity even as the opportunities forimprovement present themselves. Markets wouldalways be a need, if the locality generates incomefor the beneficiaries. Similarly, sanitation facilitiesat public open spaces or taxi ranks would notnecessarily fall into disuse were there upgrading orimproved circumstances for the community.Public utilities Chapter 5.713


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNIn other respects, the comments of the previoussection under the same heading apply here as well.THE GUIDELINES - A CAUTIONARYREMARKMuch of the preceding, it has to be admitted, is tosome or other extent “unproven”. With fewexceptions, each provision of collective utility points inSouth Africa has tended to share one or more of thefollowing characteristics:• provision as an ad hoc reaction by the authoritiesto a land invasion, or gradual overcrowding of asettlement (and overloading of existing services) -as a stopgap which is not improved upon until thenext health scare, bout of political unrest, orpopulation influx;• as a single-utility provision (e.g. collective water inone place, collective sanitation elsewhere, andpostal delivery in a third place), with no attemptbeing made to co-ordinate provision for thegreater convenience of the users; and• a few years after construction, the utility is poorlymaintained, vandalised, and/or abused - and oftenas a consequence avoided by those who, it hadbeen planned, would use the utility.The last couple of years has seen a dramatic increase inthe number of attempts to provide collective utilities inthe manner described in this sub-chapter, and in theeffort and skill devoted to these attempts. This isespecially in respect of those places where largenumbers of people gather every day (the modalinterchange with informal market, for example). Everysituation is so very different from any other that designguidelines must necessarily be broad. These situationaldifferences arise in terms of size, in-town or suburbanor outlying area location, type and intensity of activity,history, socio-economic groups using the place,presence (or absence) and state of existing utilities, andjuxtaposition of magnets (the markets, public transportboarding points, office or shop destinations, etc).It should, however, be noted that, understandably inthe current situation of financially-strapped localauthorities (who are usually the developers of thesecollective utilities), the available resources have had tobe given to the worst situations, which usually hasmeant those affecting the largest numbers of users.Thus the projects available for study, whether projectsbeing planned or already built, are generally at placeswhere large numbers of people gather each day• to break their commuting journey (i.e. interchangebetween some combination of walk-taxi-bus-train(less frequently, car or truck; even less frequently,cycle));• to shop; or• (often) to do both.Even in respect of these public-gathering types of use,the available effort is thus going mostly into situationswith the largest concentrations of people, rather thaninto the planning and design of collective utility pointsto serve smaller-scale taxi stops or trading areas.Very little of the current effort is going into higherordercollective utility points designed for use byresidents of the immediate vicinity. Even theManenberg bath house, built to cater for adevelopment where the houses were initially notfitted with hot water cylinders, is one of the fewexceptions (and it is more than ten years old).Thus many of the collective utility points presentlybeing designed (certainly, almost all of those abovethe lowest order) are for the upgrading of alreadyplanned situations. Already planned in this contextincludes• existing situations where pressure of users, andoften the congested and polluted circumstancesthat have arisen, have to be addressed urgently;and• situations in townships already built and settled,which may not yet have become problems, but arein an early stage of growth and obviously need tohave collective utilities provided before unhygienicor otherwise undesirable circumstances arise.CONCLUSIONExtensive enquiries failed to find in a single example inSouth Africa the application of most, let alone all, ofthe principles set out in these guidelines - which is notin the least surprising. One of the purposes of thisdocument is to modify key aspects of the planningphilosophy that has governed the development of ourcities - especially to free them from rigid adherence toconcepts of the inward-looking neighbourhood unitand from a road hierarchy that is unfriendly to publictransport.Thus no suitable examples were found of planninglayouts that specifically allowed for collective utilitypoints, accommodating multiple utilities in a designedrelationship with public transport (especially taxis),informal marketing and the nearby residential area.Such forms of development have never before beenadvocated by the authorities - and, if they have been14Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNbuilt at all, have not been built and operated for longenough for lessons to be learnt. All stakeholders areunfamiliar with the concept - land-owners, residents,taxi associations, informal traders and professionalsalike. If there are existing situations that are nowbeing replanned with some of this sub-chapter’sprinciples in mind, they are each unique experimentsnot just in planning and engineering design, but alsoin processes of social understanding, small businessdevelopment, negotiation and, not least, politicaldynamics.Even the examples found of collective utility pointswithin residential areas are inadequate in that nonewere designed as multi-utility clusters. All areprimarily single-purpose, with some other usesperhaps added as an afterthought. Their locations areoften not satisfactory, even for that single purpose.Their integration into the needs of the communitythey serve, and especially their surveillance by thatcommunity (let alone their operation andmaintenance - if any - by that community) have notbeen thought through.Nevertheless, despite the untried nature of much ofthe planning and engineering philosophy underlyingthis sub-chapter, the shortage of touchable casestudies, and the fact that the jury is still out on nearlyall of them, it is believed that this sub-chapter is asignificant step forward in a desirable planningdirection, to the great advantage of the users(residents, taxi drivers and passengers, traders andothers) that will have the convenience of collectiveutilities.Public utilities Chapter 5.715


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYAfrican National Congress (ANC) (1994). TheReconstruction and Development Programme.Umanyano, Johannesburg.Bartone, C et al (1994). Toward environmentalstrategies for cities. Urban Management ProgrammeReport No. 18. UNCHS (Habitat) / The World Bank /UNDP. Washington.Behrens, R and Watson, V (1996). Making urbanplaces: principles and guidelines for layout planning.Urban Problems Research Unit, University of CapeTown.Cairncross, S and Feachem, R G (1993). Environmentalhealth engineering in the tropics. (2nd ed.) JohnWiley, Chichester.City of Cape Town (1996). Nyanga Station precinctdevelopment framework. Report by City Planner’sDepartment to Urban Planning Committee. 22November.City of Cape Town (1997). Nyanga Station precinctdevelopment: Urban, landscaping and architecturaldesign brief. Draft: City Planner’s Department.CSIR (1994). Guidelines for the provision ofengineering services and amenities in residentialtownship development. Revised edition, NationalHousing Board. Pretoria.Development Bank of Southern Africa (1993a). Socioeconomicenhancement of development projects.Construction and development series: No. 1. DBSA.Midrand.Development Bank of Southern Africa (1993b).Interim guidelines for labour-based constructionprojects. Construction and development series: No. 2.DBSA. Midrand.Feachem, R G, Bradley, D J, Garelick, H and Mara, D D(1983). Sanitation and disease: Health aspects ofexcreta and wastewater management. Published forthe World Bank. John Wiley. Washington DC.Genthe, B and Seager, J (1997). The effect of watersupply, handling and usage on water quality inrelation to health indices in developing communities.Water Research Commission Report Nr. 562/1/96.Water Commission. Pretoria.Greater Johannesburg Transitional MetropolitanCouncil (1997). Greater Johannesburg economicdevelopment study tour of Cape Town, Port Elizabethand Durban. GJTMC. Johannesburg.Greater Johannesburg Transitional MetropolitanCouncil, Southern MLC (1997a). Development andmanagement of street trading markets: A proceduralguide for the Southern Metropolitan Local Council.Southern MLC. Johannesburg.Greater Johannesburg Transitional MetropolitanCouncil, Southern MLC (1997b). Informal tradingprojects within the outlying areas and the informalsettlements 97/98. Local Economic DevelopmentDepartment. Southern MLC. Johannesburg.Huchzermeyer, M (1994). Public obligation versusindividual liberty: Considerations in the provision ofliving environments for the lowest income sector onwell-located land in Cape Town, with reference to theWingfield site. Project report for Master’s Degree inCity Planning and Urban Development, University ofCape Town, October.Huchzermeyer, M (1996). Nyanga: Interviewing ofresidents and roleplayers. Project report for ODA.Draft, May.Kalbermatten, J M, Julius, D S and Gunnerson, C G(1980a). Appropriate technology for water supply andsanitation. Vol 1: Technical and economic options.World Bank. Washington DC.Keep South Africa clean organisation (1997). One mancontract.Kerr, C (Ed) (1989). Community water development.Intermediate Technology Publications. London.Kerr, C (Ed) (1990). Community health and sanitation.Intermediate Technology Publications. London.Mayet, M A G (1994). Domestic waste generation inthe urban core of the DFR. MSc dissertation, Universityof Natal.Milne, C (1994). Guidelines for emerging contractordevelopment. Construction and development series:No. 5. DBSA. Midrand.Ninham Shand (1997): Design of water delivery toreduce health risks. Report for NaSCO of DWAF. Draft.October 1997.Ninham Shand (1998). Appropriate guidelines on theplanning and design of collective public utility systems,as a planned element of settlement systems.Unpublished report prepared for the CSIR, Pretoria.Okun, D A and Ernst, W R (1987). Community pipedwater supply systems in developing countries: Aplanning manual. World Bank Technical Paper No. 60.World Bank, Washington DC.16Chapter 5.7Public utilities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPalmer Development Group (1996). Evaluation of solidwaste practice in developing urban areas of SouthAfrica. WRC report No. 629/1/96. Pretoria.SABS 400:1990. Code of practice for the application ofthe National Building Regulations. South AfricanBureau of Standards, Pretoria.South Africa, Department of ConstitutionalDevelopment (1997). Municipal service options: aguideline for local authorities. Government Printers.Pretoria.South Africa, Department of Water Affairs (1994).Water supply and sanitation policy: White Paper:Water - an indivisible national asset. GovernmentPrinter. Cape Town.South Africa, Department of Water Affairs (1996).White Paper: National sanitation policy. NationalSanitation Task Team. Draft. Government Printer.Pretoria.South Africa: Department of Water Affairs (1997).White Paper on a national water policy for SouthAfrica. Government Printer. Pretoria.Sulabh International Social Service Organisation (nd).Sulabh public toilets and bath complexes. New Delhi.Wates Meiring and Barnard (1997). Report on wastegeneration sub-project. Report to Department ofWater Affairs, No. 3064/1505/4/S. Pretoria.Wegelin-Schuringa, M and Kodo, T (1997). Tenancyand sanitation provision in informal settlements inNairobi: Revisiting the public latrine option.Environment and urbanisation. October, pp 181-190.WHO International Reference Centre for CommunityWater Supply (1979). Public standpost water supplies -a design manual. Technical paper 14. The Hague,December.Public utilities Chapter 5.717


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN18Chapter 5.7Public utilities


Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design forsafer communities5.8.1


