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National Institute of Agricultural EconomicsSOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTOF DECOUPLING AND FOOD-CHAINPERSPECTIVESOME INDICATIONS FROM ITALYedited byFilippo Arfini, Giovanni Belletti,Francesca Giarè, Andrea MarescottiEdizioni Scientifiche Italiane


This book presents part of the results achieved in the framework of the European researchproject GENEDEC, “A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the socio-economic andenvironmental impact concerning the decoupling of direct payments on agriculturalproduction, markets and land use in the EU”, contract no. SSPE-CT-2004-502184.This volume was edited by Filippo Arfini, Giovanni Belletti, Francesca Giarè and AndreaMarescottiThe working group was coordinated by Filippo Arfini and consists of:Laura Aguglia, Francesca Giarè, Lucia Tudini (INEA), Filippo Arfini, Michele Donati,Roberto Solazzo (University of Parma), Giovanni Belletti, Andrea Marescotti, TommasoNeri, Alessandro Pacciani (University of Florence), Gianluca Brunori, Raffaella Cerruti,Francesca Guidi, Massimo Rovai, Pierfrancesca Sanna (University of Pisa).IntroductionChapter 1:Chapter 2:Chapter 3:Chapter 4:Chapter 5:Chapter 6:F. Arfini1.1 F. Arfini; 1.2 M. Donati; 1.3 F. Arfini; 1.3.1 F. Giarè2.1.1 – 2.1.2 T. Neri; 2.1.3 G. Brunori, M. Rovai; 2.1.4 – 2.1.5 G. Belletti;2.1.6 – 2.1.8. A. Marescotti; 2.1.9 A. Pacciani: 2.2 F. Arfini;2.3 K. De-Roest3.1 M. Donati; 3.2 M. Donati; 3.3 R. Solazzo4.1.1 – 4.1.2 A. Marescotti; 4.1.3 T. Neri; 4.1.4 L. Tudini;4.1.5 G. Belletti; 4.1.6 R. Cerruti; 4.1.7 A. Marescotti; 4.1.8 – 4.1.9 T. Neri;4.2.1 L. Aguglia; 4.2.2 F. Giarè; 4.3 C. Montanari5.1 T. Neri; 5.2 F. Arfini; 5.3 R. SolazzoF. ArfiniARFINI, Filippo; BELLETTI, Giovanni; GIARÈ, Francesca; MARESCOTTI, Andrea (edited by)Socioeconomic impact of decoupling and food-chain perspective: some indications from ItalyCollana: Studi & Ricerche INEANapoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 2008pp. 224; 24 cmISBN 978-88-495-1556-5Copyright © 2008 by Istituto Nazionale di Economia Agraria, Roma.È vietata la riproduzione, anche parziale, con qualsiasi mezzo effettuata, compresa lafotocopia, anche ad uso interno o didattico, non autorizzata.

CONTENTSFOREWORD 13INTRODUCTION 15CHAPTER 1 - THE METHODOLOGY: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH1.1. THE QUALI-QUANTITATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH 211.1.1. Food chain analysis context 231.1.2. The quantitative analysis about the farm performances and the reformeffects 241.1.3. Qualitative analysis of food chain firms strategies 241.1.4. The SWOT analysis 251.2. PMP 251.2.1. The estimation of marginal costs by activities 261.2.2. Deriving the cost function 271.2.3. An alternative to the traditional PMP model 301.3. THE QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS: THE FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN APPROACH 351.3.1. The qualitative analysis: the focus group 36CHAPTER 2 - THE FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS2.1. DURUM WHEAT IN TUSCANY 392.1.1. The evolution of the Common Market Organization in cereals 392.1.1.1. The McSharry Reform (1992) 392.1.1.2. The Fischler Reform (MTR) of 2003 412.1.2. The decoupling implementation for the durum wheat sector in Italy 422.1.2.1. Total decoupling 422.1.2.2. Durum wheat quality premium 422.1.2.3. Implementation of art. 69 432.1.2.4. The new CMO in cereals 432.1.3. Stakeholders’ positions towards the CAP reform implementation 442.1.3.1. Upstream phases 452.1.3.2. Cultivation phase 462.1.3.3. Storage and first trading phase 462.1.3.4. Processing phase 472.1.3.5. Regional associations (Tuscany) 472.1.4. The durum wheat case study in Tuscany: an overview 502.1.5. The agricultural phase 532.1.5.1. Surfaces and production: evolution and territorial distribution 532.1.5.2. Quality production 58STUDI & RICERCHE INEA 5 Farms characteristics 592.1.5.4. The wheat profitability 642.1.5.5. Marketing 652.1.6. The farm trading phase 662.1.7. The first processing phase: the milling industry 672.1.8. The second processing phase: the pasta industry 692.1.9. Main issues 712.2. THE MILK FOOD CHAIN FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PARMIGIANO REGGIANO 722.2.1. The Institutional framework of the Milk CMO in Italy 722.2.1.1. EC Reg. 1782/2003 and Dairy Sector 722.2.1.2. The Italian choice for the dairy sector 752.2.1.3. Stakeholders’ position towards the implementation of the MTR 762.2.2. Origin of the Parmigiano Reggiano and overview of the chain 772.2.2.1. Historical aspects 772.2.2.2. Some basic data 782.2.2.3. Actors and stages from producer to consumer 792.2.3. The structure and the economics of milk productionin the Parmigiano Reggiano area 852.2.3.1. The structure of the Parmigiano Reggiano milk producers 852.2.3.2. Production costs for milk producers 892.2.3.3. Farm gate milk prices 922.2.3.4. Profitability and value added 942.2.4. Milk processors 972.2.4.1. The structure and localization of milk processing plants in Italy 972.2.4.2. The structure of the Parmigiano Reggiano industryin Emilia Romagna 982.3. THE BEEF SECTOR IN VENETO 1072.3.1. The Common Market Organization and the MTR 1072.3.1.1. The common beef market organization under “Agenda 2000” 1072.3.1.2. The Fischler Reform (MTR) 1102.3.2. The MTR seen by the different stakeholders of beef supply chain 1132.3.2.1. Stakeholders’ position towards the implementation of the MTR 1142.3.3. The structure of beef supply chain: beef farms 1162.3.3.1. Beef production in Italy 1162.3.3.2. Beef farms system in North Italy and in Veneto 1202.3.4. The structure of beef supply chain: beef industry 1272.3.4.1. The structure of beef slaughtering and processing industry in Italy 1272.3.4.2. The main operators 1292.3.4.3. Supply strategies 1302.3.4.4. Quality trademarks 1312.3.4.5. The voluntary beef labelling systems 131CHAPTER 3 - THE EFFECTS OF THE CAP REFORM ON ITALIAN6 STUDI & RICERCHE INEA

