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Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCONTENT1234INTRODUCTION1.1 Background1 .2 The Proposed Project and Designated Projects (DPS)1 .3 Purpose and Objectives of The El A1 .4 Key Environmental Issues and Study Approach1 . 5 Inter-Relationship With Other EIA Studies1.6 Structure of The El APROJECT DESCRIPTION2 . 1 Proj ect Requirements2.2 Project Facilities Overview2.3 EIA Ordinance Requirements and Designated Projects2.4 Site Location and History2.5 Project Design, Construction and Implementation2.6 Land Reclamation/Site Formation Construction2.7 Theme Park and Associated Developments2.8 Water Recreation Centre2.9 Road Transportation2.10 Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL)2.11 Stormwater Drainage, Sewerage and Other Utilities2.12 Other Associated Theme Park Developments2.13 Concurrent Proj ects2.14 B enefits and Disbenefits of The Proj ect2.15 Scenarios With and Without The ProjectAIR QUALITY3.1 Introduction3.2 Evaluation Criteria3.3 Baseline Conditions and Sensitive Receivers3.4 Construction Phase3.5 Operational Phase3.6 Residual Impacts3.7 Environmental Monitoring and Audit3.8 ConclusionsNOISE4.1 Introduction4.2 Statutory Requirements and Evaluation Criteria4.3 Noise Sensitive Receivers4.4 Assessment Methodology4.5 Identification of Potential Environmental Noise Impacts4.6 Mitigation of Adverse Construction Noise Impacts1-11-11-21-21-31-51-62-12-12-22-42-42-82-82-122-182-202-232-262-272-282-292-313-13-13-13-23-53-153-353-363-364-14-14-24-84-134-204-28Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Final Environmental Impact Assessment4.7 Mitigation of Adverse Operational Noise Impacts4.8 Residual Environmental Impacts4.9 Environmental Monitoring and Audit4.10 Conclusions5 WATER QUALITY5.1 Introduction5.2 Relevant Legislation and Guidelines5.3 Existing Environment/Sensitive Receivers5.4 Assessment Methodology - Construction5.5 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Construction5.6 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Construction5.7 Mitigation of Environmental Impacts - Construction Phase5.8 Assessment Methodology - Operation5.9 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Operation5.10 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Operation5. 1 1 Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts - Operation5.12 Residual Environmental Impacts5.13 Environmental Monitoring and Audit5.14 Conclusions5.15 Impact Summary6 WASTE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS6.1 Introduction6.2 Legislation and Guidelines6.3 Baseline Condition6.4 Assessment Methodology6.5 Identification of Potential Environmental Impacts6.6 Prediction and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts6.7 Mitigation Measures6.8 Evaluation of Residual Environmental Impacts6.9 Environmental Monitoring and Audit6.10 Conclusion and Recommendations6.11 Impacts Summary7 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY7. 1 Introduction7.2 Legislation, Standards, Guidelines and Criteria7.3 Existing Environment and Sensitive Receivers7.4 Assessment Methodology7 . 5 Identification of Environmental Impacts7 . 6 Prediction and Assessment of Environmental Impacts7.7 General Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts7.8 Residual Environmental Impacts7.9 Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A)7.10 Conclusions4-314-314-314-315-15-15-15-25-65-85-145-335-405-465-575-745-795-805-815-846-16-16-16-56-56-66-226-416-486-486-486-517-17-17-17-27-147-157-157-207-217-227-22Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developments8 MARINE ECOLOGYFinal Environmental Impact Assessment8-18.1 Introduction8.2 Legislation, Standards, Guidelines and Criteria8.3 Existing Environment8.4 Assessment Methodology8.5 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Construction8.6 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Construction8.7 Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts - Construction8.8 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Operation8.9 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Operation8.10 Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts - Operation8.11 Residual Impact8.12 Ecological Monitoring and Audit Requirements8.13 Conclusions9 FISHERIES IMPACT ASSESSMENT9.1 Introduction9.2 Legislation and Standards9.3 Existing Environment and Fisheries Sensitive Receivers9.4 Assessment Methodology9.5 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Construction9.6 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Construction9.7 Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts - Construction9.8 Identification of Environmental Impacts - Operation9.9 Assessment of Environmental Impacts - Operation9.10 Mitigation of Adverse Environmental Impacts - Operation9.11 Residual Environmental Impacts9.12 Environmental Monitoring and Audit9.13 Conclusions10 HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF DANGEROUS GOODS (FIREWORKS,HYPOCHLORITE) INCIDENTS RESULTING IN LOSS OF LIFESODIUM8-18-18-18-58-58-138-138-158-178-188-188-208-209-19-19-19-29-59-59-89-89-99-109-119-119-129-1210-110.1 Introduction10.2 Legislation, Standards, Guidelines and Criteria10.3 Study Approach and Methodology10.4 Description On Theme Park Development10.5 Review of Incidents10.6 Hazard Identification10.7 Frequency Analysis10.8 Consequence Modelling10.9 Risk Summation and Risk Results10.10 Risk Mitigation and Cost-Benefit Analysis10.11 Conclusions10.12 Impact Summary10-110-110-510-510-1410-2010-2810-3410-3810-4110-4510-46Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment16.1 Introduction 16-117 CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES 17-117.1 Introduction 17-117.2 Summary of Envrionmental Outcomes 17-217.3 Air Quality 17-217.4 Noise 17-317.5 Water Quality 17-417.6 Waste Management 17-517.7 Terrestrial Ecology 17-617.8 Marine Ecology 17-717.9 Fisheries 17-917.10 Risk To Life Assessment 17-917.11 Cultural Heritage 17-917.12 Landscape and Visual 17-1117.13 Land Contamination 17-1117.14 Territory-Wide Environmental Implications 17-1217.15 Environmental Monitring and Audit (EM&A) 17-1217.16 Environmental Benefits, Designs, Key Protection Measures andEnhancements 17-1217.17 Overall Conclusions 17-13Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentLIST OF ANNEXES (VOLUME I TO III)Volume IAnnex A Construction Programme And Phasing;Annex B Air Quality Impact Assessment;Annex C Noise Impact Assessment;Annex D Supporting Information For The Water Quality Assessment;There Is No Annex E As All Information For The Waste Management Assessment Is Presented InSection 6;Annex F Supporting Information For The Terrestrial Ecology Impact Assessment;Annex G Supporting Information For The Marine Ecology Impact Assessment;Annex H Supporting Information For The Fisheries Impact Assessment;Annex I Supporting Information For The Hazard Assessment Of Dangerous Goods(Fireworks And Sodium Hypochlorite) Incidents Resulting In Loss Of Life;Annex J Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment References;Annex L EIA Study Brief (ESB-043/1999);Volume IIAnnex KFull Landscape And Visual Impact AssessmentVolume IIIAnnex MAnnex NThe Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL) EIA And PBRL EM&A Manual And ExecutiveSummaryThe Environmental Monitoring And Audit (EM&A) Manual For The Project(Excluding PBRL's EM&A Manual, See Annex M)Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith AssociatesVI


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Lantau Port Development Stage I, Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals 10 and 11and Back-up Areas, EIA Final Report, CED, 1995 (EIA-073/BC) endorsed by the ACE with conditions on 18December 1995.1.2 THE PROPOSED PROJECT AND DESIGNATED PROJECTS (DPS)1.2.1 The proposed Project includes the following characteristics including 9 EIA Ordinance Schedule 2Designated Projects (DPs):• reclamation of about 280 ha of land within Penny's Bay (a DP) and 10 ha of land at Yam O (a DP), using marinesand fill and public filling materials and the construction of about 3.3 km and 0.7 km of seawall, respectively;• phased development of world-class international Theme Park (of about 180 ha) together with retail, dining andentertainment (RD&E) complexes, individually-themed hotels (with up to 7,000 rooms by the end of Phase II ofthe Theme Park) and supporting infrastructure and services. The Theme Park is anticipated to have a (Phase I)opening annual capacity of 7.5 million visitors, rising to 20 million visitors with the completion of Phase II. TheTheme Park comprises a DP;• construction of an approximately 32 ha Water Recreation Centre with a 12 ha multi-function artificial lake (a DP),water-based and land-based recreational facilities and ancillary facilities, and other essential and supportingservices and utilities;• construction of a 1.5 km section of Chok Ko Wan Link Road from the existing Yam O Interchange extending overthe proposed Penny's Bay roundabout (a DP);• construction of a 4 km primary distributor, Road P2 (a DP), from Yam 0 to the eastern Theme Park roundaboutand associated assess roads;• construction of a 3.5 km district distributor, Resort Road, around the proposed Theme Park (a DP), and a 800 mpedestrian walkway between the two theme parks through the RD&E facilities;• construction of a 3.6 km long rail line (the Penny's Bay Rail Link) linking the Tung Chung Line at Yam O to theTheme Park (a DP);• construction of a Public Transport Interchange (PTI) for the Theme Park close to the Penny's Bay station and atemporary PTI at Yam O rail station;• construction of two public ferry piers for alternative transport mode and a service quay on the southernwaterfront;• construction of general service infrastructure and associated works, including a 15 km storm drainage system(including the eastern stormwater drainage channel which comprises a DP), sewerage facilities, irrigation, watersupply and utility services; and• proposed slope formation and stabilisation, screening and landscaping works.1.3 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE EIAEIA PURPOSE1.3.1 As required by the EIA Study Brief, No. ESB-043/1999, the purpose of this EIA Study is toprovide information on the nature and extent of environmental impacts arising from the constructionand operation of the relevant Designated Projects, see Table 2.3a, and related activities takingplace concurrently. This EIA will provide information to contribute to decisions by the Director ofEnvironmental Protection on:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-2Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• The overall acceptability of any adverse environmental consequences that are likely to arise as a result of theproposed Project;• The conditions and requirements for the detailed design, construction and operation of the proposed Project tomitigate against adverse environmental consequences, wherever practicable; and• The acceptability of residual impacts after the proposed mitigation measures are implemented.EIA OBJECTIVES1.3.2 The main objectives of the EIA Study, as outlined under Clause 2 of the Study Brief (attached inAnnex L) are as follows:• To describe the proposed Project and associated works together with the requirements for carrying out theproposed Project;» To identity and describe the elements of the community and environment likely to be affected by the proposedProject and/or likely to cause adverse impacts to the proposed Project, including both the natural and man-madeenvironment;• To identify and quantify all environmental sensitive receivers, emission sources and determine the significance ofimpacts on sensitive receivers and potential affected uses;• To identify and quantify any potential losses or damage to flora, fauna and natural habitats and negative impactson sites of cultural heritage, landscape and visual impacts and to propose measures to mitigate these impacts;• To propose the provision of infrastructure or mitigation measures so as to minimise pollution, environmentaldisturbance and nuisance during construction and operation of the Project;« To identify, predict and evaluate the residual (i.e. after practicable mitigation) environmental impacts and thecumulative effects expected to arise during the construction and operational phases of the Project in relation tosensitive receivers and potentially affected uses;• To identify, assess and specify methods, measures and standards, to be included in the detailed design,construction and operation of the Project which are necessary to mitigate these environmental impacts and reducethem to acceptable levels;• To investigate the extent of side-effects of proposed mitigation measures that may lead to other forms of impactsand to identify constraints associated with EIA recommended mitigation measures;• To identify, within the Study Area, any individual project(s) that fall under Schedule 2 of the EIAO, asDesignated Projects; to ascertain whether the findings of this EIA Study have adequately addressed theenvironmental impacts of those Designated Projects; and where necessary, to identify the outstanding issues thatneed to be addressed in any further detailed EIA Study; and• To design and specify the environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) requirements, if required, to ensure theimplementation and the effectiveness of the environmental protection and pollution control measures adopted.1.4 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND STUDY APPROACHKEY ENVmONMENTAL ISSUES1.4.1 Key environmental issues and concerns identified in the Project Profile (No. PP-066/1999) andStudy Brief, Clause 3.2, that have been evaluated in this EIA Study include:• Noise impacts arising from construction and operation of the development, in particular the noise due tofireworks show (see Section 4);Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-3Shankland Cox » Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Air quality impacts arising from construction and operation of the development including impacts due toemissions from Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant and pollutants (including odour and pollutants like dioxin,volatile organic compounds (VOC) and heavy metals, if any) released during fireworks show (see Section 3);• Landscape and visual impacts during construction and operation of the development and glare impacts due tolaser and fireworks show on nearby sensitive receivers including passengers on air, land and sea (see Section 12);• Water quality impacts during construction and operation, including sewage collection/treatment systems andstorm water systems (see Sections 5, 8, and 9);• Risks of storage and handling of fireworks (see Section 10);• Potential impacts on archaeological sites (see Section 11); and• Impacts on fauna due to the operation of the Theme Park, especially during nighttime (see Section 7).Cumulative and Territory-wide Considerations1.4.2 The scope of this EIA Study covers the combined impacts of the Project and its associatedelements as well as the cumulative impacts of existing, committed and planned development in thevicinity of the Project (see technical Sections 3, 4, 5,6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13). In particular,attention has been given to the assessment of cumulative impacts due to:• Loss of natural coastline on Lantau and surrounding areas on marine mammals and fisheries (see Sections 8 and 9);• Concurrent reclamation works (see Sections 5, 6, 8 and 9); and• The transport load and associated air pollution during construction and operation of the Theme Park (see Section3).1.4.3 In addition to the above, this EIA Study has also considered:• Contaminated land issues (see Section 13);• Territory-wide environmental implications of additional visitors to the Theme Park (see Section 15); and• Consideration of different Project options and alternative transport modes (see Section 14).Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL)1.4.4 The Theme Park and associated developments EIA Study Brief (Clause 1.3 (ix)) also covers thenew rail line from the MTRC Tung Chung Line at Yam O to Penny's Bay, the Penny's Bay RailLink (PBRL), comprising stations at Yam O and at Penny's Bay and a 3.6 km long railway, partlyin tunnel. As the HK SAR Government has invited MTRC to submit proposals for theconstruction of the PBRL, MTRC has commissioned an EIA for the rail link. The cumulativeenvironmental assessment due to the PBRL has been presented in this EIA Report and the detailedenvironmental assessment for the PBRL is appended to this EIA Report (see Annex M) for easyreference. The railway scheme of the PBRL is subject to authorisation by the Chief Executive inCouncil under the Railways Ordinance.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-4Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentAPPROACH1.4.5 This EIA Study has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Study Brief (AnnexL) and the general principles and guidelines of the Technical Memorandum on EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Process (EIAO TM).1.5 INTER-RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER EIA STUDIES1.5.1 A number of previous, ongoing and proposed EIAs, feasibility and engineering studies are relevantto the Project. These inter related EIA studies include the following:• A comprehensive EIA Study for the Northshore Lantau Development Feasibility Study (NLDFS) (SB-044/BC),initiated in June 1998, has been undertaken under Schedule 3 of the EIAO by CED. The NLDFS EIA willcomprise Schedule 3 level coverage of the cumulative environmental impacts arising from all of the proposeddevelopments in Northeast Lantau and will broadly cover findings of this EIA for the Theme Park and itsassociated infrastructure. The NLDFS EIA will also include detailed assessment of the whole CKWLR, a DP,whilst the approximately 1.5 km section of the CKWLR which passes through the Theme Park EIA Study Areais broadly covered in this Theme Park EIA;• An existing shipyard, Cheoy Lee Shipyards Ltd (CLS), to be decommissioned, is located within the Study Areaand scope for the NLDFS. Consequently, the NLDFS EIA will comprise Schedule 3 level coverage of theenvironmental impacts arising from shipyard decommissioning, although access to undertake site investigationworks at the shipyard site was not available, due to its present operation and private ownership. To allow thisTheme Park EIA to 'stand alone' the relevant land contamination section of the NLDFS EIA is also includedwithin this EIA, although it is not a requirement of the (ESB-043/1999) Study Brief. Additionally, thedecommissioning of a shipyard comprises a Designated Project under Schedule 2 of the EIAO and anEnvironmental Permit is required before its decommissioning. Thus a separate and subsequent EIA Study will becommissioned by CED after the CLS site becomes available and before the decommissioning of the shipyardoccurs. This subsequent CLS decommissioning EIA shall include detailed site investigation and formulation ofappropriate methods and procedures, if required, to decontaminate the shipyard site. CED presently expect thisdecommissioning EIA to be completed and submitted under the EIAO to DEP for approval in 2002 before anyconstruction work can commence in the CLS site;• The Penny's Bay area was originally earmarked for container port development under the Lantau Port andWestern Harbour Development Studies conducted in 1993. Subsequently, three EIA studies (referenced inSection LI) were completed in 1995 which thoroughly examined all environmental issues in relation to thereclamation works and associated infrastructures. The EIA reports show that the environmental impacts of theworks can be controlled to meet the relevant environmental criteria. These EIA reports were endorsed by theAdvisory Council on the Environment (ACE) in 1995 and are now placed in the EIA Ordinance Register forpublic inspection; and• An environmental review study on the construction impacts of the reclamation works in Penny's Bay wasconducted in 1999. The review concluded that as the extent of reclamation works for the Theme Parkdevelopment in Penny's Bay would be less than that for the port development at the same location, lessenvironmental impacts were anticipated when compared with the previously endorsed EIA reports. The reviewreport was presented to the ACE on 27 September 1999.• A review of the following ongoing and previously approved studies and EIAs (as identified under Clauses 1.2 and3.2 of the Study Brief) has been undertaken and relevant findings have been taken into account in this EIA:• Port and Airport Development Strategy (PADS) (December 1989);• Lantau Port and Western Harbour Development (LAPH) Studies, CED (March 1993);• Lantau Port Development, Stage 1: Container Terminals No. 10 and 11, Ancillary Works (Design),CED (December 1994);• Lantau Port Development Stage 1 Container Terminals 10 and 11, Preliminary Design Study, CED(August 1995);Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-5Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Lantau Port Development Stage 1, Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals10 and 11 and Back-up Areas, CED (August 1995);• Lantau Port Development Stage 1 Marine Mammal Survey, Final Report, CED, (1996);• Lantau Port Development Stage 1 Fish Fry Survey, CED (Februaiy 1997);• Lantau Port Development Stage 1 Fisheries Resources Survey, CED (June 1997);• Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in East Lantau Waters of Hong Kong: Assessment of Potential Effects ofPort Development, CED (September 1997);» Population Biology of Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1975) in HongKong Waters, Final Report, AFD (April 1998);• Fisheries Resources and Fishing Operations in Hong Kong Waters, AFD (March 1998);• Port Survey 96/97 by Capture Fisheries Division of AFD (August 1998);• East Lamma Channel Final Assessment Report, CED (January 1993);• East Lamma Channel Borrow Area and Scoped Environmental Assessment Supplementary WaterQuality Modelling, CED (January 1993);• East Lamma Channel Borrow Area - Scoped Environmental Assessment, Final Report, CED (January1993);• Backfilling of South Tsing Yi and North of Lantau Marine Borrow Areas: Final Environmental ImpactAssessment Report, CED (November 1995);• Environmental Impact Assessment of Backfilling Marine Borrow Areas at East Tung Lung Chau - FinalReport, CED (February 1998);• Tang Lung Chau Dangerous Goods Anchorage EIA, TDD (May 1999);• South-East Tsing Yi Port Development Planning and Engineering Feasibility Study for ContainerTerminal No. 9 - Final Report and Appendices, (August 1991);• Outlying Islands Sewerage Master Plan Stage 1 Phase /, DSD (September 1997);• Route 10 - North Lantau to Yuen Long Highway, Investigation and Preliminary Design, EIA FinalAssessment Report, HyD (September 1999); and• Outlying Islands Sewerage Master Plan Stage 2 Review, EPD (on-going)1.6 STRUCTURE OF THE EIA1.6 J Following this introductoiy Section, this EIA includes the following Sections:• Section 2 provides an overview of the Project outlining key elements, location, design, construction and operationas well as a description of the EIA Study Area and the perceived benefits and disbenefits of the Project, to satisfyStudy Brief Clause 2.1 (i);• Section 3 presents an assessment of potential impacts on air quality to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (ii, iii, vii,viii, ix, x, xi, xiii), 3.2(ii), 3.7, 3.8.1, 3.8.12, 3.8.13, and 3.8.14;• Section 4 presents an assessment of potential noise impacts to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (ii, iii, vii, viii, ix, x,xi,xiii), 3.2(i), 3.7, 3.8.2, 3.8.12, 3,8.13, 3.8.14 and 3.8.15;• Section 5 presents the results of the water quality, wastewater and non-point pollution sources and dredging,filling and dumping impact assessment plus Project sewerage and sewage treatment implications to satisfy StudyBrief Clauses 2.1 (ii, iii, vii, viii, ix, x, xi, xiii), 3.2(v), 3.7,3.8.3, 3.8.4,3.8.12, 3.8.13 and 3,8.14;• Section 6 presents an assessment of waste management issues to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (ii, iii, vii, viii, ix,x,xi, xiii), 3.7, 3.8.5, 3,8.12,3.8.13 and 3.8.14.;• Section 7 details the results of the terrestrial and freshwater ecological impact assessment to satisfy Study BriefClauses 2.1 (iv), 3.2(viii), 3.7,3.8.7, 3.8.12, 3.8.13 and 3.8.14;• Section 8 presents the results of the marine ecological (including Chinese White Dolphins, and Finless Porpoises)and impact assessment to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (iv), 3.2(viii), 3.7, 3.8.7, 3.8.12, 3.8.13 and 3.8,14;» Section 9 presents the results of the fisheries impact assessment to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (iv), 3.2(viii),3.7,3.8.8,3.8.12,3.8.13 and 3.8.14;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-6Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Section 10 presents the results of the hazard assessment of dangerous goods (fireworks and sodium hypochlorite)incidents resulting in loss of life to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 3.7, 3.8.6, 3.8.12, 3.8.13 and 3.8.14;• Section 11 details the results of the cultural heritage impact assessment to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (v),3.2(vii), 3.7, 3.8.9, 3.8.12, 3.8.13 and 3.8.14;• Section 12 provides a summary of the results of the landscape and visual impact assessment, provided in full inAnnex K;• Section 13 reviews the land contamination findings, pertaining to the Cheoy Lee Shipyard, of the NLDFS El A anddocuments relevant information to the Theme Park and associated developments;« Section 14 provides an assessment of different Project options and consideration of alternative transport modes tosatisfy Study Brief Clause 3.5;• Section 15 addresses in broad terms the overall territory-wide environmental implications, in terms of air quality,water and waste, of the additional visitors to the Theme Park to satisfy Clause 3.6 of the Study Brief;• Section 16 presents the tabulated Project Implementation Schedule grouped under separate Designated Projects tosatisfy Study Brief Clause 3.8.11.2; and• Section 17 summarises the key conclusions, recommendations and environmental outcomes of the EIA Study.1.6.2 In addition, detailed supplementary infomiation associated with the various EIA Study elements ispresented in the following Annexes:• Annex A presents information on the construction programme and phasing;• Annex A presents information on the construction programme and phasing;• Annex B presents supporting information for the air quality impact assessment;• Annex C presents supporting information for the noise impact assessment;• Annex D presents supporting information for the water quality assessment;• There is no Annex E as all information for the waste management assessment is presented in Section 6;• Annex F presents supporting information for the terrestrial ecology impact assessment;• Annex G presents supporting information for the marine ecology impact assessment;• Annex H presents supporting information for the fisheries impact assessment;• Annex I presents supporting information for the hazard assessment of dangerous goods (fireworks and sodiumhypochlorite) incidents resulting in loss of life;• Annex J presents cultural heritage impact assessment references;• Annex K presents the full landscape and visual impact assessment, to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (vi), 3.2 (iiiand iv), 3.7,3.8.10,3.8.12,3.8.13 and 3.8.14;• Annex L presents the EIA Study Brief (ESB-043/1999);• Annex M presents the Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL) EIA and PBRL EM&A Manual; andScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-7Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Annex TV presents the Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A) Manual for the Project (excluding PBRL'sEM&A Manual, see Annex A% which provides the requirements for EM&A during before and during theconstruction and operational phases to satisfy Study Brief Clauses 2.1 (xiii), 3.8.14 and 3.8.15.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 1-8Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION2.1 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS2.1.1 The HK SAR Government has decided to support a development of a world-class internationalTheme Park, in two phases, which will include two theme parks that will combine attractions,shows and cutting-edge technology from theme parks around the world to create a unique mix ofnew and traditional entertainment experiences. A second world-class international theme park isalso anticipated as Phase II of the work. Upon completion of the Theme Parks, Phase I and II, theProject will also include five individually themed resort hotels with up to 7,000 hotel rooms to beconstructed adjacent to the Theme Parks. In addition, the Theme Park and associateddevelopments will ultimately include approximately 74,400 m 2 rentable retail, dining andentertainment (RD&E) complex as part of the overall Theme Park experience.2.1.2 The perceived benefits associated with the Project are expected to be cultural and educational, butprimarily of an economic nature. The development of a Theme Park and associated hotels andRD&E facilities has the potential for the following key economic benefits:• It would be expected to strengthen Hong Kong SAR's role as a major tourist destination in Asia and the world;• The development would be expected to act as a catalyst in attracting further tourism, recreational and leisureinvestment (e.g. hotels, retail, tourism services, air line and transport activities);• The development would be expected to generate economic benefit to the HK SAR via additional spending byexisting tourists and local residents;• It would be expected to provide significant additional market for the services and materials supply sector duringboth construction and operation; and» The Theme Park and associated developments will would be a potentially major employer generating direct andindirect employment opportunities during both construction and operation.2.1.3 It is proposed that the Project will ultimately comprise two world-class international Theme Parks,retail, dining and entertainment complexes and individually themed hotels. It would also includesupporting facilities such as private car and public bus parking areas, PTI, area development (hardand soft landscaping), back of house and service yards.2.1.4 The first Theme Park would be a "Magic Kingdom" type park, and would:i) feature themed areas such as "Main Street," "Adventureland," "Fantasyland," Frontierland"and "Tomorrowland" or similar lands, and would include attractions (for example, rides,shows, and parades), food and beverage locations, shops and service facilities;ii) have a Phase I - Opening Day capacity to accommodate an annual attendance of up to7,500,000 visitors (daily attendance of approximately 39,000 visitors) rising to Phase II -Build Out capacity would accommodate an annual attendance of 20,000,000 visitors (dailyattendance of approximately 84,100 visitors).2.1.5 The Theme Parks would also include RD&E complex. The RD&E complex could beapproximately 74,400 m 2 net in area and include a mix of:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-1Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmenti) retail - shops selling unique merchandise;ii)iii)iv)dining - restaurants in a range of serving styles (mainly table service, but also includingcounter service, etc.) serving a variety of food and drink (including alcoholic beverages);entertainment - including, for example, motion picture theaters and venues offering liveentertainment;area development, street furnishings and entertainment complementing the overallatmosphere of the RD&E complex.2.1.6 The venues within the RD&E complex are contemplated to be operated in part by HongkongInternational Theme Parks Limited (HKITP) (the company jointly owned by the HKSARGovernment and the Walt Disney Company) and in part by third-party operators. In RD&Ecomplexes typically found at other world-class international theme park locations, each venue has atheme and is carefully chosen from candidates identified world-wide to achieve an entertaining mixand meet the tastes of guests from the local and tourist markets.2.1.7 Ultimately five or more individually themed hotels would be built with an aggregate ofapproximately 7,000 rooms in the economy to luxury categories, and would include conventionfacilities.2.1.8 The Theme Park development concept is to transport guests into a world of imagination, fantasyand adventure bringing together the best of the rides, shows and attractions from majorinternational theme parks around the world. The Theme Park supported by its associatedinfrastructures and facilities included in this Project is expected to become a core tourist attraction inthe Hong Kong S AR.2.2 PROJECT FACILITIES OVERVIEW2.2.1 The proposed Project involves the construction of a two phase world-class international ThemePark together with its related developments and supporting infrastructure and services. The keyelements of the Project are as follows:Land Reclamation» Reclamation of about 280 ha of land within Penny's Bay using marine sand fill and public filling materials and theconstruction of about 3.3 km of vertical and sloping seawall; this area will be primarily for the theme park andassociated facilities and services;• Reclamation of about 10 ha of land at Yam O, on North Lantau using public filling materials/ marine sand fill, andthe construction of about 0.7 km seawall to retain the fill. This area will be required for the construction of partof the Road P2 and the temporary PTI at Yam O;Theme Parky Retail, Dining and Entertainment and Hotels Development• Phased development of a 180 ha Theme Park (including rides, shows and attractions) retail, dining andentertainment facilities (RD&E), and hotels up to 7,000 rooms by the built out of Phase II of the Theme Park;andScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-2ShanWand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessment« An approximately 32 ha Water Recreation Centre with a 12 ha artificial lake and associated amenities (includingcar park, access roads, footpaths, trail and boating centre and landscaping) to provide both secondary contactwater recreational activities and irrigation functions, together with de-silting and pumping facilities.Permanent Transportation Infrastructure• Permanent new roads comprising:a) A section of Chok Ko Wan Link Road (Expressway Standard about 1.5 km long) dual three lanes from theexisting Yam O Interchange to the proposed Penny's Bay roundabout (located to the west of the existingChina Light and Power (CLP) Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (GTP) (see Section 1.4);b) Road P2 (Primary Distributor) together with an access road at Yam O to connect the proposed Yam O railstation to the Theme Park Phase II roundabout. The proposed Road P2 will be dual two lanes and of about4 km long with 4 roundabouts (part of the proposed road works will be accommodated on the proposedreclamation of about 10 ha at Yam O);c) A 3.5 km long Resort Road (District Distributor), namely Dl and D2, around the proposed Theme Park(Figure 2.9b); andd) A central pedestrian walkway located between the two theme parks through the Retail, Dining andEntertainment complexes (about 800 m long).• A new 3.6 km long rail line (Penny's Bay Rail Link) partly in a tunnel (850 m) from the Tung Chung Line at YamO to the Theme Park (new stations at Yam O and the Theme Park (Penny's Bay Rail Station) will also beprovided) (see Annex M);• Two public parking areas at Penny's Bay;• A Public Transport Interchange (PTI) for the Theme Park close to the Penny's Bay Rail Station and a temporaryPTI at Yam O Rail Station;• Two ferry piers on the southern waterfront to provide an alternative transport mode via direct marine access tothe Theme Park. It is understood that CED, as an environmental initiative, have previously committed that theTheme Park ferry pier fenders will use fabric fenders instead of tropical hardwood fenders; and• A separate service quay along the seawall to be used for service and deliverables, as described above, any fendersrequired will use fabric fenders instead of tropical hardwood fenders.General Services Infrastructure and Associated Works• An approximately 15 km long storm water drainage system comprising an open channel of about 30 m width(west of the Theme Park and associated developments), box culverts and pipelines discharging to sea;• A sewerage network including pumping station(s), sewage chambers) and wells together with the associatedsewers and pumping mains;• Essential facilities for the operation of the Theme Park including pipelines for fresh, salt and irrigation watersupply and utility services;» Road side buffers, berms, landscaping and slope stabilisation works; and• Police, fire service and ambulance facilities.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-3Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.3 EIA ORDINANCE REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGNATED PROJECTS2.3.1 The proposed Project comprises a number of individual elements which are classified asDesignated Projects pPs) under Schedule 2, Part I of the EIAO; DPs require an EIA andEnvironmental Permit (EP) before their construction and operation. In accordance with Clause3.8.11 of the Study Brief, the DPs that have been identified are presented in Table 2.3a.Table 2.3a - Schedule 2 Designated ProjectsSchedule 2, Part ICategoryA - Roads, Railways andDepotsC - Reclamation, Hydraulicand Marine Facilities,Dredging and DumpingI - Waterways and DrainageWorksO - Tourist and RecreationalDevelopmentsDescription* Approx 1 .5 km section of Chok Ko Wan LinkRoad (Expressway Standard)* Approx 4 km long Road P2 (Primary Distributor)• Approx 3.5 km long Resort Road Dl and D2(District Distributor)» Approx 3.6 km Penny's Bay Rail Link and its 2associated stations (including 850 m of tunnel)• Penny's Bay Reclamation (about 280 ha) usingmarine sand fill and public filling materials;• A 1 0 ha reclamation at Yam O• Approx 1 2 ha artificial lake within the WaterRecreation Centre• Eastern stormwater drainage culvert (dischargeswithin 300 m of the existing Pa Tau Kwuarchaeological site).• The Theme Park (Phases I and II) and associateddevelopments with an area of about 180 haFart I of Schedule 2 EIAOReferenceA.IA.IA.IA.2, A.4 and A.7C.l,C.2,C.llandC.I2C.I1.2 and O.8I.l(b)(ii)O.82.3.2 Therefore, the Project comprises of a total 9 Designated Projects, which are shown in Figure2.3 a.2.4 SITE LOCATION AND HISTORYSITE LOCATION2.4.1 The proposed Theme Park development and its associated infrastructure will be located in andadjacent to Penny's Bay on North Lantau as shown on Figure 2.4a. The Project Boundary andlocation of key proposed facilities are also shown.2.4.2 To the north of the site is Yam O Wan and the North Lantau Highway. To the south of the site isPeng Chau Island; Discovery Bay, a residential community on Lantau Island, is located to the westsouth-west of the boundary. The Hong Kong International Airport is approximately 11 km to thewest and Hong Kong central is approximately 15 km to the east Figures 2.4b shows the ThemePark location contextually.SITE AND PROJECT HISTORY2.4.3 The proposed Project site and its general environs fall within the Draft Northeast Lantau OutlineZoning Plan (OZP) (S/I-NEL/5) gazetted in August 1999. The majority of the Project site and itssurroundings are currently undeveloped with no residential areas within 2 km of the nearest siteboundary.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates2-4