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSTHE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN IN PREVENTING CRIME IN SOUTH AFRICAN CITIESAND TOWNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE CONCEPT OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Surveillance and visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Territoriality and defensible space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Access and escape routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Image and aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Target-hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGHENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Environmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.1i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.8.1.1 Increase opportunities for passive surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 5.8.1.2 Importance of sufficient and adequate lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.3 Route layout and pedestrian movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.4 Location of small open spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.5 Landscaping and visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.6 Identifiable neighbourhood character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 5.8.1.7 Network of small neighbourhood parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 5.8.1.8 Clearly definable edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.8.1.9 Avoid ending roads on vacant or undeveloped land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.8.1.10 Ensure visibility of ablution facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.8.1.11 The image of the building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.8.1.12 Plan for surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7iiChapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSTHE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN IN PREVENTING CRIME IN SOUTH AFRICAN CITIESAND TOWNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE CONCEPT OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Surveillance and visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Territoriality and defensible space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Access and escape routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Image and aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Target-hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGHENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Environmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.1i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.8.1.1 Increase opportunities for passive surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 5.8.1.2 Importance of sufficient and adequate lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.3 Route layout and pedestrian movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.4 Location of small open spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.5 Landscaping and visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5.8.1.6 Identifiable neighbourhood character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 5.8.1.7 Network of small neighbourhood parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 5.8.1.8 Clearly definable edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.8.1.9 Avoid ending roads on vacant or undeveloped land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Figure 5.8.1.10 Ensure visibility of ablution facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.8.1.11 The image of the building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Figure 5.8.1.12 Plan for surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7iiChapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTHE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTALDESIGN IN PREVENTING CRIME INSOUTH AFRICAN CITIES AND TOWNSPreventing crime has become a key challenge togovernment in post-apartheid South Africa. However,a review conducted for the National Crime PreventionStrategy (NCPS) in 1997, of the extent to whichenvironmental design for crime prevention is beingimplemented, suggests that there is little experienceto draw from in South Africa. Design professionalsalso rarely use crime pattern analysis in the designprocess. Therefore, a careful regard of the extent towhich environmental design is being utilised toprevent crime is crucial if environmental designchanges are to address the real problems.In this regard, government’s core policy document, theNCPS, places environmental design firmly on theagenda. In addition, the White Paper on LocalGovernment expects local authorities to play a key rolein implementing two of the four focus areas of theNCPS, namely environmental design and promotingpublic values and education.Apart from government legislation, the public is alsopressurising local government to respond to the crimeissue. Communities participating in workshops todevelop Land Development Objectives (LDOs),required by the Development Facilitation Act, have inmany cases prioritised the need for greater safetyabove all other needs. Local and internationalbusiness interests have also highlighted the impact ofcrime on tourism and foreign investment. With this inmind, a focus on crime prevention throughenvironmental design is indeed warranted.Crime in South Africa affects different people andparts of the city in different ways. This has importantimplications for planning and the prioritisation ofdesign interventions. Crime patterns and trends inpoorer areas such as townships and informalsettlements differ from those in wealthier suburbs,which in turn differ from those in inner city areas.The poorer inhabitants of the city are generally mostvulnerable to violent crime, but they do experience asignificant proportion of property crime. Suburbanresidents are more likely to be the victims ofproperty crime, and they experience comparativelylow levels of violence. In inner city areas, violentcrimes targeting property predominate.Environmental design can make an impact on sometypes of crime in each of these settings, as well asalleviate the fear of crime.Given this present situation, the next section willshortly define the concept of crime preventionthrough environmental design. This will be followedby the fundamental principles of environmentaldesign to prevent crime, accompanied by some of theimportant recommendations to be considered whenapplying these principles to settlement planning.Finally, the application of these principles will behighlighted.THE CONCEPT OF CRIME PREVENTIONTHROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNThe notion of adapting and exploiting theenvironment, particularly the built environment, toassist with crime prevention is not new. Take, forexample, the defensive walls that were built aroundmedieval towns to protect the inhabitants fromintruders. This was, in effect, using environmentaldesign as part of a strategy to prevent crime.During this century numerous studies have beenconducted and many documents written on therelationship between environmental design and crime.Over the past 30 to 35 years, a number of schools ofthought have emerged around the idea of crimeprevention through environmental design. Theinternational literature and the main components ofrecent thinking on the subject are outlined in thefollowing South African publications, namely, Safer byDesign (Kruger et al 1997), Environmental Design forSafer Communities in South Africa (Napier et al 1998)and The History of Crime Prevention throughEnvironmental Design: A Comparative Study (Meyerand Qhobela 1998).Today, it is generally accepted that certain types ofcrime can be limited if the environment is designedappropriately. Design initiatives form an integral partof crime prevention strategies in countries likeCanada, the United Kingdom, the United States ofAmerica and The Netherlands. A great deal of researchon the topic has been done internationally andnumerous publications are available. However, littleresearch has been done as yet in South Africa.Environmental design as currently practised is oftenindistinguishable from target-hardening (for example,building higher walls and securing property againstcrime). Target-hardening is, however, only onecomponent of environmental design to prevent crime.Crime prevention through environmental design canbe defined as the implementation of measures toreduce the causes of, and the opportunities for,criminal events, and to address the fear of crimethrough the application of sound design andmanagement principles to built environments.Understanding crime is critical to its prevention.Whether or not a crime occurs depends on theinteraction of several elements. These elementsinclude the physical and social environment in which acrime occurs, the presence of active or passive forms ofsurveillance, the perpetrator, and the target or victimEnvironmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.11


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNof a crime. The form of the built environment caninfluence these elements and several design principlesare fundamental in designing to reduce crime.PRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTIONTHROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNA number of basic principles emerge as fundamentalin designing to reduce crime. While these principlesare universal in the design of safer environments, theyhave been adapted to suit the characteristics anddynamics of South African cities. Most of these citieswere shaped by apartheid planning principles, whichcontribute to the crime problems. With this in mind,crime prevention through environmental designbecomes an even greater challenge.The backdrop for these principles is, therefore, theSouth African city. This is the typical physical and socialsetting within which designers and decision makersare working, and fundamental restructuring is crucialif equitable and safer cities are to be achieved.Active surveillance refers to surveillance by police orother agents whose express function is to patrol an area.Surveillance is improved if there is good visibility.Visibility is the degree to which an environment ismade visible by elements such as lighting anduninterrupted lines of sight. Dark or twisting streets,alleys, entrances and doorways can act as havens forpotential offenders and increase residents’ andvisitors’ fear of crime. The way in which lighting isdesigned and positioned, and the way roads and pathsare laid out can obviate many of these problems andrender environments and users visible to anyone in theenvironment.The following are a number of the ways to ensuresurveillance.• Design and zone streets and squares to allow longhours of use and so act as organising elements forthe location of varieties of facilities.These basic principles are• surveillance and visibility;• territoriality and defensible space;• access and escape routes;• image and aesthetics; and• target hardening.These principles are applied throughrecommendations for crime prevention at three levels:city, neighbourhood and site. The following sectionwill highlight only a few of the recommendations forthe city and neighbourhood levels, since these aredirectly relevant to settlement-making. A morecomplete set of recommendations can be found in thepublication: Environmental Design for SaferCommunities in South Africa (Napier et al 1998).Surveillance and visibilityPassive surveillance is the casual observance of publicand private areas by users or residents in the course oftheir normal activities. It can also be referred to as thepresence of “protective eyes”. The extent of visualcontact people have with a space and whether theirpresence is visible determine whether they canintervene and whether users feel safe.Passive surveillance depends on a range of factorsincluding the placing of windows, doors and otheropenings, the distances between buildings, the sizes ofpublic spaces, vacancy rates and degrees and types ofuse. The zoning of city areas and the functionality ofbuildings are key elements in determining whetherprotective eyes are present day and night, or not.Multifunctional land uses, rather than monofunctionalzoning are required to ensure long hours of use.Figure 5.8.1.1 Increase opportunities for passivesurveillanceThese facilities can then ensure the presence ofprotective eyes, both in the day and at night.• Design neighbourhoods so that people areencouraged to intervene quickly and effectively tomodulate crime.This can be promoted in a number of ways - forexample, through the proximity of buildings to eachother; the number of people accommodated there;the orientation of the buildings and how this impactson surveillance; the design of shared entrances andaccess routes; the human scale of the area; and theprovision of inviting and well-defined outdoor spaceswhich are conducive to users meeting andcommunicating (see Hard Open Spaces (Sub-chapter5.3), specifically, functions of hard open space and usergroups).2Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• Ensure sufficient and adequate lighting is providedalong streets to improve surveillance.The more the street is used, the greater the potentialfor passive surveillance. Surveillance by pedestrians ismore effective than surveillance from passing cars. Allpaths and pedestrian routes should be in areas wherethere is surveillance, good lighting, controlledvegetation and high levels of activity (see MovementNetworks (Sub-chapter 5.1), specifically, mixedpedestrian-vehicle routes).• Locate small neighbourhood parks and otherpublic open spaces so that they can be overlookedby buildings and/or well-used streets.Figure 5.8.1.2 Importance of sufficient and adequatelightingThe lighting of public spaces improves surveillance andvisibility, allowing users to see and anticipate possibledanger. Lighting can also be used to guide peoplealong safer routes. Therefore, the pools of light fromstreetlights should overlap to form a continuous bandof light along pedestrian routes and in front ofentrances. The position of streetlights should alsocoincide with bus stops or, ideally, there should behigher levels of lighting at such places.• Encourage pedestrian traffic and direct peoplealong certain routes as this optimises passivesurveillance.Figure 5.8.1.4 Location of small open spacesIn order to optimise passive surveillance, the locationof small open spaces is important. As they serve aneighbourhood cohesion function, these spaces shouldbe strategically located within the neighbourhood (seeSoft Open Spaces (Sub-chapter 5.4), specifically, thelocation, size and dimension of parks).• Ensure high levels of visibility when landscapingparks, public squares or pedestrian routes.CorrectRoute layout facilitates pedestrian movementPedestrians takeshortcuts overprivate landRoute layout discourages pedestrian movementFigure 5.8.1.3 Route layout and pedestrianmovementWrongFigure 5.8.1.5 Landscaping and visibilityWhere possible, the entirety of an open space shouldbe visible to users of such a space and to passers-by.Trees, bushes and other landscape features canobstruct sight lines and provide cover for potentialoffenders and criminal activities, but if selected andmaintained properly, can ensure visibility.Environmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.13