AGRICULTURAL CASE STUDIES3.1. THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE EVALUATION 1353.2. IMPACT ANALYSIS ON FARMS PRODUCING DURUM WHEAT IN TUSCANY 1353.2.1. Sample description 1353.2.2. The land use 1373.2.3. The economic results 1393.2.4. The labour 1413.3. IMPACT ANALYSIS ON DAIRY FARMS IN PARMIGIANO REGGIANO AREA IN ITALY 1423.3.1. Sample description 1423.3.2. The land use 1433.3.3. The animal production 1463.3.4. The economic results 1473.3.5. The labour 1493.4. IMPACT ANALYSIS ON BEEF BREEDING IN VENETO 1503.4.1. Sample description 1503.4.2. The land use 1513.4.3. The animal production 1543.4.4. The economic results 1553.4.5. The labour 153CHAPTER 4 - QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FISHLER’S REFORMON ITALIAN CASE STUDIES4.1. THE DURUM WHEAT CASE 1594.1.1. Objectives of the survey 1594.1.2. The durum wheat qualitative analysis 1614.1.3. Trends of durum wheat production and market pricesin the case study areas 1614.1.4. Selection of respondents 1654.1.5. Results 1674.1.5.1. Decisional factors 1674.1.5.2. Main changes at farm level 1704.1.5.3. Main changes at supply chain level 1814.1.6. Checking the results: the final focus group 1854.1.6.1. Aims 1854.1.6.2. Some relevant outcomes of the discussion 1854.2. FOCUS GROUPS ON MILK SECTOR FOR PARMIGIANO REGGIANO 1864.2.1. First focus group and interviews 1864.2.1.1. Methodology 1874.2.1.2. Main characteristics of the farms interviewed 1874.2.1.3. Main results 1894.2.1.4. CAP reform impact evaluation from farmers point of view 1924.2.2. Second focus group and interviews 193STUDI & RICERCHE INEA 7

4.3. INTERVIEWS ON BEEF SECTOR IN VENETO 1974.3.1. Main characteristics of the farms interviewed 1974.3.2. Main results 1974.3.2.2. Farmers choices and changes in farm managementand their motivations 198CHAPTER 5 - SWOT ANALYSIS ON ITALIAN SUPPLYCHAIN CASE STUDIES5.1. THE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE DURUM WHEAT SUPPLY CHAIN IN TUSCANY 1995.1.1. Strengths and Weaknesses 2005.1.2. Opportunities and Threats 2015.2. THE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE PARMIGIANO REGGIANO SUPPLY CHAIN 2015.2.1. Strengths and Weaknesses 2035.2.2. Opportunities and Threats 2055.3. THE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN IN VENETO 2085.3.1. Strengths and Weaknesses 2085.3.2. Opportunities and Threats 210CHAPTER 6 - POLICY INDICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONSAND CONCLUSIONS6.1. GENERAL POLICY INDICATIONS 2136.1.1. Farm level 2136.1.2. Food chain level 2146.2. SPECIFIC POLICY INDICATIONS 2156.2.1. Cereal food chain 2156.2.2. Milk food chain 2166.2.3. Beef food chain 218REFERENCES 2218 STUDI & RICERCHE INEA

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