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.4.4 An existing shipyard (Cheoy Lee Shipyard) currently occupies a 19 ha plot of land within theproposed Project site in inner Penny's Bay (see Figure 2Ad). The shipyard commencedoperations in the 1960's and is primarily involved in the construction and repair of glass fibrereinforced plastic yachts, boats and steel ships (the decommissioning of this shipyard will be thesubject of a separate future Schedule 2 EIA study to be commissioned by CED).2.4.5 An existing CLP GTP is located on the eastern shore of Penny's Bay (figure 2 Ac). This GTPwas commissioned in 1992 with a generating capacity of 300 MW which serves as a peak loadand emergency back-up facility for the airport, Tung Chung and the future developments alongNLH and the Project Area. There are three chimneys with a stack height of 50 m at the GTP.2.4.6 There are two known archaeological sites within the Project Boundary: the Ta Shui Wan - WanTuk and Chok Ko Wan sites. The Ta Shui Wan » Wan Tuk site was partially modified by theconstruction of the Cheoy Lee Shipyard and the Yam O Interchange. The Chok Ko Wan site hasbeen modified by construction of the Penny's Bay GTP (see Section 11).2.4.7 The proposed Theme Park Development will be located in Penny's Bay which was originallyearmarked for container terminals (CT10 and CT11) under the Lantau Port and Western HarbourDevelopment Studies conducted in 1993.2.4.8 A number of EIA Studies have confirmed the feasibility of the Penny's Bay reclamation anddevised mitigation measures. The EIA reports that have been previously endorsed byEnvironmental Pollution Advisory Committee (EPCOM) and Advisory Council on the Environment(ACE) are as follows:i. Lantau Port and Western Harbour Development (LAPH) Studies (1993) Final Report,Volume III, EIA Report, CED, (EIA-021/BC) endorsed by the EPCOM on 7 June 1993;ii.iiiiv.Lantau Port Development Stage 1 - Container Terminals 10 and 11 Ancillary Works(Design) EIA Final Report, CED, 1994 (EIA-Q49BC) endorsed by the ACE with conditionson 20 February 1995;Lantau Port Development Stage 1 - Container Terminals 10 and 11 PreliminaryDesign, Final Report, Volume 2, Container Terminal EIA, CED 1995 (EIA-057BC)endorsed by ACE with conditions on 20 February 1995; andLantau Port Development Stage 1 - Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures forContainer Terminals 10 and 11 and Back-up Areas, EIA Final Report, CED, 1995 (EIA-073/BC) endorsed by ACE with conditions on 18 December 1995.2.4.9 The subsequent LAPH studies confirmed the feasibility of North-East Lantau for port developmentas recommended in PADS. Based on the findings and recommendations of LAPH, the firstversion of an outline zoning plan (OZP) with port development as the main development theme forNorth-East Lantau was gazetted under the Town Planning Ordinance in March 1995 withsubsequent minor amendments carried out in 1996 and 1998 ^North-East Lantau Port OZP), asshown in Figure 2.4d.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-5Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.4.10 The 1995 Visitor and Tourism Study commissioned by the Hong Kong Tourist Association inconjunction with the Planning Department identified the potential for a tourism corridor along thenorth shore of Lantau Island.2.4.11 The 1997/98 Port Cargo Forecast (PCF) indicated that there is a general slowdown of the growth.rate of cargo throughput in Hong Kong. On the basis of such findings, the planned developmentprogramme for port facilities has been subsequently reviewed.2.4.12 The 1998 Territorial Development Strategy Review (TDSR) identified North-East Lantau ashaving potential for a range of other land uses, such as tourism/recreation, housing, business estateand major transport interchange. As a follow up to the TDSR, an integrated planning andengineering feasibility study was initiated by the CED in June 1998 known as the NorthshoreLantau Development Feasibility Study (NLDFS); see Section 1.4 of this EIA Report.2.4.13 In March 1999, the Financial Secretary announced that the Administration was in the process ofnegotiation with The Walt Disney Company with a view to determining whether a Disney projectcould be brought to fruition in Hong Kong.2.4.14 The Committee on Planning and Land Development (CPLD), after considering initial findings of theNLDFS, agreed that the land use proposals for North-East Lantau should be drawn up on thebasis of the tourism/ recreation development theme, with an intention to translate North-EastLantau into a "Tourist Paradise" comprising a world-class theme park and a range of othercompatible tourist attractions.2.4.15 The findings of NLDFS and a preliminary outline development plan (PODP) were presented to theTown Planning Board in July 1999 and it was agreed that the PODP was a suitable basis for therevision of the previous North-East Lantau Port OZP.2.4.16 The land use of the proposed Project site was thus revised to include a theme park and relatedresort development in accordance with the draft North-East Lantau OZP (S/I-NEL/5) which wasgazetted in August 1999 (see Figure 2Ae\ In parallel, the Penny's Bay reclamation was gazettedunder the Foreshore and Seabed Ordinance with a view to commencing reclamation works in May2000.2.4.17 The other main land uses proposed under the draft OZP includes sites for container terminals.Sites for two container terminals (CT12 and CT13) are retained to cater for long term portexpansion in Hong Kong have been reserved to the south-southeast of the Theme Park (seeFigure 2Ae\ pending further studies on the alternative location for port development.2.4.18 CED submitted an application for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Study Brief for theProject (Project Profile No. PPQ66/1999) under Section 5(1) of the EIA Ordinance (EIAO) on3 November 1999. An EIA Study Brief (No. ESB-043/1999) was subsequently issued on 6December 1999 (Annex L).PROPOSED LAND USES OF NORTHSHORE LANTAU2.4.19 As described in Section 1.4 of this EIA, the Northshore Lantau Development Feasibility Study(NLDFS) is a concurrent planning and engineering feasibility consultancy also undertaken by CEDScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-6Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentsince June 1998. The NLDFS covers the north-eastern part of Lantau Island which comprisesgenerally three portions:• Northshore Lantau which stretches along the northern shoreline of Lantau Island between Tai Ho and Kwai Shek;• Tsing Chau Tsai which is an upland area at North Lantau; and• Reclamation which includes the broader Penny's Bay area stretching between Sze Pak Tsui and Pa Tau Kwu,Northeast Lantau between Pa Tau Kwu and Tso Wan, and the section of Chok Ko Wan Link Road stretchingbetween Yam O Interchange and the Route 10 - North Lantau to Yuen Long Highway toll plaza at Fa Peng.2.4.20 A draft Recommended Outline Development Plan (RODP) has been prepared in February 2000(P188/D2/D) and has been used throughout this EIA, Figure 2.4f.EIA STUDY ASSESSMENT AREAS2.4.21 Various boundary conditions for assessing the environmental consequences of the developmentsincluded within the scope of this EIA have been specified under the Study Brief; these aresummarised below.Air Quality Impact and Terrestrial Ecology Assessment Areas2.4.22 The "Assessment Area" for air quality impacts and terrestrial ecology impacts as defined by theStudy Brief is as follows:" shall be nominally defined as a distance of 500 mfrom the boundary of the scope of theEIA study... ".Noise Impact Assessment Area2.4.23 The "Assessment Area" for noise impacts as defined by the Study Brief is as follows:" shall include all areas within 300 mfrom the boundary of the scope of the EIA study... ".Water Quality and Marine Ecology Assessment Areas2.4.24 The "Assessment Area" for water quality impacts and marine ecology impacts as defined by theStudy Brief is as follows:" shall cover all relevant sensitive receivers in North Western, Western Buffer and SouthernWater Control Zones ".Fisheries Assessment Area2.4.25 The "Assessment Area" for fisheries impacts as defined by the Study Brief is as follows:" shall include the scope of the EIA as defined in Section 3.2 (Study Brief) and its adjacentarea of potential impact".Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-7Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentLandscape Impact Assessment Area2.4.26 The "Assessment Area" for landscape impacts as defined by the Study Brief is as follows:" shall include all areas within 300 mfrom the proposed project".Visual Impact Assessment Area2 A21 The "Assessment Area" for visual impacts as defined by the Study Brief is as follows:" shall be defined by the 8 km radius visual envelope from the proposed project''.Additional Considerations2.4.28 Where sensitive receptors that may be potentially affected by Project activities have been identifiedbeyond the above boundary conditions, the assessment areas will be extended to cover such areas.Such assessment areas are described in relevant technical sections.2.5 PROJECT DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION2.5.1 CED will be the overall Project applicant and will undertake the Project reclamation andconstruction of essential infrastructures related to the Theme Park development All Penny's BayRail Link works will be undertaken by the intended railway operator, MTRC; whilst the design andconstruction of the Theme Park, hotels, retail, dining and entertainment elements will be carried outby the Theme Park operator, Hong Kong International Theme Parks Limited (HKITP).2.5.2 Since this Project comprises a wide range of inter-related development proposals, the presentationof details of Project design, construction and implementation/ operation has been sub-divided intothe following categories:Land reclamation/site formation;Theme Park and associated developments;Water Recreation Centre;Road transportation;Rail transportation (Penny's Bay Rail Link); andSewerage, drainage and other services.2.5.3 The master construction programme and phasing drawings are presented in Annex A.2.6 LAND RECLAMATION / SITE FORMATION CONSTRUCTION2.6.1 The land reclamation, infirastructure and berm formation will be undertaken by CED. Thereclamation will be formed using dredged and drained methods of reclamation. The drained methodwill be used at the head of Penny's Bay (adjacent to the Cheoy Lee shipyard), Penny's Bay StageII reclamation and Yam O. Dredged reclamation will be adopted in the Penny's Bay Stage Ireclamation, except at the head of Penny's Bay and the interface area with Stage II reclamation(approximately 28 ha). Reclamation activities for the Project will include the construction of anapproximately 3.3 km seawall at Penny's Bay and a 0.7 km seawall at Yam O which will involve;• Dredging of sediments in the area below the reclamation and where the seawall will be located;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-8Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentPenny's BayPlacement of sand material in the dredged area for construction of seawall;Placement of rock material and concreting works to construct the seawall;Infill of the area behind the seawall with marine sand fill and public filling materials to create the formed site;Surcharge of the filled site with marine sand/public filling materials to assist settlement; andRemoval of surcharge material and completion of formed site.2.6.2 A permanent 3.3 km seawall comprising sloping and vertical blockwork will be constructed aroundthe seaward boundary of the reclamation to protect the reclamation site from wave and tidal action.The seawall will be constructed to achieve a minimum height of -H5.5 m mPD (after settlement). Awave return structure (approx. 0.5 m high) will be provided on top of the seawall to protect againstovertopping.2.6.3 The site formation for Penny's Bay Stage II reclamation will include the construction of a 2.5 km ofpermanent seawall and a 0.8 km of temporary seawall.YamO2.6.4 An approximately 0.7 km long seawall rubble mound will be constructed for the 10 ha Yam Oreclamation which comprises an EIAO, Schedule 2 designed project, Table 2.3a.LAND RECLAMATION / SITE FORMATION PHASING SCHEDULEPenny's Bay2.6.5 A summary programme for the Penny's Bay reclamation is presented in Annex A.2.6.6 The proposed Theme Park Developments will be situated on land reclaimed from the sea. Thereclamation will be undertaken in a two-stage reclamation programme (Penny's Bay ReclamationStages I and II). Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I (approx. 200 ha) will cover the Theme ParkPhase I area, area north of the Theme Park Phase I (area for the WRC) and part of the ThemePark Phase II area. Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II will cover the remaining Theme Park PhaseII area and area for its associated infrastructure.2.6.7 Reclamation works are expected to commence Q2 2000 with completion and handover of theformed Theme Park Phase I site in about 22 months. For the purposes of this EIA, theprogramme for the reclamation works is assumed as a fast track programme to ascertain the worstpossible adverse environmental impact.YamO2.6.8 Works for the 10 ha reclamation and a 0.7 km seawall for the construction of the temporary PTI atYam O and for part of the Road P2 are expected to commence in Q4 2001 and to be completedwithin about 22 months.2.6.9 The currently proposed programme for reclamation works is summarised in Table 2.6a; Table A1in Annex A shows the reclamation elements. The Penny's Bay Stage I and n Reclamation areasare shown on Figure 2.9a.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-9Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 2.6a - Land Reclamation Schedule (Reclamation Construction)Activity / \ ' - ' 'Penny's Bay Reclamation (Stage I)DredgingSeawall constructionFillingSurchargeYam O Reclamation (10 ha)DredgingSeawall constructionFillingSurchargePenny's Bay Reclamation (Stage II)DredgingSeawall constructionFillingSurchargeNote: Ql represents first quarter etc.Start ' ' , ' / ' ' ' 'Q2 2000Q3 2000Q4 2000Qi 2001Q42001Q3 2002Q4 2002Ql 2003Q3 2001Q42001Q2 2003Q3 2003:Ftafefe X : *'' / ; >042001Q2 200202 2002Q3 2002Q4 200201 2003Q2 200303 200301 200503 200502 200704 2008lDREDGING REQUIREMENTS AND METHODSPenny's Bay2.6.10 Dredging in Penny's Bay reclamation is expected to be carried out using a combination of TrailingSuction Hopper Dredgers (TSHDs), commonly referred to as a trailer dredger, and grab dredgers.The maximum cumulative dredging rate for the equipment spread will be about 634,000 irf week* 1 .Additional details on the dredging programme are provided in Section 5.Yam O2.6.11 Dredging at Yam O is expected to be carried out using a single grab dredger working at a rate ofabout 2,000m 3 day 1 .2.6.12 A summary of the total quantities of dredged material for the Penny's Bay Stage I, Stage II andYam O reclamations is provided in Table 2.6b.Table2.6b - Estimation of Sediment Requiring Disposal*&&&&§&,$&•• '" ••.'.' .- •; .- , ' o ••>*; 'v^^fPenny's Bay Stage I ReclamationPenny's Bay Stage II ReclamationYam O Temporary PTI ReclamationWater Recreation CentreCKWLR Section4050.310.0022.6.13 Details on the disposal of dredged materials are provided in Section 6.FILLING AND FILL MATERIAL SOURCES2.6.14 The final method of filling will depend on the contractors plant and resources. However, theprocess will typically involve the following stages:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankiand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates2-10


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Placement of a geotextile on top of the marine mud to reduce mud waves during reclamation (for drainedreclamation);• Place a 3 m capping layer of marine sand (typically by bottom dump barges) in successive layers of about 0.5 mover geotextile layer (for drained reclamation);• Install vertical drains through the capping layer into the soft marine clay;• Place fill material (public fill and marine sand) in layers of+2.2 mPD;• Carry out deep vibro-compaction/ground treatment;• Continue filling marine sand to the final formation level plus 0.5 m; and• Surcharge (with public fill or marine sand) for later removal as fill.Maximising Use of Public Filling Materials in the Project2.6.15 Public fill as a source of fill for Penny's Bay Stage I and Stage II reclamation has been included inthe construction programme. The material that will be accepted at the site will be public fill inaccordance with the conditions of Dumping Licence. Acceptable materials will include earth,building debris, broken rock and concrete.2.6.16 Penny's Bay Reclamation requires a large amount of fill material (about 85 Mm 3 ) and thereforeoffers a very good opportunity to utilise the public fill generated in the SAR. The use of public fillwill not only alleviate the demand for virgin fill material but also reduce the pressure of disposinginert Construction and Demolition Material (C&DM) at the strategic landfills. Section 6 details theintention to maximise the use of good quality public filling material within the Penny's BayReclamation Stage I and II whilst ensuring that Project programme is not adversely affected. Ascan be seen below this allows about 13 million m 3 of public filling material in the reclamation.2.6.17 Stage II of the Penny's Bay reclamation requires 18.4 Mm 3 of fill material from Q2 2003. Again,public fill will be used as far as practical for the reclamation The public fill should be in accordancewith the conditions as stated in the Dumping Licence. It is estimated that about 11 Mm 3 of publicfill (almost all the public fill that can be assigned to the reclamation to be generated during thereclamation period) can be used for the reclamation and the balance will be sand fill (about 7.4Mm 3 ). The Stage n reclamation adopts maximum use of public fill given the available geometry ofthe reclamation (53% of the reclamation volume).2.6.18 The Yam 0 reclamation requires approximately 1.7 Mm 3 of fill material between Q4 2002 and Q22003. Public fill will be used as far as practical for the reclamation. It is estimated that about 1.2M m 3 of public fill (about 70 % of the total fill requirement) will be used for the reclamation and thebalance will be sand fill (about 0.5M rrf which will mainly used for the construction of the seawalland the sand blanket laid on top of the marine mud left in place). The supply of public fill is coordinatedby Public Filling Sub-committee (PFSC).Penny's Bay2.6.19 Sand fill is likely to be delivered to the site by THSDs; the maximum anticipated filling rate will be994,800 m 3 week" 1 . It is understood that part Penny's Bay sand fill material will be placed within aScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-11Shankfahd Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentrehandling basin and will be transferred to the fill face by cutter suction dredger. Additional detailson the filling programme are provided in Section 5.2.6.20 Marine sand and public fill will be will be used for the both the Stage I and Stage n reclamations;though public fill will only be utilised in Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I area outside the ThemePark Phase I area.2.6.21 It is estimated that some 65 Mm 3 of sand, 2 Mm 3 of public fill will be required for Stage Ireclamation. Rockfill for seawall construction is estimated to be about 1 million m 3 .2.6.22 Stage II reclamation is expected to require some 7.4 Mm 3 of sand, 11 Mm 3 of public fill. Rockfillfor seawall construction is estimated to be about 0.6 Mm 3 ".YamO2.6.23 The volumes of public fill and marine sand are described above and it is currently envisaged that0.6 Mm 3 of rock fill will be required for the 10 ha Yam O reclamation.2.6.24 It is cuirently envisaged that the majority of Project fill material will be sourced from theWailingding Marine Borrow Area which is in Mainland waters. A small portion of the sand fill islikely to be obtained from the East Lamma Channel Marine Borrow Area allocated by the FillManagement Committee (FMC).2.6.25 It is understood that CED have previously committed that the use of wooden construction sitehoarding would not be allowed and metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as thiswould reduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project2.7 THEME PARK AND ASSOCIATED DEVELOPMENTSTHEME PARK CONSTRUCTION WORKS2.7.1 Following the completion of the Theme Park Phase I Penny's Bay reclamation and basicinj&astructure by CED in Q3 2002, the fonned Stage I Site will be handed over to the HKITP forTheme Park construction.2.7.2 The required works for the construction of the Theme Park, RD&E, hotels and associated facilitiesinclude the use of heavy plant for excavation, piling, filling, concreting and building/ structuresconstruction. Key activities will include:Foundation works for Theme Park buildings, attractions etc;Construction of Theme Park buildings, attractions etc;Theme Park surfacing, landscaping and berms;Foundation works for hotels;Hotel superstructure construction;Ferry pier substructure and buildings (piling/ foundations) to be built by Government;Ferry pier superstructure construction to be built by Government;Construction and surfacing of central pedestrian walkway to be built by Government; andAssociated infrastructure and underground utilities.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd In association with ERM Hong Kong 2-12Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.7.3 It is understood that CED have committed that the use of wooden construction site hoarding wouldnot be allowed and metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as this would reduce thevolume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.THEME PARK CONSTRUCTION PHASING SCHEDULE2.7.4 The proposed Theme Park will be constructed on land reclaimed by CED in phases; oncereclamation and basic infrastructure is completed, the site will be handovered to the HKITP forconstruction of Theme Park superstructures, hotels, RD&E elements together with the associatedinfrastructures. The Theme Park will be developed in three milestones as follows:• Phase I - Opening Day;• Phase I - Build Out; and• Phase II - Build Out.2.7.5 Theme Park (Phase I) development will occupy the western portion of the proposed site and willcomprise the provision of an Opening Day Theme Park and related hotel and RD&E elements.Construction duration for Phase I is anticipated to be approximately 36 months for the OpeningDay Theme Park and related hotel and RD&E elements. This HKITP construction duration doesnot include CED's construction of related infrastructure and land reclamation (see Section 2.6).2.7.6 The Theme Park (Phase I) development will then be expanded over a ten year period to achievethe finalised Phase I Theme Park (Phase I - Build Out),2.7.7 The Theme Park (Phase II) - Build Out is estimated to be completed in 2024 and will mirror thedevelopment of Phase I - Build Out2.7.8 Figure 2.7a shows Theme Park Phase I and Phase II conceptual layout locations and Table 2.7aprovides the approximate schedule for development of the Theme Park, RD&E and hotels.Table 2.7a - Approximate Schedule for Theme Park Development Assumed in the EIAAnalysis'A«ttyi^'^^ , .,; r ; . ; :. . ; r;v;Phase IFoundations for Theme Park & attractionsConstruction of Theme Park buildings & attractionsTheme Park surfacing, landscaping etc.Hotel foundationsHotel superstructuresFerry pierPedestrian walkwayPhase I - Opening DayPhase I - Build OutPhase HTheme Park & attractionsHotelsPhase II - Build OutQ2 2002Q3 2002Q2 2004Q4 2002Ql 2003J32 2002Q2 2004Q2 2005.Q3 2008Q120092007Q2 2003Ql 2005Q2 2005Q2 2003Q2 2005Q2 2005Q122005.2014Q22011Q220112024Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates2-13


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTHEME PARK OPERATIONAL FACILITIES2.7.9 The Theme Park and associated and developments comprises an EIAO Schedule 2 designatedProject, Table 2.3a.2.7.10 The Theme Park (about 180 ha) is intended to be a comprehensively planned, low density andgenerally low to medium rise environment, providing a range of attractions. Key attractions andfacilities to be provided will include amphitheatres, amusement devices and rides, theme attractionsand ancillary restaurants, retail shops, and servicing facilities. The majority of buildings andstructures within the Theme Park will be low to medium rise; the maximum height of structures willbe limited to 100 m although it is understood that structures within 500 m from the Penny's BayGTP will be maintained within 50 m.2.7.11 A approximately 800 m long central pedestrian spine (walkway) will be provided to connect therailway station, public coach/car park and Public Transport Interchange at the northern entrance tothe Theme Park down to the two ferry piers on the southern coast.2.7.12 The coastal area to the south of the Theme Park is designated for five or more hotels (about 53ha), Figure 2.7a 9 although layout of hotels is still to be determined with an initial capacity of about1,400 guests (2 hotels open on Phase I - Opening Day) (Phase I) and up to 7,000 guests whenfully developed (Phase II). Most hotels will be between 5 and 7 storeys and will not exceed 40 mheight. Landscaped berms will separate most of the hotels from each other to maintainindependent themes for each hotel. The location of the berms is shown in Figure 2.7b.2.7.13 Two ferry piers (about 0.8 ha) will be located on the southern waterfront of Penny's Bay toprovide visitors with direct marine access (for both staff and guests) to the Theme Park andassociated developments. Subject to demand, licensed ferry services will be provided throughcommercial tender. It is presently envisaged the vessels used will have a speed between 24 to 33knots and capacity of about 300 to 500 passengers. Kiosks not greater than 20 rrf each and 10 innumber as service trades have been considered ancillary to the "Pier" zone on the Draft OZP. It isunderstood that CED, as an environmental initiative, have previously committed that the ThemePark ferry piers fenders will use fabric fenders instead of tropical hardwood fenders.2.7.14 A general plan of the Penny's Bay Development Area is included in Figure 2.7a. This planidentifies the location of the Phases I and H Theme Parks, hotels, and RD&E elements. Supportfacilities such as back of house, utility yard, public service, parking areas, public transportinterchange, ferry piers, service quay and transportation routes/roads are also shown on the figure.2.7.15 A back of house area (described in Section 2.7.33) includes the storage, maintenance, office,shops, and wardrobe facilities etc used to support the operations of the Theme Park developmentThe public will not have access to the back of house area. There will be two parking areas, onefor private cars and one for coaches, for each phases of the Theme Park development. These arefurther described in Section 2.12.2.7.16 Further details of construction of the Theme Park are provided w.;Section$ 3 and 4.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-14Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTHEME PARK OPERATIONAL CONCEPTTheme Park Attendance andStaffing2.7.17 A summary of the operational programme assumptions for each phase of the Theme Park, RD&Eand hotel development assumed in this EIA is provided in Table 2.7b. Additionally, Table 2.7bpresents total (Theme Park, RD&E and hotel) employment assumptions, although numbers of staffwill depend on attendance and hours of operation.Table 2.7b - Key Operational AssumptionsAspectsTheme Park Attendance (Annual)Theme Park Reference Day Attendance (Per Day)RD&E Attendance (Annual)RD&E Reference Day Attendance (Per Day)Rentable areas (m 2 )Daily EmploymentTotal EmploymentOn-site Hotel GuestsOn-site Hotel RoomsPhase I - Opening7.5 millionJ9,0006.6 million27,10027,9075,3007,4004,1001,400Phase I ~ Build Out10.0 million44,00010.1 million41,50041,8608,60012,1009,1003,100PH^H-BwiyOwt17.1 million84,00017.1 million70,20074,41917,10023,90020,6007,000Theme Park and RD&E Area Operating Hours2.7.18 The hours of Theme Park and RD&E areas operation will be dependent upon the demand for thefacilities and therefore may fluctuate throughout the year. EIA worst-case assumptions anticipatethat the Theme Park and RD&E areas would be open from 8.00 am to midnight and 9.00 am to2.00 am, respectively; although actual operation hours for both Theme Park Phases will likely to beless.Overview of Phase I Themes2.7.19 The Phase I Theme Park will be a "Magic Kingdom" type park with themed areas such as "MainStreet", "Adventureland", Fantasyland", "Frontierland", "Tomonrowland" or similar. Specific"themes" of each land will be deteimined during the design process but will include attractions(amusement ride/device, exhibit, game arcade, or others in a combination to be determined), placesof public entertainment (show, parade, theatre, performance areas), restaurants/dining areas, retailshops, and related support facilities (kitchens, storage, restrooms, photographic studios, bankservices areas). The above list aims to provide a general understanding of the uses planned forPhase I Theme Park. A specific layout plan for the Theme Park would be developed by HKITPand completed after actual design takes place (about two years after Project approval). However,a tentative conceptual layout indicating broad height bands and development bulk has been drawnup for the purposes of this EIA (see Figure 2.7c).Theme Park Phase I: Preliminary Themed Concepts2.7.20 The Theme Park Phases I and II will be designed to transport guests into a world of imagination,fantasy and adventure. The Theme Parks will bring together the best of the rides, shows andattractions from operating theme parks around the world to create a mix of new and traditionaltheme park entertainment experiences.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates2-15


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.7.21 Like other world-class international theme parks, the proposed Theme Park (Phase I) will be a'Magic Kingdom" type park and would consist of several "lands", each offering uniqueexperiences. Each land might include the entertainment 'themed' concepts, such as the following,and would include attractions (for example rides, shows, and parades), food and beveragelocations, shops and service facilities either at opening or as additions in future years:• Main Street Concept - Main Street may serve as the dramatic entryway to the Theme Park. Here guests couldenter a Main Street, an area that will capture the excitement, friendliness and energy of a community - gatheringplace. Designed after an old-fashion small town USA, this concept would include a stage for live entertainmentand parades as well as special events;• Fantasyland Concept - Fantasyland may comprises a magical home of animated characters and stories. Hereguests can ride on themed attractions (both indoor and outdoor) and enjoy retail and dining opportunities;» Toontown Concept - Toontown may comprise a world where the beloved cartoon entertainment characters liveand play. Here guests may ride on cartoon themed attractions and meet one-on-one with cartoon entertainmentcharacters. They might visit the "houses" of many cartoon entertainment characters or ride on a roller-coaster;• Adventureland Concept - Adventureland may comprise a "journey" to exotic regions of exploration, adventureand discovery. Here guests may enjoy retail and dining opportunities, ride a roller a coaster through a dark junglethemed area. They could explore a themed archaeological site in search of "artefacts", ride on indoor themedvirtually reality attraction, or experience a live show featuring the music and characters from cartoonentertainment classics;• Frontierland Concept - Frontierland may comprise a walk right into an American Old West of the 1880's themedarea. Here park guests may explore a frontier outpost a mythical American fort. They might also enjoy ahaunted mansion attraction; shoot the rapids on a river raft ride, or watch a film in a theatre; and• Tomorrowland Concept - Tomorrowland may comprise a world of the future, filled with sci-fi fantasies andadventures. Here guests can join cartoon entertainment characters as they pilot their own spinning "spacecraft".They might also take a drive through the landscape of tomorrow and frolic in a futuristic water fountain.Phase II Theme Park: Preliminary Concepts2.1.22 The Phase II Theme Park will complement the Phase I Theme Park but will likely to have adifferent theme and design. Although attractions have not yet been determined by the HKITP, theuses, in general, will be consistent with those listed for the Phase I Theme Park.2.7.23 The tentative conceptual plan for themed areas for EIA assessment is provided in Figure 2,7c;where necessary for the purposes of this assessment, assumptions have been made regarding theindicative location and placement of major attractions within the Theme Park Phase II area. Suchassumptions are identified in appropriate technical sections of this EIA Study.Fireworks2.7.24 The Theme Park will provide a nightly fireworks show which is expected to include low-level andmid-level fireworks only. There are two types of shows that may be incorporated into theentertainment programme.2.7.25 The first type of show uses fireworks in conjunction with theatrical presentations such as lights,lasers, music, Audio-Animatronics®, video displays, stage settings and performers; such a showonly uses fireworks or pyrotechnics as show effects and does not use substantial amount ofScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-16Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentfireworks per show. The duration of each whole show will be approximately 20 minutes withapproximately 5 minutes of fireworks display only. The maximum display height will be limited to30 m; such a show is considered to be a low-level show. Due to the theatrical nature of the showit could be located within any of the various lands within each Theme Park. A low-level showwould not be visible outside the specific land.2.7.26 A mid-level show will include launched shells and other fireworks from a secure back of houselaunch site (as shown in Figure 10.3d). The maximum display height will be limited toapproximately 100 m and will be visible from many locations within the Theme Park. The durationof a mid-level fireworks display would be approximately five minutes, depending on the showdesign.2.7.27 A summary of the principal features of the two types of shows is provided in Table 2.7cTable 2.7c - Indicative Fireworks Show DetailsItemDescriptionNumber of shows per yearApproximate shell burst heightApproximate fireworks show durationLow-level ShowSmall effects to accenttheatrical performances48530mApprox. 5 minutesMid-tewi Show ~ >: -/-, . ,.«,- OV


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentBACK OF HOUSE AREA2.7.33 The back of house areas (approximately 15 ha) in each Theme Park (Phase I and H) will providethe essential facilities and functions required to support Theme Park operations and will include:• Storage areas and warehouses (including dangerous goods storage and storage for fireworks) (further detailsprovided in Section JO);• Fabrication and maintenance workshops (fabricating and maintaining attractions, costumes, displays, painting,backdrops etc) in support of various Theme Park attractions;• Boilers for space heating and domestic hot water production (further details provided in Section 3);• Food preparation building, administrative offices, shops, employee lounge, laundry and wardrobe facilities anddressing rooms;• Vehicle storage and services, fuel and emergency generator storage;« Mid-level fireworks launch areas (further details provided in Section 10);• Plant nursery and possible animal care facilities;• Fire station operated by HKITP; and• Waste storage and handling: an area of about 03 ha will be designated within each of the back of house serviceareas (Theme Park Phase I and Phase II) for solid waste storage and recyclables recovery/ waste reductioninitiatives, including solid waste sorting and compaction. It is assumed that there will be five hotel refusecollection points (RCPs), two RCPs for each Theme Park phase (ie four total) and two RCPs for the RD&E area.The RCPs in the Phase I and II Theme Park will be located away from public areas in back of house servicefacilities. Further details pertaining to solid waste management and recycling area provided in Section 6.RD&E AREAS2.7.34 The RD&E area will border the government landscape district to the east and west. It will link thePTI and rail station(s) from the north of the feny pier from the south. Access to the Theme Parkwill be provided from the RD&E area. Most of the building in the area will be one or two storeyswith building heights occasionally rising above 20 m. The primary uses may include retail shops,dining/restaurants and places of entertainment. Secondary uses may include storage, administrativeoffices, solid waste management installation, utility services, kitchens and food preparations areas,and other uses to support the RD&E concept.2.7.35 The layout and the venue mk have yet to be determined. Area development including landscaping,lighting and fixtures that complement the overall atmosphere of the complex will also be a keycomponent of the RD&E area.2.8 WATER RECREATION CENTRE2.8.1 The Water Recreation Centre (about 32 ha) to the north-west of the Theme Park includes anartificial lake (about 12 ha) and associated amenities (car park, access roads, footpaths, trail andboat store and landscaping). This public element comprises an EIAO Schedule 2 DesignatedProject, Table 2.3a.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-18Sharridand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.8.2 It is intended that the lake will be multi-functional providing:• A landscape feature;• A source of freshwater for irrigation;• Reduced required volume of reclamation filling; and• Scope for public (secondary contact only) water sport recreational activities (boating, sailing, canoeing etc.).2.8.3 Planned uses for the Water Recreation Centre may include a boating facility, changing rooms,restaurant/dining, refreshment kiosk, canteen, and place of recreation. Secondary uses may includestorage, kitchens and food preparation areas, administrative offices, car and coach parking, andutility installation. A small building to serve the public will be located on site in order to housewater recreation uses. The number of buildings and structures around the lake will be minimisedand will be low-density and low-rise (6 m maximum height) in nature.2.8.4 The building design will be therned appropriately for a water recreation centre. The majority of theremaining area of the water recreation centre will include the lake as well as landscaping and sittingareas to serve the public.2.8.5 The lake will be filled primarily from run-off from the suirounding slopes (with a connection to thefreshwater supply network for topping off to maintain the level of the lake); there will be a gatesystem to divert stonnwater and prevent silt-filled stormwater from entering the lake after storm.De-silting facilities comprising sediment traps will be provided along the catchwaters to assist insediment entrapment and removal. Protection systems will be provided to prevent stonnwater runofffrom hard surfaces ^g. roadways) and built-up areas from entering the lake under normalweather conditions. It should be noted that the lake does not form part of the primary drainagesystem.2.8.6 The proposed water level in the lake will be limited to 1 m from the nominal level of +7.5 mPD.The lake is expected to be lined with a geosynthetic liner system including a high densitypolyethylene (HDPE) membrane sandwiched between protective geotextiles. The area of the lakeis 12 ha and volume is expected to be about 600,000 - 700,000 ml2.8.7 Automatic penstocks are to be provided to control the flow of water from the catchwaters to thelake (based on lake water level). An overflow weir will be provided to allow surplus water (egdirect rainfall on the lake surface) to flow into the western drainage channel which discharges to thesea.2.8.8 A back-up raw water supply system (or alternative fresh water supply from the proposed plannedfresh water service reservoir at Yam 0 Tuk) will be provided to allow lake topping-up during thedry season (as required), as detailed in Section 5. A dedicated piping system and pump station(located in the utility yard) will be provided to extract and distribute lake water for irrigationpurposes throughout the Theme Park developmentWATER RECREATION CENTRE CONSTRUCTION WORKS2.8.9 The required works for the construction of the Water Recreation Centre facilities will include theuse of heavy plant for excavation, piling, landscaping, concreting and building/ structuresconstruction. Key activities will include:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-19Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


]Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Lake excavation and dredging of marine sediment;• Placement of lake membrane plus associated works/ tie-ins to drainage system;• Construction of lake desilting and pumping facilities;• Construction of Water Recreation Centre foundations; and• Construction of Water Recreation Centre superstructure.2.8.10 It is understood that CED has previously committed that the use of wooden construction sitehoarding would not be allowed and metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as thiswould reduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.WATER RECREATION CENTRE CONSTRUCTION PHASING AND SCHEDULE2.8.11 A tentative schedule for development of the Water Recreation Centre is provided in Table 2.8aTable 2.8a - Water Recreation Centre Construction ScheduleActivityLake excavationLiner placementLake supporting facilitiesWater Recreation Centre foundationsWater Recreation Centre superstructureStartQ22001Ql 2002Q3 2002Q3 2003Q2 2004finish V04 2002Q4 2002Ql 2003Q2 2004Q4 2004'f v '< • '2.9 ROAD TRANSPORTATION2.9.1 The primary temporary and permanent new roads associated with the Project outlined in Section2.2 are detailed in the following sections.TEMPORARY ACCESS ROADAlignment2.9.2 A temporary access road will be constructed from Yam O to Penny's Bay to enable constructionaccess to the Project area. The proposed route is shown on Figure 2.9a.Construction Phasing Schedule2.9.3 Construction of the temporary access road to Penny's Bay is envisaged to commence in Q3 2000with construction works completed within about 3 months.CHOK KO WAN LINK ROAD (CKWLR)2.9.4 The CKWLR comprises an EIAO Schedule 2 Designated Project, Table 2.la. The detailed EIAof CLWLR is presented in the NLDFS EIA. Pertinent-details of the L5 km CKWLR section ofthis project are described herein.CKWLR Alignment2.9.5 The CKWLR will be designed as an Expressway Standard route serving traffic from Yam OInterchange to link up with RIO. It will incorporate a roundabout at Penny's Bay to serve theTheme Park (see Figure 2,9b).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-20Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.9.6 In the west the CKWLR will connect to the existing Yam O Interchange and on the eastern side tothe R10-NLYLH toll plaza; and in the long run to the conceptual RIO - Hong Kong - Lantau Link(R10-HKLL) at the Pa Tau Kwu Interchange. The alignment of the CKWLR begins at about +33mPD/ +26 mPD from Yam O and gradually descends to a level of about +15 inPD at the Penny'sBay roundabout. The Penny's Bay roundabout will be located to the north-west of the Penny'sBay GTP to provide local access via Road P2 to the Theme Park and the Water RecreationCentre. Access will be via an at-grade roundabout located below the CKWLR mainline.2.9.7 The CKWLR is expected to be in the form of a dual 3 lane carriageway with a design speed oflOOkmhr" 1 .CLWLR Constraints2.9.8 Key identified constraints for the alignment of the western section of the CKWLR include the YamO Interchange, the Penny's Bay Rail Link, the GTP, the need to provide a drainage reserve, andthe need for Road P2 connection.CKWLR Construction2.9.9 The required works for the construction of the CKWLR will include the use of heavy plant forexcavation, drilling, piling, concreting, surfacing and structures construction. Key activities willinclude:Demolition of Cheoy Lee Shipyard;Excavation works for the Yam O tie-in;Blasting works;Slope protection works;Construction of road foundations and superstructures from Yam O to Penny's Bay;Road surfacing and construction of road sections at grade from Yam O to Penny's Bay; andRoad surfacing and construction of elevated road sections from Yam O to Penny's Bay.2.9.10 It is understood that CED have previously committed that the use of wooden construction sitehoarding would not be allowed and metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as thiswould reduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.CKWLR Construction Phasing Schedule2.9.11 Construction of the CKWLR from Yam O Interchange to Penny's Bay roundabout is envisaged tocommence in Q3 2002 for completion in Ql 2005.CKWLR Traffic Forecasts2.9.12 The design traffic conditions and the percentage of heavy goods vehicles assumed in the air andnoise impact assessments are summarised m Figure 2.9b.ROAD P22.9.13 The approximately 4 km Road P2 (Primary Distributor) comprises an EIAO Schedule 2Designated Project, Table 2.3a.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-21Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentRoad P2Alignment2.9.14 Road P2 commences from the proposed development at Yam O and extends the existing CheungTung Road at Yam O interchange from PI Junction and then connect to Penny's Bay Roundabout,provides a link from North Lantau to CKWLR and the Theme Park, and continuous along thesouthern coastal line to the Pa Tau Kwu roundabout (see Figure 2.9b). Road P2 will descendfrom a level of about +31 mPD at Yam O with an average gradient of +1.5% to the proposedPenny's Bay roundabout. It will run primarily on an elevated structure to connect to the Penny'sBay roundabout.2.9.15 Road P2 is assumed to comprise a dual 2 lane arrangement and of about 4 km length. For EIAassessment purposes a design speed of 70 km hr" 1 is assumed.RoadP2 Construction Phasing Schedule2.9.16 Construction of Road P2 from Yam O to the Penny's Bay roundabout is envisaged to commencein Ql 2003 with construction works completed within about 28 months. It is understood that CEDhave previously committed that the use of wooden construction site hoarding would not be allowedand metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as this would reduce the volume ofconstruction and demolition waste for the Project.RoadP2 Traffic Forecasts2.9.17 The design traffic conditions (design flow, percentage heavy goods vehicles and design speed) forthe above road, which have been used in the air and noise impact assessments, are summarised inFigure 2.9b.RESORT ROADResort Road Alignment2.9.18 The proposed Resort Road (Dl and D2 for Phases I and II of the Theme Park, respectively) willbe about 3.5 km long of District Distributor standard around the proposed Theme Park connectedto Road P2 in the east and west via roundabouts (see Figure 2.9b). The Resort Road comprisesan EIAO Schedule 2 Designated Project as described in Table 2.3a. The assumed design speedfor EIA assessment purpose is 70 km hr" 1 .Resort Road Construction Phasing Schedule2.9.19 Construction of the Resort Road from the Penny's Bay roundabout is envisaged to commence inearly 2003 with construction works for the western section completed within about 15 months. It isunderstood that CED have previously committed that the use of wooden construction site hoardingwould not be allowed and metal (aliroMum, alloy etc.) would be recommended as this wouldreduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-22Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentResort Road Traffic Forecasts2.9.20 The design traffic conditions (design flow, percentage heavy goods vehicles and design speed) forthe Resort Road, which have been used in the air and noise impact assessments, are summarised inFigure 2.9b.PROJECT ROAD CONSTRUCTION WORKS SCHEDULE2.9.21 A tentative schedule for all temporary and permanent road construction works for the Project isprovided in Table 2.9a.Table 2.9a - Tentative Schedule for Project Road Construction WorksActivity.Temporary Access RoadSurfacing and construction of road at gradeCKWLRSite formation and road works at Ngong Shuen AuPiling, foundations and superstructure (Yam O Interchange toPenny's Bay roundabout)Surfacing and construction of at grade and elevated sectionsRoadP2Construction of at grade and elevated sections(North Lantau toTheme Park west)Road surfacingResort RoadWestern Resort Road (Road D 1 ) construction and surfacingEastern Resort Road (Road D2) construction and surfacing2.10 PENNY'S BAY RAIL LINK (PBRL),'Start -/". < ;/'> Vo fciilifcVi'V V' *HQ3 2000Q42001Q4 2002Ql 2003Ql 2003Q2 2004Ql 2003Ql 2007Q4 2000Q4 2002Ql 2005Ql 2005Ql 2005Ql 2005Ql 2004Ql 20082.10.1 This section provides a summary of the key elements of the proposed Penny's Bay Rail Link(PBRL), which with its two stations and tunnel element comprises an EIAO Schedule 2 DesignatedProject, Table 2.3a. Full details are given in the separate PBRL EIA study which is appended tothis report as Annex MPBRL ALIGNMENT DESCRIPTION2.10.2 The proposed Penny's Bay Rail Link comprises a new 3.6 km link from the existing Tung ChungLine at Yam O to Penny's Bay (see Figure 2. la of Annex M).2.103 A new Yam O Rail Station will be constructed along the existing Tung Chung Line and will havetwo platforms, for the Tung Chung Line services between Hong Kong and Tung Chung, and anadditional, third platform dedicated to the PBRL service. Concourses will be constructed abovethe three platforms and connected by overhead link bridges.2.10.4 The PBRL will comprise a single track which departs from the Up Tung Chung line track west ofYam O before passing under the existing North Lantau Highway and into a 100 m length of cut andcover tunnel. The PBRL then enters the 850 m single cell tunnel to pass below the central hills ofLantau to emerge to the north of Penny's Bay. A passing loop will be constructed to the south ofthe portal before the PBRL enters the new station at Penny's Bay, hereafter referred to as theScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox •Wilbur Smith Associates2-23


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentPenny's Bay Rail Station 1 . The Penny's Bay Rail Station will be located to the north of the ThemePark and will comprise a single platform with cleaning facilities and a light workshop area.2.10.5 Much of the PBRL is to be constructed at grade. However, portions of the track will be in cuttingin the vicinity of Penny's Bay Rail Station and will be depressed shielded from the Theme Park byearth bunding alongside the PBRL alignment. At Yam O, the alignment is at-grade, situated on theexisting reclamation level as it passes under the roads of the North Lantau Highway.IDENTIFICATION OF PBRL ALIGNMENT CONSTRAINTS2.10.6 Within the Yam O site, the alignment is constrained by the existing and proposed highways, theexisting Lantau Aiiport Railway (LAR), an existing MTR traction substation and the closeproximity of the sea wall. Together with the need for the PBRL platform to be parallel with theexisting LAR lines, the alignment is essentially engineered to fit the existing infrastructure. Otheroptions have been examined but these involve only minor deviation in the vicinity of Yarn O RailStation according to platform and connection details.2.10.7 These constraints determine the alignment to the east and then south, in tunnel through the hill toPenny's Bay, continuing towards the Theme Park site on land to be reclaimed in Penny's Bay byCED. The layout within the Penny's Bay reclamation is determined by the planning layout of theintended land uses for the platform.2.10.8 The existing LAR tracks at Yam O are at approximately +6.2 mPD and the PBRL will be at thesame level with a horizontal profile extending from the LAR tracks to the tunnel portal.Throughout the tunnel section, the vertical alignment follows a slight up gradient towards thePenny's Bay reclamation, designed to closely parallel with the Government's highway proposals atthat portal, then trending downwards to Penny's Bay Station, where it is at a level of approximately+2.0 mPD, which in conjunction with earth bunds, serves to mask train operations from the ThemePark.PBRL OPERATING CONCEPT2.10.9 The PBRL will be folly integrated with the MTRCs existing Tung Chung Line through a newinterchange station at Yarn O. From Yam O Station, the train will travel to a new station in Penny'sBay, with direct pedestrian access to the Theme Park site.2.10.1 OThe new rail link will have the following operating characteristics:• A shuttle service between the new Yam O Station on the Tung Chung Line and a newPenny's Bay Rail Station at Penny's Bay to be operated by the railway intended operator ofMTRC.• Fully integrated with the wider MTR network in terms of ticketing and service connections.• Upon commissioning in 2005, urban line type train with at least three cars would operate ashuttle service from Yam O to the Theme Park. Train service interval would be subject todiscussion and demand estimates, but are currently assumed to be between 5 and 10 minute(1) Penny's Bay Rail Station is referred to as "Disneyland Station" in Annex M. These are only working names. The formal name of the station will bedetermined in due course.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-24Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentheadway in each direction.• In the longer term, eight-car trains may be employed to meet increased demand.• The train journey time from Yam O Station to Penny's Bay Rail Station would be about 3.5minutes.• Cross platform interchange, without ticket barriers and similar to the existing MTR network,would be provided at Yam O Rail Station for visitors travelling to Penny's Bay Rail Stationfrom the main urban areas. These include visitors from the Tung Chung Line railinterchanges at Lai King and Nam Cheong. Their return journeys would be via convenientoverhead passenger connections from the PBRL platform to the Hong Kong bound platform,also without ticket barriers.• Customers originating in Tung Chung would interchange with the Penny's Bay Rail Linkservice by using the overhead pedestrian connections at Yam O Rail Station. Travellersreturning to Tung Chung would take the mainline Tung Chung Line service, by cross-platforminterchange, from Yam O Rail Station to Tung Chung.• The Penny's Bay Rail Station will have a single platform. All trains would terminate andreverse at Penny's Bay Rail Station.• The shuttle service would be integrated with the existing MTR lines and stabling,maintenance, etc. would be provided at the MTRCs existing facilities at nearby Siu Ho WanDepot. This depot would also provide support and train substitution in the event of equipmentfailure.• Light train cleaning at Penny's Bay Station.METHOD OF PBRL CONSTRUCTION2.10.11 Both station sites will be principal areas of construction, as shown by Figure 2.4a of Annex M,supplemented by a temporary depot near Penny's Bay Rail Station and sites at the tunnel portals.2.10.12The required works for the construction of PBRL include the use of heavy plant for excavation,filling, concreting., tunnelling and station construction. The key construction stages and activities ofthe Project are outlined below:Yam O Rail Station construction;Tunnel portal works;Tunnel worksTrack construction; andPenny's Bay Rail Station construction.PBRL CONSTRUCTION PHASING SCHEDULE2.10.13Yam O Rail Station and the Penny's Bay Rail Link are expected to be opened for passengerservice in early 2005, which will be approximately 36 months from the date of constructioncommencement The presently envisaged programme milestones are shown in Table 2.10aassuming Government land at Penny's Bay will be available in early 2003.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-25Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 2.10a - Tentative Schedule for PBRL Construction and ImplementationActivity . ;Yam O station and adjacent worksTunnelPenny's Bay Rail Station and open cut section ofalignmentTrack turn out and related worksTrack works and overhead linesStation fitting out, commissioning, trial and testrunsPBRL operational (open to public)Start , , ^ *v ',; -Q4 2002Q2 2002 (north)Ql 2003 (south)Ql 2003Q2 2003Q2 2004-Feb 2005FMstt^ > v v ;A , ;UQ2 2004Q2 2004 (northand south)Q2 2004Ql 2005Q3 2004Q4 20042.11 STORMWATER DRAINAGE, SEWERAGE AND OTHER UTILITIESSTORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM2.11.1 The currently proposed urban trunk drainage system (with the exception of the CLP site) will flowtowards the east and discharge to the Kap Shui Mun Channel. This drainage structure is expectedto comprise of a two to three cell box culvert (approximately 3.5 m wide and 3.5 m height each)arrangement with a length of about 1.7 km, the eastern stormwater drainage culvert comprises anEIAO Schedule 2 Designated Project, Table 2.3a, as it discharges within 300 m of the Pa TauKwu archaeological site.2.11.2 Stormwater runoff from natural hill slopes surrounding Penny's Bay, landscaped areas of the newreclamation will be collected into a separate catchwater system for discharge to the sea via an openchannel of about 2.2 km in length at the southwest comer of the reclamation.2.11.3 It is proposed that drainage from the Theme Park and hotel areas will discharge to the sea via anumber of 1-3 cell box culverts on the southern shoreline of the Penny's Bay reclamation.2.11.4 A conceptual drainage layout plan for the Project is provided in Figure 2.11 a, the provisionaldrainage layout for the Theme Park and associated facilities is also shown. See also Section 2.12concerning drainage of vehicle parking areas.2.11.5 CED will be responsible for the provision of stormwater drainage systems.SEWERAGE SYSTEM2.11.6 The provisional sewerage plan for the Theme Park and associated developments comprises twoprincipal sewers:• One principal sewer would follow the route of the Resort Road to collect sewage from all areas to thesouth of the PBRL. The sewer will convey flows from east to west and would be expected to comprisea combination of gravity and pressurised systems. This sewer would discharge to a pumping station(nominal capacity of 112,320 mVday in the north-west corner of the Theme Park in the area designatedas a utility yard; and• A second principal sewer following Road P2 on the northern boundary of the Theme Park wouldcollect flows from the north of PBRL. The sewer would conduct flows from east to west to the abovepumping station..Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Gox * Wilbur Smith Associates2-26


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.11.7 The pumping station would convey flows via twin rising mains northwards to a previouslyconstructed gravity main which will conduct flows to the Yam O Sewage Pumping Station. Thispumping station will convey flows to the Siu Ho Wan Sewerage Treatment Works (SHWSTW).2.11.8 The arrangement of sewerage within the Project site is shown in Figure 2.lib, and theirconstruction will be the responsibility of CED. Further details are provided in Section 5 of thisEIA Report.OTHER UTILITY AND SERVICE SYSTEMS2.11.9 Other utility and service systems required for the Project will be provided and installed by CEDand relevant utility service providers, as necessary, and will include:* Water supply (fresh and probably salt water supply from planned/ proposed service reservoirs at Yam0 Tuk and salt water may be supplied from Siu Ho Wan);* Electricity supply;• Town gas; and• Telecommunications.UTILITY AND SERVICES CONSTRUCTION PHASING SCHEDULE2.11.1 OK tentative schedule for construction and installation of utility and services (for Theme Park Phase Idevelopment) is provided in Table 2Jla.Table 2.1 la - Tentative Schedule for Utilities and Services InstallationInstallation of sewerage mains, pumping station etc.Installation of stromwater drainage, open channels and culvertsInstallation of water mains, freshwater and saltwater systemsInstallation of utilities and servicesQ3 2000Q3 2000Q3 2000Q3 2000Ql 2005Ql 2005Ql 2005Ql 20052.11.11 It is understood that CED have previously committed that the use of wooden construction sitehoarding would not be allowed and metal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as thiswould reduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.2.12 OTHER ASSOCIATED THEME PARK DEVELOPMENTSGovernment, Institution or Community (G/IC) Facilities2.12.1 A strip of land of about 23 ha to the north of the Theme Park boundary has been assigned forsupporting G/IC facilities related to security, rescue, parking and public transport. It will includethe Penny's Bay Rail Station and the following facilities will be provided:divisional police station,divisional fire station (including an ambulance station),bus terminus,carpark,coach park,petrol filling/service station,telephone exchange, andScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox •Wilbur Smith Associates2-27


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• other utility services.Vehicle Parking Areas2.12.2 Two vehicle parking areas located to the north of the Theme Park will be provided by HKITP onefor coach and one for car parking: East Public Carpark and West Public Carpark. The parkingareas will be located adjacent to the northern boundary of the Theme Park, to the south of RoadP2 and on either side of the PTI (see Figure 2.7a). These parking areas will have a totalcombined area of about 11 ha and will provide parking for 300 to 600 tour coaches and 1,000 to2,000 (Phase I - Opening Day - Phase II- Build Out, respectively) private cars. The maximumheight of the parking structure is 15 m. Due to the nature of the parking areas, landscaping will beprimarily on the perimeter of the parking areas.2.123 Vehicle parking areas will include oil/grease/fuel interceptors/traps/ separators to prevent suchdischarges to stormwater drainage systems during routine operation.Public Transport Interchanges (PTI)2.12.4 Two Public Transport Interchanges will be provided by HKITP. One will be located to the northof the Theme Park between the Penny's Bay Rail Station and Road P2. This PTI will providegeneral drop off and pick up access for guests and employees. Pennanent PTI related buildingswill be a maximum 10 m tall. The second PTI will comprise a temporary facility located on the 10ha reclamation at Yam O (see Figure 2Ad).Roadside Buffers, Berms and Landscaping Features2.12.5 Roadside buffers, berms and landscaping features will be provided by CED and HKITP. Fulldetails of proposed screening and landscaping measures are provided in the landscape and visualimpact assessment (see Annex K) and are shown in Figure 2.7b. It is understood that CED havepreviously committed that the use of wooden construction site hoarding would not be allowed andmetal (aluminium, alloy etc.) would be recommended as this would reduce the volume ofconstruction and demolition waste for the Project.Slope Stabilisation2.12.6 Slope stabilisation measures will be provided by CED for adjacent slopes in the Penny's Baydevelopment area and adjacent to all infrastructure and related works. Provided measures willinclude slope formation and treatment, landslide prevention and remedial works as necessary. It isunderstood that CED have previously committed that the use of wooden construction site hoardingwould not be allowed and metal (alijrainiunx, alloy etc.) would be recommended as this wouldreduce the volume of construction and demolition waste for the Project.2.13 CONCURRENT PROJECTS2.13.1 Concurrent ongoing _„£_.,„ ^ Jr_, projects _^ _ _ in the vicinity of this Project considered in impact assessments forr'TiTniil'dfi-xrA cumulative rvnrnr\op»c purposes are HAcr*riKA


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentWat. The alignment connects to the Chok Ko Wan Link Road at Fa Peng. The construction workis scheduled to commence in 2002 for completion in 2007. An EIA has been completed in July1999 for the Route 10-NLYLH southern section and has been approved under the EIAO.2.13.3 The Remaining Development in Tung Chung and Tai Ho Comprehensive Feasibility Study coversfour major development areas in Tung Chung (Center, Valley and East) and four in Tai Ho (West,Central, East and Bay). A Recommended Outline Development Plan has been produced forNorth Lantau with an ultimate target population of 320,000 for North Lantau at year 2011.2.13.4 The proposed Dangerous Goods Anchorage (DGA) at Tang Lung Chau provides a total of 72moorings and has a gross area of 67.5 ha, which is bounded by the centre lines of the surroundingbreakwater. According to the Tsuen Wan Bay Further Reclamation, Area 35 Engineering,Planning and Environmental Investigation (TDD, 1999), the latest estimate on the programme forwas for commencement of the works in late 2000 for completion in mid 2003.2.13.5 The proposed reclamation at Sham Tseng covers an area of 16.3 ha located between Ting Kauand Sham Tseng Sewage Treatment Works and Tsing Lung Tau. The dredging and reclamationwork was proposed to commence in 2002 for completion in 2004 and the construction of theentire project will complete by 2008.2.13.6 In addition, a number of possible concurrent projects have been taken into consideration in thisEIA. These include dredging and filling at the Container Terminal No. 9 (CT9) reclamation whichthe construction work was commenced in 1999 for completion (first berth operational) in 2001.Associated with construction of CT9 will be sand borrowing at the West of Sulphur ChannelMarine Borrow Area (MBA) and dumping of dredged sediments at the South Tsing Yi MBA and/or the South Cheung Chau marine disposal ground. Contaminated mud dredged from the CT9 willbe disposed at the East Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits.2.13.7 Other reclamation projects considered including Tsuen Wan Bay Reclamation, sand winning atEast Larnma Channel Marine Borrow Area, and Lamma Extension power station reclamation.Details of the assumptions adopted are presented in Section 5.2.14 BENEFITS AND DISBENEFITS OF THE PROJECT2.14.1 Section 2.1 of this EIA summarised the principal reasons why the Theme Park and associateddevelopments were being implemented The perceived benefits associated with the Project areexpected to be primarily of an economic nature. The development of a Theme Park andassociated hotels and RD&E facilities has the potential for the Mowing key benefits:• It would be expected to strengthen Hong Kong SAR's role as a major tourist destination in Asia andthe world;» The development would be expected to act as a catalyst in attracting further tourism, recreational andleisure investment ( eg. hotels, retail, tourism services, air line and transport activities);• The development would be expected to generate economic benefit to the HK SAR via additionalspending by existing tourists and local residents;• It would be expected to provide significant additional market for the services and materials supplysector during both construction and operation; andScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-29ShanWand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment« The Theme Park and associated developments would be a major employer generating direct andindirect employment opportunities during both construction and operation.2.14.2 In addition, environmental benefits, designs, key protection measures, and enhancements arisingfrom the Project include the following:• HKITP has committed to exclude the purchase of any fireworks that contain Chromium, Lead, Mercury,Arsenic, Manganese, Nickel or Zinc in their formulation. This minimises the use of productscontaining potentially harmful heavy metals and reduces possible impacts to the surroundingenvironment.• Noise created by the evening fireworks displays at the Theme Park is restricted to comply with the L eq ,ismin 55 dB(A) limit at the relevant NSRs.• Water quality mitigation measures for the construction of the Theme Park reclamations were specifiedin terms of operational constraints (eg limiting the rate of working, defining the construction sequencefor the reclamations and recommending certain methods of construction) and 'best practice' workingmethods. The implementation of these measures would prevent adverse impacts to water quality.• The Project's reclamations will require a large amount of fill material and therefore offer a very goodopportunity to utilise the public fill generated in the SAR. The use of public fill will not only alleviatethe demand for virgin fill material but also reduce the pressure of disposing inert Construction andDemolition Material (C&DM) at the strategic landfills.• HKITP will implement waste reduction initiatives intended to divert material away from disposal at thestrategic landfills. The initiatives will centre around the introduction of waste segregation andmaterials recovery measures.• The use of fabric (plastic) fenders instead of tropical hardwood fenders has been recommended for theproposed Theme Park Ferry Pier and service quay construction.• The use of wooden hoardings in the Project construction period will not be allowed and metal(aluminium, alloy, etc.) has been recommended to help reduce the quantity of construction anddemolition (C&D) wastes.• Secondary woodland planting will be undertaken to compensate for the loss of approximately 1.8 ha ofthe woodland atNgong Shuen Au. As considerable areas, of not less than 6 ha, of woodland plantingare proposed as landscape and visual impact mitigation on the adjacent hillside to the east of NgongShuen Au, sufficient compensatory woodland will be provided. Species used for planting should besimilar to the species identified in the Tree Survey and be native to the Hong Kong or South Chinaregions. The trees should bear fruit preferred by birds, and/or larval and/or adult butterfly food plantsto maintain the ecological function of the existing secondary woodland.• Laser effects used in the shows are expected to utilise lasers in the 20 to 30 Watt power range. Alllaser effects will also be "terminated" against fixed, non-reflective, objects within the Theme Park toprevent any impact to guests or staff inside the Theme Park, or to terrestrial faunal resources outsidethe Theme Park.• Conservation of the natural coastline of western Penny's Bay by the recommendation of an openchannel form rather than a box culvert in this area.• Protection of pitcher plants by restricting access during construction works, even though the worksarea will not encroach upon their current habitat.• As an additional habitat enhancement measure, the Project proponent has undertaken to deploy 4,350m 3 Artificial Reefs (ARs) in Hong Kong waters at a site (or sites) to be decided upon in consultationwith the DAFC. ARs act as fish aggregation devices and provide hard bottom, high profile habitat inareas without natural cover. The ARs subsequently will provide food, shelter and a nursery ground forScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-30Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentcommercial fish and, over the long term, enhance fishery stocks. Enhanced fish stocks in the area willnot only benefit local fishermen but will also increase the availability of prey items for the seasonalpopulation of marine mammals that uses the area.• The sloping armour rock/concrete seawalls proposed for the Penny's Bay and Yam O reclamationshave been demonstrated to become colonised by subtidal hard surface assemblages, such as softcorals, gorgonians and hard corals. Thus the potential habitat provided by the greater than 4.3 ha totalsurface is expected to mitigate for the loss of approximately 0.298 ha of high ecological valueassemblages of hard corals within the reclamation sites.• Environmental benefits arising from the conversion of land uses from port developments to tourismrecreation purposes as the change from the originally planned port uses provides an opportunity toreduce the potential environmental impacts associated with port operation, including more heavygood vehicles in the Study Area causing noise and air pollution, hydrodynamic and water qualityimpacts, visual and glare impacts from 24 hour port operations.• The public modes of transport to and from the Theme Park are expected to dominate the travel market,accounting for about 95% of all travel Of the public modes, the rail mode will be dominant and will becomplemented by other transport modes and the provision of integrated transport facilities (ie the PTIsat Yam O and the Theme Park) to improve accessibility by rail.2.14.3 Potential disbenefits associated with the proposed Project may include:• Loss of natural shoreline and associated inter-tidal habitats;« Loss of natural shallow coastal marine habitats;• Potential impact to natural terrestrial habitats and fauna;• Increased solid waste generation;• Potential noise impacts;• Potential air quality impact;• Potential risk on storage and handling of fireworks;• Potential water quality impacts; and« Potential landscape, visual and cultural heritage impacts.2.14.4 Other cumulative environmental impacts arising as a result of the Project at a territory-wide levelmay possibly include increased solid waste generation, air emissions and wastewater dischargesassociated with additional visitors associated with the Project (see Section 15).2.14.5 The actual scope for adverse environmental impact of these potential disbenefits will be examinedin this EIA relative to the assessment criteria laid down in the EIAO TM. Where appropriate, thisEIA will identify conditions and requirements for the detailed design, construction and operation ofthe Project to mitigate against adverse environmental consequence, and will report on the overallenvironmental acceptability of residual impacts after proposed mitigation measures areimplemented.2.15 SCENARIOS WITH AND WITHOUT THE PROJECT2.15.1 A key development objective of the Project is to provide a world-class International Theme Parktogether with its related developments which is intended to transport guests into a world ofimagination, fantasy and adventure. The Theme Park is also expected to become a core touristattraction in the HK SAR.2.15.2 Without the Project, the perceived benefits identified in Section 2.14 will not be realised andenvironmental impacts described in this EIA will not arise.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-31Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment2.15.3 It should also be noted that prior to the amendment of the North-East Lantau Port OZP andrezoning of part of the Penny's Bay area for theme park and related recreational usage, Penny'sBay had been designated for the development of CT10 and CT11. Without the Theme Park andassociated developments, rezoning of the Project area for container terminals and port related uses,including container back-up areas, business park and industrial uses could not be precluded. Suchcontainer port and associated developments would likely involve 24 hour working leading toassociated noise impacts, a higher percentage of heavy good vehicles in the Study Area with airand noise impacts plus hydrodynamic and water quality impacts, visual and glare impacts from 24-hour port operation lighting requirements.2.15.4 On balance, it is considered that the consequences to the environment and adjacent environmentalsensitive receivers arising from both the construction and operation of the previously proposedcontainer ports (CT10 and CT11) would be greater than those predicted to arise for theconstruction and operation of the Theme Park and associated developments.Scott WHson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 2-32Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentAIR QUALITY3.1 INTRODUCTION3.1.1 This Section presents an assessment of the potential air quality impact from the constructionand operation of the Theme Park and associated developments. Air Sensitive Receivers(ASRs) have been identified and worst case impacts on these receivers have been modelled.3.1.2 Dust generation from the construction activities is a key concern during the constructionphase. While vehicular emission from the adjacent roads and vehicle parking areas; off-siteand territory-wide impacts caused by internal traffic and Theme Park-bound tourists; airemissions from GTP, fireworks displays, fuel combustion equipment including boilers; andodour emissions from sewage pumping station are the concerns during the operation of theTheme Park and associated developments. Mitigation measures are recommended, wherenecessary, to ensure that the legislative criteria and guidelines will be satisfied. Cumulativeair quality impacts with other concurrent projects are also discussed. Additionalinformation used in this assessment of air quality is provided in Annex B.3.2 EVALUATION CRITERIASTATUTORY REQUIREMENTS3.2.1 The principal legislation for the management of air quality is the Air Pollution ControlOrdinance, Cap 311 (APCO). The whole of the HK SAR is covered by the Hong Kong AirQuality Objectives (AQOs) which stipulates the statutory limits of typical air pollutants andthe maximum allowable exceedance values over specific periods. The AQOs are shown inTable 3,2a.Table 3.2a - Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (|igm") (tt1 \\W'**Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) 80Respirable Suspended Particulates (c)180 55(RSP)Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) 800 350 80Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2 ) 300 150 80Carbon Monoxide (CO) 30,000 10,000Lead 1.5Ozone (Q 3 ) (t) 240Note;(a) Measured at 298K (25°C) and 101.325 kPa (one atmosphere)(b) Not to be exceeded more than three times per year(c) Not to be exceeded more than once per year(d) Arithmetic means(e) Respirable suspended particulates are defined as particles suspended in the air with a nominal aerodynamic diameterof 10 pm and smaller.(f) Photochemical oxidants are determined by measurement of ozone only.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-1


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment3.2.2 In addition, the EIAO-TM stipulates that one hour average TSP concentration of 500 |ugm~ 3measured at 298 K (25°C) and 101.325 kPa (1 atm) should not be breached for constructiondust impacts. Mitigation measures for construction sites specified in the Air PollutionControl (Construction Dust) Regulation should be followed.3.2.3 Under the Air Pollution Control (Furnaces, Ovens and Chimneys)(Installation andAlteration) Regulations, boiler with total fuel consumption rate more than 25 litres of liquidfuel per hour, 35 kg of solid fuel per hour or 1,150 MJ of gaseous fuel per hour are requiredto obtain approval from EPD before the installation/alteration of such facilities.NON-AQO POLLUTANTS3.2.4 In the absence of the above statutory guidelines for specific pollutants, the assessment willbe based on international guidelines such as those promulgated by the World HealthOrganization (WHO) or based upon a health risk assessment approach which rely on thecombination of toxicity data promulgated by the USEPA (from a database such as IRIS oroccupation exposure limit) with estimated levels of human exposure and appropriate safetyfactor. The result is an estimate of safe air pollution concentration which can be comparedwith the criteria stipulated in Annex 4 of EIAO-TM for the assessment.3.2.5 The order of preference in selecting the guideline values to be used in the assessment was asfollows:• WHO guidelines;• USEPA guidelines;• California Air Resources Board (CARS ) guidelines; and• Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL).3.2.6 The Study Brief calls for an assessment of possible air quality impacts due to the fireworksdisplays and specifically cites, the following groups of non-AQO pollutant, as being worthyof further consideration:VOCs;• dioxins andforans;and• heavy metals.3.2.7 With the exception of lead for which there is an AQO, all three groups of pollutant will beaddressed using the approach described above.ODOUR3.2.8 In accordance with EIAO-TM, it also stipulates that 5 odour units should be met based onan averaging time of 5 seconds for odour prediction assessment.3.3 BASELINE CONDITIONS AND SENSITIVE RECEIVERSEXISTING ENVIRONMENT AND BACKGROUND AIR QUALITY3.3.1 The air quality within the Study Area is currently rural affected by emissions from the NorthLantau Highway (NLH) and to a lesser extent the GTP. The GTP is a 300 MW oil-firedstandby gas turbine plant which provides electricity at times of peak load normally duringthe summer months and under emergency situations in the unlikely event of a disruptionScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-2Shankland Cox * WHbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentelsewhere in the system. Vehicular emissions from the NLH are more confined within thevicinity of the carriageway though the increase in vehicular emissions has contributed tobackground pollution levels of the Study Area. The potential impacts from the GTP will bediscussed in more detail in Section 3.5.3.3.2 The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) operates a network of Air QualityMonitoring Stations in Hong Kong but none of these stations is located within the StudyArea. The nearest EPD's monitoring stations are located in Tsuen Wan, Central/Westernand the recently commissioned Tung Chung stations. The latter is located along the northLantau coast and resembles the newly developed areas to the west of the urban areas. Datacollected from the Tung Chung monitoring station can therefore be used to provideinformation on background pollution levels. However only four months of monitoring data(July - October 1999) is available at the time of report preparation and the averagepollution levels are summarised in the Table 3.3a.Table 33a - Average Pollution Concentrations Recorded in Tung Chung (jigm" 3 )$^lit*fattt$^' :< '' ' I Average MttottSO 2N0 2CO0 3RSPTSP143664423967Note: Data measured from Tung Chung Air Monitoring Station, July-October 19993.3.3 Besides the data collected from EPD's Tung Chung monitoring station, China Light andPower (CLP) has operated an air quality monitoring station in Penny's Bay for a number ofyears. Monitoring results of sulphur dioxide (SQ 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) over the pastthree years are summarised in Annex Bl and B2. The annual average 862 and NO 2concentrations are 6 and 33 (igmf 3 respectively which are comparable to the monitoringresults collected from Tung Chung over a shorter period of time. However, data collectedfrom Penny's Bay should be referenced where available as the station has been in operationfor a longer time period and takes seasonal variations into account and located within theStudy Area. Data collected from the Tung Chung station will be used for the backgroundpollution concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (Os), Respirable SuspendedParticulates (RSP) and Total Suspended Particulates (TSP).Ozone3.3.4 Oa is the tri-atomic form of molecular oxygen and is one of the strongest oxidising agents,which makes it highly reactive, Most of the O 3 in the troposphere (lower atmosphere) isformed indirectly by a series of complex photochemical reaction of oxygen, nitrogen oxidesand reactive hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight and warm temperature. However, itshould be noted that OB is also transported from the stratosphere (upper atmosphere), whereit is formed by the action of UV radiation on O 2 , to the ground level under certainmeteorological conditions.3.3.5 Data collected from EPD's monitoring stations in .1997 identified. O 3 episodes in HongKong with a maximum concentration of 270 and 243 |Ligm" 3 monitored in Sha Tin andCentral/Western respectively exceeding the one-hour Air Quality Objective (AQO).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-3Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentMaximum O 3 concentration of 239 ^gm~ 3 , marginally below the one hour criterion of 240figmf 3 , was recorded at Tap Mun in 1998.3.3.6 High O 3 concentrations were recorded in Tung Chung exceeding the one-hour AQO leveltwice over the reported period in 1999. The first episode of high O 3 concentrations wasrecorded on 20 August 1999 when a tropical cyclone Sam swept across the Philippines andentered the South China Sea. The weather in Hong Kong was fine and the temperaturereached a maximum of 33.2 °C. The weather was influenced by a high pressure with amean wind speed of 3.5 ms" 1 blowing from the south west. High O 3 concentrationsdeveloped in the early afternoon in Tung Chung, Shatin and Tap Mun monitoring stationsexceeding the AQO (Figure 3.3a). O 3 concentration reached 335 pgmf 3 at 3:00pm in TungChung possibly due to recirculation of air pollutants and the associated photochemistrywithin the Tung Chung valley causing the O 3 concentration to rise and maintain at a highlevels throughout the afternoon. The high O 3 concentrations recorded in Shatin (295 (agin"" 3 )and Tap Mun (294 jigm" 3 ) are probably due to the photochemical reaction downwind of theurban plume. Around 200 |Ligm" 3 of O 3 concentrations were recorded for the other stationssuggesting this is a territory-wide O 3 episode.3.3.7 On 12 September 1999, typhoon York developed as a tropical depression about 430 kmNortheast of Manila tracking westwards for 4 days before hitting Hong Kong with aNumber 10 tropical cyclone warning signal hoisted on 16 September 1999. The weather on12 September 1999 was fine with a maximum temperature of 32.5 °C though trace amountof rainfall was recorded. The wind was relatively calm (around 2 ms" 1 ) blowing from west,north-west direction. High O 3 concentrations were observed on that day in Tung Chung(278 |ignf 3 ) and Tap Mun (284 figm' 3 ) exceeding the AQO (Figure 3.3b). O 3concentrations recorded from Shatin and Tai Po were above 150 jigm" 3 whereas the stationsat Tsuen Wan and Yuen Long recorded a much lower concentration. This was probably dueto the lower pollutant emissions, in particular NO X emission from vehicles, in Tung Chungand Tap Mun than in the more urbanised areas where the high NO X emission would reducethe formation of O 3 under a series of photochemical reactions.3.3.8 The formation of O 3 is a complex and regional phenomena. The high concentrationsrecorded in Tung Chung may not fully represent Penny's Bay due to potential recirculationwithin the steep Tung Chung valley and the photochemical reactions in a regional context.The topography of the Penny's Bay is surrounded by hills of less than 300 m to the east andwest and a much lower ridge to the north. A wide opening to the south of the bay providesgood ventilation and reduces the potential for recirculation to occur within the bay area. Itis expected that the future O 3 concentrations will follow the general pattern establishedwithin the HKSAR though the projected increase in NO emission from vehicles in theNorthshore Lantau could reduce the O 3 formation in the Penny's Bay area throughphotochemical reactions.FUTURE CONDITION3.3.9 In future, in order to serve the Northshore Lantau Development and the Theme Park andassociated developments, new roads and a railway will be established. Penny's Bay RailLink (PBRL) detailed 'm Annex M, Route 10-NLYLH, CKWLR and the planned distributorroads will contribute to the air quality in the Study Area. It is understood that electric trainswill be used and no local air emissions will be produced from PBRL operation.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ER.M Hong Kong 3-4Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentAIR SENSITIVE RECEIVERS3.3.10 Representative ASRs have been identified according to the criteria set out in the EIAO-TMand through site inspections and review of land use plans of the Study Area.3.3.11 Domestic premises, hotel, hostel, hospital, clinic, nursery, temporary housingaccommodation, school, educational institution, office, factory, shop, shopping centre,place of public worship, library, court of law, sports stadium or performing arts centre,home for the aged and active recreational activity areas are classified as ASRs. ASRs in theStudy Area have been identified and are summarised in Table 3.3b. Locations of theASRs/Assessment Points are shown in Figure 3.3c.Table 33b - Air Sensitive Receivers/Assessment PointsASR J : , ,AlA2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10AllAllA13A14A15A16A17A18Location i f ' 'Penny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng ChauTheme ParkResort in Theme Park (Phase I and II)Theme Park (Phase III) ExtensionDivisional Fire Station (West of the Penny's Bay RailStation!Divisional Police StationDivisional Fire Station (East of the Penny's Bay RailStation)Water Recreational CentreEco ParkTheme Park GatewayTourist and Convention VillageTechnodrome3.4 CONSTRUCTION PHASEIDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTCoaitnidl«ii;?b^fif••••••XXXXXXXXXXX;9^«0rt,|pi®4^3.4.1 Impacts arising from the construction of Theme Park and associated developmentsprimarily relate to dust nuisance and gaseous emissions from the construction plant andvehicles, with dust generation being the major concern. The construction activities include,site formation, construction of the Theme Park and associated developments includinghotels and Water Recreation Centre; road construction of Road P2, a section of CKWLRbetween Yam O Interchange to Penny's Bay Roundabout, Resort Road (Dl and D2); andPBRL including tunnelling works, track construction and Yam O and Penny's Bay RailStations works.^•••••••••••••••••Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-5