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTerritoriality and defensible spaceThe comment has been made that residents of SouthAfrican cities should be encouraged to again assumeownership of their neighbourhoods. This is essentiallya case of territoriality. Territoriality is a sense ofownership of one’s living or working environments.Places can be designed and managed in ways thatencourage owners/users to take responsibility forthem through a concept such as “defensible space”.Spaces are defensible if people are able to exercisecontrol over them.The benefits of increased territoriality includeavoiding wasted or “dead” space through the use ofareas for explicit purposes, and the greater likelihoodof intervention by passive observers because they feelresponsible for their environments. The design ofbuilding edges and the delineation of boundaries tomark private, semi-public and public spaces make theuse of spaces unmistakable to people frequenting thecity and increase the chances that they will be ownedand maintained by their users.Figure 5.8.1.6 Identifiable neighbourhood character• Design a network of small neighbourhood parksrather than open spaces which are too large to beeffectively controlled by residents.Territoriality and defensible space can be encouragedin a number of ways.• Avoid tracts of vacant land without designateduses or control. All spaces should have an explicitpurpose and be the clear responsibility of someindividual or group.Open spaces without designated uses, which presentthemselves as vacant or abandoned land, are likely tobecome sites for crime. Land is one of the mostvaluable assets a city has. It should have value addedto it through its development rather than be allowedto become a drain on the city’s resources. Buffer stripsused to separate land uses, racial or income groups,degenerate into vacant land and should not beencouraged. Since this land does not “belong” toanyone, it is likely that no sense of ownership willdevelop, and no one will take any responsibility for it.• Design the public realm so as to increase people’sability to read the built environment. Create anidentifiable neighbourhood character through thelayout, architecture, street furniture, landscaping,as well as consistency in the approaches utilised.When people understand the language of the builtenvironment, their relationship to it improves. Thisreduces the fear of crime because people are able tolocate themselves in the neighbourhood, even if therefor the first time. The built environment also plays amajor role in establishing an identity. Betteridentification with the surrounding environment willincrease the sense of involvement and responsibilitypeople feel towards each other and, therefore, whathappens within this environment.Figure 5.8.1.7 Network of small neighbourhoodparksThe size of public open spaces impacts both onvisibility and the community’s ability to manage and“control” them. Large open spaces do not lendthemselves to a feeling of safety unless they canattract sufficient numbers of people and promote aconvivial atmosphere. Smaller open spaces or small4Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNparks linked through the street network allow peopleto pass through, stop and chat. Therefore, encouragethe establishment of more small open spaces ratherthan a few large but unmanageable ones. Thesurrounding communities should also be encouragedto take responsibility for these smaller public spacesthrough community committees which can befacilitated by local authorities.• The edges of public open spaces and privateproperties should be clearly defined so that bothresidents and passers-by can readily recogniseboundaries between public, semi-public andprivate spaces.• through the use of street furniture or otherprominent landmarks.Access and escape routesAccess and escape routes are available to both theoffender and the victim. Areas of safety that have highlevels of passive surveillance and public visibility canact as safe spaces for potential victims.The sites of certain types of criminal events are oftendeliberately chosen by the offender, before the act, foraccess to escape routes. Car highjackings are also oftenplanned to allow quick escape. The layout of transportroutes and the juxtaposition of different types ofspace influence the ease of access and escape. Areas ofrefuge (e.g. vacant land where people can hide) whichhave clear routes of escape from a crime are obvioushavens for offenders. An example would be tracts ofopen or agricultural land near a neighbourhood,where stolen goods from thefts can be hidden.There are a number of ways to limit easy access andescape routes for criminals and promote escape routesfor victims through environmental design.Figure 5.8.1.8 Clearly definable edgesThe definition of boundaries improves the potentialfor ownership to be understood and exercised overdifferent spaces (see Soft Open Spaces (Sub-chapter5.4), specifically, edges of parks and play spaces).There are a number of ways to define edges:• through planting;• with a low wall or fence;• through lighting;• by changing the surface level;• by using different surface materials; and• Carefully plan the location, size and design of largeopen spaces such as large parks and golf courses soas to avoid their becoming areas of refuge andescape for offenders.Open spaces that are not visible in their entirety and donot lend themselves to constant surveillance can presenta problem. Crime statistics suggest a correlationbetween the location of incidents of housebreaking andaccess to large open spaces. Both the size and locationof these areas are important factors to consider.• Avoid ending roads on vacant or undevelopedland. Rather ensure that these end at propertyedges, at controlled open spaces or in recognisedpedestrian paths.Figure 5.8.1.9 Avoid ending roads on vacant or undeveloped landEnvironmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.15


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNCuls-de-sac leading to and ending on vacant landprovide escape routes and should be avoided wherepossible. If there is control over dead ends by theimmediate residents, a degree of responsibility can beexercised over the public space.• Provide clearly marked and logical pedestrianroutes at transport interchanges, to exits, entrancesand other functions to avoid confusion and peoplewandering into unsafe areas. Also incorporateinformal traders into any crime preventionstrategy.roads, as well as cleaning of the roads and care of thelandscape, all have major implications for crimeprevention. Maintenance directly impacts on visibilityand access, as well as preventing places from becominglocations for criminal activity.• Toilet blocks in parks should be clearly visible fromall sides, designed as an attractive feature, wellmaintained and preferably near busy areas of theopen space.The entire modal interchange should be designed toprovide safe pedestrian routes. Opportunistic crimedepends largely on making use of a target’svulnerability. Struggling to find one’s way withoutdirections and wandering around aimlessly canincrease vulnerability. If routes are clearly marked, apotential victim can locate a route of escape moreeasily. Informal trading can also cause congestion andbottlenecks on pavements. This congestion increasesthe chances of crimes, such as pick-pocketing and bagsnatching,being committed. To circumvent thiscongestion, pedestrians have to walk in the road,resulting in increased danger and vulnerability. Ifinformal traders are incorporated into hawkersassociations and awarded designated areas at, forexample, transport interchanges, they can becomevaluable contributors to the passive policing of thepublic realm.Image and aestheticsThe image projected by buildings or public areas in thecity has been clearly linked to levels of crime andparticularly to the fear of crime. This link is oftenreferred to as “crime and grime”. Urban decay and theresultant degradation make people using these areasfeel unsafe.The design and the management of spaces in the cityare both important if precincts are not to becomeactual or perceived “hot spots” for crime. Vacant land,especially if not maintained, and unoccupied buildingsparticularly, contribute to decay as do uncleared litterand the breakdown of services.Figure 5.8.1.10 Ensure visibility of ablution facilitiesThe first impulse of designers is to hide ablutionfacilities and to design them as purely utilitarianstructures. Users then become vulnerable to attack.Features like walls or hedges around the facilitiesobstruct vision and provide hiding places for potentialoffenders and criminal activities.• When designing buildings or hard open spaces,take into account their public image, as well as thedurability and ease of maintenance of thematerials.The image of spaces can be improved by ensuringhuman scale in design, using attractive colours ormaterials, providing adequate lighting, and designingfor high levels of activity.The following, are some recommendations thataddress the issues of image and aesthetics.• Ensure effective maintenance if environmentaldesign interventions are to be successful inreducing crime.The functioning and maintenance of streetlights andFigure 5.8.1.11 The image of the building6Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe positioning of buildings in relation to the streetand the choice of materials create an image thatcontributes to, or detracts from, the character of thestreet and ultimately the character of the area. Amore friendly face projected towards the street or citysquare (hard open spaces) can encourage a sense ofsafety for pedestrians and, therefore, promote moreactivity in the street, square or other public open spacein front of it. It can also create a more human scaleand contribute to a specific environmental character.Together, these aspects can then increase a sense ofbelonging and security in users.• Design and manage buildings and public spaces sothat they can be easily maintained and kept “grimefree”.International research has shown that the appearanceof a public place affects perceptions of safety. Areaswhich are badly maintained and dirty increase the fearof crime. They may also encourage criminal activity,because such places show no clear ownership and adisinterested management unlikely to providesurveillance or security. The slogan “no grime, nocrime” refers to the positive impact of a cleanenvironment.Target-hardeningTarget-hardening is the physical strengthening ofbuilding facades or boundary walls to reduce theattractiveness or vulnerability of potential targets.Walls around houses and burglar bars on windows arethe most common examples.Target hardening is often the first solution that occursto residents and designers because it physically reducesopportunities for crime. However, the commonmistake is to violate other principles in the process. Iftarget-hardening in buildings obstructs lines of sightor provides unsurveyed havens, the hardening isunlikely to be an effective crime prevention strategy inthe long term.A positive way to promote target-hardening isthrough the application of appropriate barriers andfences.• Barriers such as garden fences and security wallsshould allow for surveillance and be visuallyattractive to reduce opportunities for, and alleviatethe fear of, crime.Figure 5.8.1.12 Plan for surveillanceHigh garden walls are not necessarily safe. On the onehand they make the street unsafe by reducingopportunities for passive surveillance from thebuilding behind. On the other hand, they make thebuilding or entire building complex unsafe as theyremove the possibility for passive surveillance by casualpassers-by or police patrols. Considering this, it isbetter to replace high walls with a more transparentfence or barrier. Setbacks and recesses in propertywalls can also become ideal places for potentialoffenders to hide and wait. This is especially pertinentin South Africa with the number of vehiclehighjackings occurring. Therefore, existing recessesshould be well lit at night and not contain shrubs thatcan provide cover.THE APPLICATION OF THEPRINCIPLES OF CRIME PREVENTIONTHROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGNThe most important point is that, in any givensituation, these principles all need to work together tobe effective as crime-preventive measures. At the sametime they need to be working along with otherplanning principles for the planning of wellfunctioningsettlements.It is unrealistic, however, to expect to be able toprevent all types of crime using the same methods, orthat crime prevention through environmental designalone can solve all types of crime. Therefore, a soundunderstanding of the crime patterns in a locality isessential in that particular types of crime can beaddressed through particular design responses. Giventhat crime patterns differ, interventions should notonly take into account the ease of implementation,but also consider which problems are more conduciveto resolution through design measures and, thus,where the impact is likely to be greatest.Environmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.17