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTheme Park and Water Recreation Centre3.4.2 The Theme Park will be formed by reclaiming an area of land at Penny's Bay. The ThemePark will comprise 2 construction phases. The construction works of Penny's BayReclamation Stage 1 will be started tentatively from second quarter of 2000 to third quarterof 2002. Stage 2 of the reclamation works will be started tentatively from third quarter of2001 to fourth quarter of 2008 (refer to Section 2.6).3.4.3 Dredging, placement of seawall and filling of marine sand and rocks are the majorconstruction works during reclamation. Public filling will be also carried out for the fillingworks, described in Section 2.6.4. Half of the public fill materials will be transported bybarge and the remaining portion will be transported by trucks. Materials handling, winderosion, truck haulage on unpaved roads are the major sources of the dust impact. Thedredged marine mud will contain high moisture content and dust emission from dredgingwill be limited. All the dredged and fill materials are transported by barge and the fillmaterials will be directly dumped into sea, thus no fugitive emissions are expected. 50% ofthe public fill materials will be transported by barge and the remaining portion will betransported by trucks. Surcharge, mainly sand, is required for the site formation. Thequantity of mud dredged or sand filled and surcharge and its material handling rates andnumber of trucks are presented in Table 3.4a. The construction period will be 24 days amonth and 24 hours a day.Table 3.4a - Material Handling Rate and Number of Vehicles used for Penny's BayReclamation WorksNote:(a) Working periods are assumed as 24 days a month and 24 hours a day(b) The materials are mainly transported by barge with limited portion of materials handled by trucks.3.4.4Water Recreation Centre, including a lake for irrigation and water sport recreation activitiestogether with desilting and pumping facilities, will be constructed at the north-west of theTheme Park and associated developments area. Materials handling, wind erosion and truckhaulage on the unpaved road during excavation works comprise dust generating activities,The quantity of excavated spoils and its materials handling rates, and number of trucks arepresented in Table 3.4b.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-6


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.4b - Material Handling Rate and Number of Vehicles used for WaterRecreation Centre Construction WorksDuration of Construction v;1,984Excavation21 1MTruck Movement10trucks/hr (b)Note:(a) Working periods are assumed as 24 days a month and 16 hours a day(b) The materials are mainly transported by barge with limited portion of materials handled by trucks.3.4.5A concrete batching plant is proposed north-west of the Water Recreation Centre. ASpecified Process Licence for the Cement Works under the APCO should be required forthe approval of the works.Road Construction of Road P2, CKWLR Section, Resort Road (Dl andD2)3.4.6General road construction works will be carried out for the construction of CKWLRSection, Road P2, Resort Road (Dl and D2). For a section of CKWLR at Yam O, drill andblast method required for road excavation of 340 m length will be last for 24 months withtotal 0.25 Mm 3 of soft material and 0.34 Mm 3 of rock generated. One blast will beperformed per day. It is assumed that blasting will not be conducted in parallel with otherconstruction activities. The quantity of rock and soft materials excavated and materialshandling rates, and number of trucks are presented in Table 3.4c.Table 3.4c - Material Handling Rate and Number of Vehicles used for CKWLR atYamOExcavation242Sand240.14MTrack Movement10trucks/hr (b)Rock240.34M590Note:(a) Working periods are assumed as 24 days a month and 16 hours a day(b) The materials are mainly transported by barge with limited portion of materials handled by trucks.(c) Reference to Annex M(PBRL El A)Penny *s Bay Rail Link3.4.7The Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL) comprises a new 3.6 km link from the existing TungChung Line at Yam O to the Theme Park and associated developments. Tunnel works,Yam O and Penny's Bay Rail Station works and at-grade track construction are the majorconstruction works of the PBRL. A 850 m tunnel at Yam 0 will be excavated by drill andblast method for total 250 tunnel blasts and 10 surface blasts with 27,000 m 3 of spoilgenerated. It is expected that blasting will not be conducted in parallel with otherconstruction activities. Two blasts will be performed per day. A cut and cover section isproposed for the rail works between Yam O Station and the north portal of Yam O railtunnel. The excavated spoil and material handling rates are summarised in Table 3Adbelow. The details of the construction of PBRL are provided in Annex M.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankiand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-7


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.4d - Volume of PBRL Spoil Generated and Materials Handling RatesExcavation (Cut and CoverTunnel)Excavation (Yam O Tunnel)Other Excavation ta)Truck MovementDuration of ,Construction Worksi (months) - - >V< ^18181816,50027,00025,00020 tracks/dayNote:(a) Other excavation including station works and alignment works.(b) Working periods are assumed as 24 days a month and 16 hours a day386358Yam O Reclamation3.4.8 The Yam O reclamation will be started from the fourth quarter of year 2002 to the thirdquarter of year 2003. The major activities are seawall construction, dredging and filling.The dredged marine mud will contain high moisture content and dust emission from the sitewill be limited. The materials for filling is mainly marine sand. Barges will be employedfor the transportation of mud and sand for disposal or filling, respectively. Public filling isrequired for the filling works. 50% of the public fill will be directly dumped into the seaand 50% of public fill together with surcharge will be used for the site formation. The 50%public fill and surcharge comprises fugitive dust sources. The total volume of dredged andfilled materials are maximum of 0.3 Mm 3 and 0.9 Mm 3 respectively, see Section 2.6.1.Construction Plant Operation3.4.9 Gaseous emissions from the construction plants comprises another source of air pollution.S(>2, NO 2 and RSP will be the major pollutants emitted from the diesel-powered equipment.Equipment such as concrete trucks, dump trucks, excavators and backholes are expected tocontribute most of the emissions. The total number of plant operated during site formationfor the construction of Theme Park and associated developments will be around 74. Theemission factors for tracked loader, recommended in AP-42, are used to estimate thegaseous emissions from the construction plants. The emission factors and the total emissionrates are summarised in Table 3.4e below. Owing to the long distances from the ASRs tothe emission sources, it provides longer reaction time for the conversion of NO X to NC>2 atthe ASRs. Thus 30% of NO X will be assumed to convert to NO 2 in the assessment.Table 3.4e - Emission Factors and Emission Rates For Construction PlantsTotal Worksite Area (nr)Total No. of Plant 74Emission Factors of NO X from AP-42 (g/hr) 375.22Total Emission Rate of NQ X (g/s) 7.71Total Emission Rate of N0 x per Area (g/m z /s)2.03xl(rTotal Emission Rate of NQ 2 per Area (g/rrtVs) * 6.9x10' 7Emission Factors of SQ 2 from AP-42 (g/hr) 34.4Total Emission Rate of SO 2 (g/s) 0.71Total Emission Rate of S02 per Area (g/m^/s)1.86x10"Emission Factors of RSP from AP-42 (g/hr) 26.4Total Emission Rate of RSP (g/s) 0.54Total Emission Rate of RSP per Area (g/m 2 /s)1.43xl(TNote:(a) 30% of NO X is assumed to be converted to NO 2 .3.4.10 Due to the large construction area involved, the calculated emission rates per unit area isvery small. Pollutant emitted will be diluted very rapidly over this large construction area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox ••Wilbur Smith Associates'-3-8


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentIt is therefore, expected that air pollution impact due to construction plant operation isunlikely.Cumulative Impacts3.4.11 As discussed in Section 2.13, there are other concurrent projects especially for theNorthshore Lantau Development such as CKWLR, Special Duties Unit (SDU) Base locatedbeside Refuse Transfer Station, Yam O Tuk Services Reservoir being constructed in parallelwith the Theme Park and associated developments. However, SDU Base and Yam O TukService Reservoirs are located at more than 2km away Penny's Bay, the dust impacts to theidentified ASRs is not expected. Thus only CKWLR will be considered in the cumulativeimpact. The cumulative impacts are discussed below:Chok Ko Wan Link Road (Section between Penny's Bay Roundabout to RIO TollPlaza)3.4.12 A section of CKWLR from Penny's Bay Roundabout to Route 10 Toll Plaza located at FaPeng will be constructed between January 2001 and March 2004. Blast and drill method isrequired for the road construction at the section between Penny's Bay Roundabout and PaTau Kwu with 1.8 Mm 3 of rock and 0.8 Mm 3 of soft materials generated. One blast will beperformed per day.3.4.13 17 ha reclamation is required from the east of Tsing Chau Tsai up to Fa Peng. The majordust generated activities for the section of CKWLR construction includes blasting at TsingChau Tsai for road opening, reclamation, materials handling, wind erosion, truckmovements on the unpaved road and road construction. The dredged marine mud willcontain high moisture content and dust emission from the site will be limited. Thematerials for filling is mainly sand which is a potential fugitive dust source. The volume ofdredged and filled materials are 0.4 Mm 3 and 1.9 Mm 3 respectively.Route 10 - North Lantau to Yuen Long Highway3.4.14 Route 10 - North Lantau to Yuen Long Highway (R10-NLYLH) at North Lantau sectionwill be constructed tentatively from second quarter of year 2002 to fourth quarter of year2006. Reclamation including dredging of mud, seawall construction and filling, siteformation and road constructions are the major construction works. It is expected that lessthan 0.5 Mm 3 of mud will be dredged. Materials handling, wind erosion and roadconstruction are the dust generating activities during construction.3.4.15 However, the R10-NLYLH is located along the coastal line of Fa Peng and Pa Tau KwuHeadland will be acted as a barrier, the dust impacts from R10-NLYLH on the Penny's Bayis limited.ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY3.4.16 Dust emissions from the construction activities are the main pollutants during constructionphase. Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) concentration levels were predicted by theFugitive Dust Model (FDM). Meteorological data for 1997 from Cheung Chau weatherstation, operated by the Hong Kong Observatory, was employed for the construction dustmodelling. Dust emission rates and associated particle size distributions for the assessmentScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-9Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentwere determined based on the Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, 5 th Edition,USEPA (AP-42). Mitigation measures stipulated in the Air Pollution Control(Construction Dust) Regulation were also adopted in the assessment. The constructionworks except reclamation work at Theme Park Phase I are expected to be conducted 24 daysa month and 16 hours a day. The construction at Theme Park Phase I will be conducted 24days a month and 24 hours a day. The mitigated emission rates are summarised in Table3.4/below. The emission rate calculations are shown in Annex B3.Table 3.4f - Mitigated Emission Factors for Construction ActivitiesConstruction Activities Mitigated Emission ;Factors ^^ - — K^nfcarte^ *>N? '' ^ %; V ; ;; ^ t • i «^v "i=C:^v '? ?^H ^l • Q >; ^ ^:£^ v^- ^; '.Penny's Bay Stage 1 ReclamationMaterials HandlingWind ErosionConcrete Batching PlantTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul Road0.52 g/Mg2.69x1 (Tg/nWs0.0164kg/Mg0.25 kg/VKTPenny's Bay Stage 2 ReclamationMaterials Handling0.52 g/MgWind ErosionConcrete Batching PlantTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul RoadWater Recreational CentreMaterials HandlingWind ErosionTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul Road2.69x1 O^g/m-Vs0.0164kg/Mg0.25 kg/VKT0.52 g/Mg2.69xlQ-°g/nWs0.25 kg/VKT• 5,556 m 3 per day• moisture content: 4.8%• particle size multiplier: 0.75• u: 5.1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeather Station 1997* density of spoil: 1.94 Mg/m 3•-50% reduction by water suppression• capacity: 1,500 nrVday• 90% reduction by mitigation measures• density: 2.4• no. of truck: 10 trucks per hour• silt content: 10%• speed: 1 0 kph* weight: 12.5 Mg• 85% reduction by paved road• 8,523 m 3 per day* moisture content: 4.8%• particle size multiplier: 0.75• u: 5 . 1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeather Station 1997* density of spoil: 1.94 Mg/m 3• 50% reduction by water suppression.• capacity: 1,500 nrVday• 90% reduction by mitigation measures• density: 2.4• no. of truck: 5 tracks per hour• silt content: 10%* speed: 1 0 kph• weight: 12.5 Mg• 85% reduction by paved road• 1,984m 3 per day• moisture content: 4.8%» particle size multiplier: 0.74• u: 5. 1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeather Station 1997• density of spoil : 1 .94 Mg/m 3•-50% reduction by water suppression» no. of truck: 10 tracks per hour• silt content: 10%• speed: 10 kph• weight: 12.5 Mg• 85% reduction for paved roadScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox -Wilbur Smith Associates3-10


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCoiu^nitctlatt Activities Mitigated Emission »i Factors *WRoad Construction at CKWLR Yam O SectionMaterials Handling 0.52 g/MgWind ErosionTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul RoadBlasting2.69x10-° g/m z /s0.25 kg/VKT0.00022A 0 kg/blast*^V**>\,242 m 3 per daymoisture content: 4.8%particle size multiplier: 0.74u: 5.1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeather Station 1997density of spoil: 1.94 Mg/m 350% reduction by water suppressionno. of truck: 10 trucks per hoursilt content: 10%speed: lOkphweight: 12.5 Mg85% reduction for paved roadA = horizontal area1 blast per dayassume 30% of the site is activeRoad Construction9.73x1 0-6 g/m z /sRoad Construction of Road P2 and Theme Park Resort Roads (Dl and D2)Road Construction |9.73xlO~ b g/nWs assume 30% of the site is activePenny's Bay Rail LinkMaterials HandlingWind ErosionTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul RoadBlastingYam O ReclamationMaterials HandlingWind ErosionTruck Movements onUnpaved Haul Road0.52 g/Mg2.69x1 0"°g/nWs0.25 kg/VKT0.00022A 0 kg/blast0.52 g/Mg2.69x1 0' 0 g/nWs0.25 kg/VKT• 159m 3 per day• moisture content: 4.8%• particle size multiplier: 0.74• u: 5. 1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeatherstation 1997• density of spoil : 1 .94 Mg/m 3• 50% reduction by water suppression-• no. of truck: 20 trucks per day• silt content: 10%• speed: 1 0 kph• weight: 12.5 Mg• 85% reduction for paved road• A = horizontal area* 2 blasts per day• 4, 167m 3 per day« moisture content: 4.8%• particle size multiplier: 0.74* u: 5.1 m/s (average wind speed from Cheung ChauWeatherstation 1997• density of spoil: 1 .94 Mg/m 3• 50% reduction by water suppression-• no. of truck: 3 trucks per hour• silt content: 10%• speed: 1 0 kph* weight: 12.5 Mg• 85% reduction for paved roadNote:(a) Reference to Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, USEPA (AP-42), 5 th Edition(b) Mitigation measures stipulated in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation has been adoptedEVALUATION OF IMPACT3.4.17 The dust impacts of the construction of Theme Park and associated developments with theconcurrent projects have been modelled. The mitigation measures stipulated in the AirPollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation have been adopted in the prediction.The predicted hourly and daily dust impacts on the ASRs at the ground level and 10 mabove ground are summarised in Table 3.4g below.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates3-11


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.4g - Predicted Hourly and Daily Dust Level from Construction Activities(a)(b)LocationAlA2A3A4A5A6A7Penny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng Chau180135151147182134153500Dust CriteriaNote:(a) Background TSP concentration of 67 j-igmf 3 has been included in the results(b) Mitigation measures stipulated in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation has been adopted in thepredicted(c) ASRs A8 - Al 8 are planned receivers and no construction impacts are expected3.4.18 The hourly and daily dust levels for blasting activities of CKWLR and PBRL have beenmodelled and are presented in Table 3.4h.Table 3.4h - Predicted Cumulative Hourly and Daily Dust Level fromBlasting (|0gm" 3 ) (a)106959885898281260164135151147168131150500102959885878181260AlA2A3A4A5A6A7Penny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng Chau611839803215Dust Criteria500500Note:(a) Mitigation measures stipulated in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation has been adopted in thepredicted(b) ASRs A8 - A18 are planned receivers and no construction impacts are expected3.4.19 The cumulative dust impacts of construction activities of Theme Park and associateddevelopments together with blasting are summarised in Table 3.4i.0.190.070.170.350.160.050.022606118397832150.190.070.170.350.160.050.02260Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates3-12


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.41 - Predicted Cumulative Hourly and Daily Dust Level (jigm" 3 ) (aASfcs^'AlA2A3A4A5A6A7Dust Criterianfth^^, . ^ ' l vaV'V; * , / r^ xPenny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng ChauB^rlylSF^242153190226214149160500'Kii^fgK^106959885898281260l«^!ItlS225153190225200146157500.Mppiip^:102959885878181260Note:(a) Background TSP concentration of 67 figm" 3 has been included in the results(b) Mitigation measures stipulated in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation has been adopted in thepredicted(c) ASRs A8 - A18 are planned receivers and no construction impacts are expected3.4.20 The above results indicate that the predicted cumulative hourly and daily TSP levels at 1.5m above ground are in the range of 149 - 242 |Ligm" 3 and 81-106 jugm' 3 , respectively, whilehourly and daily dust impact at 10 m above ground were predicted in a range of 146 - 225|Ligm" 3 and 81-102 lugm" 3 , respectively. Highest both hourly and daily TSP levels at bothground level and 10 m above ground were predicted at Al (Penny's Bay GTP). Thepredicted TSP levels at all ASRs were within both hourly and daily dust criteria with theadoption of the recommended mitigation measures in the Air Pollution Control(Construction Dust) Regulation.3.4.21 The sample output file for the dust model run is presented in Annex B4.MITIGATION MEASURES3.4.22 The following control measures are stipulated in the Air Pollution Control (ConstructionDust) Regulation and should be implemented to limit the dust emissions from the site:• the stockpile should be properly treated and sealed with latex, vinyl, bitumen or other suitable surface stabiliser if astockpile of dusty materials is more than 1.2 m high and lies within 50 m from any site boundary that adjoins aroad, street, or other area accessible to the public;• effective dust screens, sheeting or netting should be provided to enclose the scaffolding from the ground floorlevel of the building or if a canopy is provided at the first floor level, from the first floor level, up to the highestlevel of the scaffolding where a scaffolding is erected around the perimeter of a building under construction;• skip hoist for material transport should be totally enclosed by impervious sheeting;• any excavated dusty materials or stockpile of dusty materials should be covered entirely by impervious sheeting orsprayed with water so as to maintain the entire surface wet, and recovered or backfilled or reinstated within 24hours of the excavation or unloading;• stockpile of dusty materials should not extend beyond the pedestrian barriers, fencing or traffic cones;• dusty materials remaining after a stockpile is removed should be wetted with water and cleared from the surface ofroads;• vehicle washing facilities should be provided at every vehicle exit point;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-13


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• the area where vehicle washing takes place and the section of the road between the washing facilities and the exitpoint should be paved with concrete, bituminous materials or hardcores;• where a site boundary adjoins a road, streets or other area accessible to the public, hoarding of not less than 2.4 mhigh from ground level should be provided along the entire length except for a site entrance or exit;• every main haul road should be scaled with concrete and kept clear of dusty materials or sprayed with water so asto maintain the entire road surface wet;• the portion of road leading only to a construction site that is within 30m of a designated vehicle entrance or exitshould be kept clear of dusty materials;• every stock of more than 20 bags of cement should be covered entirely by impervious sheeting or placed in an areasheltered on the top and the 3 sides;• cement delivered in bulk should be stored in a closed silo fitted with an audible high level alarm which isinterlocked with the material filling line such that, in the event of the silo approaching an overfilling condition, anaudible alarm is triggered and the material filling stops within one minutes;• silos used for the storage of cement should not be overfilled;» loading, unloading, transfer, handling or storage of bulk cement or any cement during or after the de-baggingprocess should be carried out in a totally enclosed system or facility, and any vent or exhaust should be fitted withan effective fabric filter or equivalent air pollution control system or equipment;• Cement, or any other dusty materials collected by fabric filters or other air pollution control system or equipmentshould be disposed of in totally enclosed containers;• stockpile of dusty materials should be either covered entirely by impervious sheeting, placed in an area shelteredon the top and the 3 sides; or sprayed with water so as to maintain the entire surface wet;• all dusty materials should be sprayed with water prior to any loading, unloading or transfer operation so as tomaintain the dusty material wet;• vehicle speed should be limited to 10 kph except on completed access roads;• every vehicle should be washed to remove any dusty materials from its body and wheels before leaving theconstruction sites;• the load of dusty materials carried by vehicle leaving a construction site should be covered entirely by cleanimpervious sheeting to ensure that the dusty materials do not leak from the vehicle;» the working area of excavation should be sprayed with water immediately before, during and immediately after theoperation so as to maintain the entire surface wet;• the area within 30m from the blasting area should be wetted with water prior to blasting; and• blasting should not be carried out when the strong wind signal or tropical cyclone warning signal No.3 or higher ishoisted unless prior permission of the Commissioner of Mines is obtained.3.4.23 In addition, according to the EPD's Best Practicable Means Requirements for CementWorks (Concrete Batching Plant), the following mitigation measures should be adopted toprevent fugitive dust emissions:• loading, unloading, handling, transfer or storage of any dusty materials should be carried out in totally enclosedsystem;• all dust-laden air or waste gas generated by the process operations should be properly extracted and vented tofabric filtering system to meet the emission limits for TSP;• vents for all silos and cement/pulverised fuel ash (PFA) weighing scale should be fitted with fabric filtering system;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-14Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• the materials which may generate airborne dusty emissions should be wetted by water spray system;• all receiving hoppers should be enclosed on three sides up to 3m above unloading point;• all conveyor transfer points should be totally enclosed;« all access and route roads within the premises should be paved and wetted; and• vehicle cleaning facilities should be provided and used by all concrete trucks before leaving the premises to washoff any dust on the wheels and/or body.3.5 OPERATIONAL PHASEIDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS3.5.1 Vehicular emissions from the adjacent road networks including CKWLR, Route 10 and thedistributor road P2, and the emissions from the GTP comprise operational air quality issuesassociated with the Theme Park and associated developments.3.5.2 Additionally vehicle emissions from the vehicle parking areas and air emissions fromfireworks displays, fuel combustion equipment and the sewage pumping station compriseother sources of air pollutant that will need to be addressed.3.5.3 Potential air quality impacts during the operation of PBRL will be limited since the electricpassenger trains will be used, no local air emissions will be produced.Vehicular Emissions from Road Networks and Territory-wide Air Emissions caused byTheme Park Traffic3.5.4 Vehicle emissions from the road networks in Northshore Lantau including the CKWLR,Route 10, NLH, Road PI and P2, and Resort Road (Dl and D2) will be the major airpollutant sources during the operation of Theme Park and associated developments. Inaddition, emissions from Theme Park related traffic caused by internal traffic within the HKSAR and cross-boundary traffic will also affect air quality in the Study Area.Vehicle Emissions from Vehicle Parking Areas and Theme Park InternalTraffic3.5.5 Vehicle emissions from two vehicle parking areas (see Section 2.12) within the Theme Parkmay affect ASRs nearby. For internal traffic within the Theme Park, it is expected thattraffic flow on local roads will be small and gaseous fuel will be used as fuel for vehicles(plus some electric vehicles), adverse air quality impact due to internal traffic is notanticipated.Emissions from Combustion Equipment3.5.6 Boilers for heating and domestic heating uses are the major sources of industrial emissionsfrom the Theme Park and the associated development. There are totally 254 small sizeboilers with capacity in a range of 240 and 330 kW proposed associated with the ThemePark operation. The total fuel consumption rates are 105.72xl0 6 kWh per year. NO 2 , SQ 2 ,CO and RSP are the major pollutant sources if diesel fuel is used. However, HKTTP intendsto use gaseous fuel and hence the associated SO 2 and RSP will be much reduced. NO 2 willbe the main pollutant contributing to the cumulative air quality impact within the StudyArea when gaseous fuel is used. The comparative emissions from boilers using gaseous fuelScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-15Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentor diesel fuel are shown in Tables 3.5a & b below. Owing to the long distances from theASRs to the emission sources, it provides longer reaction time for the conversion of NO X toNO 2 at the ASRs. Thus 30% of NO X will be assumed to convert to NO 2 in the assessment.Table 3.5a - Emission Rates of Pollutants using Gaseous FuelTotal Fuel Consumption Rate (kWh/yr)Hourly Fuel Consumption RateEmission Factors (kg/10 6 m 3 ) (a)Emission Rate (g/s)Total annual production (kg/yr)Note:(a) Reference to AP-42(b) 30% of NO X convert to NO 2-!- \< -- v : " v"GMfi&SI^^^^^ t^O ^ll^l^^l^t^lNO*-; -^>r: ^X' 3$Q£ : v^;^:| ^t^^0i:":^105.72xl0 61256m 31600 9.6 720.56 0.0033 0.02517604 1042 7813Table 3.5b - Emission Rates of Pollutants using Diesel FuelH % *jf^ . , , !Total Fuel Consumption Rate (kWh/yr)Hourly Fuel Consumption RateEmission Factors (kg/10 3 L) (a)Emission Rate (g/s)Total annual production (kg/yr)Note:(a) Reference to AP-42(b) 30% of NO X convert to N0 2'iMMVMXttNO* • ' / * < .105.72xl0 61110L2.4 8.50.74 2.6223336 826500.240.074230173.5.7 It can be seen that 80,000 kg of SO 2 will be reduced when gaseous fuel is used whichrepresents only 1.3% of SO 2 emission when compared with diesel fuel. There will be anadvantage of using gaseous fuel over diesel fuel3.5.8 In order to assess the potential air quality impact from the boiler emissions, a relative lowstack height of 6 m is assumed for the worst case modelling purpose. It should, however, benoted that the final stack height will be controlled under Air Pollution Control (Furnaces,ovens and Chimneys) (Installation and Alteration) Regulations.Emissions from Penny's Say Gas Turbine Plant3.5.9 The China Light and Power Company Limited (CLP) commissioned a 300 MW open cyclegas turbine plant at Penny's Bay in 1992 with an expected operational lifetime of 25 years.The plant comprises of 3 x 100 MW open cycle units with three separate 50 m stacks. Theplant is fired by distillate fuel oil (diesel) with scope for possible future expansion to 600MW. Air quality impact from this GTP has been identified as a key issue and wind tunnelmodelling and numerical modelling were commissioned to assess the impact on local airquality arising from operation of the GTP.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd m association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-16


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentEmissions from Fireworks Displays3.5.10 The Study Brief issued for the Theme Park EIA (Annex L) includes a requirement for theassessment of air quality impacts associated with the operational phase of the Project. Arange of operational activities are required to be addressed and these include the assessmentof impacts associated with the proposed fireworks/pyrotechnics displays. Pyrotechnicsusually consist of a mixture of two ingredients: a fuel and an oxidiser. They differ fromexplosives in that the reaction rates are very low and produce relatively little gas whencompared with propellants.3.5.11 The typical composition of pyrotechnics is black powder which is largely potassium nitrate,carbon and sulphur, plus substances added to produce effects and colours, typically variousmetals or metallic compounds and other chemicals. The scientific literature on the effect offireworks on air quality is extremely limited. An on-line search of approximately fourmillion scientific papers has only produced three papers related to dioxins emissions.3.5.12 Researches focusing on the effects of particulates and metals from fireworks or detonationof black powder are more readily available.3.5.13 Effects of pyrotechnic displays on indoor and regional air quality have been studied by(Dutcher et al, 1999)< 1 > and (Perry, 1999)< 2 ) respectively and their findings published in theJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association. Both papers concluded that fineparticulate matter dominated by K and S and other common pyrotechnic device constituentssuch as selected heavy metals were identified (Dutcher et al, 1999). The paper by Perryreported elevation of the fine particulates (PM 2 .5) concentration in the western WashingtonState area. The maximum 24-hour averaged PM 2 .s mass concentration apportioned to thepyrotechnic displays was 18.5 |igm" 3 . The majority of this mass (54%) was composed of Kand S, which originated from the combustion of black powder. Other reference^ suggestedthe solid products comprise mainly of K 2 CO3, K 2 SO 4 and K 2 S. Based on these papers itappears that particulates emissions warrant further assessment. It is also noted that someheavy metals will be emitted and hence will be the subject of further consideration.3.5.14 During the combustion of black powder, gaseous emissions (about 31% by weight)including approximately 30% C0 2 , 4-5% CO, and 40% N 2 and small amount of H 2 0 andH 2 S. In view of the small amount of black powder being used and the relative small portionof associated CO emission from fireworks displays, the impact from CO is not expected.However, H 2 S may pose some impact to the environment as this odourous compound canbe detected at low concentrations. The potential odour impact will need to be addressed inthe following section as part of the Study Brief requirements.3.5.15 Four principal groups of pollutants are identified in the Study Brief, as being of potentialconcern:• dioxins (which for the purposes of this assessment will be taken to include both polychlorinated dibenzo-^-dioxinsand polychlorinated dibenzofurans);(1) Dabrina D. Dutcher, Kevin D, Perry, and Thomas A, Cahill, Effects of Indoor Pyrotechnic Displays on the Air Quality in the Houston Astrodome, J. Air & WasteManage. Assoc. 49:156-160,1999(2) Kevin D. Perry, Effects of Outdoor Pyrotechnic Displays on the Regional Air Quality of Western Washington State, J, Air & Waste Mange. Assoc. 49:146-155,1999(3) Hussain G and Rees G J, Combustion of Black Powder Part 1; Therrao-Analytical Studies 1990Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-17Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern both with regard to their potential for direct impacts onhuman health and for their potential to promote the formation of photochemical smog;• RSP and the associated heavy metals; and• odour.3.5.16 These substances will be further considered in following sections. With the exception ofRSP, none of the papers identified in the on-line database researches have identified impactto the ambient levels of other AQO pollutants. Furthermore, the composition of fireworks issuch that emissions of the remaining AQO pollutants are not anticipated to be of concern.On this basis AQO pollutants, other than RSP and possibly lead, will not be consideredfurther.Odour Emissions From Sewage Pumping Station3.5.17 A sewage pumping station proposed at the north-west of the Theme Park beside theproposed Water Recreational Centre. The capacity of the station is 112,320 m 3 /day.Odour, originating mainly from hydrogen sulphide in the sewage, could be released fromthe pumping station and is a potential source of nuisance to the vicinity. In addition,pumping chambers with maximum capacity of 0.2 m 3 /s are proposed underground along theResort Road (Dl and D2) of Theme Park. As the chambers are proposed underground, theodour will not be emitted to the air and it would not cause any adverse odour impact.ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGYVehicle Emissions from Road Networks3.5.18 The USEPA approved air dispersion model, CALINE4 was used to predict the pollutantlevels of NO2, RSP and CO from the road networks within the Study Area including:• North Lantau Highway;• Click Ko Wan Link Road;• Road P2; and• Roads Dl andD2.3.5.19 The hourly average of pollutants at two affected heights, the ground level and 10 m aboveground, were modelled in the assessment.3.5.20 Fleet emission factors based on the EURO in criteria have been used for this assessment.As emission factors beyond 2011 are not available for this Study, 2011 vehicle emissionfactors were therefore assumed for traffic beyond 2011. It is however believed thatemission rates beyond 2011 will be lower than 2011 as more stringent controls will be putin place and more vehicles will be fitted with advanced emission control systems. Thepredicted results will therefore be conservative.3.5.21 Traffic flow based on design capacity of the above road networks provided by the TrafficConsultant were employed for the analysis of vehicle emissions. It was assumed that peakhour traffic will occur during daytime and worst case scenario of neutral meteorologicalconditions were used in the model runs. Typical input parameters for the model are listedbelow:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-i8Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentwind speedwind directionstability classmixing heightstandard deviation of wind directionsurface roughnesstemperature1 ms' 1 ;worst case for each receivers;D;500m;12 degree;80 cm; and25°C.3.5.22 The NO X gas is assumed to be inert and levels of NO 2 were taken as 20% of total NO Xemissions since the worst affected sensitive receivers are located close to the roadalignment.Vehicle Emissions from Vehicle Parking Areas3.5.23 Emissions from public parking areas within the Theme Park were estimated based onperson trips data of year 2024 provided by the HKITP as shown in Table 3.5c below. Hotelguests have not been included as they will be dropping off close to the hotel developments.Average occupancy of vehicles from the Annual Traffic Census 1998 was used in theevaluation of the public carpark emissions during peak hours (9-10 am and 9-10 pm) wheremost people are arriving and leaving the Theme Park and the associated developments.Table 3.5c - Daily Person Trips Travelled by Private Vehicle in Year 2024'Miif^Segment.Resident WorkforceHK Resident VisitorsTouristsDay Visitors.Iftrogij^7501,0132,108028,1091,9243.5.24 Greater volumes of pollutants may be emitted due to idling operations of tour coachesduring peak hours. The ISCST3 air dispersion model was used to predict the potentialimpact on the nearby ASRs. Idling of private vehicles is normally of a very short durationhence is not included in this assessment. For this assessment, it has been assumed that anarea of 1500 m 2 for each of the 2 public parking areas will be allocated for the parking oftour coaches. Meteorological data for 1997 from Cheung Chau weather station, operated byHong Kong Observatory, were employed for the model run. Vehicle idling emission factorsof 2.0 g/min-veh for NO X and CO for bus provided by EPD were used as emission factorsfor the vehicle idling operations. Each tour coach is assumed idling at the carpark for amaximum of 10 minutes within the 1-hour assessment period. The levels of M>2 were takenas 20% of total NO X emissions. RSP emission is considered negligible as reference toMOBDJB6 Emission Factor Model for heavy-duty diesel engines (RSP emission rate =0.043 g/min-veh) developed by the USEPA and was therefore not included in theassessment.Territory-wide Air Emissions Caused by Theme ParkTraffic3.5.25 Vehicle emissions from Theme Park related traffic caused by internal traffic within HKSAR and cross-boundary traffic were estimated based on person trips data provided by theHKITP shown in Table 3.5d below. In order to compare with the total Vehicle-kilometretravelled(vkt) value obtained from CTS-3 Study for the assessment year in 2016, year 2014person trips data were used. Average occupancy of vehicles were obtained from the AnnualScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd m association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-19


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTraffic Census 1998 to estimate the number of vehicles generated by the operation of theTheme Park. Vkt value was calculated by the total number of traffic generated and averagedistance travelled from town centre to the Theme Park. The vkt value was then comparedwith the total vkt obtained from the CTS-3 Study to evaluate the impact from additionaltraffic generated by the Theme Park and associated developments.Table 3.5d - Daily Person Trips Travelled in Year 2014Market SegmentResident WorkforceHK Resident VisitorsTouristsDay Visitors (Transboundary)Hotel GuestsPrivateVehicle3796481,21402,079Tail9543280901,578Bus2,6555,8337,2834,006860ToiirCoach0016,184821717"Sato ;(FBRL)5,87813,61114,16101,004/'\Ber^>\ \ \4741,0808090932Emissions from Combustion Equipment3.5.26 As discussed earlier in this Section, NO 2 emission comprises the critical pollutant attributedto the Theme Park combustion equipment, and the NO 2 impacts on receivers located atdifferent heights were assessed. Impacts of the combustion equipment were modelled withthe air dispersion model, ISCST3. Meteorological data of Cheung Chau Weather Station forthe year 1997 were used for the model run. Combustion data of the boilers are provided byHKITP and are shown in Annex B5. Types of the fuel, fuel consumption rates, physicaldimension for stacks, exit gas temperature are included. Emission rates of pollutants arecalculated based on Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, 5 th Edition (AP-42).Emissions from Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant3.5.27 A review of the air quality impact from the GTP has been carried out to identify thepotential air quality constraints to the proposed Theme Park and associated developmentsbased on the findings from EIA of Gas Turbine Plant at Penny's Bay (1) . The reportidentified potential constraints on high-rise developments within the Penny's Bay Area.3.5.28 The proposed development layout will be reviewed to confirm the proposed heightrestriction in the vicinity of the GTP is adequate to avoid any potential air quality impact.Any proposed development exceeding the specified limit will need to be addressed in termsof potential impact and or obstruction to the dispersion of the GTP plume. Specialreference will be made to air quality at elevated ASRs to the south of the Bay based on theprevious wind tunnel modelling velocity measurements over the site and test results.Emissions from Fireworks Displays3.5.29 Emissions from fireworks displays will be estimated based on the data provided by HKTTPand information from on-line database searches. The assessment will include the followingpollutants: RSP, heavy metals, VOC, dioxins and odour. Detailed consideration will begiven to those pollutant identified as being of concern in the Study Brief, and others, suchas RSP, which have been identified from the on-line database researches. Quantitativemodel-based assessment will, where appropriate, be utilised to predict impacts. Dispersion(1) EIA of Gas Turbine Plant at Penny's Bay, Final Key Issue Report No, 1» Air Quality Impact (ERL, November 1990)Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates3-20


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentmodelling will be carried out using meteorology data from the year 1997 from the HongKong Observatory's Cheung Chau Weather Station.Heavy Metals3.5.30 Disney committed to minimise any potential exposure to harmful air contaminants byprohibiting the use of heavy metals such as chromium, lead, mercury, arsenic, manganese,nickel or zinc in the purchase and use of pyrotechnics products (please refer to a letter fromInternational Theme Park in Annex BT). Based on the data provided by HKTTP, 42% of thetotal mass of fireworks is emitted to the atmosphere. If it is assumed that the total mass isturned to RSP the worst-case particulates emission will be around 2.6 kg and 14.7 kg forlow-level and mid-level shows, respectively. Typically the composition of the particulatesemission consists largely of Potassium Sulphate and a trace amount of metals in the formof, Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Antimony, Barium, Strontium, Titaniumand Copper compounds. According to the USEPA's Integrated Risk Information System,there are no human carcinogenic data for the above metals, and they are thereforeconsidered to be non-carcinogenic. Potential impacts from these metal compounds can beestimated using the percentage composition of these metal compounds within the mass ofthe particulates emission.3.5.31 The ISCST3 dispersion model will be used to simulate the potential RSP concentrations atASRs. Estimated emissions are based on two mid-level and three low-level showshappening at the same hour (i.e. 2100 hours) every night. Based on the discussion with thefireworks specialist, the shows are modelled as separate volume sources, 27000 m 3 and8000 m 3 respectively. The modelling results will then be compared with the respectivedaily and annual RSP criteria. The impacts of the metal compounds are estimated bycomparison with the relevant non-AQO criteria.Dioxins and VOCs3.5.32 Impacts from dioxins and VOCs will be addressed with reference to the available literature.Odours3.5.33 The ISCST3 air dispersion model has been used to predict an output which is described bythe model as a maximum 1 hour mean concentration. In actual fact, this output correspondsmore closely to a maximum 3 minute average. To provide a margin of error it has beenconservatively assumed that concentration calculated by ISCST3 can be equated to a 15minute mean. In order to convert the model outputs to maximum 5 second meanconcentrations, a two-step conversion process has been defined by EPD. The first step isthe conversion of the model output to a maximum three minute mean using the power lowformula proposed by Duffee et al o>. The second step is the conversion of 3 minute meansto 5 second means using the approach suggested by the Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) &. The resulting factors for converting the model outputs to 5 second means, are presented inTable 3.5e.(1) RA Duffee, MA O'Brien & N Ostojic, Odour Modelling - Why and How, in recent Developments and Current Practices in Odour, Regulations, Control andTechnology, Transaction of the Air & Waste Management Association, ED. DR Derenzon & A Gnyp(2) A W C Keddie, Dispersion of Odours, in Odour Control - A Concise Guide, Warren Spring Laboratory, 1980Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-21Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.5e - Factors for Converting Model Outputs to Maximum 5 second MeanOdour ConcentrationsFasquill StabilityClassABCDEFConversion 15 minute to3 minute mean2.232.231.701.381.311.31;Conversion 3 minute to 5 * v ^\second mean -


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.5f - Predicted Hourly Air Quality Impacts from Open Road Qignf )AStte* Predicted Concentration ( * J « ' ,> s * >* ^Al 135 74 984 58 131 72 984 58A2 4839 179 42 4839 179 42A3 4437 179 41 4437 179 41A4A5A6A7ASA9A10AllA12A13A14A15A16A17A18AQO6313556569382135116119971041381571421463004574424257537466675961758377781502949842942946395249848698696397549841,2141,0991,09930,0004558444350485954555152606359611806313556569378131112116971011381531351423004574424257517265665960758174771502949842942946394098697548696396399841,2149841,09930,000455844435047585454515160625861180CriteriaNotes:(a) Background pollutants concentration included in the results3.5.35 Full compliance with the AQO's is expected at all the ASRs was predicted. Maximumhourly NO 2 and CO and daily RSP concentrations of 157 figm" 3 , 1214 figm" 3 and 63 jugnf 3 ,respectively, were predicted at the ground level of Theme Park Gateway (A16).Interpretation of the model results indicates that there will be no adverse cumulative airquality impacts associated with the road networks.3.5.36 Sample CALINE4 output files are shown in Annex B6.Vehicle Emissions from Public Vehicle Parking Areas3.5.37 Emissions from the public vehicle parking area within the Theme Park were evaluatedbased on the daily person trips data provided by the HKITP for the year 2024. About 3,871person trips would be travelling by private vehicles and 30,033 person trips by tour coaches.About 15% of which will arrive or depart the Theme Park during peak hours (9-10 am and9-10 pm) according to the Airivals and Departures data for the year 2024 provided by theHKITP. Based on an average occupancy of 1.5 for private vehicles and 40 for tour coaches,it was estimated that about 400 private vehicles and 100 tour coaches will be arriving ordeparting the parking area during peak hours. Provided the small number of vehicles willbe distributed over two large vehicle parking areas of about 90,000 m 2 , air quality impactdue to vehicle emissions from parking areas is expected to be insignificant3.5.38 Emissions from tour coaches waiting for the boarding passengers were estimated at theground level and 10m above ground using ISCST3 model Assuming 100 tour coaches areidling over an area of 1,500 m 2 for each of the two parking areas for maximum of 10minutes, the predicted pollutant concentrations at the nearest ASRs are shown in Table 3.5gbelowScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-23


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.5g - Predicted Pollutant Concentrations from Idling Emission of TourCoaches (jjigm" 3 )ASRsAllA12A13LocationsDivisional Fire Station (West of the Penny'sBay Rail Station)Divisional Police StationDivisional Fire Station (East of the Penny'sBay Rail Station)Notes:(a) Background concentration included in the resultsPreakt^!Hiirl3rNO^^ConcentrationGround 10m Above! Level Ground745186655350Coii^entradliiii.^ &&* *«&&** Level' ^217261185mm^j^^CrrtwiKl Vr


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentEmissions from Boilers at Low Receiver Levels3.5.43 The predicted hourly NC>2 concentration at ground level and 10m above ground are listed inTable 3. 5j below.Table 3.5j - Predicted Hourly NOz Concentration at Low ElevationsASEsPredicted Hourly NO* ConeentrMomt ^ 0 , .-'* ^fv>.>^>>>Ground Level10m Above Ground -,> \ \ ,, ' * r V" X* -< > ;AlA2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10AllA12A13A14A15A16A17A18AQO Criteria353736353635343536353535353537343435300353635353635353637353535353537343435300Note:(a) Background of NO 2 (33 jigm" 3 ) from Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant Monitoring Station has been included in theprediction.Cumulative Impacts ofGTP, Vehicle and Boiler Emissions at Low Level Receivers3,5.44 NO 2 , CO and RSP are the major pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions. ASRs at lowerlevels, i.e., at ground level and 10 m above ground, will receive higher impacts. Thecumulative air pollutant levels at low level receivers, taking into account contributions fromvehicle emissions from the road networks, public parking area, GTP and boiler emissions,are shown in Table 3.5k below.l


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.5k - Cumulative Pollutants Concentration at Low Level ReceiversASEAlA2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10AllA12A13A14A15A16A17A18AQOCriteriaCumulative ConcentrationGround LevelHourly NO 2 Daily N0 2 Hourly CO137 74 9845240 1794737 1796545 294137 74 9845842 2945742 2949558 6398554 524136 74 984118 66 869121 68 8699960 63910761 754142 75 984158 831,214143 771,099148 781,099300 150 30,000Daily RSP584241455844435048595455515260635961180x< l *' '• - : ' •10mS6v^6roiit4 ;7 '.~ "^J^J> *' Xl^">>"^?^.Hourly N


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTable 3.51 - Predicted Hourly NO 2 Concentration at High ElevationsASEs . v - < ,AlA2A3A4A3A6A7A8A9A10AllAi2A13A14AI5A16A17A18AQO CriteriaPmtiqted Hourly NO 2£#m Abovci Crwmd ,363535353636353738363636363636343435300s< v . > ;3%m Above €it>tiia^S|^373535343536353842363738373636343435300Note:(a) Background of N02 (33 |j.gm~ 3 ) from Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant Monitoring Station has been included in theprediction.3.5.48 The above results indicated that the NOa criteria will be satisfied at all elevations. It alsoindicated that the worst affected level is 30 m above ground. The highest hourly NOa waspredicted at A9 (Resorts in Theme Park) which is 42 ^igm" 3 .Emissions from Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant3.5.49 The EIA of Gas Turbine Plant at Penny's Bay (1) concluded that the GTP will not cause anyunacceptable air quality impact to ground level receptors. The predicted 862 concentrationwas in excess of the AQO under a high wind speed (15 ms" 1 ) situation at elevated receptor,100 m above ground and 500 rn away from the GTP, causing constraints on the proposedhigh-rise developments to the west of the GTP under the worst case operating scenario with6 units running at 50% load.3.5.50 Further mathematical modelling was carried out under a more probable wind speed of 10ms"" 1 and wind directions ranging from 47° to 109° to assess the air quality impact to theproposed high-rise development within the Penny's Bay area. The predicted S0 2concentration 500 m away from the GTP reaches 400 M-gm" 3 at about 60 m above groundand the 400 [igm~ 3 contour remains relatively flat until it approaches the elevated ground.This forms the basis for the recommended height restriction of 60 m above ground to thehigh-rise development under a conservative assumption of 6 units operating at 5.0% load. Amore realistic operating scenario of 3 units running at 100% load instead of 6 units at 50%gives higher plume rise and reduces predicted concentrations at both ground-level andelevated receptors. Previous mathematical modelling results as shown in Figure 3.5csuggest that the 400 Jignf 3 SO 2 contour is about 110 m above ground at 500 m from sourceunder a north-easterly wind. The GTP plume should clear the proposed high-rise373534343536353741363737363635343435300Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-27


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentdevelopment to the west of the GTP and no constraint should be applied under thismodelling scenario.3.5.51 To estimate the air quality impact on elevated receptors located to the south of the GTP, it isnecessary to examine the plume behaviour under a northerly wind. Results from previouswind tunnel measurements for this wind direction indicated that the plume would be pulleddown towards the ground due to the terrain to the north. The GTP is effectively located inthe wake of a group of hills and ridges with a peak height of about 150 to 200 m.Furthermore, the measured vertical profile at the power station site under northerly wind(358°) also indicates that both the mean wind velocity (at and above the stack dischargeheight) and the turbulence intensity (for the lower 200 m) are significantly enhanced aftercrossing the hills to the north of the GTP. This suggests that the pollutant is discharged intoa highly turbulent wake generated by the hill and ridges upstream of the plant and theeffluents would be rapidly transported to the ground by turbulent mixing.3.5.52 Wind tunnel measurements confirm the suggestion of this turbulent mixing zone within 500m from the GTP. Dispersion of the GTP plume in this well mixed zone up to 100 m aboveground would tend to be given a relative uniform pollution concentration. This suggestspollutant concentrations within this shallow boundary layer should be similar to therecorded maximum ground level S0 2 concentrations of less than 400 |Ligm~ 3 under the worstcase modelling scenario.3.5.53 Review of the wind tunnel modelling results suggests height restriction up to 50 m withinthe first 500 m distance should be applied to protect elevated receptors in the immediatevicinity and reduce obstruction to the dispersion of the GTP plume. Building within 500 mto 1 km from the GTP should not be taller than 100 m to avoid any physical obstruction toplume dispersion.3.5.54 Buildings within the Water Recreation Centre should be low-density and low-rise incharacter and should not exceed 6 m in height and the building within the Theme Park willbe limited to 100 m in height to avoid potential air quality impact from the GTP. Althoughthe Theme Park is subject to a maximum building height of 100 m, the majority ofstructures for individual themed areas are low rise development within some broad heightband except for some visual icons consist of tall and slim structure. The location of thesestructures will be more than 500 m from the GTP and not affecting the wind flow pattern orplume dispersion at the GTP. Hotel development along the south side of the developmentwill be limited to a maximum building height of 40 m provide further safeguard to anypotential obstruction to the approach flow.3.5.55 It is therefore expected that the dispersion of the chimney emissions from the GTP will notbe affected by the proposed low-rise development in the immediate vicinity and the land useplanning of the area would avoid constraints imposed by the GTP. The recommendedheight restriction should be adequate to protect the air quality within the Penny's Bay area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-28Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentEmissions from Fireworks DisplaysDioxinsOverview3.5.56 The term "dioxin" is often used to denote a family of compounds known chemically aspolychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs). Each compound comprises two benzene rings interconnected by oxygen atoms.In the case of PCDDs, the benzene rings are joined by two oxygen bridges, whereas in thePCDFs, the benzene rings are connected by a carbon bond and an oxygen bridge.3.5.57 There are 75 PCDDs and 135 PCDFs, each differing in the number and position of thechlorine atoms. Each individual PCDD or PCDF is termed a congener (giving 210 in total),while groups of congeners with the same number of chlorine atoms are called homologues.The homologue groups are often abbreviated for convenience; for example, tetrachloroCDDs and CDFs (PCDD/Fs with four substituted chlorine atoms) are abbreviated toTCDDs and TCDFs respectively, while the fully chlorinated octachloro congeners (eightsubstituted chlorine atoms) are abbreviated to OCDD and OCDF respectively.3.5.58 PCDD and PCDF congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions are ofparticular environmental concern, especially the tetrachloro-CDD congener 2,3,7,8-TCDD,which achieved notoriety following its release from the ICSEMA plant at Seveso, Italy in1977.3.5.59 Of the 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners with chlorine in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the most toxic, and by convention is assigned a toxicity rating of 1.0 (called aToxic Equivalent Factor or TEF). The remaining 2,3,7,8-positional congeners are thenassigned lower TEFs comparable to their toxicity, relative to that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Thetoxicity of any mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs, relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, can then beexpressed by multiplying the concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-positional congeners present inthe mixture by their respective TEFs. The resulting products for each congener are calledToxic Equivalents (TEQs), with units identical to that in which the concentrations of theindividual congeners are expressed. The TEQ of the mixture is obtained by summing theindividual TEQs.3.5.60 While a number of toxicity rating schemes have been developed, the scheme that has beeninternationally adopted is that of NATO/CCMS (1988), under which the TEFs are termedInternational TEFs, or I-TEFs. The summation of individual TEQs for a mixture of PCDDsand PCDFs is termed the International Toxic Equivalent or I-TEQ of the mixture.3.5.61 These compounds arise from a diverse range of both natural and man made sources.However, there is general agreement that man-made sources and activities are far greatercontributors to the environmental burden of PCDD/Fs than natural processes,, especiallysince the 1930s, from which time there has been a steady increase in environmental levelscoinciding with the large scale production and use of chlorinated chemicals (Fortin andCaldbick, 1997; Alcock et al, 1998). Man-made sources of PCDD/Fs can be divided intothree main categories, broadly defined as follows (Fiedler, 1993):• chemical processes;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-29Shankiand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• combustion processes;• secondary sources.3.5.62 To date, we are not aware of any studies undertaken and reported in the open literature thatquantify the contribution of fireworks to the national or local inventory of PCDD/Fs.Ambient Levels of Dioxins in the Hong Kong Environment3.5.63 To date, the most comprehensive set of data on ambient levels of PCDD/Fs in the HongKong SAR has been developed by the Environmental Protection Department. The EPDcurrently operates two Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) at which, the levels ofPCDD/Fs are measured on a regular basis. The AQMS are located at Central/Western andTsuen Wan. Over the period July 1997 to July 1999, the median concentrations reportedwere 0.093 pg I-TEQ m" 3 at Cental/Western and 0.1 pg I-TEQ in" 3 at Tsuen Wan.3.5.64 To place these values in context, the reported concentrations fall within the range of typicalvalues reported in other large cities and metropolitan areas of the world. The following areexamples of concentrations reported in other areas:urban areas of Japan - 0.08 to 0.28 pg I-TEQ m" 3urban areas of Germany - 0.07 to 0.35 pg I-TEQ m" 34 urban sites in the UK - 0.1 pg I-TEQ m" 3 (median)urban sites in the United States - 0.016 to 0.45 pg I-TEQ m" 3urban sites in Korea - 0.029 to 0.69 pg I-TEQ m" 3Fireworks as a Source of Dioxin Emissions to the Atmosphere3.5.65 As stated above, we have been unable to identify any published sources of information thatdocument the contribution of emissions from fireworks to the total inventory of atmosphericemissions of PCDD/Fs.3.5.66 A paper published in the UK in 1997 (Dyke and Coleman, 1997) in the journalChemosphere^ reported that there was a fourfold increase in the ambient concentration ofPCDD/Fs in the atmosphere during the 5 November celebrations. These celebrationstraditionally include not only the use of fireworks but also the open burning of largequantities of material (principally wood) in bonfires. These findings stimulated furtherwork to determine the principal source of these increases in ambient concentrations and ledto the recent publication of a paper by Fleischer et al (1999).3.5.67 The principal conclusions of the paper are as follows:• The majority of the fireworks tested in the experiments were harmless and the 2,3,7,8-TCDD congener, which isthe principal source of concern, was not detected in any of the samples.• Levels of impurities, such as pentachloropheonol (PCP), in fireworks should be minimised as far as is practicable.This will be achieved via controls on the procurement process.• "No indications were found that emissions from fireworks may cause air pollution,"• Any PCDD/Fs detected in the samples had tended to be transferred from the raw materials (eg paper) into thesolid residues (ie ash).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-30Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• The presence of copper in some products catalysed the formation of some PCDD/Fs in solid residues but not ingaseous emissions. As a consequence measures are proposed in Section 6 to ensure that the solid residues aremanaged in the same manner as chemical wastes.3.5.68 The conclusion was therefore that the observations made by Dyke and Coleman were as aresult of emissions of PCDD/Fs from open burning of waste wood in bonfires, rather thanfireworks.3.5.69 From this assessment we conclude that the proposed fireworks displays will not be asignificant source of atmospheric emissions of PCDD/Fs and hence should not beconsidered further.Volatile Organic Compounds3.5.70 An on-line search of approximately four million scientific papers did not identify anypublished sources of information that document the contribution of emissions fromfireworks to the national or local inventory of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)emissions. The Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, US EPA (AP-42)document does not report any VOC emissions from the detonation of black powder which isthe main component of fireworks. No emission factors for VOCs were identified in the onlinesearch of scientific abstracts.3.5.71 A recent publication by Fleischer et al (1999) suggested VOC emissions from fireworks andpyrotechnics are unlikely due to high temperatures of up to 2,500 °C accompanying thedeflagration of pyrotechnic compositions. We therefore conclude that the proposedfireworks displays will not be a significant source of atmospheric emissions of VOC andhence should not be considered further.RSP and Heavy Metals3.5.72 During the launch of the fireworks, an explosive charge will be used to fire the shell to theair before detonation. The detonation of the fireworks will generate respirable suspendedparticulates (RSP) emissions ( Dutcher 1999), which predominantly comprise potassiumand sulphate (Perry, 1999) and trace amounts of some other elements used for thegeneration of the required pyrotechnic effects. Such emissions will largely be dispersed anddiluted at the burst height during the fireworks displays and very shortly thereafter.Estimated potential RSP emissions based on the information provided by HKTTP will bearound 2.6 kg and 14.7 kg for typical low-level and mid-level shows respectively, assumingthat, as a worst case, 42% of the total weight of the fireworks will be released as RSP intothe atmosphere. Daily and annual RSP concentrations predicted at the ASRs at groundlevel due to these worst case fireworks emissions are shown in Table 3.5m.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-31Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 3.5m - Predicted Worst Case RSP Concentrations at Ground Level Qigm" )ASEsAlA2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10AllA12A13A14A15A16A17A18LocationsPenny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng ChauTheme Park (Phase I and II)Resort in Theme Park (Phase I and II)Theme Park (Phase III) ExtensionDivisional Fire Station (West of the Penny's BayRail Station)Divisional Police StationDivisional Fire Station (East of the Penny's BayRail Station)Water Recreational CentreEco ParkTheme Park GatewayTourist and Convention VillageTechnodromeNote:(a) Background level of 39 jigm" 3 included in the resultsDaityESI 1 . v vCoijcentratiora ^ -< ^ ^39.5047.8345.2747.8839.6740.0741.2440.4042.2340.6340.1540.8540.1741.7541.3139.5439.4339.41Afiiiiai^Jr;i%x;^JC0ii«e»trMait 4^wl'^39.0339.5839.2139.1439.0339.0439.0439.0839.0639.0239.0739.1039.0639.0639.0439.0239.0139.013.5.73 The predicted maximum daily and annual average RSP concentrations were 47.88 and39.58 (igmf 3 , respectively, at the proposed country park extension area (A4 and A2). Itshould be noted that the predicted RSP concentrations include a background concentrationof 39 jigm" 3 . Maximum daily and annual average RSP contributions from the fireworksdisplays are 8.88 and 0.58 |j,gm~ 3 respectively. The potential RSP impacts from thefireworks displays will therefore be very low when compared with the AQOs of 180 and 55for daily and annual averages.3.5.74 Isopleths of daily maximum RSP concentration at ground level and 30m above ground levelare shown in Figures 3.5d and 3.5e, respectively. The isopleths indicate that daily RSPlevels at both elevations are very low within the bay area. Background level has not beenadded to the predicted concentrations to highlight the small incremental increase of RSPlevels from fireworks emissions. Sensitive receptors located at Peng Chau and DiscoveryBay are further away from the Theme Park and hence not be affected.3.5.75 Typically the composition of the particulates emission consists largely of potassium andsulphate and a trace amount of trace elements such as Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium,Antimony, Barium, Strontium, Copper and Titanium compounds. HKITP has committed toexclude the purchase of any pyrotechnics that contain Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Arsenic,Manganese, Nickel or Zinc in their formulation. This minimises the use of potentiallyharmful heavy metals and reduces possible impacts to the surrounding environment. Ofthose elements included in the pyrotechnic product, the following is a list of theirpercentage compositions:Aluminium (Al)Antimony (Sb)Barium (Ba)Strontium (Sr)2.93%1.28%3.06%1.64%Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-32


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCopper (Cu)Titanium (Ti)0.92%0.40%3.5.76 It has been assumed that RSP has the same elemental composition. Table 3.5n shows thepredicted maximum annual average ground level concentrations at ASRs and thecorresponding assessment criteria. It is evident that the predicted concentrations are wellbelow the assessment criteria.Table 3.5n - Predicted Worst Case Annual Average Pollutant Concentrations atGround Level (}igm" 3 ) (a)(b)Annual \Sbfr^JvS&&V--ASBs' LocationsPredictedAl s i MPollutant ConcentrationB'i^tKh;\; ' *OifH^IA18 Technodrome0.0003Criteria (b) 100 (e) 0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 0.0001 0.000045 (c) -100 (e)AlA2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A10AllA12A13A14A15A16A17Penny's Bay GTPPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaPossible Country Park Extension AreaLuk Keng TsuenDiscovery BayPeng ChauTheme Park (Phase I and II)Resort in Theme Park (Phase I and II)Theme Park (Phase III) ExtensionDivisional Fire Station (West of thePenny's Bay Rail Station)Divisional Police StationDivisional Fire Station (East of thePenny's Bay Rail Station)Water Recreational CentreEco ParkTheme Park GatewayTourist and Convention Village0.00090.01710.00610.00420.00090.00110.00110.00230.00170.00070.00210.00290.00160.00190.00120.00050.00040.00040.00750.00270.00180.00040.00050.00050.00100.00070.00030.00090.00120.00070.00080.00050.00020.00020.00090.01780.00640.00440.00100.00110.00110.00240.00180.00070.00220.00300.00170.00200.00120.00050.00040.00050.00960.00340.00240.00050.00060.00060.00130.00090.00040.00120.00160.00090.00110.00070.00030.00020.00030.00530.00190.00130.00030.00030.00030.00070.00050.00020,00070.00090.00050.00060.00040.00020.00010.00010.00230.00080.00060.00010.00010.00010.00030.00020.00010.00030.00040.00020.00030.000160.000070.00005Note:(a) Background concentrations are not included in the prediction.(b) Annual average criteria, short term exposure limits are not available for these pollutants.(c) A Reference Note on Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Substances in the Work Environment, 1995,Labour Department HK. A safety factor of 100 has been applied for conversion of Time-weight-average value tolong term exposure limit and to allow for variability in human response to chemicals.(d) California Air Resources Board(CARB)(e) Occupational Exposure Limits, 1991, Health & Safety Executive, UK. A safety factor of 100 has been applied forconversion of Time-weight-average value to long term exposure limit and to allow for variability in human responseto chemicals.2.4 (d) Ttt::: Iv;3.5.77 Based on the above analysis, the planned fireworks displays will not create a significantincrease in the ambient RSP or heavy metal concentrations. Provided that there are controlson the composition of these products they procure through a strict procurement process toprohibit the use of certain metals specified by HKITP, this matter is not of concern.Consideration should also be given to reducing the extent to which fireworks containingcopper are used whilst maintaining the integrity and speciality of the fireworks displays. Itshould be noted that whilst some forms of titanium are banned from consumer fireworksproducts in the United States (i.e. American Pyrotechnics Association Standard 87-1,1998),. no such ban applies to display fireworks, such as those that would be used at theTheme Park. Furthermore, the assessment shows that as a worst case there is a margin ofScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-33


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentapproximately five orders of magnitude between the assessment criteria and the maximumpredicted concentration.Odour3.5.78 Hydrogen Sulphide (H 2 S) is an odourous compound that would be emitted into theatmosphere from the detonation of black powder, which is one of the major components offireworks (around 41%). This gaseous pollutant has a distinct bad egg smell and can bedetected even at a very low ambient concentration (Odour Threshold Value of 0.66 |Ugm~ 3 ).The emission factor reported by Disney 1 is 0.225 g of H 2 S per kg of black powderconsumed. The highest predicted odour level on and averaging time of 5 seconds is 1.46Odour Unit (OU) at the ASR A2 (Proposed Country Park Extension). Odour levelspredicted at the ASRs at ground level on an averaging time of 5 seconds are shown in TableJ.Jo.Table 3.5o - Predicted Odour Level at Ground Level (Odour Unit)-ASRs;» ',.•


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentreceptor (Police Station, A12) located some 800 m away from the fireworks launch site,there should not be any adverse odour impact generated by fireworks displays.Odour from Sewage Pumping Station3.5.81 Hydrogen sulphide is the major source of odour from the proposed sewage pumping stationin Theme Park. As the flow of sewage is small and it is anticipated that odour suppressionmeasures such as enclosing the odour sources and providing odour scrubbing systemswould be incorporated in the design of the facility, odour nuisance from sewage would besufficiently mitigated and the odour criteria would likely be satisfied.MITIGATION MEASURES3.5.82 Although the predicted results show no exceedance of the established criteria, somerecommendations are required for ensuring good air quality at the development.3.5.83 Building height restrictions of up to 50 m within the first 500 m from GTP and 100 mwithin 500 m to 1 km from GTP were recommended in the Penny's Bay. For example,buildings within the Water Recreation Centre should be low-density and low-rise incharacter and should not exceed 6m in height. Hotel development along the south side ofthe development should be limited to a maximum building height of 40 m provide furthersafeguard to any potential obstruction to the approach flow.3.5.84 In order to minimise any potential exposure to harmful air contaminant, HKTPL agreed thatany pyrotechnics that specifically use chromium, lead, mercury, arsenic, manganese, nickelor zinc would not be purchased for the fireworks displays.3.5.85 Since the detail design of the sewage pumping stations is not available at this stage, detailedmitigation measures cannot be prescribed. However, odour suppression measures such asenclosing the odour sources and providing scrubbing system should be incorporated in thedesign of the facilities so as to minimise the odour nuisance to the adjacent ASRs.3.6 RESIDUAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION PHASE3.6.1 There are no residual impacts predicted associated with the construction of the Theme ParkPhase 1 & 2 with the concurrent projects after the implementation of the recommendedmitigation measures described in Section 3,4.22 and 3.4.23 above.OPERATIONAL PHASE3.6.2 There are no residual impacts predicted associated with the vehicular emissions from theopen road networks at low level receivers and boiler emissions at high level receivers in thevicinity.3.6.3 With the incorporation of the building height restriction recommended in Section 3.5.84into the design of the structures in the Theme Park and Water Recreation Centre, noresidual impacts are expected.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-35Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessment3.6.4 Without the use of the specifically pyrotechnics substances recommended in Section 3.5.85in the fireworks displays, residual impacts are not expected.3.6.5 Although the detail design of the proposed sewage pumping station is not available at thisstage, however, with odour suppression measures stated in Section 3.5.86 to be incorporatedwith the design, no residual impact is expected.3.7 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND AUDIT3.7.1 Monitoring and auditing of air quality has been recommended for the construction andoperational phase. The specific monitoring requirements are detailed in Annex N of thisEl A Report which comprises the stand-alone Project EM&A Manual.3.8 CONCLUSIONSBASELINE CONDITIONS3.8.1 The air quality within the Study Area is currently rural affected by emissions from the NorthLantau Highway and to a lesser extent the GTP. The existing air quality for the Study Areais comparable with the monitoring results collected from Tung Chung. In future, vehicularemissions are expected to contribute more significantly to the air quality in the Study Area.CONSTRUCTION PHASE3.8.2 Impacts arising from the construction of the Project primarily relate to dust nuisance andgaseous emissions from the construction plant and vehicles, with dust generation being themajor concern. The construction activities include, site formation, construction of the themepark and associated facilities including hotels and water recreation area; road constructionof road P2, a section of CKWLR between Yam O Interchange to Penny's Bay Roundabout,theme park internal road Dl and D2; and PBRL including track construction and Yam Oand Penny' Bay Rail stations works.3.8.3 With the incorporation of the mitigation measures recommended in Section 3.4,22, theprediction of the cumulative hourly and daily TSP levels indicates that there is noexceedance found in the identified ASRs taking into account the construction of theconcurrent projects.3.8.4 To ensure no exceedance of the TSP level at the receivers, EM&A is recommended.OPERATIONAL PHASE3.8.5 Vehicular emissions from the adjacent road networks including CKWLR, Route 10 and thedistributor road P2, and the emissions from the GTP are the major air quality concerns tothe Theme Park. In addition, the vehicle emissions from the public parking areas andemissions from fireworks displays, fuel combustion equipment and sewage pumping stationare another air quality concerns to the adjacent ASRs. Potential air quality impacts duringthe operation of Penny's Bay Rail Link will be limited since electric passenger trains will beused, no air emissions will be produced.3.8.6 All statutory AQOs will be satisfied at all ASRs at both low level (ground level and 10 mabove ground) and high level (20-40 m above ground) due to the vehicular emission fromScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with 3-36Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentroad networks to and boiler emissions from the Theme Park. Height restrictions will beincorporated into the Theme Park plans to avoid any potential air quality impact from thePenny's Bay GTP and it has been assessed that the dispersion of the chimney emissions willnot be affected by the Theme Park and associated developments.3.8.7 Impact from fireworks displays has been assessed through literature review and dispersionmodelling. Based on the available literature, fireworks displays will not be a significantsource of atmospheric emissions of PCDD/Fs and VOC. The modelling results indicatedemissions from fireworks would increase the predicted daily and annual RSP concentrationsby 8.88 and 0.58 jugm" 3 respectively at the worst affected ASR. Based on the RSPmodelling results and the low percentage of heavy metal compositions, impacts from heavymetals are not expected. Potential odour impact from H 2 S has also been modelled and theresults at the ASRs are within the acceptable criteria.3.8.8 Fireworks displays emissions impact on air quality would only contribute to marginalincrease in the air pollutant levels in the atmosphere; operational monitoring is proposed forverification proposes, due to the paucity of published scientific data on this subject.3.8.9 Potential odour impacts from the proposed sewage pumping station would not affect theadjacent ASRs with the adoption of recommended odour control measures in the detaileddesign stage such as enclosing the odour sources and provision of odour scrubbing systems.3.8.10 The air quality impacts during construction and operational phases of Theme Park aresummarised in Table 3.8a.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 3-37Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable3.8a Summary of Air Quality Impact for Theme ParkAssessment PointsPenny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (Al)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A2)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A3)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A4)LukKengTsuen(A5)Discovery Bay (A6)PengChau(A7)Operi total ImpactPenny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (Al)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A2)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A3)Possible Country Park Extension Area (A4)Luk Keng Tsuen (A5)Discovery Bay (A6)Peng Chau (A7)Theme Park (A8)Resort in Theme Park (A9)Theme Park (Phase III) Extension (A 10)Divisional Fire Station (West of the Penny's Bay Rail Station) (All)Divisional Police Station (A 12)Divisional Fire Station (East of the Penny's Bay Rail Station) (A13)Water Recreation Centre (A 14)Eco Park (A 15)Theme Park Gateway (A 16)Tourist and Convention Village (A 17)Proposed Tourism Development at Tsing Chau Tsai East (A 18)Relevant CriteriaHourly dust criteria recommended in EIAO-TM is 500 jignf 3 and dailydust criteria stipulated in the Hong Kong Air Quality Objective (AQOs)is 260 M-gm" 3 Hourly NO 2 , CO and daily RSP stipulated in HKAQOs are 300 jigm" 3 ,10000jugrrf 3 and 180 |lgm" 3 respectively.Potential Impacts Background dust level of 67 |igm~ 3 has been included in the prediction. Background of NO 2 (33 Jigm' 3 ), CO (64 |igm" 3 ) and RSP (39 Jigm' 3 ) havebeen included in the prediction.Dust nuisance and the construction plant emissions are the majorimpacts during construction.1. Theme Park Phase I and II reclamation, Water Recreation Centreconstruction works, Yam O reclamation, road construction ofCKWLR section between Yam 0 to Pa Tau Kwu, distribution roadP2 and Theme Park Resort Road (Dl and D2) and constructionworks of PBRL are the major construction works. Constructionworks of CKLWR section between Penny's Bay Roundabout toRIO Toll Plaza would be the cumulative impact with Theme Parkconstruction,2. The major dust generating activities are drill and blast, materialshandling, wind erosion, trucks movement on unpaved road, concretebatching and road construction.1. Vehicular emissions from open road networks such as CKWLR, NLH,distributor road P2 and Roads Dl and D2 are the major concern duringoperational phase.The prediction indicated that NO 2 is the critical pollutants. Highesthourly NO 2 at ground level and at alignment level were both predicted atA16 (Theme Park Gateway) which the predicted hourly NO 2concentrations at ground level and at 10m above ground are 158 |igm" 3and 155 jlgm" 3 respectively.Cumulative impacts of open road networks, Penny's Bay Gas TurbinePlant and combustion equipment in Theme Park are another concern atlow level receivers. The prediction indicated that NO 2 is the criticalpollutants. Highest hourly NQ 2 at ground level and at alignment levelScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankiand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates3-38