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNFurthermore, an integrated planning approach isnecessary. A coordinated layout of roads, sites andbuildings will offer a greater chance for theachievement of a safer design.Crime prevention through environmental design canbe proactive or reactive. In other words, designprinciples can be applied at the initial design stage,anticipating potential problems, or implementedreactively as retrofit design changes once a problemhas developed. It is suggested that the preventiveapproach is more cost-effective.Related to this are the potential areas of application.As mentioned in Chapter 2, there are at present threegeneric urban conditions prevailing. These aregreenfield or undeveloped sites, urban restructuringand the upgrading of informal settlements. Theopportunity to incorporate crime prevention principlesshould be utilised when planning developments forthese conditions.Recent crime studies have identified three major areasfor intervention in terms of crime prevention andthese coincide with the three prevailing urbanconditions in need of attention. They are• preventive action (proactive crime preventivedevelopment) on undeveloped sites or areas;• inner city restructuring as part of overall urbanrestructuring; and• the upgrading of informal settlementsincorporating crime-preventive principles.In the past, interventions have largely focused on thewealthier parts of the city, where they are easier toimplement, rather than those areas with the greatestneed or where the most impact is likely. Identifyingappropriate areas and crime problems forenvironmental design to target requires detailedcase studies and the analysis of crime patterns inparticular localities.Those areas with the highest levels of crime in SouthAfrica - townships and informal settlements - couldbenefit most from focused environmental designinterventions as part of broader development andlocal crime prevention strategies. State interventionsin the built environment should prioritise those areaswhere planning has been lacking, or where existingfeatures are conducive to criminal victimisation.and, by implication, its growth and development.It must, however, be emphasised that crimeprevention measures are likely to have the greatesteffect when applied in the initial stages of newdevelopments. Development programmes aimed atan improved quality of life should be supported asthe most effective way of addressing both the causesof crime and the opportunities for crime. Forexample, adequately spacious housing with privacyfor the residents and appropriate communal spacesfor community socialisation, would go further inaddressing crime than attempts to intervene at alater stage.In South African cities some opportunities exist for thecreation of whole new precincts. Here the full rangeof urban design measures for safer places can bebrought to bear by planners and developers with theadded benefit of contributing to safer environments.The above recommendations dealing with crimeprevention are in most cases no different from basicdesign principles for well-functioning urbanenvironments. It is surprising then, that - whenanalysing city precincts in the country - many of theprinciples have been ignored to the detriment of thecity’s residents. What seems to be lacking is anawareness that cities, neighbourhoods, buildings andopen spaces can be designed to be safer.Communities are demanding safer living environmentsand local government is expected to deliver. Withinthis climate everyone involved should make adeliberate attempt to focus on incorporating crimeprevention strategies into current and futuredevelopment plans.Safety and security is not a luxury; it is a necessity.Safer environments for the few are not good enough.Therefore, the greatest challenge is to achieve safecities and towns for all their residents and, along withthem viable and sustainable communities. For this tohappen social crime prevention and safer design mustbecome an integral part of the culture of all peopleinterested in a better tomorrow and a safer lifestyle.In contrast to townships and informal settlements,areas like the inner city, often considered the naturaltargets of design interventions, have comparativelylow levels of certain crimes. But the crimes that areprevalent in these public places (for example muggingand robbery) are particularly likely to raise citizens’fear of crime. This impacts on the way the city is used8Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYBeck, A and Willis, A (1995). Crime and Security:Managing the risk to safe shopping. Perpetuity Press,Leicester.Bottoms, A E (1996). Environmental criminology inPreventing crime and disorder (targeting strategiesand responsibilities) edited by Trevor Bennett,University of Cambridge, Institute of Criminology.Cambridge Cropwood Series.Carter, R L and Hill, K Q (1979). The criminal’s image ofthe city. Pergamon, New York.Coleman, A (1985). Utopia on trial: Vision and reality inplanned housing. Hilary Shipman, London.Davidson, R N (1981). Crime and environment. CroomHelm, London.Eck, J E. (nd) Preventing crime at places.http://www.ncyrs.org/works/chapter7.htm.Eck, J E and Weisburd, D (eds) (1995). Crime and place.Crime prevention studies Vol. 4. Criminal Justice Press,New York and The Police Executive Research Forum,Washington D.C.Ekblom, P (1995). Less crime, by design. Annals of theAmerican Association of Political and Social Sciences,May, p 117.Ekblom, P and Pease, K (1995). Evaluating crimeprevention (Strategic approaches to crime prevention),Crime and Justice Journal, Vol 19.Ekblom, P (1996). Towards a discipline of crimeprevention: a systemic approach to its nature, rangeand concepts. In preventing crime and disorder(targeting strategies and responsibilities). Universityof Cambridge Institute of Criminology, CopwoodSeries, Cambridge.Ekblom, P (1997). Gearing up against crime: A dynamicframework to help designers keep up with theadaptive criminal in a changing world, InternationalJournal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention,October.Gardiner, R A (1978). Design for safe neighbourhoods.The environmental security planning and designprocess. National Institute for Law Enforcement andCriminal Justice, Law Enforcement AssistanceAdministration and United States Department ofJustice.Hirschfield, A and Bowers, K J. The development of asocial demographic and land use profiler for areas ofhigh crime. British Journal of Criminology. Vol 37, No 1.Jeffrey, C R (1977). Crime prevention throughenvironmental design. Sage, Beverly Hills.Jones, H U W (1993). Crime and the urbanenvironment. Avebury, Aldershot.Kruger, T, Meyer, T, Napier, M, Pascolo, E, Qhobela, M,Shaw, M, Oppler, S, Niyabo, L and Louw, A (1997). Saferby design. Towards effective crime prevention throughenvironmental design for South Africa. ISS MonographSeries, No 16, Nov.Meyer, T and Qhobela, M (1998). The history of crimeprevention through environmental design: Acomparative study. BOU/E9816. CSIR, Pretoria.Napier, M, Du Plessis, C, Liebermann, S, Kruger, T,Shaw, M, Louw, A and Oppler, S (1998). Environmentaldesign for safer communities in South Africa.BOU/E9814. CSIR, Pretoria.Newman, O (1972). Defensible space: Crimeprevention through urban design. Macmillan,London.Newman, O (1973). Architectural design for crimeprevention. US Department of Justice, LawEnforcement Assistance Administration and NationalInstitute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.Newman, O (1976). Design guidelines for creatingdefensible space. National Institute of LawEnforcement and Criminal Justice, Law EnforcementAssistance Administration and United StatesDepartment of Justice.Osborn, S and Bright, J (1989). Crime prevention andcommunity safety. A practical guide for localauthorities. National Association for the Care andResettlement of Offenders, London.Osborn, S and Shaftoe, H (1996). Crime - the localsolution: Current practice. Local GovernmentAssociation and The Local Government ManagementBoard, UK.Pease, K (1994). Crime Prevention in The Oxfordhandbook of criminology, Maguire, M (et al), pp 673-674. Caledon Press, Oxford.Poyner, B (1983). Design against crime - Beyonddefensible space. Butterworths, London.Poyner, B and Webb, B (1992). Crime free housing.Butterworth Architecture, Oxford.Residential development handbook for SnohomishCounty community: Techniques to increase liveability,affordability and community viability (1992). Preparedfor Snohomish County Tomorrow by MAKERSArchitecture and Urban Design.Environmental design for safer communities Chapter 5.8.19


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPutterill, M S and Bloch, C (1978). Providing for leisurefor the city dweller. UPRU, David Philip, Cape Town.Read, T and Oldfield, D (1995). Local crime analysis.Police Research Group, HMSO, London.Shearing, C D and Stenning, P C (1995). From thePanopticon to Disney World: the development ofdiscipline in Situational crime prevention - Successfulcase studies edited by Ronald V. Clarke. Harrow andHeston, New York.Stanley, P R A (1976). Crime prevention throughenvironmental design. Research report for the SolicitorGeneral of Canada.Taylor, B P and Harrel, A V (nd). Physical environmentand crime. http://www.aic.gov.au/index.html.Van der Hoek, L (1994). Handboek ruimtelijke aanpakvan sociale veiligheid en criminaliteitsperventie in degemeentelijke praktijk. by Ruimte-adviesbureau Area.Rotterdam: Uitgeverij Photh, Bussum.Van der Voordt, T J M (1997). Environmental designand crime prevention in the Netherlands - The Delftchecklist. Delft University of Technology, Faculty ofArchitecture. Paper presented at conference CrimePrevention: Towards a European Level. Noordwijk, TheNetherlands, 11-14 May.Wekerle, G R and Whitzman, C (1995). Safe cities -Guidelines for planning, design and management.Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Wilson, J Q and Kelling, G L (1982). Broken Windows.The Atlantic Monthly, March, Vol 249, No 3. pp 29-38.10Chapter 5.8.1Environmental design for safer communities


Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urbandevelopment5.8.2


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1CONCEPTS UNDERLYING ECOLOGICALLY SOUND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Carrying capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Cumulative impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Sustainable cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2ECOLOGICAL GUIDELINES FOR SETTLEMENT-MAKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Geological considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Hydrological considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Atmospheric considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Biodiversity considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Ecologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.2i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.8.2.1 Geotechnical classification for urban development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Table 5.8.2.2 Additional development costs due to geotechnical parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Table 5.8.2.3 Stormwater pollution for selected urban uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9LIST OF FIGURESFigure 5.8.2.1 The sequential nature of erosion, sedimentation and flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Figure 5.8.2.2 Encroachment into floodplains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..7Figure 5.8.2.3 Average percentage of impervious coverage by land use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8iiChapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONThis sub-chapter highlights some of the environmentalconcerns that need to be taken into considerationduring layout planning for local areas. This subchaptershould, due to its cross-cutting nature, be readin conjunction with all other chapters. Urbanmanagement strategies and technological solutionsare not addressed, and the guidelines are confined tomitigation through local layout planning. The aim is toprovide generic guidelines to create a generalawareness of environmental issues in local layoutplanning.The overall aim of ecologically sound urbandevelopment is to minimise the negative impact ofdevelopment on the environment, thus limiting theecological footprint of development while movingtowards greater sustainability over the longer term.The generic guidelines relate to the reciprocalrelationship between the natural environment andhuman settlement activities.CONCEPTS UNDERLYINGECOLOGICALLY SOUND URBANDEVELOPMENTCarrying capacityDespite technological sophistication, humankindremains in a state of “obligate dependence” on theproductivity and life-support services of the ecosphere.It is thus important for any development to takecognisance of the environment’s carrying capacitywhich is defined as its maximum persistentlysupportable load.The fundamental question for resource economics iswhether the physical output of remaining species andbiophysical processes, and the waste-assimilationcapacity of the ecosphere, are adequate to sustain theanticipated load of human economy into the nextcentury, while maintaining the general life-supportfunctions of the ecosphere.The impact of human settlements extends beyondtheir geographic locations. The true ecologicalfootprint of a city is the corresponding area ofproductive land and aquatic ecosystems required toproduce the resources used, and to assimilate thewastes produced by a defined population at aspecified material standard of living, wherever onearth that land may be.Cumulative impactIt is important to assess the natural environment usinga systems approach that will consider the cumulativeimpact of various actions. Cumulative impact refers tothe impact on the environment which results from theincremental impact of the actions when added toother past, present and reasonably foreseeable futureactions regardless of what agency or personundertakes such actions. Cumulative impacts can resultfrom individually minor but collectively significantactions taking place over a period.SustainabilitySustainable development implies the adoption of aholistic view of the interdependent relationshipbetween human society and the natural environment.It acknowledges the links between the impact ofhuman activities (particularly economic activities) onthe functioning of physical and social environments,and vice versa. Sustainable development is alsoconcerned with “development” - that is, the meetingof essential human needs and improvements in thequality of life. Sustainable development has beenpresented, therefore, as the means for providing anintegrating framework for the reconciliation ofhuman economic and social needs with the capacity ofthe environment to meet such needs in the long term.The most commonly quoted definition of sustainabledevelopment is attributed to the Brutland Report:“development that meets the needs of the presentgeneration without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs” (WorldCommission on Environment and Development 1990).Perhaps the most succinct description is provided byHolland (1992, p 242), who states that sustainabledevelopment: “is about recognising that this is theonly planet we’ve got. It requires that we giveconsideration to the rights of future generations tomake a living on the planet, and also to the rights ofother species to share the world”.Fowke and Prasad (1996, p 62) identified a number ofprinciples at the core of the sustainable developmentconcept. The principles include the following:• intergenerational and intragenerational equity -involves accepting that the current generationshould not leave a degraded environment for thenext generation, and recognition that equitywithin the present generation is a legitimate andnecessary goal;• integration of economy and environment -acknowledging the linkages between the health ofboth the economy and the natural environment;• dealing cautiously with risk, uncertainty andEcologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.21