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentMitigation Measures3. The predictions indicated that the dust levels predicted at all ASRswith 1.5 m above ground and 10m above ground are within dustcriteria. Highest hourly and daily dust levels were predicted at Al(Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant) at both ground level and 10mabove ground, The predicted hourly and daily dust level at 1 .5 mabove ground is 242 £igm~ 3 and 106 figm~ 3 respectively, while 225jigm" 3 and at 10m above ground for hourly and daily dustlevel prediction respectively.Control measures stipulated in Air Pollution Control (ConstructionDust) Regulation as follows:the stockpile should be properly treated and sealed with latex, vinyl,bitumen or other suitable surface stabiliser if a stockpile of dustymaterials is more than 1.2m high and lies within 50m from any siteboundary that adjoins a road, street, or other area accessible to thepublic;effective dust screens, sheeting or netting should be provided toenclose the scaffolding from the ground floor level of the building orif canopy is provided at the first floor level, from the first floorlevel, up to the highest level of the scaffolding where a scaffolding iserected around the perimeter of a building under construction;were both predicted at A16 (Theme Park Gateway) which the predictedhourly NO 2 concentrations at ground level and at alignment level are 158}igm' 3 and 155 jigm' 3 respectively.3. Emissions from combustion equipment in Theme Park are the majorconcerns at the high level receivers. The prediction indicated that theworst affected level was 30m above ground and NO 2 is the criticalpollutant. Highest NO 2 was predicted at A9 (Resort in Theme Park)which was 42}igirf 3 .4. The air quality impact due to vehicle emissions from parking areas isexpected to be significant.5. Air Quality due to Theme Park related traffic is not significant due to smallnumber of VKT and use of alternative mode transports.6. Exceedance of SO 2 concentration was predicted under high wind speed at100m above ground and 500m away from the GTP. The predicted SO 2concentration 500m away from the GTP reaches 400 u,gm~ 3 at about 60mabove ground. Building height is recommended to be restricted to 50mabove ground within the first 500m distance and 100m within 1km fromthe GTP. In addition, building within Water Recreation Centre should below-density and low-rise in character and should not exceed 6m in height.7. VOCs, dioxins and furans, RSP and associated heavy metal and odour arepotential sources of impacts during fireworks displays. The predictionand literature reviews indicated that the impacts from the fireworksdisplays to the vicinity are low and not significant.Potential odour impacts from proposed sewage pumping stations wouldnot affect the adjacent ASRs with the adoption of control measures suchas enclosing the odour sources and providing scrubbing system.Mitigation measures as follows:• Building height restriction are recommended as 50m above ground withinthe first 500m from GTP and 100m above ground within 1 km from GTP• HKTPL agreed that any pyrotechnics that specifically use chromium, lead,mercury, arsenic, manganese, nickel or zinc would not be purchased forthe fireworks displays use.• Odour suppression measures such as enclosing and scrubbing systemshould be incorporated in the design of the proposed sewage pumpingstation.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-39


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentskip hoist for material transport should be totally enclosed byimpervious sheeting;any excavated dusty materials or stockpile of dusty materials shouldbe covered entirely by impervious sheeting or sprayed with water soas to maintain the entire surface wet, and recovered or backfilled orreinstated within 24 hours of the excavation or unloading;stockpile of dusty materials should not extend beyond the pedestrianbarriers, fencing or traffic cones;dusty materials remaining after a stockpile is removed should bewetted with water and cleared from the surface of roads;vehicle washing facilities should be provided at every vehicle exitpoint;the area where vehicle washing takes place and the section of theroad between the washing facilities and the exit point should bepaved with concrete, bituminous materials or hardcores;where a site boundary adjoins a road, streets or other area accessibleto the entire length except for a site entrance or exit;every main haul road should be scaled with concrete and kept clearof dusty materials or sprayed with water so as to maintain the entireroad surface wet;the portion of road leading only to a construction site that is within30m of a designated vehicle entrance or exit should be kept clear ofdusty materials;every stock of more than 20 bags of cement should be coveredentirely by impervious sheeting or placed in an area sheltered on thetop and the 3 sides;cement delivered in bulk should be stored in a closed silo fitted withan audible high level alarm which is interlocked with the materialfilling line such that, in the event of the silo approaching anoverfilling condition, an audible alarm is triggered and the materialfilling stops within one minutes;silos used for the storage of cement should not be overfilled;loading, unloading, transfer, handling or storage of bulk cement orany cement during or after the de-bagging process should be carriedout in a totally enclosed system or facility, and any vent or exhaustshould be fitted with effective fabric filter or equivalent air pollutioncontrol system or equipment;cement, or any other dusty materials collected by fabric filters orother air pollution control system or equipment should be disposedof in totally enclosed containers;stockpile of dusty materials should be either covered entirely byOperational ImpactScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShanktand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-40


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentimpervious sheeting, placed in an area sheltered on the tope and the3 sides; or sprayed with water so as to maintain the entire surfacewet;all dusty materials should be sprayed with water prior to anyloading. Unloading or transfer operation so as to maintain the dustymaterial wet;vehicle speed should be limited to lOkph except on completedaccess roads;every vehicle should be washed to remove any dusty materials fromits body and wheels before leaving the construction sites;the load of dusty materials carried by vehicle leaving a constructionsite should be covered entirely by clean impervious sheeting toensure that the dusty materials do not leak from the vehicle;the working area of excavation should be sprayed with waterimmediately before, during and immediately after the operation so asto maintain the entire surface wet;the area within 30m from the blasting area should be wetted withwater prior to blasting; andblasting should not be carried out when the strong wind signal ortropical cyclone warning signal No.3 or higher is hoisted unlessprior permission of the Commissioner of Mine is obtained.Control measures stipulated in the EPD 's Best Practicable MeansRequirements for Cement Works (Concrete Batching Plant) as follow:loading, unloading, handling, transfer or storage of any dustymaterials should be carried out in totally enclosed system;all dust-laden air or waste gas generated by the process operationsshould be properly extracted and vented to fabric filtering system tomeet the emission limits for TSP;vents for all silos and cement/pulverised iuel ash (PFA) weighingscale should be fitted with fabric filtering system;the materials which may generate airborne dusty emissions should bewetted by water spray system;all receiving hoppers should be enclosed on three sides up to 3mabove unloading point;all conveyor transfer points should be totally enclosed;all access and route roads within the premises should be paved andwetted; andvehicle cleaning facilities should be provided and used by allconcrete trucks before leaving the premises to wash off any dust onthe wheels and/or body.Residual Impacts No residual impacts identified. No residual impacts identified.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-41


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentAcceptableScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankiand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates3-42


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessment4 NOISE4.1 INTRODUCTION4.1.1 This section provides an evaluation of the potential noise impacts associated with theconstruction and operational phases of the Theme Park and associated developments, theProject. Supplementary information for the noise assessment is provided in Annex C.4.1.2 During the construction phase of the Project, powered mechanical equipment (PME)employed in the construction of the Theme Park and associated developments will be theprimary source of noise reaching the surrounding environment. The major activities willinclude:site reclamation works and seawall construction;earth berm construction;construction of access and internal distribution roads and parking lots;construction of the Penny's Bay Rail Link;construction of the proposed Theme Park development including its associated hotels;construction of a water recreation centre with a lake for irrigation and water sport recreation activities; andconstruction of utilities and support facilities.4.1.3 During the operation of the Theme Park, the principal sources of noise included in thisStudy are (not all Project-related):• associated road works comprising:a section of CKWLR from the existing Yam 0 Interchange to the valley behind the existing powerstation of CLP;Road P2 together with an access road through Yam 0 to connect the proposed Yam O station to theTheme Park;- resort roads, namely Road Dl and Road D2, around the proposed Theme Park; and— a central pedestrian walkway between the two theme parks in centre of the Retail, Dining andEntertainment;• rail traffic (Penny's Bay Rail Link);• Penny's Bay Public Transport Interchange (PTI) and the temporary PTI at Yam 0 rail station;• Theme Park operation including rides and evening fireworks displays;• sewage pumping station;• occasional operation of the existing CLP power station in Penny's Bay;• potential exposure of Theme Park resort hotels to noise from the future container terminal development to thesouth-east of the site; and» water recreation centre4.1.4 HKITPL has indicated that, based on the land uses associated with their other operationaltheme parks, none of the types of potential noise sensitive receivers identified in Annex 13of the EIAO-TM will be located within either phase of the Theme Park.4.1.5 Figure 4.la shows the principle noise sources covered under the Project.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4 ~ 1


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.1.6 Where, according to the applicable noise guidelines or regulations, potential Project-relatednoise impacts are identified during either the construction or operational phases, appropriatemitigation measures are recommended and Environmental Monitoring and Auditrequirements identified.4.2 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION CRITERIACONSTRUCTION NOISEGenera/4.2.1 The principal legislation addressing the control of construction noise is the Noise ControlOrdinance, Cap. 400 (NCO). Various Technical Memoranda (TMs) stipulating controlapproaches and criteria during the restricted hours have been issued under the NCO. Thefollowing TMs are applicable to the control of noise from construction activities:• Technical Memorandum on Noise from Percussive Piling (PP-TM); and• Technical Memorandum on Noise from Construction Work other than Percussive Piling (GW-TM).4.2.2 The EIAO and the EIAO-TM also provide guidelines for the assessment of noise impactsassociated with construction activities,4.2.3 Regardless of any noise impact description or assessment made in this EIA Report, theNoise Control Authority will be guided by the relevant TMs issued under the NCO inassessing any application, once filed, for a Construction Noise Permit (CNP) for worksplanned during restricted hours (i.e. 1900 to 0700 hours and any time on a general holidayincluding Sundays). The Authority will consider all the factors affecting its decision takingthe then prevailing situations and conditions into account. Nothing in this EIA Report shallbind the Authority in making its decision and further, there is no guarantee that a CNP willbe issued. If a permit is to be issued, the Authority may include any conditions it considersappropriate and such conditions must be followed during the execution of the workscovered by the permit. Failing to do so may lead to cancellation of the permit andprosecution action under the NCO*Percussive Piling4.2.4 Under the PP-TM T percussive piling is prohibited at any time on Sundays and publicholidays and during evening and night-time hours (1900-0700 hours), Monday throughSaturday. A CNP is required in order to carry out such work during daytime hours(0700-1900 hours), Monday through Saturday, As the issuance of a CNP by the NoiseControl Authority would depend on the submission of an application by the Contractor,and therefore on the Contractor's compliance with the percussive piling noise limits set outwithin the PP-TM, the assessment of this type of noise has not been included in this EIA.However, for completeness, the process that would be followed in assessing a CNPapplication for percussive piling is described below,4.2.5 In evaluating a CNP application for percussive piling, the Noise Control Authority wouldbe guided by the PP-TM. In assessing the potential noise impact, the EPD would considerthe difference between the Acceptable Noise Levels (\NLs), as specified in the PP-TM,and the Corrected Noise Levels IpNLs) predicted to result from the proposed percussiveScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4- 2Sharfdand Cox • Witour Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmentai Impact Assessmentpiling activities. Depending on the projected noise impacts at nearby Noise SensitiveReceivers (NSRs), the Noise Control Authority would determine the allowable time periodsfor percussive piling operations, as indicated in Table 4.2a.Table 4.2a - Permitted Hours of Operation for Percussive Piling (Note: the Use ofDiesel, Pneumatic and/or Steam Hammers is prohibited)Amount by which CNL exceedsANLMore than 10 c!B(A)Between 0 dB(A) and 10 dB(A)No ExceedancePermitted hours of operation on any day not being a holiday0800 to 0900 and 1230 to 1330 and 1700 to 18000800 to 0930 and 1200 to 1400 and 1630 to 18000700 to 1900General Construction Works During Restricted Hours4.2.64.2.7The NCO provides statutory controls on general construction works during restricted hours(i.e. 1900-0700 hours Monday to Saturday and at any time on Sundays and publicholidays). The use of powered mechanical equipment (PME) for the carrying out ofconstruction works during these restricted hours would require a CNP. The Noise ControlAuthority will assess all CNP applications on a case by case basis and, in doing so, it willbe guided by the GW-TM.When assessing an application for the use of PME, the Noise Control Authority willcompare the ANLs specified in the GW-TM with the CNLs (adjusted for any barrier andreflection effects) associated with the proposed PME operations. The NCO requires thatnoise levels from construction at affected NSRs be less than a specified ANL. The ANLsare related to the inherent noise sensitivity of the noise receiver areas in question, which inturn relate to the background noise characteristics of these areas. Each noise receiver areais then assigned an Area Sensitivity Rating based on its predominant land use and thepresence, if any, of Influencing Factors such as nearby industrial areas, major roads orairports. The relevant ANLs for evenings and holidays and for night-time are provided inTable 4.2b.Table 4.2b - Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs, LAe


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentGeneral Construction Works During Normal Working Hours4.2.9 Although the NCO does not provide for the control of noise from construction activitiesduring normal working hours (0700 to 1900 hours, Monday to Saturday) , Annex 5 of theEIAO-TM specifies a limit of Lq. so mm 75 dB(A) for residential NSRs. Annex 5 alsoprovides construction noise limits for schools of Leq, 30 mm 70 dB(A) and 65 dB(A) duringnormal teaching periods and examination periods respectively.4.2.10 Both the GW-TM and the EIAO-TM acknowledge the potential noise sensitivity of areasdesignated as Country Parks. However, the GW-TM does not identify Country Parksthemselves as NSRs. Furthermore, while the EIAO-TM provides general constructionnoise limits at residences and schools during normal working hours, it provides no suchlimit for Country Parks. Therefore, in this El A construction noise levels at Country Parkshave generally been estimated in relative terms only.RAILWAY NOISE4.2.11 Railway noise is controlled under the NCO and the subsidiary Technical Memorandum forthe Assessment of Noise' from Places other than Domestic Premises, Public Places orConstruction Sites (IND-TM) . The IND-TM provides the appropriate noise principles andassessment procedures and establishes ANLs for various areas depending on their AreaSensitivity Ratings as well as time of the day. Again Area Sensitivity Ratings for all areascontaining NSRs are based on the predominant land use and the presence of anyinfluencing factors such as industrial areas, major roads and airports.4.2.12 The relevant criteria are presented in Table 4,2c below and are to be met at a position 1 mfrom the exposed facade of the NSR.Table 4.2c - NCO Railway Noise Assessment Criteria (ANLs,,jpJ4ftj9ri;;.a . • ; , • , , . :•.;, ;,>>/rJrV'-''V'4&£ty-^Mi '"' ''' ' ' ' ' ' ' ^" {t i '*!' )"' !1 'i' ''Daytime & Evening {0700 to 2300)Night-time (2300 to 0700)Jwtift p, ;::AI*«;'SI^^>/ -^ -/:///•6050' '" ^"''.I*' V^-f 1 ! .'','': ,; t;;''"'^,;!* /'!'' ' ,',,^6555dB)


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentFIXED PLANT NOISEFixed Plant Inventory4.2.15 Noise levels from fixed plant sources within the Study Area are required to comply withthe EIAO-TM. The fixed plant noise sources assessed in this EIA include:the Penny's Bay PTI and the temporary PTI at Yam 0 rail station;the Theme Park amusement operations (Phases 1 and II);the sewage pumping station at Penny's Bay;the parking lots proposed at Penny's Bay;CLP's gas turbine power station in Penny's Bay; andthe future Container Terminal development (previous Container Terminals 12 and 13) planned to the south-eastof the Theme Park.Fixed Plant Noise Criteria4.2.16 The EIAO-TM requires that all fixed noise sources be located and/or designed such that:• the total fixed source noise level at the facade of the nearest NSR is at least 5 dB(A) lower than the appropriateANL as specified in the IND-TM (note, these are the same ANLs as shown in Table 4.2c for railway noise);or• where the prevailing pre-Project noise level in the area is 5 dB(A) or more below the appropriate ANL, the totalfixed source noise level must not exceed this pre-Project noise level.4.2.17 The Corrected Noise Levels or CNLs (corrected for the presence of tonality, impulsivenessand intermittency) at the various NSRs due to fixed noise sources are normally developedin accordance with the IND-TM. The noise impacts of the various fixed plant sources areconsidered to be cumulative. Therefore, in assessing the overall noise impact of fixed plantsources, the individual fixed source noise levels at each NSR are combined.4.2.18 Once again, while assigning Area Sensitivity Ratings to the various types of areas whichcould contain NSRs, the IND-TM groups Country Parks together with rural areas andvillages as having the highest inherent sensitivity to intrusive noise. However, CountryParks themselves are not considered identical to other NSRs and furthermore, the EIAO-TM does not provide a specific noise limit for Country Parks. Therefore, this EIAevaluates fixed plant noise levels at Country Parks qualitatively.Public Transport Interchanges (PTIs)4.2.19 Under the NCO* PTIs are regarded as "public places" and as such, there is no statutorynoise standards that may be applied to these facilities. Although the predominant sources ofnoise associated with PTIs are road vehicles, road traffic noise standards are not the mostappropriate criteria since road vehicle movements within PTIs represent a relatively fixednoise source compared with the free-flowing traffic on a normal road or highway. Assuch, due to the nature of the noise source represented by PTIs and the characteristics oftheir noise emissions, the appropriate noise limits specified in the IND-TM, as reference,has been adopted for such facilities.ROAD TRAFFIC NOISEScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Udieassodaticm^ti ERM HongKorig 4-5ShanMand Cox * Wilbur Smith Assodates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTraffic Noise Criteria4.2.20 The EIAO-TM requires that road traffic noise levels outside the facades of any sensitivebuildings which rely upon openable windows for ventilation should not exceed the criteriagiven in Table 4.2e. Any measured or predicted road traffic noise levels which exceedthese criteria will be considered to be an adverse environmental impact requiring mitigationconsideration,Table 4.2e - EIAO-TM Road Traffic Noise CriteriaSendtive UsesDomestic PremisesOfficesEducational InstitutionsNote: (1) Maximum permissible noise level assessed at 1 m from the external facade.Road Traffic Noise La cm* (dB(A))< l)7070654.2.21 Though the EIAO-TM does not specify a limit for traffic noise levels received at a CountryPark, road traffic noise impact assessment at the existing Lantau North Country Park andthe Proposed Country Park Extension Area is provided and interpreted qualitatively.Criteria for Indirect Technical Remedies to Road Traffic Noise Impacts4.2.22 Where feasible, direct technical remedies are to be recommended to reduce identified noiseimpacts where predicted traffic noise levels exceeds the criteria presented in Table 4.2e.These measures include, but are not limited to, the following:noise harder walls located along roadside and/or in central reserve area;noise enclosures or semi-enclosures;earth berms;noise reducing road surfaces (quiet pavements); androad decking or underpass construction,4.2.23 Where direct technical remedies cannot be applied due to traffic or engineering constraints,or where such measures would not be wholly effective in eliminating noise impacts, thepotential benefit of indirect technical remedies (i.e. improvement in noise insulation ofwindows and provision of air conditioning) will be assessed. Such indirect technicalremedies to traffic noise impacts would be provided by the Project Proponent to qualifiedNSRs only as a last resort and in accordance with the Executive Council Directive,Equitable Redress for Persons Exposed to Increased Noise Resulting From The Use of NewRoads, For affected NSRs to be eligible for indirect technical remedies, the followingthree criteria from the Executive Council Directive must be satisfied:* the predicted noise level from the "new" road, together with any other traffic in .the vicinity,.exceeds a specifiednoise level (i.e. 70 dB(A) LJO, «i w for domestic premises and 65 dB(A) Lio, t$ w for educational institutions);• the predicted overall noise level must be at least 1,0 dB(A) greater than the prevailing traffic noise level, i.e. thetotal traffic noise level which existed prior to the start of construction on the new or improved road; and« the.contribution to the increase to the predicted overall noise level from the


Jheme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentroadway sections which are to undergo major modifications. Major modifications areconsidered to be those resulting in at least a 25% increase in the number of lanes, asubstantial alteration in an existing alignment or an significant change in a relevant trafficparameter such as an increase in posted speed. Roads that will remain either completelyunchanged or that will undergo only minor modifications not satisfying the aboveconditions, will be classified as "unaltered",FIREWORKS NOISEA Fireworks Noise Limit for Residential NSRs4.2.25 Evening fireworks displays are uniquely characteristic of commercial theme parks andother major tourist attractions. Similarly the noise which may reach the surroundingcommunity from such displays is unique in terms of its character (almost entirely impulsive)and duration (about 15-20 minutes for low level shows and likely 5 minutes for mid-levelshows). Neither the E1AO-TM nor any of the other relevant technical memoranda addressfireworks noise specifically. It has therefore been necessary to adopt an appropriate limitfor fireworks noise, which, if met, would prevent any significant noise impacts fromoccurring at the nearest NSRs.4.2.26 Section 13(1) of the NCO is applicable to the control of fireworks noise originated fromthe Theme Park. While the usual approach is to employ Section 13(l)(c), i.e. via the IND-TM t it is not considered appropriate as the characteristics of noise from fireworks (almostentirely impulsive) differ from those associated with other more general types of industrial(or similar) noise. It is therefore proposed that Section 13(1)(a) should be employed andwith an assessment criteria of 55 dB(A), having regard to the duration of the plannedfireworks displays, and the background noise of the receivers.4.2.27 It should be noted that daytime and evening pre-Project background noise levels on thenorth-west shore of Peng Chau have been measured (see Section 4.3.3) at LAeq 49 to 50dB, so that the proposed fireworks noise limit would typically exceed the naturalbackground noise by about 5 dB(A). Given the brevity of the planned fireworks displays,background noise exceedances of this magnitude are considered to have very little potentialfor community noise impact.4.2.28 As the fireworks displays at the Theme Park would take place during the evening - likelycommencing at 2100 and 2130 hours, the proposed criterion would be applicable primarilyin the evenings. The proposed 55 dB(A) criterion is 5 dB more stringent than thecorresponding daytime and evening limit as stipulated in the IND-TM for the most sensitiveareas, i.e. Peng Chau and Discovery Bay.4.2.29 The usual approach under the IND-TM is to use the A-weighted Lq made over any 30minute period, i.e. LAeq. aomin as the unit. However, for evaluating fireworks noise, ashorter period would be more appropriate. This is due to the following two reasons:« The residents in. the potentially affected areas would warrant more protection because of the uniquely tranquilnature of their current pre-Project ambient; and* Fireworks shows, in general, would • be shorter than half an hour in duration and as such a shorter assessmentperiod is therefore more appropriate.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-7Shanktend Cox * Wilbur SmRhAssociates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.2.30 As a result, a limit of LAeq.ismin 55 dB at residential NSRs has been adopted for the noisecreated by evening fireworks displays at the Theme Park.Fireworks Noise at Country Parks4.2.31 Fireworks displays will only occur during evening, and since the Proposed Country ParkExtension Area adjacent to Penny's Bay would not normally be expected to have visitorsafter dark, there would be no potential for Fireworks noise impact at this location. Therewould, therefore, appear to be no need to establish a fireworks noise criterion or limit forthis area.4.3 NOISE SENSITIVE RECEIVERSEXISTING NOISE SENSITIVE RECEIVERS / AREA4.3.1 After inspection of the Study Area and discussion of existing and planned land uses withthe EPD and other concerned government agencies, it was agreed that only four locationswithin the Study Area should be considered Noise Sensitive Receivers/Area f^SRs) fromthe perspective of their potential exposure to Theme Park and associated developmentsconstruction and operational noise. The locations of these NSRs (Nl, N2, N3 and N4) areindicated in Figure 4.3a. The characteristics of each of these NSRs are described below.4.3.2 It is noted that in certain areas there are no inhabitable structures or only scatteredabandoned structures and ruins, such as those in Pa Tau Kwu and Fa Peng, and these arenot considered as NSRs,Peng Chau (Nl)4.3.3 Peng Chau is a sparsely populated island (largely village-type development) lying due southof the Penny's Bay site. Most of the village residences are located within the centralportions of the island and will be shielded from noise originating in the Penny's Bay areaby the ridge line that runs along the northern end of the island. However some relativelynew low-rise apartment buildings are located on the north western tip of the island near TaiLei where they will be directly exposed to noise from the construction and operation of theTheme Park. Peng Chau has no conventional road system and is free from any othersignificant noise sources (i.e. no Influencing Factors). This NSR is therefore assigned anArea Sensitivity Rating of "A".4.3.4 The location of the assessment point is shown in Figure 4.3b*Di$c®wxy Bay (N2)4.3.5 Discovery Bay is a large, but isolated, residential development on Lantau Island locatedsouth-west of the Penny's Bay site. It is accessible only by ferry and is presently free fromany other significant noise sources. This NSR is also assigned an Area Sensitivity Rating of"A". Bearing in mind that a road tunnel linking Discovery Bay and Sin Ho Wan is underconstruction, it is anticipated that the future background noise at Discovery Bay wouldincrease due to the presence of more road vehicles in the area,4.3.6 The location of the assessment point is shown in Figure 4.3c.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in associaticm with ERM Hong Kong 4-8ShanMand Cox * Wllbyr Snmti Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentLak Keng Tseun (N3)4.3.7 Luk Keng Tsuen is a small village on the north shore of Lantau Island containing only 19occupied residences. This NSR is located adjacent to an Ecological Park proposed underNLDFS but is also separated by only about 400 m of water from the rail line to the HongKong International Airport and the North Lantau Highway. This village-type NSR isconsidered to be "directly affected" by the noise from this expressway and therefore hasbeen assigned an Area Sensitivity Rating of "B".4.3.8 The location of the assessment point is shown in Figure 4.3d.Lantau North Country Park (N4)4.3.9 The other potentially noise-sensitive land use will be the Lantau North Country Park lyingat around 7 km to the southwest of the Penny's Bay area.4.3.10 The location of the assessment point (N4-a) is shown in Figure 4.3e.4.3.11 Owing to the large separation distance (more than 7 km from the existing Lantau NorthCountry Park to the Study Area) and the substantial multi-layers of terrain screening thepotential noise source in this Project, it is envisaged that the Lantau North Country Park isunlikely to be subjected to construction and operational noise impact.PLANNED NOISE SENSITIVE AREAProposed Country Park Extension Area (N4 r )4.3.12 The planned noise-sensitive land use in the vicinity of the Theme Park and associateddevelopments site will be the Proposed Country Park Extension Area on Lantau Islanddirectly west of Penny's Bay. This land use, which is in essentially its natural state andcontains only a few footpaths, overlooks the Theme Park site from the hillside above thewestern shore of Penny's Bay. It is currently exposed only to noise from natural sources,aircraft, ferries and, to a limited degree, the existing shipyard and CLP power station atPenny's Bay*4.3.13 As mentioned, Country Parks are not themselves considered to be NSRs under the IND-TM and no specific noise limits are provided for Country Parks in the EIAO-TM.Therefore, it is not appropriate to assign it specific noise limits in terms of AcceptableNoise Levels, or ANLs, However, for the purposes of describing the potential projectrelatednoise environments (particularly from the operational phase) over the existingCountry Park and the Proposed Country Park Extension Area, four evaluation sites (N4-a,N4'-b, N4'-c and N4*~d) have been selected. Their locations are indicated in Figure 4.3e.4.3.14 Representative assessment points were identified for the above NSRs and they are shownin Table 4.3a below.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-9Shanttand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 4.3a - The Location of Assessment PointsNoise SensitiveRecdver/AreaPeng ChauDiscovery BayLuk KengTsuenLantau NorthCountry ParkProposed NorthLantau CountryPark ExtensionAssessmentPointNl-aN2-aN3-a(construction)N3-b(operation)N4-aN4'-b*N4'-c*LocationSea Crest VillaCrestmont VillaVillage House atthe northeastern tipof Luk KengTsuenVillage House atthe southeast ofLuk Keng TsuenNorth of Mui WoSouth of Yam 0Interchange nearTin Shui TauWest of the !proposed powerstation at Penny'sBayAreaSensitivityRatingAABBn/an/an/aGround LevelmPD61566200120140Number ofStorey3222n/an/an/aSensitive UsesResidentialResidentialResidentialResidentialCountry ParkCountry ParkCountry ParkCountry ParkN4'-d* West of Theme n/a120n/aPark Phase 1 nearSze Pak{*) The designation of these assessment points (b, c and d) are consistent with the Penny's Bay Rail Link EIA Reportwhich Is presented in Annex M.4.3.15 The Cheoy Lee Shipyard has been operational since 1960's, but will be displaced by theTheme Park and associated developments. The CLP power station serves both as anemergency standby facility and a peak load station and will continue to do so in future.Therefore, while historically this power station has seen only occasional, limited use, in theevent of a serious failure in other parts of Hong Kong's power system, it could be requiredto operate continuously until any such problem is resolved.4.3.16 Based on the latest RODP as shown in Figure 2.4f, other NSRs, including existing andplanned ones under the NLDFS, are located in North Lantau area. These include TsoWan, Tso Wan Village Expansion Area, the Proposed Housing Development at Siu HoWan, Tai Ho Housing Development and the planned residential development above Siu HoWan MTRC Depot, However as these NSRs will not be affected by the construction andoperation of the Theme Park and associated developments, they will not be included in thisEIA Study. For other developments proposed under the NLDFS, such as the reclamationarea east of Tsing Chau Tsai and the developments at Northshore area, it is noted that therewill be no noise sensitive uses proposed in these areas.Scott-Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in assoclaion wltti ERM Hong KongShanked Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-10


Theme Park and Associated Developments _ ___ _Final Environmental Impact AssessmentEXISTING NOISE ENVIRONMENTS AT NSRSPeng Chau (Nl)4.3.17 As was shown In Section 4.2.5, the EIAO-TM limits planning noise levels from fixed plantsources to either 5 dB(A) less than the ANL or the pre-Project background noise level,whichever is lower. It is therefore necessary to establish typical pre-Project noise levels atkey NSRs, particularly where there is reason to expect they may be lower than the ANL -5 dB(A).4.3.18 Given the isolated and predominately rural nature as well as the natural topography ofPeng Chau, it was suspected that, during the daytime and evening, pre-Project noise levelsat Peng Chau would be less than the appropriate ANL-5 dB(A) , i.e. 60 - 5 = 55 dB(A).Therefore, continuous noise monitoring was carried out as part of this EIA Study overthree periods totalling 23 hours at the Sea Crest Villa near Tai Lei on the north-west shoreof Peng Chau facing Penny's Bay. The monitoring location is shown in Figure 4.3b. Thismonitoring took place in mid November to early December 1999, and forcomprehensiveness, covered both daytime and evening periods in weekday and weekend.A Bruel & Kjaer Type 2236 integrating sound level meter (Type 1 standard) was used.The meter was calibrated before and after each noise monitoring period using a Bruel &Kjaer Type 4231 acoustic calibrator.4.3.19 Pre-Project noise levels on the north-west shore of Peng Chau were controlled by naturalsources (wind and waves) and were found to be quite consistent during both the daytimeand evening. Over the Saturday evening and Thursday daytime and evening monitoringperiods, the average noise levels obtained were respectively LA«J 49.9 and 49.0 dB(A).The detailed results of these noise measurements are contained in Annex Cl, Tables Cl.laand Cl.lb herein. Being slightly more than 5 dB(A) below the daytime and eveningplanning ANL for this NSR (i.e. LA«I. aomm 60 dB) , these pre-Project noise levels thenestablish a limit of approximately 50 dB(A) for noise received at Peng Chau during thedaytime and evening clue to fixed plant sources at the Theme Park and associateddevelopments,4.3.20 Since pre-Project noise levels at Peng Chau are controlled largely by natural sources (windand waves) , it is expected that these levels would be quite consistent from day to day. Onthe two monitoring days, winds were quite light so that wave noise is not expected to havebeen unusually high. Similarly, this noise would not typically be expected to decreasesignificantly during the night-time hours. It is therefore considered that the fixed plantnoise limit for Theme Park and associated developments between 2300 hours (thebeginning of "night-time") and 0200 hours (the planned closing of the Theme Park) shouldbe the appropriate ANL - 5 dB(A), that is 50 - 5 « 45 dB(A).4.3.21 It has been conservatively assumed that the background noise levels at waterfrontresidential locations at Discovery Bay would be the same as measured at Peng Chau. TheTheme Park fixed plant noise limits would then also be the same as for Peng Chau, namely!. aomin. 50 dB during the daytime and evening and 45 dB during the night-time.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankfeHxlCox*VVilxr8miihAssodate4 ~ 11


Theme Park and Associated Developments _Final Environmental Impact Assessment4.3.22 Given that the nature of development in Discovery Bay is similar but slightly moreintensive to that in Peng Chau, it was predicted that the pre-Project noise levels atDiscovery Bay would be less than the appropriate ANL-5 dB(A), i.e. 55 dB(A).Therefore, continuous noise monitoring was also carried out with the same monitoringspecifications and procedures adopted in the Peng Chau monitoring. The monitoringlocation is shown in Figure 4.3c. This monitoring took place in December 1999 andJanuary 2000, again covering both daytime and evening periods in weekday and weekend.4.3.23 Pre-Project noise levels at Discovery Bay were found to be quite consistent during both thedaytime and evening. The average noise levels obtained for the daytime and eveningmonitoring periods were around 53 dB(A) and 52 dB(A) respectively. It could be seen thatthe ambient noise levels at Discovery Bay are generally 2 or 3 dB higher than those ofPeng Chau. The higher population density, and thereby more community activities, atDiscovery Bay is the likely contributing element to this difference. The detailed results ofthese noise measurements are contained in Annex Cl, Tables C1.2a - C1.2b.4.3.24 Being approximately 3 dB(A) below the daytime and evening planning ANL for this NSR(ie.LAeq, somin 60-5 = 55 dB), these pre-Project noise levels then establish a limit ofapproximately 52 dB(A) for noise received at Discovery Bay during the daytime andevening due to fixed plant sources at the Theme Park. It is therefore considered that thelimit for Theme Park fixed plant noise levels between 2300 hours and 0200 hours shouldbe the appropriate ANL - 5 dB(A), that is 50 - 5 = 45 dB(A).4.3.25 As pointed out in Section 4.3.1, it is anticipated that the future background noise atDiscovery Bay would increase due to the presence of more vehicles in the area, followingthe opening of the road tunnel linking Discovery Bay with Siu Ho Wan.Luk Keng Tseun (N3)4.3.26 Due to the proximity of this village to two major noise sources represented by the NorthLantau Highway and the adjacent Lantau and Airport Rail Link, it is considered that theplanning noise limit for fixed noise sources associated with Theme Park operation will, asrequired by the EIAO-TM, be established by the appropriate ANL - 5 dB(A). Given thatthis NSR has been assigned an Area Sensitivity Rating of "B", the appropriate limits arein 60 dB during the daytime and evening and 50 dB during the night-time.4.3.27 Given the current rural nature of the area, an Area Sensitivity Rating of "B" has beenassigned for construction noise assessment purposes.4.3.28 Pre-Project noise levels at a village house closest to North Lantau Highway was found tobe of LAeq 30 mm 62 dB measured by MTRC in November 1999.Lantau North Country Park (N4) and Proposed Country Park Extension Area (N4*)4.3.29 This land use is in essentially its natural state and contains only a few footpaths. It iscurrently exposed only to the noise from natural sources and aircraft.4.3.30 No noise monitoring was done at both the existing Country Park and the ProposedCountry Park Extension Area to the west of Penny's Bay. However, since neither theEIAO-TM nor the other technical memoranda on noise specify noise limits for CountryScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-12Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentParks, the establishment of pre-Project background noise levels was not considerednecessary at these locations. However, it is expected that the pre-Project noise levels overthis undeveloped land will be similar to, or somewhat lower than, those measured on thenorth-west shore of Peng Chau.NOISE SENSITIVITY OF THE THEME PARK4.3.31 HKITP has indicated that, based on the land uses associated with their other operationaltheme parks, none of the types of potential noise sensitive receivers identified in Annex 13of the EIAO-TM will be located within either phase of the Theme Park. Furthermore, ithas been agreed with HKITP that Theme Park visitors, should not be considered torepresent noise sensitive receivers from the perspective of exposure to noise created byTheme Park operations, including fireworks, or internal site traffic.4.3.32 No operational noise (including fixed plant, road and rail traffic, helicopter and aircraft)assessment has therefore been conducted for the Theme Park itself.4.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGYCONSTRUCTION NOISEConstruction During Unrestricted Hours4A.IThe assessment of the potential noise impacts due to Theme Park and associateddevelopments construction works to be carried out during unrestricted hours (0700 to 1900hours Monday to Saturday) has been undertaken in accordance with the GW-TM andAnnex 13 of the EIAO-TM. The general methodology is as follows:• locate all representative NSRs that may be affected by construction noise from each major construction site/zone;• determine plant team (groups of active PMEs) that will be required for each major construction activity based onproposed plant inventories;• assign a sound power level (SWL) to each PME based on the GW-TM or other appropriate sources;• locate the "notional source position" of each major construction site;• calculate distance correction factors based on the distance between the notional noise source position of eachwork site and each NSR;• apply corrections as appropriate for such factors as noise screening (shielding) and reflection, and• calculate construction noise levels at NSRs in the absence of any mitigation measures.4.4.2 For construction sites of large sizes, the notional source position has been taken.to be apoint 50 m from that point on the site boundary measured along the line between theapproximate geographical centre of the site and the point on the site boundary nearest to theNSR.4.4.3 Based on the proposed construction programme (schedule) and PME teams (Annex A,Table Al and Annex C2, Table C2.1) for each major construction activity, spreadsheetshave been developed to facilitate the calculation of construction noise levels at the threeresidential NSRs. Moreover, in view of the large distance between the construction sitesand the NSRs the effect of atmospheric absorption has been included in the calculation.Scott .Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-13Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentUsing these spreadsheets, the cumulative construction noise levels from all concurrentTheme Park and associated developments construction activities which are considered to besignificant at a given NSR have been calculated.4.4.4 Where the line of sight between a specific construction zone and a specific NSR will beconsistently and substantially interrupted by natural terrain features, construction noisecreated within that zone has not been included in the calculation of overall constructionnoise levels at that NSR. These overall noise levels would tend to be controlled by othermajor construction activities, which do not benefit from terrain shielding and are to proceedconcurrently with the shielded activity.4.4.5 The spreadsheets summarising the plant teams and schedules for each major constructionactivity related to Theme Park and associated developments construction are presented inAnnex C2, Table C2.L The noise levels due to individual construction activities and theresulting cumulative construction noise levels at each NSR are presented in Annex C3a,Tables CSa.l - C3a.3.4.4.6 Potential construction noise impacts during unrestricted hours have been quantified bycomparing the predicted cumulative noise levels with the EIAO-TM daytime constructionnoise limits as given in Section 4.2.1. Here, since all three NSR's are residential innature, the appropriate limit is LAeq, so mm 75 dB.4.4.7 Where projected construction noise levels at an NSR exceed the EIAO-TM limit, mitigationmeasures are to be considered. These measures may include the use of quiet plant, theerection of purpose-built noise barriers (where appropriate) and the limitation of the use ofparticularly noisy plant in a particular location or within a particularly busy constructionperiod.Construction During Restricted Hours4.4.8 As indicated in Section 42.1, for any construction works planned during the restrictedhours, it will be the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure compliance with the NCOand the relevant technical memoranda. In such cases, the Contractor will be required tosubmit CNP applications to the Noise Control Authority and abide by any conditions statedin the CNP, should one be issued. Therefore the potential noise impacts of constructionworks proposed within restricted hours are not formally assessed within this EIA.However, in order to facilitate the efforts of the Project proponent to avoid and/or mitigateany potentially adverse project noise impacts, noise levels from construction activitiesplanned for restricted hours have been predicted at the NSRs. The PMEs proposed to beoperated during the restricted hours and the predicted noise impact are shown in Annex C2and Annex C3a (evening time from 1900 to 2300 hours and general holidays from 0700 to2300 hours) and Annex C4 (night-time from 2300 to 0700 hours) respectively.4.4.9 As addressed in Section 4.2.1, both the GW-TM and the EIAO-TM have not provided anyconstruction noise limit for Country Parks, therefore in this EIA, construction noise impactsat the Proposed Country Park Extension Area (N4 J ) have generally been estimated inrelative terms, making reference to the PBRL EIA, Annex M.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-14Shankland Cox'•'• Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.4.10 Regardless of the results of the construction noise impact assessment for restricted hours,the Noise Control Authority will process the Construction Noise Permit (CNP) application,if necessary, based on the NCO, the relevant technical memoranda issued under the NCO,and the prevailing conditions/situations.RAILWAY NOISE4.4.11 Assessment of railway noise from the planned Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL) has beenundertaken by the Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC) under a separate study.The Penny's Bay Rail Link: Environmental Impact Assessment (PBRL EIA) - Final Reporthas been included as Annex Mof this report. The assessment methodology for railwayoperation noise is contained in Section 3.5 of the PBRL EIA Report, Annex M.FIXED PLANT NOISEGeneral4.4.12 A variety of fixed plant noise sources will be associated with the operation of the ThemePark and associated developments such as the sewage pumping station, the public transportinterchanges and vehicle parking areas. Other fixed plant sources, such as the CLPPenny's Bay GTP, will predate the Theme Park and associated developments and willcontinue to operate after its completion. For some of these facilities, empirical at-sourcenoise level data are available, either from previous studies of similar installations in HongKong or from outside information sources. In predicting the noise levels that will result atthe various NSRs due to fixed plant sources, conservative approaches have generally beentaken so as to compensate for any uncertainty which may exist regarding the source noiselevels created by these facilities.4.4.13 In estimating the noise levels to be created at the NSRs due to the various fixed plantsources, the procedures described in the IND-TM were followed, augmented, whererequired, with basic acoustical principles. Since the procedures followed in evaluating thenoise from each fixed source tended to be somewhat unique, they are described in turnbelow:The Theme Park4.4.14 The major fixed source of noise associated with the project is expected to be the ThemePark itself. As shown in Figure 4. la, the Theme Park will consist of a western section(Phase I) and an eastern section (Phase II), separated by a central Retail, Dining andEntertainment (RD&E) corridor and linked by "Main Street". While the Theme Park willthen be developed in two phases, the worst-case noise impact assessment has been based onthe Ml operation of both phases.4.4.15 While HKITP has supplied the general arrangement of the attractions to be located withinthe Phase I Theme Park (i.e. Toontown, Fantasyland, Tomorrowland etc, described inSection 2,7.4) and has indicated that additional similar, but as yet unspecified, attractionswill be located in Phase II, noise source data for these individual Theme Park zones are notavailable. It is therefore necessary, and on balance preferable, to base the noise emissionsof the future Theme Park on the overall noise emissions measured at another majorinternational theme park. Towards this end, HKITP has provided average noise levelsScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-15Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment(LAeq's) measured over 30 minute periods at three unshielded locations around theperimeter of the Anaheim, California Disneyland. These measurements, the details ofwhich are included in Annex C5, revealed that average perimeter noise levels ranged fromLAeq.SOmin 67 tO 69 dB.4.4.16 The Anaheim Disneyland measurement which yielded the highest average noise levels wasmade approximately 100 m from the Tantasmic" show site while the show was inprogress. This is a relatively new show that features loud music and special audio andvisual effects. However, given the continuing trend towards higher levels of amplifiedmusic and special effects at both motion picture theatres and amusements parks, thepotential exists for a new Theme Park to be somewhat noisier than the Anaheim facility.To reflect this potential, the reference noise source level for the Hong Kong Theme Parkhas been taken to be LAeq, somm 75 dB at the Theme Park perimeter (i.e. this is the highestaverage noise level expected to be measured at any unshielded position along the top of the9 m high perimeter earth berm).4.4.17 El A support information received from HKITP has indicated that the two Theme Parkphases are intended to operate until midnight while the RD&E area is planned to be openuntil 0200 hours. It must be assumed that Theme Park noise emissions are essentiallyconstant throughout its hours of operation. Therefore, for planning purposes, Theme Parknoise impacts must be evaluated against the night-time noise limit specified in the EIAO-TM, namely 5 dB(A) less than the night-time ANL, or Leq.aomin 45 dB(A) for residentialNSRs such as Peng Chau and Discovery Bay.4.4.18 In order to assess the noise levels to be created at NSRs by operations within the ThemePark boundaries, the two major park areas (Phases I and II) were considered to berepresented by circular zones, each 700 m in diameter. Theme Park noise sources wereassumed to be uniformly distributed throughout these circular zones such that a noise levelof LAeq 75 dB was generated at all positions on the park perimeter. Given the large size ofthese noise source zones, an assumption that all of the sound energy was emitted from asingle point at their centres would have significantly overestimated the Sound Power Level(SWL) emitted by the Theme Park. On the other hand, assuming that the "notional centre"of each Theme Park noise source zone was located 50 m inside its perimeter boundary (asdone for construction noise in the GW-TM), would have significantly underestimated thetotal SWL in this situation. Therefore, to more realistically represent these large distributedsource zones, each 700m diameter circle was sub-divided into nine parts or sectors of equalarea and assumed equal sound power.4.4.19 It was then possible to calculate, for each sector, the Theme Park SWL that would berequired to produce Lq-75 dB(A) at any point on the perimeter of the 700 m diametersource zone. Applying this same SWL to each sector of each of Theme Park Phases I andII, the combined Theme Park sound level at the NSRs were calculated in the standardmanner (see Annex C6). For the distant Peng Chau and Discovery Bay NSRs, theequivalent acoustic centres of the two Theme Park source zones are very close to theirgeometric centres. The computation was done in accordance with International StandardISO 9613-2: 1996(E), Acoustics - Attenuation of Sound During Propagation Outdoors,Part 2.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-16ShanWand Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.4.20 Because of the large source-to-receiver distances involved (up to 3.2 km), the attenuationof Theme Park operational noise with distance from the acoustic centres of the two sourcezones was calculated taking into account both geometric spreading and atmosphericabsorption. The atmospheric absorption rate was based on the International Standard ISO96134: 1993(E), Acoustics -Attenuation of Sound During Propagation Outdoors, Part 1.Average atmospheric conditions of 20° C and 70% relative humidity were assumed inselecting atmospheric absorption rates. This resulted in overall atmospheric absorptioneffects of 8 to 9 dB(A) over distances of 2.5 to 3.2 km.4.4.21 As shown in Figure 4.la, the two phases of the Theme Park will be almost entirelysurrounded by 9 m high earth berms. These berms are intended to visually screen ThemePark visitors from the outside world but will also act to shield the outside world fromTheme Park noise. In addition, there will be a number of hotels constructed along thewaterfront to the south of the Theme Park, thereby augmenting the screening effects of theearth berms to some degree. Since neither the heights and locations of the dominantTheme Park noise sources nor of the hotels are known, it is then not possible to accuratelyassess the net noise shielding effect of the earth berms and hotels. While it may beconcluded that this effect would be very substantial (up to 15 dB) for source and receiverpositions near the ground and close to a berm, over the large distances to NSRs at PengChau and Discovery Bay, turbulence and other atmospheric effects may be expected tolimit the average noise reduction provided by any practical noise barrier to about 8 to 10dB(A). This typical screening effect was therefore applied at Peng Chau and DiscoveryBay.4.4.22 The detailed characteristics of the many noise sources that will be associated with normalTheme Park operations and contribute to the overall character of Theme Park noise are notknown. However, based on observation at similar parks and on professional judgement, itis considered that the overall noise output of such a facility should not be characterised asbeing tonal, impulsive nor intermittent as defined in the IND-TM. Therefore, nocorrections for these undesirable noise characteristics have been applied.Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (GTP)4.4.23 CLP's auxiliary gas turbine power station at Penny's Bay has been in intermittent operationfor several years and as such is not a component of the Theme Park Project and associateddevelopments. However, the noise produced by its operation will add, to some degree, tothe noise levels created at NSRs by the various Project fixed plant noise sources. As thepower station is only in intermittent operation, noise monitoring data are not available.4.4.24 The. EIA of Gas Turbine Plant at Penny's Bay (1990®) has recommended noise controlmeasures for achieving 75 dB(A) emission at the site boundary which have been followedby the power company. This reference noise level has thus been used to project noiselevels at noise-sensitive locations at which power plant noise might reasonably be expectedto be audible. These projections have been based only on the spherical spreading of soundwaves with distance and on facade or hillside reflection as appropriate.(1) China Ligjtt and Power Company, (1990), Environmental Impact Assessment of Gas Turbine Plant at Penny's Bay, Initial Assessment Report.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-17Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentUtility Yard (Sewage Pumping Station)4.4.25 The major noise source within the Utility Yard to be constructed to the west of the vehicleparking area will be the sewage pumping station, Figure 2.lib. Sewage pumping stationsare not uncommonly located within or near residential areas. Such situations would thensee NSRs located within short distances of the pumping station. Although the seweragepumping station is not a Designated Project under the EIAO-TM, the sewage pumpingstation would have to meet night-time planning noise limits of from 45 to 55 dB(A) at thenearest NSR. These levels can generally be met by enclosing the pumping facilities in abuilding and applying appropriate silencers to the intake and exhaust air openings.Fixed Plant of Penny's Bay Rail Link4.4.26 Sources of fixed plant noise associated with the Penny's Bay Rail Link has been assessedseparately. These include noise from ventilation building proposed at the northern andsouthern tunnel portals, and the noise from train washing plant at the Penny's Bay RailStation. See Annex Mfor details.Penny's Bay PTI and temporary PTI at Yam O rail station4.4.27 The noise levels to be expected at Peng Chau, Discovery Bay, Luk Keng Tsuen, theLantau North Country Park and the Proposed Country Park Extension Area due to thenoise emission from PTIs were predicted using basic acoustical principles and based on theSWL measured recently at some of Hong Kong's larger PTIs (e.g. Kwun Tong and ShingTak Centre).Cumulative Noise Impact from all Fixed Plant Sources4.4.28 While noise assessment of each fixed plant source on NSRs , such as Peng Chau,Discovery Bay and Luk Keng Tsuen, where appropriate, has been evaluated, cumulativenoise impacts from all fixed plant sources are also assessed.Fireworks Displays4.4.29 As discussed in Section 4.2.6, in the absence of any specific limit for fireworks noisewithin the various Hong Kong noise regulations, a limit of LAeq.ismm 55 dB has beenadopted for the evening fireworks displays to be staged at the Theme Park. Informationprovided by HKITP indicates that, because fireworks must be restricted to mid-leveldisplays (100 m maximum height) due to the proximity of the airport, a single displaywould not likely be visible from both phases of the Theme Park, It is therefore consideredthat it will ultimately be necessary to employ two fireworks launching sites, one at thewestern end of Phase I and one at the eastern end of Phase II. The shows at these twosites would be staged separately, likely one starting at 2100 and one at 2130 hours.4.4.30 While the fireworks displays to be presented at the Theme Park have not yet beendeveloped in any detail, source noise data for such displays has been obtained based onmeasurements conducted by HKITP, the EPD and the EIA Study Team in November,1999 during a specially-staged demonstration of the range of fireworks types that could beconsidered for use in Hong Kong. On this occasion, the maximum noise levels related toindividual fireworks items and event noise levels created by each type of fireworks wereScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-18Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Part and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentmeasured at distances of 500 and 800 m from the launch site. The noise output of acombination of fireworks elements that might reasonably be expected to be used arecomputed. The individual noise contributions of these elements have been combined andtheir average sound energy level computed over the estimated 5 minute duration of theshow (Annex C7).ROAD TRAFFIC NOISECalculation of Road Traffic Noise Levels4.4.31 As specified in the Study Brief, the road traffic noise calculations carried out in this Studyfollow the methodology described in Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN), publishedby the UK Department of Transport in 1988. The computer software used to implementthis methodology was HFANoise, as developed by Halcrow Fox utilising a "links andnodes" representation of the road network and noise receiving environment.4.4.32 The modelling scheme for the determination of traffic noise levels is based upon a digitisedrepresentation of the existing unaltered roads within the spatial scope of the Project. Eachof the existing unaltered highway networks are divided into discrete road segments havinghomogeneous traffic conditions and road layout characterisation. For each such segment,the key characteristics of a road link with respect to its traffic noise emissions are defined;namely its traffic volume, composition, average vehicle speed, laning and horizontal andvertical alignment. Low noise road surfacing has been assumed in the assessment.4.4.33 In assessing the attenuation of traffic noise with distance from the roadways, a worst-case,hard ground attenuation rate was assumed throughout the Study Area. While thisassumption may be conservative in some local areas where sound may travel over naturalground, in most situations the sound paths between roadways and NSRs lie over waterand/or, due to the steep terrain, well above the ground. In these cases a hard groundassumption is appropriate. All natural or man-made features that could potentially providenoise screening or reflection have been accounted for in the HFANoise models.4.4.34 Maximum road capacity were used in the modelling of future road traffic noise levels. Thetraffic flow, speed and percentage of heavy vehicles for each road link are shown in Figure2.9b.4.4.35 All road traffic noise levels presented in this report are expressed in Lio,peak hour dB(A) andhave been predicted at both representative and worst-case receiving levels (elevations) atthe identified NSRs.4.4.36 Future traffic noise levels from roads associated with the Theme Park Project have beenmodelled. All roads that would be subject to significant variation and those which remainunaltered or subject to minor changes were classified in the HFANoise model as "new "and "unaltered" respectively with reference to the Study Brief. This has enabled the modelto calculate noise levels classified by road link description according to the Study Brief andthe Executive Council Directive. The roads classified as "new" in this Study are RoadPI, Road P2, CKWLR, Route 10, the Resort Roads and all the associated slip roads. Itshould be noted that Road PI and Route .1.0 are not part of the Theme Park and associateddevelopments Project.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-19ShanWand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.5 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IMPACTSPOTENTIAL IMPACTS FROM PROJECT CONSTRUCTION NOISE4.5.1 The potential source of noise during construction phase is the use of Powered MechanicalEquipment (PME) on site /at shoreline for each activity during different periods of time.Construction works have been divided into two phases and each phase comprise ofconstruction activities related to the following:reclamation and excavation;transport infrastructure;services infrastructure;GIC sites development;water recreation centre with lake development; andTheme Park development.4.5.2 Concurrent activities for the construction of the PBRL are also accounted for to assess thecumulative construction noise impacts.4.5.3 It is assumed that construction activities, in general, will be carried out on a 16-hour day(i.e. 0700-2300) and 24 working days per month basis. There will be an exception tosome of the dredging plant used during the reclamation stage for the Theme Park Phase 1Development, namely Trailer suction (TS) dredger, Cutter suction (CS) dredger and grabdredger, (see Section 2.6.2 and 2.6.3) whereby they will be operating on a 24-hour dayand 7 days per week basis. Hence assessment of construction noise impacts has beenconducted to compare against the corresponding criteria under the different time periods.However, it should be noted that despite any description or assessment made in this El AReport, a CNP will still be required for construction works carried out during restrictedhours and the Authority would consider issuance of the CNP on the basis of informationsubmitted at that time. Nothing in this Report shall bind the Authority in making itsdecision.Construction Works daring Daytime and Evening Period (0700-2300)4.5.4 The unmitigated noise levels at each NSR for each Theme Park and associateddevelopments construction activity and the cumulative noise levels have been predicted andthe results are given in Annex C3a, Tables CSa.l - C3a.3. Figures 4,3b to 4.3e show thelocation of noise assessment points during the construction phase* The assessment pointshave been chosen to represent the worst affected NSR.4.5.5 From our assessment on the construction noise impact from each activity of the designatedprojects under this EIA Study, noise levels at the NSRs from each activity are within thedaytime construction noise limit. The range of noise levels predicted at each NSR ispresented in Table 4.5a below.Table 4.5a - Unmitigated Predicted Construction Noise LevelsNl - Peng ChauTheme Park DevelopmentPhase 1 (E) 3Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-20


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsNSRN2 - Discovery BayN3 - Luk KengTsuenRange ofPNL 1 , dB(A}*36-6470-757575CriteriaNote:(1) PNL stands for Predicted Noise Level(2) The noise levels presented are the cumulative noise levels.(3) Activity reference as shown in Annex C3a, Tables C3a.l-C3a.3.6065Final Environmental Impact AssessmentCritical wtfMty causing f ,*exc^toi^cV-^^ -,^'Theme Park DevelopmentPhase 1 (E) 3Cumulative impacts fromconstruction of ServicesInfrastructure (C) 3 + PBRL(T) 34.5.6 As shown in Table 4.5a, no noise exceedance during daytime has been predicted at eitherPeng Chau (Nl) or Discovery Bay (N2). However, exceedances in the range of 2-4dB(A) have been predicted for evening time (i.e. 1900-2300). The critical constructionstage identified to be causing the noise exceedances was related to the Theme Park Phase IDevelopment. The construction for the Theme Park building/attraction and the hotels'superstructure were identified to be the most critical activities causing exceedances.4.5.7 For Luk Keng Tsuen (N3), no noise exceedance was predicted for daytime. However,noise exceedances were predicted for evening time. The maximum noise exceedance waspredicted to be 10 dB(A). From our assessment results, (details as shown in Annex C3a),individual construction activity does not give rise to noise exceedance except for theconstruction of services infrastructure, which was assumed to be built along roadsalignment. Due to the close proximity of Luk Keng Tsuen to the proposed Access Road atYam 0, noise exceedance in 1 dB(A) was predicted from this activity. Moreover,cumulative noise impacts from the construction of services infrastructure and theconstruction for the PBRL have caused exceedance to the cumulative noise levels.4.5.8 Judging from the large number of construction activities and construction equipmentinvolved, noise impacts associated with the works would be likely. Effective mitigationmeasures and proper environmental control practice should be adopted in order to reducethe noise impacts from the works. Mitigation measures proposed to reduce the identifiednoise impacts during evening time period are discussed in Section 4.6.Construction Works During Night-time (2300-0700)4.5:9 As mentioned above, the TS dredger, the CS dredger and the grab dredger will beoperating on a 24-hour day and 7 days per week basis during the reclamation stage for theTheme Park Phase I Development. The construction activities involved include dredgingand filling at Theme Park Phase I. The plant inventory specifically proposed for night-timeactivities and the associated SWLs are given in Annex C4, Table C4.L4.5.10 The predicted night-time noise levels at Peng Chau (Nl) and Discovery Bay (N2) arepresented in Annex C4, Table C4.2. As all the night-time construction activities areconcentrated at Penny's Bay, there is no line of sight from Luk Keng Tsuen (N3) to theseconstruction activities, hence Luk Keng Tsuen has been excluded from the night-timeconstruction noise assessment. The range of unmitigated noise levels predicted at PengChau (Nl) and Discovery Bay (N2) is presented in Table 4.5b below.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-21


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTable 4.5b - Unmitigated Predicted Night-time Construction Noise LevelsNSRRange of PNL 1 , dB(A)*Ni - Peng ChauN2 - Discovery Bay37-4339-454545Note:(1) PNL stands for Predicted Noise Level.(2) The noise levels presented are the cumulative noise levels.l^teta* cdtetioiiCtf tkal AetMty tauotajgexceedance -V\ : \V>/; i \


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentPBRL. The calculated LAmax level at Luk Keng Tsuen is 72 dB. Noise from theoperational trains of AEL and TCL would be predominant at Luk Keng Tsuen. All thepredicted values comply with the NCO and EIAOTM requirements.4.5.17 It is anticipated that due to the large distance of the existing Lantau North Country Park(N4-a) from the rail track, railway noise impact would not be perceptible. However,assessment has been done on the Proposed Country Park Extension Area (N4'-b to N4'-d)located at Tai Shan overlooking Penny's Bay.4.5.18 Predicted LAeq.somin level at the Proposed Country Park Extension Areas from the operationof the PBRL is in the range of 49 to 56 dB, with Lmax level ranges between 57 to 65dB(A).4.5.19 The PBRL El A concludes that the rail line will not generate adverse environmental noiseimpacts to the NSR; Annex Mprovides further details.POTENTIAL IMPACTS FROM FIXED PLANT NOISE4.5.20 It is anticipated that due to the large distance of the existing Lantau North Country Park(N4-a) from Penny's Bay, fixed plant noise would not be perceptible. However,assessment has been done on the Proposed Country Park Extension Area N4'-b to N4'-dlocated at Tai Shan overlooking Penny's Bay.Theme Park Operation4.5.21 The Theme Park operation noise levels at residential NSRs at Peng Chau and DiscoveryBay and at points within the Proposed Country Park Extension Area have been estimatedas described in Section 4.4.3.4.5.22 The results of these noise predictions are summarised in Table 4.5c below.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd In ass.oclation'with ERM Hong KongShanWand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates4 " 23


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 4.5c - Potential Noise Impacts of Theme Park Operations (Phases I and II)Noise ImpactAssessment LocationNl-a - Peng Chau(Tai Lei)N2-a - Discovery Bay(Tai Pak Tsui)Proposed Country ParkExtension (N4'c)Proposed Country ParkExtension (N4'd)Note:Theme Park Noise Levels(L^^miJB)Phase I Phase II Total424362403955675767N/AN/AIn predicting Theme Park noise levels at NSRs and the Proposed Country Park Extension Area, atmosphericabsorption was accounted for, as were earth berm/hotel shielding and facade/hillside reflection, as appropriate.444462* , -;EIA0€M**^* -< ; (i^;3^dB)^^r-^ ^f^Hte^(2300*00700)- ' Day/Eyeing ^ !(01Wta2S00)4.5.23 It is seen from Table 4.5c that the total projected Phase I and Phase II Theme Parkoperation noise levels at both Peng Chau and Discovery Bay are LAeq.somm 44 dB,respectively. These noise levels then comply with the daytime/evening fixed plant planninglimit of LAeq.somin 50 dB (established in Section 4.3.3) as well as the night-time limit ofLAeq.SOmin 45 dB.4.5.24 For general information it may be useful not just to examine the statutory Lq values butalso look at the Lmax levels. Based on the measured Lmax levels as provided by HKITP onvarious rides and attractions of the Anaheim, California facilities, it has been predicted thatthe Lmax level as perceived at Peng Chau will be around 60 dB(A). A similar Lmax level isalso anticipated at Discovery Bay due to the noisiest rides.Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (GTP)4.5.25 The distance from the Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant to the nearest point within the hotelzone is approximately 1300 m. Based on the reference source level of 75 dB(A) at theplant site boundary (see Section 4.4.3), the essentially steady power plant noise levels atthe closest point within the hotel zone is projected to be approximately 55 dB(A). Thisnoise level is for reference only as the hotels would not rely upon openable windows forventilation and consequently the impact on the guests therein would be minimal.4.5.26 In calculating these noise levels, a +3 dB(A) facade reflection correction was applied at thehotel location. While no screening factors were included in the above predictions, it isexpected that noise levels at the receiver location will be further reduced due to thescreening provided by the 9 m earth berm and by structures within the Theme Park itself.Further, as rooms of the hotels will not rely upon openable windows for ventilation, noiseimpacts from the power station will not provide any noise constraint at this location,4.5.27 The distance from the Penny's Bay GTP to the nearest point at the boundary of theProposed Country Park Extension Area (N4'-c) is about 860 rn. The power plant noiselevel predicted at this point is approximately 59 dB(A).(UtOity Yard) Sewage Pumping Station4.5.28 From Utility Yard, given the relatively large distances (2.8 to 3.2 km) to the NSRs in thepresent case, sewage pumping noise levels will not then even approach the EIAOTM5050N/A4545N/AScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-24


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentlimits. Further, Theme Park visitors will be effectively shielded from any sewage pumpingstation noise by the 9 m earth berm. In addition, noise emitted from the pumping facilitiescould further be minimised by incorporating acoustic design, such as installing silencers tothe intake and exhaust air openings.4.5.29 Given its large separation distances from the Proposed Country Park Extension Area andthe fact that most of the equipment would be located within the station building, noiseimpact at the Proposed Country Park Extension Area are likely to be minimal.Fixed Plant of Penny's Bay Rail Link4.5.30 The required plant and tunnel ventilation equipment will be designed by the PBRLoperator, MTRC, to ensure that the noise levels at any NSR will be 5 dB lower than theNCO criteria. This will be easily achieved by adoption of good engineering practice, thegiven large distance separation between the alignment and the nearest NSRs, and theprovision of 9 m earth berm next to the proposed railway.Public Transport Interchanges4.5.31 The effective SWLs measured by the El A Study Team at some of the larger PTIs in HongKong (e.g. Kwun Tong and Shing Tak Centre) during the morning peak, afternoon peakand evening were LAeq 110, 109 and 105 dB(A) respectively (1) . Using these measuredSWLs, PTI noise levels have been projected at the four NSRs at Peng Chau, DiscoveryBay, Luk Keng Tsuen and the Proposed Country Park Extension Area and are shown inTable 4.5d.4.5.32 When assessing the Penny's Bay PTI, the projections have included a - 5 dB(A) screeningfactor for the noise shielding which will be provided by the Theme Park buildings, earthberms and hotels to be located between the PTI and the NSRs at Peng Chau and DiscoveryBay. Due to elevated location of the Proposed Country Park Extension Area, no suchshielding factors were applied in its case. A +3 dB(A) factor has been applied forbuilding facade reflections in the case of the two residential NSRs (Peng Chau andDiscovery Bay) and for sloped ground (hillside) reflections in the case of the ProposedCountry Park Extension Area.4.5.33 No screening factor for the noise shielding has been included for the Yam 0 TemporaryPTI assessment at Luk Keng Tsuen since operation of this PTI precede the construction ofthe Theme Park Gateway, which was proposed to be located between the PTI and LukKeng Tsuen, Although some of the area at the Proposed Country Park Extension Areawill be facing the Yam 0 Temporary PTI, noise impact at this NSR has not been assesseddue the large separation distance between the noise source and the receiver. Luk KengTsuen remained as the worst affected NSR.4.5.34 The results of Table 4.5d show that the noise from both the Penny's Bay PTI and the Yam0 Temporary PTI will be far below the appropriate reference criteria at the threeresidential NSRs. Projected noise levels at the Proposed Country Park Extension Area are(!) Measurements conducted by ERM in conjunction with a study on PTI emissions in 1998/99.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-25Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentexpected to be similar to, or less than, the normal background noise levels due largely tonatural sources.Table 4.5d - Projected Noise Impacts from Operation of Penny's Bay PTI and YamO Temporary PTITime PeriodPredict^ Noise Levels ; »(LA^,3fo»feidB} ' ; ;l; , ; V ", , ; jKeibreiic^l^Ctiteiioit^1AM PeakPM PeakEveningPeng Chan(NI-a)302925Discovery Bay(N2-a)302925tuk KeiigTsuea(NS'b)444339CoimbryParkExtension(N4'c)43423850/6050/6050/60Note:(1) A shielding factor of - 5dB(A) was applied to the PTI noise levels as projected at Peng Chau and Discovery Bay.However, atmospheric absorption was conservatively neglected.(2) The criterion of 50 dB(A) is used for Peng Chau and Discovery Bay while 60 dB(A) is used for Luk Keng Tsuen,There is no specific criteria for country park.Vehicle Parking Areas4.5.35 Two vehicle parking areas are to be located immediately north of the two Theme Parkareas and the Penny's Bay Rail Link. However, because of the relatively low speeds atwhich vehicles are required to travel in such facilities, the vehicle parking areas are notconsidered to represent significant sources of Project operational noise when compared, forexample, with the access roads leading to and from these parking lots and the hotel areas(Roads PI, P2.D1 andD2).Future Container Terminal Development4.5.36 As the hotels at the Theme Park will not rely on openable windows for ventilation,potential noise impacts from the operation of the future Container Terminal development onthe hotels will be minimal.Water Recreation Centre (WRC)4.5.37 The proposed water recreation centre will include a boating facility, changing rooms,restaurants and canteens and canteens, etc. Secondary uses may include storage, kitchensand food preparation areas, etc. In view of the proposed uses of the WRC, it is expectedthat noise emitted from its operation would be minimal.Cumulative Noise Levels from all Fixed Plant Sources4.5.38 Theoretically the noise contributions from all fixed plant sources could be summed and thecumulative impacts assessed at sensitive locations such as Peng Chau and Discovery Bay.However, as most of these sources will be located north of the Theme Park (and therebyshielded by the boundary berm and buildings within the Theme Park) and they are of muchsmaller scale (both physically and relative to acoustical intensity), their contributions to theoverall resultant noise climate will be minimal as compared to the operational noise of theTheme Park and its associated developments.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates4-26


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.5.39 To illustrate this effect, the occasional operational noise from the GTP could be taken as anexample. Just accounting for distance effect, the approximate 3 km separation between theGTP and Peng Chau will offer more than 40 dB attenuation and thus it will not have anyadditive effects to the noise climate.Fireworks Displays4.5.40 As discussed in Section 4.4.3, fireworks displays to be presented at the Theme Park havenot yet been developed in any detail. However, the EIA Study Team has obtained, duringa specially-staged demonstration, representative source noise data covering the range offireworks types that could be considered for use in Hong Kong.4.5.41 The relevant individual source noise data obtained were used to compute the resultant noisepicture of a 5-minute mid-level (approximately 100 m in height) fireworks show (see AnnexC7). It has been demonstrated that the LAeq, is mm 55 dB limit could be met while taking agood mixture of various fireworks items considered appropriate for the Hong Kongsituation.4.5.42 In the absence of even preliminary designs of the fireworks displays at this stage, the EIAStudy Team has demonstrated and illustrated one possible scenario. In the process ofderiving the detailed design of the fireworks show, it would be necessary to ensure thenoise emission from the actual show would correspond and not exceed those contained inthis assessment.4.5.43 For information, to supplement the equivalent noise level, it is also anticipated thatmaximum levels of up to approximately 85 dB(A) would be perceived at relevant NSRs inPeng Chau and Discovery Bay. Such maximum levels are from the effects related toindividual fireworks items, and would resemble to that of a diesel powered golf cart (usedextensively at Discovery Bay for transportation purposes) passing at a distance of 5 mapproximately.4.5.44 It is noted that in addition to the mid-level fireworks shows, there are also ground or lowlevel shows which are associated with regular Theme Park activities and attractions. But asthese shows are of such heights that are close to the ground, the associated noise will beadequately screened by buildings and structures within the Theme Park itself. It isanticipated that noise from ground or low level fireworks shows would be merged into thegeneral operational noise of the Theme Park and could hardly be distinguished from it.ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE4.5.45 There are three Designated Projects under the category of roads in this EIA. These are:CKWLR, Road P2 and the Resort Roads (the road sections covered have been addressedin Section 4.1) and they have all been assessed accordingly.4.5.46 Traffic noise levels have been calculated at three assessment points at the Proposed LantauNorth Country Park Extension Area. For Peng Chau, Discovery Bay, Luk Keng Tsuenand the existing Lantau North Country Park, traffic noise was not assessed as no impactswere anticipated due to large separation distances (for example, around 4 km betweenCKWLR and Peng Chau or Discovery Bay) and the very substantial terrain screening theproposed road network from the sensitive receivers.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-27Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.5.47 The noise levels predicted at each assessment point are presented in Table 4.5e.Table 4.5e - Predicted Road Traffic Noise LevelsAssessment PointsN4'-bN4'-cN4'-dPredicted Noise Levels (JU dB{A}) - "' } ; ^ , . v , .*. : ' ' ,7067404.5.48 Table 4.5e shows that the predicted road traffic noise levels along the boundary of theProposed Country Park Extension Area fall within the range of 40 dB(A) to 70 dB(A).4.6 MITIGATION OF ADVERSE CONSTRUCTION NOISE IMPACTS4.6.1 Noise emissions from construction activities can be minimised through good site practice,selecting quiet plant, adopting quieter working methods, erection of barriers to screen thenoise source, where appropriate, and posing restriction on the use of noisy equipment.The recommended mitigation measures detailed in this section should be incorporated intothe Contract Specification in order to ensure the environmental performance of constructionworks.4.6.2 The Contractor may develop a different package of environmental control measures to meetthe required noise standards, but the following illustrates a feasible approach to mitigate thepredicted noise impacts during the construction phase:Good Site Practice4.6.3 The construction activities being undertaken in this Project are unlikely to give rise toadverse daytime noise impacts to the surrounding environment as concluded in thepreceding section. Specific mitigation measures for daytime construction works are,therefore, not required. However, the Contractor will be required to adopt good sitepractice and maintain proper on-site management in order to minimise noise emissions fromthe works during all times. The following measures are recommended:• Only well-maintained plant should be operated on-site and plant should be serviced regularly during theconstruction works;* Machines and plant that may be in intermittent use should be shut down between work periods or should bethrottled down to a minimum;» Silencers or mufflers on construction equipment should be utilised and be properly maintained during theconstruction works;* Mobile plant should be sited as far away from NSRs as possible; and• Material stockpiles and other structures should be effectively utilised, where practicable, to screen noise fromon-site construction activities.4.6.4 Although it is difficult to quantify the level of noise reduction achieved from incorporationof these elements, the environmental performance of the works would be improved withthese control measures.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-28Shankfand Cox« Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentSelecting Quieter Plant for Evening Time Works4.6.54.6.6The use of quiet plant is identified to be a feasible solution to tackle the adverse impactsassociated with the evening time construction works. The Contractor may be able to obtainparticular models of plant that are quieter than standard types given in GW-TM. Thebenefits achievable in this way will depend on the details of the Contractors' chosenmethods of working, and it is considered too restrictive to specify that a Contractor has touse specific items of plant for the construction operations. It is therefore both preferableand practical to specify an overall plant noise performance specification to apply to the totalSWL of all plant to be used on site so that the Contractor is allowed some flexibility toselect plant to suit his needs.Quiet plant is defined as PME whose actual SWL is less than the value specified in GW-TM for the same piece of equipment. Examples of SWLs for specific silenced PME takenfrom a British Standard, namely Noise Control on Construction and Open Sites, BS5228:Part 1: 1997, which are known to be used are given in Table 4.6a.Table 4.6a - Sound Power Levels for Specific Silenced PMEPMEBreakerDozerMobile CraneConcrete PumpDump truckExcavator/LoaderGeneratorLorryConcrete truck (mixer)GraderRoad RollerPoker VibratorBS5228 Table no.C.2C.9C.7C.6C.9C.3C.7C.8C.6C.9C.8C.6Refno»;102114222797621635112732^l.^W^tfECAK-max^.v1101041011061051051001081001101041004.6,74.6.8It should be noted that various types of silenced equipment can be found in Hong Kong.However, the EPD, when processing a CNP application, will apply the noise levelscontained in the GW-TM, unless the noise emission of a particular piece of equipment canbe validated.The mitigated noise levels at each NSR for each Theme Park and associated developmentsconstruction activity and the cumulative noise levels have been predicted and the details aregiven in Annex C3b, Tables CSb.l - C3b,3. The range of noise levels predicted ispresented in Table 4,6b below.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-29