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNirreversibility - adoption of the precautionaryprinciple and an anticipatory approach to potentialdevelopment impacts;• conservation of biological diversity - maintainingthe variety of life forms and ecological integrity;and• recognition of the global dimension - acceptingthat the impact of national, state and local policiesand activities is not spatially or temporallyconfined.No one of these principles can be given priority overthe others: such is the nature of theirinterdependence.Sustainable development is not a straightforwardconcept. It does not, therefore, provide us with simplelist of do’s and don’ts regarding human activities andthe environment. Moreover, it places the responsibilityback on society as a whole, rather than on science orsome other “rational” decision-making medium, tomake choices about how we live today, what kind oflife future generations will lead and howenvironmental quality (upon which human society is sofragilely dependent) will be maintained. It isincreasingly being recognised that local decisions holdthe key to the quality of life in the urban environmentand that linkages between urban and globalsustainability are growing in importance.Sustainable citiesIt is becoming increasingly obvious that the future ofthe world will be an urban one. But cities and urbanareas are also becoming the places whereenvironmental problems are concentrated.Expanding cities cause an ever-increasing loss inagricultural and bush land, introducing more andmore pollution into waterways and the atmosphere.Biodiversity and native vegetation are lost due tourban and agricultural expansion. Cities in thedeveloped world experience environmental problemssuch as pollution and congestion stemming fromwealth and over-consumption, while the urbanpopulace in the developing world is prone toenvironmental problems associated with extremepoverty and a lack of infrastructure. A poor qualityenvironment leads to apathy and ultimately toacceptance of crime.Despite it’s many flaws it also needs to be recognisedthat the city in itself is a valuable resource. The citysustains economic, social and cultural life as we knowit, and is a centre for innovation, economic growth,education and civilisation.ECOLOGICAL GUIDELINES FORSETTLEMENT-MAKINGThe following section provides guidelines forconsidering ecological factors when designing localliving areas to ensure the most suitable location ofdifferent land uses in a specific area.Geological considerationsUndertake a detailed geological survey of theareaIn approaching this task it is recommended that thedocument Guidelines for urban engineeringgeological investigations (1997), published jointlyby the South African Institute of Engineering andEnvironmental Geologists (SAIEG) and the SouthAfrican Institute of Civil Engineering (SAICE), bereferred to.An understanding of the geological characteristicsof a terrain is essential for settlementestablishment, for the following reasons:• there are different structural requirements forfoundations on different soil types (e.g.collapsible soil, clay, undermined areas);• the cost of development, suitable land uses anddensity of development differ for various soiltypes;• the geological features of the site determinethe drainage features and patterns and thelocation of aquifers;• slope and soil type indicate susceptibility toerosion; and• areas of seismic activity and radioactivity needto be identified.Van der Merwe (1997, p 6) describes the mostsuitable terrain conditions for urban developmentas having a smooth surface gradient with slope lessthan 12 degrees. This costs less to develop and canbe developed at higher densities with less effect onerosion. Accessibility should not be restricted bytopography (plateau areas). Suitable terrainsshould also have:• no potential for slope instability features (landslides, mud flows);• easy excavation for foundations and installationof services (normal depth of 1,5 m required);• foundations above the ground water level orperched water table, with adequatepermeability;2Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• development above the 1:50-year floodline;• adequate surface and subsurface drainageconditions, with minimal erosion potential;All these conditions need to be identifiedbeforehand, as they impact on the suitability (Table5.8.2.1) and development cost (Table 5.8.2.2) of thearea.• no problematic soils (for example heaving clays,compressible clays, sand with some collapsepotential, or dispersive soils) that will requireexpensive remedial measures, as well as nodamaging differential subsidence or movement(less than 5 mm total movement at the surfaceallowed);• no potential for surface subsidence due to thepresence of dolomite (sinkholes) orundermining; and• an area large enough to accommodate theprojected population growth.Table 5.8.2.1: Geotechnical classification for urban developmentCONSTRAINT MOST FAVOURABLE INTERMEDIATE LEAST FAVOURABLEA Collapsible soil Any collapsible horizon Any collapsible horizon A least favourable situationor consecutive horizons or consecutive horizons for this constraint doesless than 750 mm in more than 750 mm in not occur.depth.*depth.B Seepage Permanent or perched Permanent or perched Swamps and marshes.water table more than water table less than 1,5 m1,5 m below ground below ground surface.surface.C Active soil Low predicted soil-heave Moderate predicted High predicted soil-heavepotential.* soil heave potential. potential.D Highly Low expected soil Moderate expected soil High expected soilcompressible soil compressibility.* compressibility. compressibility.E Erodability of soil Low. Intermediate. High.F Difficulty of Scattered or occasional Rock or hardpan Rock or hardpanexcavation to 1,5 m boulders less than 10% pedocretes between 10 pedocretes more than 40%depth of the total volume. and 40% of the total of the total volume.volume.G Undermined Undermining at a depth Old undermined areas to a Mining within 100 m ofground greater than 100 m below depth of 100 m below the surface or where totalthe surface (except where surface where slope extraction mining hastotal extraction mining closure has ceased. taken place.has not occurred).H Instability in areas Possibly unstable. Probably unstable. Known sinkholes andof soluble rockdolines.Ecologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.23


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.8.2.1: Geotechnical classification for urban development (continued)CONSTRAINT MOST FAVOURABLE INTERMEDIATE LEAST FAVOURABLEI Steep slopes Between 2 and 6 degrees Slopes between 6 and 18 More than 18 degrees(all regions). degrees and less than 2 (Natal and Western Cape).degrees (Natal and More than 12 degreesWestern Cape).(all other regions).Slopes between 6 and12 degrees and less than2 degrees (all otherregions).J Areas of unstable Low risk. Intermediate risk. High risk (especially innatural slopeareas subject to seismicactivity).K Areas subject to 10% probability of an Mining-induced seismic Natural seismic activityseismic activity event less than 100 cm/s 2 activity more 100 cm/s 2 . more than 100 cm/s 2 .within 50 years.L Areas subject to A “most favourable” Areas adjacent to a Areas within a knownflooding situation for this known drainage channel drainage channel orconstraint does not occur. or floodplain with slope floodplain.less than 1%.* These areas are designated as 1A, 1C, 1D, or 1F areas where localised occurrences of the constraint may arise.Source: SAIEG (1997)Table 5.8.2.2: Additional development costs due to geotechnical parametersPARAMETER CLASS 2 CLASS 3A Collapsible soil + 10% on infrastructure + 20% on Infrastructure+ 10% on building development + 20% on building developmentB Seepage + R7 000 per hectare under (4) + R20 000 per hectare under (4)ReclamationReclamationC Active soil + 10% on infrastructure + 20% on infrastructure+ 10% on building development + 20% on building developmentD Highly compressible soil + 10% on infrastructure + 20% on infrastructure+ 10% on building development + 20% on building developmentE Erodability of soil + 5% on roads and streets + 5% on roads and streets+ 5% on drainage + 5% on drainageF Difficulty of excavation to 1,5 m + 12,5% on water supply + 12,5% on water supply+ 12,5% on sanitation + 12,5% on sanitationG Undermined ground + 10 - 20% on infrastructure + 30 - 40% on infrastructure+ 10 - 20% on building + 30 - 40% on buildingdevelopmentdevelopment4Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTable 5.8.2.2: Additional development costs due to geotechnical parameters (continued)PARAMETER CLASS 2 CLASS 3H Instability on soluble rocks + 30 - 40% on infrastructure Not feasible - life threatening+ 30 - 40% on buildingdevelopmentI Steep slopes + 25% on infrastructure + 50% on infrastructure+ 5% on building development + 15% on building developmentJ Areas of unstable natural slopes + 25% on infrastructure + 50% on infrastructure+ 5% on building development + 15% on building developmentK Areas subject to seismic activity + 10% on building development + 20% on building developmentL Areas subject to flooding + 5% on total development + 10% on total developmentSource: Williams (1993)Identify geological materials with economicvalueIdentify, describe and quantify geological materialswith economic value (ecological resources) such asconstruction materials, through an engineeringgeological investigation. Sand (calcareous) can beused as building sand and general fill material.Sand (silica) is used for glass-making, foundry sand,metallurgical uses, sand-blasting, filter sand, paintand filler manufacture, tile manufacture,adhesives, and standard sands for use inlaboratories. Calcrete is used in cementmanufacturing and as a road aggregate.For low-income developments, assess thepotential and appropriateness of the localgeological materials for their use in unsealedroadsThrough the assessment of the geological structureof local materials, their stage of weathering, thelocal hydrological conditions and climate, anengineering geologist would be able to selectappropriate materials for use in unsealed roads.Unsealed roads, being dynamic systems, areaffected far more by traffic, environmental andmaterial conditions than sealed roads. The materialis probably the principal component of the totalsystem affecting performance and behaviour.The requirements of durable coarse materials havebeen identified as follows (Paige-Green 1997):• an ability to provide an acceptably smooth andsafe road surface without excessivemaintenance (i.e. freedom from corrugation,potholes, ruts and oversize material);• stability in terms of resistance to deformationunder both wet and dry conditions (i.e.essentially resistance to ruts and shearing);• an ability to shed water without excessivescouring;• resistance to the abrasive action of traffic anderosion by wind and water;• freedom from excessive dust;• freedom from excessive slipperiness in wetweather without causing excessive tyre wear;and• low cost and ease of maintenance.To fulfil these requirements, durable coarsematerials must have• suitable particle-size distribution;• appropriate cohesion;• adequate material strength; and• adequate aggregate hardness.Assess the risk of developing on shallowdolomiteA geological survey should be undertaken toassess the risk of development on high riskshallow dolomite. Shallow dolomite is a particularcause for concern where the absence of aprotective overburden blanket and the presenceof joints and dykes leave an area highlyvulnerable to sinkhole formation. The geologicalhazard in shallow dolomite conditions appears tobe broadly related toEcologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.25


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• the depth of dolomitic bedrock;• the nature of overlying material; and• the nature of the joints and dykes in thedolomitic bedrock.There are moral and financial implications tovarious parties if development proceeds ondolomite. Chapter 6 provides a list of generalprecautions for such developments.Identify areas with potential subsidence dueto undermining or reworked groundThe development potential (height of buildings)can be restricted on undermined areas.Alternatively, additional development costs couldbe incurred due to the additional reinforcementrequired in foundations.Assess the erosion potential of an area byassessing the local rainfall pattern, prevailingwind direction, vegetation and soil typeAreas with a high erosion potential should bedeveloped at lower densities, with more permeablesurfaces. The removal of vegetation and topsoil byconstruction vehicles accelerates natural processessuch as runoff, streamflow and erosive siltation(sedimentation) downstream, resulting in higherflooding potential and the decreased ecologicalfunctioning of streams. Slope, soil type andvegetation are the main factors controllingoverland flow. The interaction between thesefactors should be assessed before developmenttakes place (Figure 5.8.2.1).Hydrological considerationsThis section is complementary to Chapter 6, in whichthe detailed design and management of thestormwater system are described.Identify groundwater recharge zonesGroundwater recharge zones (wetlands andaquifers) should preferably not be developed, orthey should at least be appropriately developed (atlower densities with appropriate land uses) toallow for the infiltration of water.The following activities can pollute thegroundwater and special precautionary measuresshould be taken with regard to their location:• landfills discharge leachate that may containorganic compounds like methane and benzene(residential garbage) or trace elements like zinc,chromium and lead (industrial landfills);• some urban stormwater runoff infiltrates thewater table and contaminates thegroundwater;• failures in septic tank systems release sewageeffluent into the surrounding soil, and thegroundwater downslope of such systems istherefore vulnerable to contamination;• spills and leakages of petroleum products(petrol and diesel storage tanks) are knownsources of groundwater and soil pollution;• mining operations interfere with thegroundwater and often degrade its quality; and• the use of pesticides in agricultural activitiesposes a water-pollution threat.Severity of problemErosionBeforedevelopmentFigure 5.8.2.1: The sequential nature of erosion,sedimentation and floodingSource: Walesh (1989)DuringdevelopmentFloodingAfterdevelopmentIdentify the 1:50-year floodline andfloodplains around riversNo development should be allowed in the 1:50-year floodline determined by an engineer, mainlyfor safety reasons and the protection of property.The requirements laid down by the NationalBuilding Regulations and Building Standards Act(Act 103 of 1977) in terms of development withinthe 1:50-year floodline area are based only onsafety considerations without proper considerationand understanding of the underlying naturalstreamflow processes. The Town Planning andTownships Ordinance (Ordinance 15 of 1986) alsomakes provision in Regulation 44(3) for theextension of floodline areas up to 32 m from thecentre of a stream in instances where the 1:50-yearfloodline is less than 62 m wide in total. In order to6Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNimprove this situation and to prevent backfillingand encroachment, additional measures will haveto be implemented. These measures and guidelinescould include the following:• The 1:50-year floodline restriction should beseen as a minimum requirement for safetyreasons only.• Buffer zones with a minimum width of 10 mshould be provided between the 1:50-yearfloodline area (32 m) and any proposeddevelopment, to ensure that no developmenthas a direct impact on the natural flow of riversand streams. No earthworks should be allowedwithin the buffer zone of any development.• Where the 1:50-year floodline (32 m) and the10 m buffer strip is not sufficient to cover areasfrequently inundated by streamflow, additionalland should be excluded from development toensure that the stream and its natural processesare not directly impacted upon by a singledevelopment, to the detriment of all otherdevelopments upstream or downstream.• In principle, properties that are severelyimpacted upon by floodlines, buffer zones andwetland areas should not be modified toincrease the development area. Increasedrights to the remaining area that could bedeveloped should be investigated.• Stormwater management on site shouldbecome the norm rather than the exceptionthroughout the entire catchment basins ofurban streams, as development on every sitecontributes to urban stormwater runoff. Thesites adjacent to streams are usually the onesmost affected by a lack of stormwatermanagement throughout the drainage basin.• The floodplain has the potential to be utilisedfor urban agriculture, if carefully managed (SeeChapter 2).No backfilling should be allowed in the 1:50-year floodline. No concrete channelling ofrivers should be permittedLand adjacent to streams is usually sought after bydevelopers for high-density developments orbusiness developments. In order to gain morevaluable land for development it is commonpractice to modify the 1:50-year floodplain byfilling it up, thereby creating artificially steepstream banks of highly erodable material (Figure5.8.2.2). The cumulative impact of these practicesand the total disregard for geomorphological andhydrological processes have disastrous effectsduring flooding. Further engineering efforts toreduce flooding - such as levees, concrete channels,damming and piping further destroy stream bedsand habitats like ponds and wetlands.Figure 5.8.2.2: Encroachment into floodplainsSource: Walesh (1989)Ecologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.27


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe volume of water that runs down these streamswill at least be constant or increase, due todevelopment within its catchment area.Modification to the floodline on one side of thestream will have a direct effect on the position ofthe floodline on the opposite side of the stream.Consecutive backfilling and 1:50-year floodlinemodifications usually result in very narrow, steepartificial stormwater sewers replacing urbanstreams and their associated ponding areas such aswetlands, which cater for storm events and bankovertopping.This type of modification is especiallyevident on commercial and business sites withstream frontage and it is usually required thatmore land for development must be provided andthat parking requirements are adhered to.Reduce imperbeable surface coverNew towns and suburbs are usually established onvacant land or natural veld on the outskirts ofexisting urban areas. In terms of hydrology, thesevacant areas have not been extensively modified interms of permeability, vegetation cover, and soilcompactness, and the runoff from these sites canbe accommodated by the existing stream channelsand floodplains. Water loss through runoff isminimal in natural areas, compared to developedareas.The development of single units on large erven,results in an increase in stormwater runoff due tothe change from largely pervious surfaces on site toimpervious surfaces.Land subdivision causes increased densities andincreased impervious surface coverages, resulting inhigher stormwater runoff from the site. As intensityof land use increases, so the amount of impervioussurface tends to increase (Figure 5.8.2.3).Due to the variety of residential types, townplanningschemes differentiate betweenresidential use mainly in terms of the number ofunits (density) per erf or hectare. Use is controlledby factors such as the height, coverage and floorarea ratio applicable to the site.The introduction of paving on residential sites isnot covered by the “coverage” definition and istherefore totally ignored. Paved driveways,parking areas, hard landscaping, pools and tenniscourts all add to the list of impervious surface areason residential sites that are not at present takeninto consideration in assessing applications forresidential development. In theory, these pavedareas could increase the impermeability of a site to100%, especially in areas of high-densitytownhouse or cluster developments with restrictedspace for gardening.Roads (including street surfaces, sidewalks anddriveways) are a major contributor to impervioussurfaces in residential areas - 63% and 65%respectively for high density and multifamilydevelopments (Real Estate Research Corporation1974, p 174).Increased impermeability is not only directlyrelated to increased runoff, it has also been shownto have a direct relationship with the pollutantloading of stormwater. The pollutant loading ofstormwater increases with the percentage ofimpervious cover (Marsh 1991, p 161).Different land-uses, residential densities and100Persent impervious908070605040302010065383025201 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/8Residential lot size (acres)75Industrial85Commercial95ShoppingcentresFigure 5.8.2.3: Average percentage of impervious coverage by land use8Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNpercentage of impermeable cover all result indifferent pollution loadings. (Table 5.8.2.3).Limit stormwater runoff from parking sitesIt is accepted that provision will have to be madefor private vehicle parking, even in areas wherepublic transport services are provided and wherethe design and locality of business areas encouragepedestrian use. The design of these parking areascould be improved, especially in terms of drainageand water pollution. Parking areas are designedand constructed as sealed surfaces in order to drainstormwater effectively to the nearest stormwatersewer or culvert and from there to the neareststream. Polluted stormwater from these parkingareas finds its way into the nearest stream, whereit decreases water quality and increases erosionand flooding downstream.Various methods are presently being used to solvethe problem of impermeable parking lots. Thesemethods range from permeable grass paving tobioswales and porous parking surfaces, such asgravel (Thompson 1996, p 60).Bioswales have been used successfully inminimising the effect of stormwater runoff fromparking areas as well as for filtering pollutionelements. In essence, bioswales refer to a series oflinear retention basins that move the runoff fromparking lots as slowly as possible, along a gentleincline planted with indigenous vegetation. Thevegetation, as well as check-dams at intervals,causes the runoff to pond and infiltrate throughthe topsoil and plant roots into the water table.This process prevents rapid runoff and also filtersout certain pollutions. It has been estimated thatthese bioswales could draw off about 21 mm ofrainfall over a 24-hour period, and that 60-70% ofthe suspended solids that cause water pollutioncould be captured by this system (Thompson 1996,p 62).Porous parking surfaces such as gravel could alsobe used to improve the infiltration of rainwater,especially in conjunction with asphalt driving lanes.The parking areas or stalls consist of gravel whilethe lanes in between are constructed of normalasphalt or other hard-wearing, impermeablematerial.The potential impact of parking areas associatedwith large-scale business and commercialdevelopments should be minimised by reducing thenumber of bays required, secondly by taking intoaccount that multiple-storey parking garages aremore desirable and thirdly, by using various designsand materials such as described above to furtherminimise the effects of parking lots on runoff andpollution.More detailed design guidelines for parking spacescan be found in Sub-chapter 5.3, which deals withhard open spaces.Chapter 6 provides a more detailed description ofland uses that have the potential to pollute waterresources.Table 5.8.2.3: Stormwater pollution for selected urban usesLAND USE DENSITY a NITROGEN b PHOSPHORUS b LEAD b ZINC bResidential, large lot (1 acre) 12% 3,0 0,3 0,06 0,20Residential, small lot (0,25 acre) 25% 8,8 1,1 0,40 0,32Townhouse apartment 40% 12,1 1,5 0,88 0,50High rise apartment 60% 10,3 1,2 1,42 0,71Shopping centre 90% 13,2 1,2 2,58 2,06Central business district 95% 24,6 2,7 5,42 2,71abBased on percentage of the land covered by impervious (hard surface) material.Pounds per acre of land per year.Source: Marsh (1991)Ecologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.29


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNThe layout plan should make provision for anappropriate level of sanitation servicesIt is only when services such as access roads, water,electricity, sewer, stormwater management andsolid-waste removal are available that a particularland-use can reach its full potential.Many studies indicate that high-density residentialdevelopment without adequate services (informalsettlements) is a major threat both to humanhealth and ecosystem functioning. Contaminationof stormwater runoff by high levels of nutrient andfaecal bacterial loads and litter, mainly frominformal settlements, create a more serious threatto water quality than the discharge from a sewageworks.The adequate provision of services during theconstruction and development of residential areasis, however, not the end of the process. Continuousmonitoring and maintenance of these systems is ofthe utmost importance.Developed areas with acceptable levels of modernsanitation can also contribute significantly torunoff pollution. This is primarily a consequenceof poor maintenance, which results in leakingsewers, especially during dry weather, when theseleaking sewers contribute to the maintenance offlow in streams. During rain events poorconstruction and maintenance of sewers andmanholes result in stormwater runoff infiltratingthe sewer system. This overloads the sewersystem, with resultant overflow of sewerageeffluent onto the land surface and potential“flooding” of the wastewater treatment works byexcessive inflow (Jagals 1997, p 33).Both a lack of services and poorly maintainedservices pose or cause risk to human and animallife. The following measures can help reduce thecost of services, and improve their performance:• design layouts to reduce the length andtherefore the cost of providing services;• inform and educate the residents about thefunction and use of urban services;• provide services that are cost-effective, both interms of installation and maintenance;• provide a level of service that is affordable tothe residents and acceptable to the localauthority; and• incorporate stormwater design in theresidential layout design, which should bedesigned in harmony with the topography andnatural features.Refer to Chapter 10 for options for - and theimplications of - alternative sanitation systems.Atmospheric considerationsThe orientation and layout of erven shouldprovide for north-facing housing unitsTopographic aspects such as the slope andorientation of the site play a role in the solarenergy gain or loss enjoyed in houses. Adevelopment on a steep south-facing slope will becolder than a similar development on the otherside of the hill because it receives less solarradiation (see also Chapter 12.2).Reduce the abundance of concrete andasphalt, and increase the amount ofvegetation and open waterThis will create higher volumetric heat capacitiesand greater rates of latent heat flux, therebylowering air temperatures. Urbanisation can causesignificant changes in atmospheric conditions nearthe ground. In heavily built-up areas of largercities, these changes extend hundreds of metersabove the ground, producing a distinct climatevariant - the urban climate. Generally speaking,the urban climate is warmer, less well lighted, lesswindy, foggier, more polluted and often rainierthan the regionwide climate. The desirableclimatic effects of vegetated areas provide therationale for the inclusion of parks and greenbeltsin the urban area.Determine the prevailing wind direction ofthe area and orientate erven and movementnetworks accordinglyWind exposure promotes heat loss in winter, butcan be used for ventilation and cooling in warmerclimates. In addition, the prevailing wind directionhas an influence on the dispersion of dust, noiseand odour. Avoid creating windtunnels andprovide windbreaks in the form of trees in areaswith high winds.Consider the location of industrial areasupwind of the living areaMost industrial emissions of air pollutants arereferred to as point sources, which means that theycome from a localised source. The ambient or“surrounding” levels of air pollutants from pointsources depend on:• the distance from the plant;• the properties of the chemicals involved;• the local topography; and• the atmospheric conditions.10Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPromote the use of public transport (see alsoSub-chapter 5.2)The incomplete combustion of fossil fuels by motorvehicle emissions are a major source of air pollutionassociated with urban development. Significantemissions of greenhouse gases and respiratoryirritants are emitted by diesel and petrol vehicles.Traffic-dense urban areas with high hydrocarbonand nitrogen oxide emissions lead to the formationof ozone and photochemical smog.The amount of air pollution generated will usuallydepend on the frequency of private vehicle travel,the distances travelled and the congestionexperienced during a trip. The most serious airpollution from motor vehicles typically occursduring morning rush hour, due to substantialcongestion, increased pollution caused by coldengines and the more static nature of coldmorning air.At local level, traffic control should aim to providean even traffic flow to reduce the air pollutioncaused by vehicles stopping and pulling away. Thiscan be done by having fewer stop signs and bysynchronising traffic lights on major roads.Higher-density areas with sufficient publicfacilities within walking distance could result inincreased pedestrianisation and a decline inprivate vehicle use.Parking requirements should be investigated indetail to evaluate their contribution to people’sinclination to travel by car rather than use othermodes of transport. Where no fee is charged forparking at major business and commercial nodes,this encourages private vehicle movement.Consider noise sources taking into accounttemperature, prevailing wind direction andlocal topographyAlthough excessive noise levels could be generatedduring construction it should be recognised thatbusiness/commercial nodes could also generatenoise on a continuous basis during normaloperation. Vehicle movement, especially heavydelivery vehicles after hours, could create noisenuisance. Promotions at shopping centresincluding loud music and or restaurants open tilllate could be the cause of complaints fromsurrounding residents.• The screening of walls and thick vegetationcould reduce/contain the impact of noise to acertain extent.• Noise impact assessments might becomemandatory for all major shopping centre andentertainment complexes.• Additional measures, such as the soundproofingof venues, might become standard procedure,especially for entertainment venues.• Time limits could be placed on the duration ofconcerts.Consider the provision of buffer zones aroundland uses that generate excessive levels ofnoise, dust or odourBuffer zones around industries, to limit the impactof emissions ranging from gases and odours tonoise and light spill, are seldom used in SouthAfrica and are poorly developed. Buffer zones areusually required where residential and industrialland-uses are located side by side. It is generallyaccepted that levels of emissions decrease, or arediluted, with increasing distance from a source. Asafe distance could in theory be determined for aparticular industry type, where emission levels onits boundary would be considered acceptable inresidential areas.Such buffer zones are commonly associated withwastewater treatment plants in South Africa. Abuffer distance of 1 000 m from the building thatgenerates the emissions is the norm in GreaterJohannesburg at present. Offensive odours areusually the reason for the establishment of thesebuffer zones around wastewater treatment plants.Apart from buffer zones surrounding mine-tailingdams (1 000 m), and buffer zones around nuclearfacilities (up to 18 km for Koeberg), no bufferdistance guidelines for a range of industriescausing off-site impacts exist to assist urbanmanagers in South Africa. Careful thought has tobe given to the design and management of bufferzones to prevent their becoming hideouts orescape routes for criminals and scenes of criminalactivity (see Sub-chapter 5.8.1).Biodiversity considerationsAreas with a high degree of biodiversityshould be developed as open spaces or lowdensityresidential areasThe impact of residential development on soil,vegetation and wildlife is mostly associated withthe large areas of vacant land, usually at the edgeof urban areas, that are required for residentialdevelopment.Natural vegetation (veld) is also heavily impactedupon by expanding urban areas - a process knownas “urban creep”. Residential development is lesssensitive to steep gradients, rock, and various soilEcologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.211


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNtypes. It is therefore found on land which is notsuitable for most other urban land-use. Thedevelopment of vacant land (veld) for residentialuse results in the destruction of the habitats ofvarious kinds of wildlife. Gardens and lawns mayattract a variety of wildlife, but are seldom areplacement for the species that once inhabitedthe area.The negative effects of development onbiodiversity can, however, be limited byappropriate densities, careful site planning anddesign.The development of sites near urban rivers andstreams, or the incorporation of these streams inlandscape proposals, is a further cause for concern.Natural systems such as streams have been formedand have evolved over thousands of years in directrelationship to the surrounding topography, soiltype and vegetation cover. Extensive vegetationclearing and levelling usually changes theimmediate topography to such an extent that thenatural watercourses may cease to exist. Extensivelandscaping of urban streams to “fit in” with theproposed development usually results in thecreation of a dam or large enough water feature tocreate the very popular “waterfront” type ofdevelopment. The mere construction of a dam in afree-flowing stream has an impact on aquatic life,water temperature, stream velocity, sediment loadand water quality.Sites containing streams, rocky outcrops andindigenous vegetation of note should be carefullyconsidered and, if possible, incorporatedsuccessfully and sensitively into the settlement.12Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNBIBLIOGRAPHYArnold, C L and Gibbons, C J (1996). Impervious surfacecoverage - The emergence of a key environmentalindicator. Journal of the American PlanningAssociation. Spring, pp 243-258.Brink, E (1998). Ecologically Sound UrbanDevelopment. Unpublished report. CSIR, Pretoria.Fowke, R and Prasad, D K (1996). Sustainabledevelopment, cities and local government. AustralianPlanner, Vol 33, No 2, pp 61-66.Holland, I (1992). “The new ethnic” in J Smith (ed) Theunique continent, University of Queensland Press,Queensland, pp 239-245.Jagals, P (1997). Stormwater runoff from typicaldeveloped and developing South African urbandevelopments - definitely not for swimming. WaterScientific Technology, 35 (11-12) pp 133-140.Marsh, W M (1991). Landscape planning:environmental applications. John Wiley, New York.Mugavin, D (1995). Environmental design of off-streetcar parks. Australian Planner. 32 (4), pp 228-232.Paige-Green, P (1997). Geological materials forunsealed roads. Proceedings on the Conference forGeology for Engineering, Urban Planning and theEnvironment, 12-14 November.Real Estate Research Corporation (1974). Cost ofsprawl - Environmental and economic cost ofalternative residential development patterns at theurban fringe.SAIEG (1997). Guidelines for urban engineeringgeological investigations.Thompson, W (1996). Let that soak in. LandscapeArchitecture. November, pp 60-67.Van der Merwe, D S (1997). Extended Phase 1engineering geological investigations for structureplans in the South African context. Proceedings on theConference for Geology for Engineering, UrbanPlanning and the Environment, 12-14 November.Walesh, S G (1989). Urban surface water management.John Wiley, New York.White, K D and Meyers, A L (1997). Stormwatermanagement. Civil Engineering. July, pp 50-51.Williams, A A B (1993). Cost modelling of geotechnicalfactors in terrain evaluation. CSIR, Pretoria.World Commission on Environment & Developmentand Commission for the Future (1990). Our commonfuture (Australian edition), Oxford University Press,Melbourne.Ecologically sound urban development Chapter 5.8.213


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN14Chapter 5.8.2Ecologically sound urban development


Chapter 5.8.3Fire safety5.8.3


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PURPOSE OF THIS SUB-CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1THE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PRINCIPLES OF FIRE SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2EXISTING REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Requirements in terms of SABS 0400:1990 formal legislation for buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Agrément Certification and MANTAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2GUIDELINES FOR FIRE SAFETY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Create awareness of fire safety during the stakeholder participation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Ensure adequate space between groups of buildings to limit the spread of fire, to provideescape and to provide access for fire-fighting equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Ensure adequate space between individual buildings to reduce the spread of fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Land-use arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Adequate water provision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Fire safety Chapter 5.8.3i


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNLIST OF TABLESTable 5.8.3.1 Safety distance recommendations for combustible and non-combustible walls inrelation to size of wall opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3iiChapter 5.8.3Fire safety


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNINTRODUCTIONAs more and more people congregate closer and closertogether in settlements as urbanisation increases, risksassociated with fire increase. In the case of moreformal settlements, the National Building Regulations,SABS 0400-1990 Part T, first published in 1987, controlfire safety in buildings, considerably limiting theincidence and spread of fires in formal areas, as well asthe damage caused by fires. It is in the case of moreinformal settlements, where fires have more recentlyhad devastating effects on life, shelter, livelihood andpossessions. By their very nature, informal settlementsare more susceptible to fire hazard due to:• high building and occupancy densities with limitedopen areas between units;• a lack of - or limited - electricity services(necessitating the use of flammable fuels andopen-flame cooking and lighting);• the use of combustible building materials;• poor structural stability;• poor road surfaces unable to carry fire-fightingequipment;• the lack of sufficient on-site water; and• often, the settlements’ location in flat, wind-sweptareas.During the two-year period from 1 September 1994 to30 September 1996, a public media search by theInstitute for Contemporary History at the University ofthe Orange Free State, revealed a total of 39 fireshaving occurred in informal settlements throughoutSouth Africa, causing 31 deaths, destroying almost4 000 informal dwellings and leaving nearly 20 000people homeless (CSIR, 1996). Of the fires, 45% hadbeen deliberately started, 8% were accidental and inthe remaining 35%, the cause was undetermined.Weather conditions, particularly dry and windyconditions, played a role in 40% of the fires. From thelimited statistics available, it is obvious that fire safetyshould be a crucial element of settlement planningand design. Fires, whether accidental or malicious, willalways be a factor with which any community has tocontend. The focus of the guidelines is therefore onhow to limit their extent and impact on thecommunity by means of layout planning and design.PURPOSE OF THIS SUB-CHAPTERAlthough layout planning and design is only one of anumber of measures which can be taken to contributeto fire safety in settlements, the purpose of this sectionis to bring about an awareness of fire safety insettlement planning and design, and to make explicitthe settlement layout considerations that can reducethe incidence, spread and damaging consequences offires. Fire-safety issues are inherent to other parts ofthe guidelines. Specific aspects pertaining to fire safetyin terms of emergency balancing requirements areincluded in Chapter 8 (water supply). Many of thespecific guidelines relating to the provision of hardand soft open spaces (5.3 and 5.4), movementnetworks (5.1), subdivision (stand size) (5.6), and thelocation of public facilities and utilities (5.5 and 5.7)implicitly support and enhance fire safety insettlements. This fire safety section attempts tointroduce fire safety as a cross-cutting issue, worthy ofreceiving pertinent attention in a range of settlementdimensions in its own right.THE PROBLEMThe problem of fire in human settlements can bedisaggregated into:• cause of the fire;• spread of the fire;• escape from the fire; and• fire-fighting.Fire in human settlements is caused predominantlyaccidentally, usually in relation to the use of variousfuel types for open-flame cooking, lighting andheating, but also deliberately as public violence andarson. Fire-safety education and law and order can bethe major factors in reducing the causes of fires.Settlement planning and design would not play amajor role in limiting the incidence of fires other thanin introducing fire safety as an issue in theparticipation process.Once a fire has begun, its spread is influenced bynatural factors such as wind and topography. In hillyareas, settlements tend to be more dispersed, reducingthe spread of fire, but high wind speeds canexacerbate its spread. Building density (in relation tothe distances between buildings and groups ofbuildings), the use of combustible building materialsfor wall and roofs, and structural instability, all have aconsiderable influence on the spread of fire and one’sability to escape.The ability to fight the fire depends on access tosufficient water, and access routes for fire-fightingequipment and vehicles.Settlement planning and design has limited influenceon reducing the incidence of fire, but can significantlyaffect its subsequent spread, one’s ability to escapefrom the fire, and the fighting of the fire.Fire safety Chapter 5.8.31


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGNPRINCIPLES OF FIRE SAFETYThe aims of implementing measures to limit theincidence and spread of fires are:• to ensure the safety of people, minimising loss oflife and injury;• to minimise loss of - and damage to - property andpossessions; and• to minimise the negative impact on theenvironment.EXISTING REQUIREMENTSExisting formal requirements in terms of laws andguidelines relate predominantly to buildings, andinclude requirements of buildings in relation to eachother. This has implications for layout planning anddesign. Also, principles applicable at the building levelcan be applied and adapted to the layout level. Whereappropriate, existing requirements are incorporatedinto the guidelines presented below.Requirements in terms of SABS 0400:1990formal legislation for buildingsAll buildings erected within the boundaries of the RSA,from a fire safety point of view, should comply withPart T, Fire Protection, of SABS 0400:1990 - Theapplication of the National Building Regulations. Thefollowing requirements from sub-paragraph (1) of thegeneral requirements of Regulation T1 areappropriate to, and can be adapted for, settlementplanning and design:• Any building shall be so designed, constructed andequipped that in case of fire:- the protection of occupants or users therein isensured and that provision is made for the safeevacuation of such occupants or users;- the spread and intensity of such fire within suchbuilding and the spread of fire to any otherbuilding will be minimised; and- adequate means of access, and equipment fordetecting, fighting, controlling andextinguishing such fire, are provided.Agrément Certification and MANTAGThe minimum fire safety requirements for a building interms of Agrément Certification conform to therequirements stipulated in Regulation T1, SABS 0400,and are intended mainly for more formaldevelopments. MANTAG (Minimum Agrément NormsTechnical Advisory Guide 1993) guidelines, on theother hand, are mainly intended for informaldevelopments to establish some degree of fire safety.The MANTAG guidelines appropriate to settlementplanning and design relate to minimum safetydistances between any building and the lateral or rearboundary of the site or, where there are two or morebuildings on a site, the distance between each buildingand a notional boundary line between them.Minimum safety distances are determined accordingto the following:• The fire resistance of walls: If a wall has a fireresistance of at least 30 minutes, with noopenings, there are no requirements for safetydistance. Fire resistance is measured in terms ofstructural stability, structural integrity andinsulation. Stability refers to the ability toremain standing without collapse. Integrityrefers to the ability to remain intact and notmove and buckle to create openings throughwhich flames can escape. Insulation relates tothe ability to either contain the fire within thebuilding and not to ignite any material outside,or to insulate what is inside the building frombeing ignited by a fire outside.• The combustibility of wall and roof material: Thehigher the combustibility of the material, thegreater the safety distance required.• The area of openings in the wall facing a particularboundary: As the area of wall covered by openingsincreases, so the safety distance requirementsincrease.• The wall area facing a particular boundary: A wallarea of less than 7,5 m 2 , with no openings, has nodistance safety requirements.• The size of groups of dwellings - if dwellings are ingroups of 20 or less, this effectively means that thespread of the fire is limited to 20 units at a time,and the safety distance between the buildings canbe reduced.GUIDELINES FOR FIRE SAFETYCreate awareness of fire safety duringthe stakeholder participation process• Provide education regarding fire safety in the useof open flames for cooking and lighting.• Promote the choice of electricity within limits ofaffordability during trade-off debates in theparticipation process.2Chapter 5.8.3Fire safety


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN• Introduce the concept of watch towers for earlywarning, which could be operated by thecommunity and could simultaneously fulfil anumber of other uses, such as crime prevention.Ensure adequate space between groupsof buildings to limit the spread of fire, toprovide escape and to provide access forfire-fighting equipment• Ensure that there are fire breaks between groupsof units, which can correspond to hard or soft openspaces or movement networks. The amount ofspace is dependant on local weather and thetopography - in windswept, flat areas, more spaceis required and open spaces should be downwindof the prevailing wind direction.• Heavy fire-fighting tanker vehicles can move onlyalong paved surfaces, but usually have fire-fightingteams capable of handling 90 m of hose, whereassmaller-terrain vehicles carry less water and have 30m hoses, but can negotiate unpaved surfaces(gravel roads or well-maintained and clear hard orsoft open spaces, including servitudes). Whereregularly spaced fire hydrants are not provided,each building should be within- 30 m of a gravel road or a maintained openspace network which is linked to the roadnetwork at some point; or- 90 m of a paved road.Ensure adequate space betweenindividual buildings to reduce the spreadof fire• Decisions regarding stand size and arrangement,and the relationship between stand size, coverageand housing type should take into considerationminimum safety distance guidelines.• Minimum safety distance guidelines based onMANTAG requirements, but applicable to alldevelopment types, are as follows:- In the case of both non-combustible andcombustible externally cladded walls with a fireresistance where at least the stability andintegrity are greater than 30 minutes, theminimum safety distance is according to the sizeof the opening (Table 5.8.3.1). In the case ofcombustible walls, the entire wall area isconsidered as an “opening” and therecommended safety distance can be read offTable 5.8.3.1 accordingly.Table 5.8.3.1: Safety distance recommendations for combustible and non-combustiblewalls in relation to size of wall openingFIRE RESISTANCE OF WALL AREA (m 2 ) OF WALL MINIMUM BOUNDARY MINIMUM DISTANCE“OPENING” DISTANCE (m) BETWEEN BUILDINGS (m)High No opening, but with No requirement No requirement(stability and integrity at wall area of > 7,5 m 2least or > 30 minutes)No opening, but with 0,5 1,0wall area of < 7,5 m 2< 5 1,0 2,05 1,5 3,07,5 2,0 4,010 2,4 4,830 3,8 7,650+ 4,5 9,0Low ( stability and integrity Not relevant 4,5 9,0either or both < 30 minutes)Low, but where units Not relevant 2,0 4,0are in groups of less than 20High or low, but with Not relevant 4,5 9,0combustible roof (e.g. thatch)Fire safety Chapter 5.8.33


GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN- In the case of both non-combustible walls,combustible walls with external cladding, andcombustible roofs (e.g. thatch), even if walls arenon-combustible, where fire resistance is low(i.e. either integrity or stability or both are lessthan 30 minutes), the minimum safety distancefrom wall (or roof edge in the case ofcombustible roofs) to boundary must be 4,5 m,or there should be 9 m between buildings(Table 5.8.3.1).BIBLIOGRAPHYCSIR, Division of Building Technology (1996). Firesafety in informal settlements. Interim internal report.Project No BF 041/002.MANTAG 1993: MANTAG criteria. Booklet B2.Agrément South Africa: Pretoria.The maximum safety distance of 4,5 m from wall toboundary or 9 m between buildings can be reducedto 2 m from wall to boundary or 4 m betweenbuildings, where dwellings units are in groups ofless than 20 units.• Where space is at a premium, an option is thatwalls, possibly containing internal services, with afire resistance of at least 60 minutes, could beerected as a common wall on the boundaries,which would mean that no safety distancebetween buildings would be required. Higherdensities could thus be facilitated withoutcompromising fire safety, although there are costimplications.Land-use arrangements• Consider the location of watch towers at strategicplaces in the settlement. These would involve- an early warning system to alert inhabitants ofthe occurrence to facilitate escape and rescue ofpossessions; and- an early warning system to alert fire-fighters.• Locate “valuable” community facilities along majormovement networks so that the areas can be easilyaccessed by heavy fire-fighting equipment. As aminimum, provide water utilities along theseroutes.Adequate water provisionRefer to the relevant provisions of Chapter 8.4Chapter 5.8.3Fire safety

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