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 4.6bPredicted Evening Construction Noise Levels - with the use of quiet plantNSRNl - Peng ChauN2 - Discovery BayN3 - Luk Keng TsuenRange of PNLS (A)*29-5928-6062-68Evening $n*fc CflteiionNote:(1) PNL stands for Predicted Noise Levels.(2) The noise levels presented are the cumulative noise levels.(3) Activity Reference as shown in Annex C3b, Tables C3b.l-C3b.3.606065IP^ijal^elivli^ /'Cumulative impacts fromconstruction of servicesinfrastructure (C) 3 H- PBRL(T) 34.6.9 As shown in Table 4.6b, with the use of quiet plant, the noise exceedances (2-4 dB(A)without mitigation measures) during evening time at Peng Chau (Nl) and Discovery Bay(N2) have been reduced to within the 60 dB(A) criterion.4.6.10 For Luk Keng Tsuen (N3), with the implementation of quieter plant, the maximum noiselevel was reduced from 75 dB(A) to 68 dB(A). The noise exceedances in the range from 1dB(A) to 3 dB(A) were mainly due to the concurrent construction works for the servicesinfrastructure and the PBRL.4.6.11 In order to reduce the noise levels at Luk Keng Tsuen (N3) to comply with the evening 65dB(A) criterion, further noise mitigation measures have been considered. The erection ofnoise barriers at places, where appropriate, has been considered.Use of Temporary and Movable Noise Barriers for Evening Time Works4.6.12 In general, purpose-built noise barriers or screens constructed of appropriate material to belocated close to operating PME could give a noise reduction of up to 5 dB(A) (estimated inaccordance with the GW-TM). This level of noise reduction could also be achieved byerecting temporary noise barriers along active work sites. Certain types of PME, such asgenerators, can be completely screened giving a total noise reduction of 10 dB(A) or more.4.6.13 It is anticipated that a movable noise barrier with a suitable footing and a small cantileveredupper portion can be located within a few metres of a static plant and within about 5 m ofmore mobile equipment such as excavator and mobile crane etc., such that the line of sightcould be blocked by the barriers viewed from the NSRs. The estimated noise reduction bymeans of screening, provided that the barriers are carefully located, can provide at least 10dB(A) noise attenuation for static plant and 5 dB(A) for mobile plant. The noise screeningbenefit for each plant considered in this assessment is listed below:» Stationary Plant - assuming 10 dB(A) reduction: poker vibrator, concrete pump and generator; and* Mobile Plant - assuming 5 dB(A) reduction: excavator, grader, road roller, mobile crane and concrete truck.4.6.14 The predicted noise levels with the use of quiet plant and barriers for evening time worksto reduce the identified noise impacts associated with the works are presented in AnnexC3b, Tables CSb.l - C3b.3 and Annex C3c, Table c3.L Full compliance to the evening65 dB(A) criterion at Luk Keng Tsuen (N3) was then achieved. The noise levels predictedwere in the range 58-64 dB(A).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates4-30


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment4.7 MITIGATION OF ADVERSE OPERATIONAL NOISE IMPACTS4.7.1 The operational noise assessment did not predict any exceedance of the relevant noisecriteria due to the operation of the Theme Park and associated developments. Therefore,no specific mitigation measures during operational phase are required. However forfireworks displays, a maximum duration of 5 minutes for mid-level shows and a maximumheight of 100 m are recommended.4.8 RESIDUAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION PHASE4.8.1 In view of the large number of construction activities and equipment considered in theProject, without mitigation measures, adverse construction noise impacts to the surroundingenvironment are likely.4.8.2 With the implementation of practical noise mitigation measures as recommended in Section4.6.1, including the use of quiet plant and the erection of noise barriers at active worksites, noise levels at all NSRs were reduced to comply with the daytime and restrictedhours criteria.OPERATIONAL PHASE4.8.3 The operational noise assessment did not predict any exceedance of the relevant noisecriteria due to the operation of the Theme Park and associated developments.4.9 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND AUDIT4.9.1 Noise monitoring and auditing has been recommended for the construction and operationalphases. The specific monitoring requirements are detailed in Annex N of this El A Reportwhich comprises the stand-alone Project EM&A Manual.4.10 CONCLUSIONSCONSTRUCTION NOISE4.10.1 Noise from the Project's construction phases has the potential to impact on the surroundingenvironment. Powered Mechanical Equipment (PME) will be the primary source of noise.Noise exceedances at NSRs have been predicted only for the evening time period.Mitigation measures including the use of quiet plant and the erection of movable noisebarriers have been recommended for evening construction works. With the implementationof the recommended mitigation measures, noise impacts at the identified NSRs fromconstruction works could be mitigated to comply with the statutory Noise ControlOrdinance evening criterion. Despite this finding, regular monitoring of construction noiseat adjacent NSRs is recommended, in order to ensure that the NSRs are subject to noadverse construction noise.4.10.2 There are no established construction noise criteria associated with Country Parks. Theconstruction noise of Theme Park and associated developments should not be perceptible atthe Lantau North Country Park.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-31Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessment4.10.3 Regardless of the results of the construction noise impact assessment for restricted hours,the Noise Control Authority will process the Construction Noise Permit (CNP) application,if necessary, based on the NCO, the relevant technical memoranda issued under the NCO,and the then prevailing conditions/situations.OPERATIONAL NOISE4.10.4 The operational noise assessment did not predict any exceedance of the relevant noisecriteria due to the operation of the Theme Park and associated developments. Despite thisfinding, noise monitoring is recommended during the operational phase to ensurecompliance with the applicable noise criteria. In addition, it is recommended that noisemonitoring should be undertaken during the fireworks displays to ensure that the durationdid not exceed the maximum limit of 5 minutes for mid-level shows and did not exceed themaximum height limit of 100 m for complying the LAeq, ismm 55 dB(A) criterion at bothPeng Chau and Discovery Bay.4.10.5 For railway noise from the PBRL, predicted LAeq.somin level at Luk Keng Tsuen was 45 dB,with L max level at 55 dB(A) and the L eq, 24 hour noise level would be at least 1 dB(A) lower.Cumulative impact from Airport Express Line, Tung Chung Line and PBRL was estimatedto be 55 dB(A). The results indicated that the proposed PBRL will not impact upon theexisting NSRs and will comply with the statutory requirements of the NCO and EIAO-TM.4.10.6 Adverse road traffic noise impact at Peng Chau, Discovery Bay, Luk Keng Tsuen and theexisting Lantau North Country Park was not anticipated due to the large separationdistances and the very substantial terrain screening the proposed road network from thesensitive receivers. The predicted road traffic noise levels along the boundary of theProposed Country Park Extension Area fall within the range of 40-70 dB(A).4.10.7 There are no established operational noise criteria associated with Country Park. Theoperational noise of Theme Park and associated developments should not be perceptible atthe Lantau North Country Park. However, it will be perceptible at the Proposed CountryPark Extension Area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 4-32Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 4.10a Impact SummaryAssessment Points ConsideredRelevant CriteriaCoitstruetioa PhaseNl-a (Peng Chau)N2-a (Discovery Bay)N3-a(Luk Keng Tsuen)N4-a (Lantau North Country Park)N4*-b to N4'-d (Proposed Country ParkExtension Area)Daytime (0700-1900 hours) construction noisestandards stipulated in the EIAO-TM is Uaomin75 dB(A) for all domestic premises on anyday not being a Sunday or general publicholiday for general construction works.Operational PhaseNl-a (Peng Chau)N2-a (Discovery Bay)N3-b to N3-c (Luk Keng Tsuen)N4-a (Lantau North Country Park)N4'~b to N4'-d (Proposed Country Park Extension Area)Fixed Plant Noise• According to the EIAO-TM and IND-TM, the daytime & evening (0700-2300 hours) noise limit for Peng Chau and Discovery Bay is 50dB(A)while the night-time (2300-0700 hours) noise limit for these NSRs wouldbe45dB(A).General construction works during the restrictedhours follow the criteria set in the GW-TM.These are:1 , dB and 65 dB for area with AreaSensitivity Rating of A and B respectivelyfor all days during the evening (1900-2300hours) and general holidays (includingSundays) during the day and evening (0700-2300 hours); andLAeq. smin 45 dB and 50 dB for area with AreaSensitivity Rating of A and B respectivelyfor ail days during the night-time (2300-0700hours) .There are no statutory limits or guidelines forCountry Parks.• According to the IND-TM, the daytime & evening (0700-2300 hours)noise limit for Luk Keng Tsuen is 60 dB(A) while the night-time (2300-0700 hours) noise limit for this NSR would be 50 dB(A).Fireworks Noise• The criterion of LAeq 15min 55 dB(A) was used for domestic premises.Railway Noise• According to the IND-TM, the daytime & evening (0700-2300 hours)noise limits are LAeqsomin 60 dB and 65 dB for NSRs with Area SensitivityRating of A and B respectively.• According to the IND-TM, the night-time (2300-0700 hours) noise limitsare LAeqs&nin 50 dB and 55 dB for NSRs with Area Sensitivity Rating of Aand B respectively. In addition, the EIAO-TM has also recommended acriterion of Lnm 85 dB(A) during these hours.Road Traffic Noise• The EIAO-TM requires that road traffic noise levels outside the facades ofdomestic premises which rely upon openable windows for ventilationshould not exceed Lioahom) 70 dB(A),• There are no statutory limits or guidelines for Country Parks for all typesof operational noise sources.


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsPotential ImpactsGomtritction PhaseConstruction Works during daytime & evening• Noise emitted by the use of PME is the majorsource of impact during construction.• A range of 37-62 dB(A) was predicted at Nl-a(Peng Chau).» A range of 36-64 dB(A) was predicted at N2-a(Discovery Bay).• A range of 70-75 dB(A) was predicted at N3-a(Luk Keng Tsuen).• A range of 49-64 dB(A) was predicted at theProposed Country Park Extension Area.Construction Works during night-time• A range of 37-43 dB(A) was predicted at Nl-a(Peng Chau).• A range of 39-45 dB(A) was predicted at N2-a(Discovery Bay).• Luk Keng Tsuen will not be affected by nighttimeworks as night-time works are concentratedat Penny's Bay area.Operational PhaseFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentFixed Plant Noise• Predicted noise levels at NSRs Nl-a (Peng Chau) and N2-a (DiscoveryBay) from the operation of Theme Park were within the EIAO-TM/IND-TM criterion.» Noise impact from the proposed sewage pumping station was predicted tobe minimal, given its relatively large distances to the NSRs.• Noise impact from the GTP was predicted to be minimal and well withinthe EIAO-TM/IND-TM criterion at all NSRs. The noise level predictedat the Proposed Country Park Extension Area is approximately 59 dB(A).• Noise impacts from the fixed plant of Penny's Bay Rail Link werepredicted to be minimal to the NSRs due to the large separation distancesand noise shielding between the noise source and the NSRs. Exceedancesof EIAO-TM/IND-TM criteria are not anticipated.• Noise impacts from the PTls at Yam 0 and Penny's Bay were predictedto be well within the referenced IND-TM criteria. Noise levels in therange of 38-43 dB(A) were predicted in the Proposed Country ParkExtension Area from the Penny's Bay PTI.Fireworks Noise• With the careful choosing of the types of fireworks items to be used in theTheme Park, the noise emission from the fireworks displays will complywith the LAeq. 15 nun 55 dB(A) reference criterion at both Nl-a (Peng Chau)and N2-a (Discovery Bay).• It is anticipated that maximum levels of approximately 85 dB(A) would beperceived at Nl-a (Peng Chau) and N2-a (Discovery Bay). Suchmaximum levels are from the effects related to individual fireworks items.Railway Noise• The predicted noise levels at Luk Keng Tsuen will comply with thestatutory requirements of the NCO and the EIAO-TM. Adverse noiseimpacts from operational trains are not expected.• Leq.30min noise level in the range of 49-56 dB(A) were predicted at the


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment^-.:.~?V=,j^Construction PhaseOperational PhaseProposed Country Park Extension Area. The Lmax level ranges between57-65 dB(A).Road Traffic Noise• Noise levels in the range of 40-70 dB(A) were predicted at the ProposedCountry Park Extension Area.Mitigation MeasuresEnvironmental Acceptability* Where available, use of quiet plant at allconstruction work sites.• Use of temporary and movable noise barriersfor evening time works at the followinglocations:1. construction sites near Yam 0 Interchange2. Yam O works area3. work site of CKWLR (from Yam 0 toPenny's Bay Interchange)4. work site of Road P2 (from NorthernDevelopment to Theme Park West)5. work site of the Access Road6. work site of the PBRL (mainly near Yam OStation)7, work sites of services infrastructure whichare to be built along the road alignment suchas CKWLR, Road P2 and the Access Road.Acceptable• Traffic noise impact at other NSRs was anticipated to be minimal due totheir large separation distances away from the noise source.• No criteria exceedances were predicted for operational noise impact andthus no mitigation measures are required. However, the followingstructures can, to a certain extent, reduce the noise impacts:1 . 5 m - 9 m earth berm encircling the Theme Park.2. 9m earth berm encircling the proposed sewage pumping station.3. 9m earth berm encircling the GTP.• For fireworks displays, a maximum duration of 5 minutes for mid-levelshows and a maximum height of 100 m are recommended.Acceptable


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5 WATER QUALITY5.1 INTRODUCTION5.1.1 This Section deals with the assessment of the impacts on water quality of the constructionand operation of the International Theme Park and Its Essential Associated Infrastructure.5.1.2 The construction phase assessment has considered the following aspects.• the potential impacts to marine water quality from the construction of the reclamations at Penny's Bay and atYam 0, including cumulative impacts with other concurrent projects; and• the potential impacts to marine water quality from land based construction works for the Theme Park and theassociated infrastructure, including road and rail links and the artificial lake.5.13 The operation phase assessment has considered the following aspects.• the potential impacts to hydrodynamics from the Theme Park reclamations and to marine water quality fromsewage effluent and stormwater discharges from the Theme Park and surrounding areas;• the protection of water quality in the artificial lake so that its beneficial uses as a recreation area for water sports,as a source of irrigation water for the Theme Park and as an area of general amenity value may be maintained;• the adequacy of the sewerage system and of the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works so that adverse impacts towater quality due to the discharge of untreated sewage effluent to marine waters may be prevented; and« the potential impacts to marine water quality from the operation of the road and rail links for the Theme Park.5.1.4 The overall aim of the above assessment work was to determine the acceptability of anypredicted impacts to water quality from the construction and operation of the Theme Parkand its Associated Essential Infrastructure. Predicted impacts have been assessed withreference to the relevant environmental legislation and standards, and suitable measuresdevised to mitigate any potential adverse impacts. The need for construction and operationEnvironmental Monitoring and Audit has been assessed and recommendation made wherenecessary.5.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES5.2.1 The following relevant pieces of legislation and associated guidance are applicable to theevaluation of water quality impacts associated with the Construction of an InternationalTheme Park in Penny's Bay and its Essential Associated Infrastructure.• Water Pollution Control Ordinance (WPCO);• Technical Memorandum for Effluents Discharged into Drainage and Sewerage Systems Inland and CoastalWaters; and• Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (Cap. 499. S.16), Technical Memorandum on EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Process (EIAO TM), Annexes 6 and 14.5.2.2 Apart from the above statutory requirements, the Practice Note for Professional Persons,Construction Site Drainage (ProPECC PN 1/94), issued by ProPECC in 1994, also providesScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-1Shankiand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentuseful guidelines on the management of construction site drainage and prevention of waterpollution associated with construction activities.5.2.3 The Drainage Services Department (DSD) Sewerage Manual provides design standards forsewerage systems and is used in the assessment of the adequacy of the sewerage systemserving the Theme Park and associated developments.Water Pollution Control Ordinance5.2.4 The Water Pollution Control Ordinance (WPCO) is the legislation for the control of waterpollution and water quality in Hong Kong. Under the WPCO, Hong Kong waters aredivided into 10 Water Control Zones (WCZs). Each WCZ has a designated set of statutoryWater Quality Objectives (WQOs). The WQOs set limits for different parameters thatshould be achieved in order to maintain the water quality within the WCZs. The ThemePark will be located within the Southern WCZ, and discharges from the construction andoperation of the Theme Park and associated developments will also fall within the WesternBuffer and North Western WCZs. The locations of the WCZs are shown on Figure 5.2a.5.2.5 The WQOs for the Western Buffer, the Southern and the North Western WCZs, which arepresented in Tables Dla, Dlb and Die respectively, are applicable as evaluation criteria forassessing compliance of any effects from the construction and operation of the Theme Parkand associated developments.Technical Memorandum for Effluent Discharges5.2.6 All discharges during both the construction the operational phases of the Project are requiredto comply with the Technical Memorandum for Effluents Discharged into Drainage andSewerage Systems, Inland and Coastal Waters (TM) issued under Section 21 of the WPCO.The TM defines discharge limits to different types of receiving waters. Under the TM,effluents discharged into the drainage and sewerage systems, inshore and coastal waters ofthe WCZs are subject to pollutant concentration standards for particular discharge volumes.Any new discharges within a WCZ are subject to licence conditions and the TM acts as aguideline for setting discharge standards for the licence.EIAO TM5.2.7 Annexes 6 and 14 of the EIAO TM provide general guidelines and criteria to be used inassessing water quality issues.53 EXISTING ENVIRONMENT/SENSITIVE RECEIVERS5.3.1 The majority of the Theme Park development and associated infrastructure will beconstructed on a reclamation at Penny's Bay, on the south eastern side of the northern tip ofLantau Island. A small reclamation for the construction of Road P2 on the oppositeshoreline of Lantau Island in Yam O Wan is also proposed. The sewage effluent from theTheme Park and its associated developments will be conveyed to the Siu Ho Wan SewageTreatment Works for treatment and discharge via a submarine outfall.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERMHong Kong 5-2Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentHydrodynamic Conditions5.3.2 Kap Shui Mun, which is the channel between the northern tip of Lantau Island and Ma WanIsland, forms one of the main flow channel between the waters of the North West NewTerritories and the Western Harbour. The other flow channel is on the northern side of MaWan Island, the Ma Wan Channel. Tidal current speeds through Kap Shui Mun aregenerally high, greater than 1ms" 1 for the ebb phase of the tidal cycle for spring tides. Inthe vicinity of the reclamation at Yam O Wan, tidal currents are lower due to the shelteringeffect of the headlands to north east and south west. Further offshore, currents are stronger,up to 0.6 m s" , with the main flows from the Pearl Estuary converging in this area beforebifurcating around Ma Wan Island.5.3.3 On the Penny's Bay side tidal currents are much lower, less than 0.3 m s" 1 . This is becausethe main flows to and from Kap Shui Mun are along the East and West Lamma Channels.5.3.4 The areas potentially affected by the Project will exhibit seasonal differences in terms ofsalinity and temperature stratification. To the west of Ma Wan in the wet season strongsalinity and temperature stratification is to be found due to the outflow from the PearlEstuary. To the east of Ma Wan the stratification will be less strong due to the turbulence inthe Ma Wan Channel and Kap Shui Mun causing a partial degradation in the stratification.In the sheltered bay along the southern Lantau Island coastline, stratification may be presentdue to localised run-off and heating of the relatively stagnant surface waters.Water Quality Conditions5.3.5 The Project area is within three WCZ's: the Southern WCZ, the Western Buffer and NorthWestern WCZs. There are three routine EPD water quality monitoring stations (one for eachWCZ) located in the vicinity of the Project area; the locations of these stations are shown inFigure 5.2a. A summary of water quality data for each of the stations is presented in Table5.3a. These data were measured in 1998 (most recently published dataW).(1) EPD (1999). Marine Water Quality in Hong Kong in 1998.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-3Shankland Cox » Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.3a - EPD Routine Water Quality Monitoring Data in the Vicinity of the ProjectAreaWQ ParameterTemperature (°C)Salinity (ppt)Dissolved Oxygen (mg L" 1 )Dissolved Oxygen Bottom (mg L" 1 )5-Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand(mgL- 1 )Suspended Solids (mg L" 1 )Total Inorganic Nitrogen (mg L" 1 )Unionised Ammonia (mg L" 1 )E.coliCcfolOOmL" 1 )WM4 - > - .23.4(16.7-27.7)30.9(25.9-33.6)3.2(2,9*8.1)2.6(2.2-8.1)0.7(0.2-1.5)7.6(1.2-17.4)0.29(0.17-0.42)0.005(0.002 - 0.007)510(42- 1,900)SMlO * *' . ^- ; .23.4(16.3-27.2)30.2(26.9 - 33.4)40,;(3,2-7,2) ' ^ :;.4.3(3.9-7.2)0.9(0.1 - 1.8)6.9(4.1-9.9)0,27(044-0,43) : :^0.003(0.001-0.009)9(2 - 300)NM123.6(18.2-26.8)29.3(21.9-32.5)' ' ; "^ x< I'3,5. ' . " % : ^ ^ /(3:24Mr\ '"'Yv;'>2.9(2.7 - 8.3)0.9(0.2 - 2.0)4.0(1.1-6.7)0.43(0.24 - 0.66)0.005(0.002 - 0.007)110(6 - 570)Notes:1. Data presented are depth averaged, except as specified.2. Data presented are annual arithmetic mean except for E. coli which are geometric means and dissolved oxygenwhich are 10 th percentile.3. Data enclosed in brackets indicate the ranges.4. Shaded cells indicate non-compliance with the WQOs.5.3.6 The EPD monitoring report < 2 > states that there were non-compliances with the WQOs fordepth averaged dissolved oxygen at all three stations, although compliance was achievedwith the bottom dissolved oxygen WQO at the stations. This is a deterioration from datacollected in 1997, which showed compliance with both the depth averaged and bottomdissolved oxygen WQO ^. A review of unpublished data for 1999 < 4 > determined thatcompliance with the depth averaged dissolved oxygen WQO was achieved. It may thereforebe concluded that it is premature to assess that the dissolved oxygen concentrations in thestudy area are deteriorating based on the 1998 data alone.5.3.7 The total inorganic nitrogen WQO is exceeded at Station SM10. The exceedance of the totalinorganic nitrogen WQO at Station SM10 has been recorded for the last ten years. It isworth noting that the WQO for total inorganic nitrogen is not exceeded at Station WM4,even though the average concentration is higher than that at Station SM10. This is becauseof the different WQO for total inorganic nitrogen in the Western Buffer WCZ, which ishigher compared with that of the Southern WCZ.5.3.8 The WQO for E. coli at Station SM10, which is in a Secondary Contact Recreation Subzone,is achieved and the levels are low enough to satisfy the WQO for bathing beaches. StationsWM4 and NM1 are somewhat influenced by sewage effluent discharges, as shown by thehigher E. coli concentrations. This is possibly because these stations are in one of the main(2) EPD (1999). Opcit.(3) EPD (1998). Marine Water Quality in Hong Kong in 1997.(4) Data provided by EPD.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-4


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentflow paths between the waters of the North West New Territories and Victoria Harbour andwill therefore receive dilute discharges of sewage from these areas.5.3.9 The data for temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen show a wide variation, whichindicates seasonal changes. These are most pronounced at Station NM1, which is the stationmost influenced by the discharges from the Pearl River estuary.Identification of Sensitive Receivers5.3.10 The construction and operation of the Theme Park and associated infrastructure will havethe potential to directly affect water quality in the waters along the southern and northernsides of Lantau Island. The Penny's Bay reclamation and small Yam O reclamation mayalso change tidal current patterns around Ma Wan, which could in turn cause water qualityeffects in the East and West Lamma Channels, the Rambler Channel and in the western endof Victoria Harbour. Sensitive receivers have been identified in these potentially affectedareas under the broad designations of gazetted and non-gazetted bathing beaches, waterintakes, fish culture zones, sites of ecological value and recreational areas. The identifiedsensitive receivers in each of these categories are as follows:• Gazetted Bathing Beaches: Butterfly, Castle Peak, Kadoorie, Cafeteria Old, Cafeteria New, Golden, Gemini,Hoi Mei Wan, Casam, Lido, Ting Kau, Approach, Tung Wan (Ma Wan), Silvermine Bay, Tung Wan (CheungChau), Kwun Yam Wan, Hung Shing Yeh and Lo So Shing;• Non-Gazetted Beaches: Dragon and Discovery Bay;• Water Intakes: Castle Peak Power Station cooling water intake, Chek Lap Kok cooling water intake, TsuenWan Water Supplies Department (WSD) intake, Tsing Yi WSD intake, Cheung Sha Wan WSD intake, Yau MaTei WSD intake, Sheung Wan WSD intake, Kennedy Town WSD intake, Queen Mary Hospital/Sha Wan Driveintake and Wah Fu Estate intake ;• Fish Culture Zones: Ma Wan (South and North), Cheung Sha Wan, Lo Tik Wan and Sok Kwu Wan;• Sites of Ecological Interest: Sha Chau, Tung Chung Bay, The Brothers, Yam O Wan, Kau Yi Chau, GreenIsland, Pak Kok, Shek Kok Tsui and Luk Chau; and• Recreational Uses: Discovery Centre at Sze Pak Wan.5.3.11 In addition to the identified sensitive receivers, there are a number of open water monitoringstations which have been considered in this study to assess water quality in the marinewaters potentially affected by Project construction and operational activities. The locationsof the above sensitive receivers and open water monitoring stations are shown in Figure5, 3a. It should be noted that the Anglers Beach, which is currently a gazetted bathing beach,is not included as a sensitive receiver. This is because the beach will be lost when theconstruction of the proposed Sham Tseng Further Reclamation commences in 2004.5.3.12 The WQOs presented in Annex Dl are considered to be suitable as assessment criteria at theidentified sensitive receivers and monitoring stations. A number of the sensitive receiversare Water Supplies Department (WSD) sea water intakes. The WSD has a set of standardsfor the quality of abstracted water (see in Table 5.3b). Water quality at the WSD sea waterintakes has been assessed against these standards, in addition to the WQOs.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-5Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment^Table 5.3b - WSD Water Quality Criteria for Abstracted SeawaterParameter / . / ^Colour (HU)Turbidity (NTU)Threshold Odour No.Ammoniacal Nitrogen (mg L" 1 )Suspended Solids (mg L" 1 )Dissolved Oxygen (mg L' 1 )5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (mg L" 1 )Synthetic Detergents (mg L" 1 )E. co/iXcfiilOOmL' 1 )5.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY - CONSTRUCTION€riterion'\ •, - ' ; \ ; ; : C , >^ ,\ ; ' ..,\Vr * '


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentAreas. Increases in suspended sediment concentrations and deposition rates for this Projecthave been calculated on a pro-rata basis using the ratio of the loss rates for this Project andthose in the previous study. Impacts to dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations havebeen estimated based on the sediment quality in the area of Penny's Bay to be dredged, thecalculated increases in suspended sediment concentrations from this Project and thepredicted impacts to these two water quality parameters from the previous study. Thecalculated increases in suspended sediment concentrations have then compared with theWater Quality Objectives to determine the acceptability of the predicted impacts. Thecalculated effects on dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations have been compared withbackground concentrations to determine compliance with the relevant Water QualityObjectives. The potential release of contaminants to the water column have been calculatedbased upon sediment quality data and suspended sediment concentrations. The potential forrelease has been assessed for metals of concern, PAHs, PCBs and TBT. The predicteddeposition have been compared with threshold of impact criteria for ecological sensitivereceivers to determine whether the impacts will be acceptable.5.4.4 Along the northern shore of Lantau Island there will be a small 10 ha reclamation (seeFigure 2.3d) constructed to provide land for the construction of part of Road P2 to the northof the new rail station. No previous predictive modelling of impacts associated with theconstruction of a reclamation in this area have been carried out. The rates of constructionfor this Yam O reclamation are likely to be much slower than those for the Penny's Bayreclamation for the Theme Park and the construction plant requirements considerably lower.5.4.5 A near field model of sediment dispersion has therefore been used < 8 ) to assess the impactsfrom suspended sediment plumes formed during the construction of this small Yam Oreclamation. This is the same approach as was adopted for the assessment of near fieldsediment plumes during the study Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container10 and 11 and Back-up Areas < 9 >. In this model the depth averaged suspended sedimentconcentrations are calculated at varying distances from the source of the suspendedsediments. This model has been used to predict suspended sediment concentrations withdistance from the works and hence determine at what distance compliance with the WaterQuality Objective will be achieved. The predicted suspended sediment concentrations inassociation with sediment quality data have also been used to calculate the effects ofsediment plumes on dissolved oxygen concentrations, nutrients and the release of pollutantsfrom the sediments, such as metals, PAHs, PCBs and TBT.5.4.6 Concurrent projects which have the potential to result in cumulative impacts have beenidentified. The assessment of cumulative impacts from concurrent projects has beenconducted by making use of computer modelling predictions of the transport of finesediments in suspension from previous studies which simulated the impacts of theseprojects. The predicted locations of the suspended sediment plumes for each of the aboveidentified projects which could occur concurrently with the construction of this Project havebeen examined to determine whether the plumes would overlap with those from theconstruction of the Penny's Bay and Yam O reclamations. Where plumes from any of theconcurrent projects were found to overlap with those from the Penny's Bay and Yam Oreclamation, cumulative impacts at sensitive receivers have been assessed by summing the(8) R E Wilson. A Model for the Estimation of the Concentrations and Spatial Extent of Suspended Sediment Plumes. Estuarine and Marine CoastalScience (1979), Vol 9, pp 65-78.(9) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). OpcitScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-7Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmepredicted elevations in suspended sediment concentrations at the sensitive receivers fromeach of the concurrent projects with those from the Penny's Bay and Yam O reclamations.The predicted elevations in suspended sediment concentrations have then been comparedwith the relevant Water Quality Objective.Uncertainties in Assessment Methodology5.4.7 Quantitative uncertainties in the assessment of the impacts from suspended sediment plumesshould be considered when drawing conclusions from the assessment. In carrying out theassessment, realistic worst case assumptions have been made in order to provide aconservative assessment of environmental impacts including:• The assessment is based on previous modelling results which input the sediment lost to suspension at the watersurface to minimise local settling and, therefore, would predict higher concentrations remote from the worksarea;• The assessment is based on the peak dredging and filling rates, which will only occur for short periods of time;and• The calculations of loss rates of sediment to suspension are based on conservative estimates for the types of plantand methods of working.LAND BASED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES5.4.8 The assessment of the potential impact of land based construction activities on water qualityhas been undertaken in a qualitative manner. Consideration has been given to controllingpotentially harmful impacts from site works and to the use of 'best' practice measures tominimise the potential for discharges of pollutants to nearby receiving water courses invicinity of the Project site and the coastal waters of Penny's Bay and Yam O Wan. The landbased construction activities which have been considered include those for the Theme Park,the artificial lake and those for the road and rail links.5.5 IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION5.5.1 The identification of potential water quality impacts during the construction phase has beendivided into two aspects, formation of the reclamation and land based construction activities,including those for the Theme Park and for the road and rail links.RECLAMATION FORMATIONSuspended Sediment5.5.2 During dredging and filling for the construction of the reclamations, fine sediment will besuspended into the water column, which may then be transported away from the works areaby tidal currents to form sediment plumes. The quantities of fine sediment lost tosuspension during dredging and filling will primarily depend on dredging and filling ratesand methods. Impacts from suspended sediment may be caused by sediment plumes beingtransported to sensitive areas, such as fish culture zones, bathing beaches, water intakes,areas of ecological value and recreational areas.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-8Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.5.3 A review of the computer modelling of dispersion of fine sediment in suspension from thestudy Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals < 10 > has beencarried out to determine the extent of sediment plumes from dredging and filling activities atPenny's Bay. This review has determined that only a small number of the sensitive receiversidentified in Section 5.3.3 could potentially experience elevated suspended sedimentconcentrations. These sensitive receivers, the locations of which are shown in Figure 5.3a,are defined as follows« Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone (North and South);• Tung Wan Beach, Ma Wan;• Sze Pak Wan;• Discovery Bay Beach;• Kau Yi Chau; and• Silvermine Bay Beach.5.5.4 The closest identified sensitive receiver to the reclamation at Yam O is the point marked asYam O Wan. This point has been positioned to determine the operational water qualitywithin the bay following completion of the Theme Park developments as concerns regardingpotential stagnation of the bay have been identified. This location has not therefore beenconsidered as a sensitive receiver for the assessment of Yam O reclamation constructionimpacts; the nearest other sensitive receiver is the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone, which isalready included above.5.5.5 Suspended sediment plumes passing over a sensitive receiver will cause the ambientsuspended sediment concentrations to be elevated; the level of elevation will determinewhether the impact is adverse. The determination of the acceptability of elevations insuspended sediment concentrations has been based on the Water Quality Objectives. TheWQO for suspended sediments for the Southern, Western Buffer and North Western WCZsis defined as being an allowable elevation of 30% above the background. TheEnvironmental Protection Department (EPD) maintains a flexible approach to the definitionof ambient levels, preferring to allow definition on a case-by-case basis rather thandesignating a specific statistical parameter as representing ambient. It was agreed in aprevious study of the environmental impacts of released suspended sediments < n > that theambient value may be represented by the 90 th percentile of reported concentrations. EPDroutine monitoring data has been used as the source of the reported concentrations, with themonitoring station nearest to each of the identified sensitive receivers being defined asrepresentative of that location. EPD monitoring data and allowable elevations in suspendedsediment concentrations are summarised in Table 5,5a.Table 5.5a - Ambient and Tolerance Values for Suspended Sediment Concentrations(mg L" 1 ) in the Vicinity of Sensitive ReceiversMa Wan Fish CultureZoneTung Wan Beach, MaWan (WM4)(10) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). Op clt(11) ERM (1997), Environmental Impact Assessment for the Disposal of Contaminated Mud in the East Sha Chau Marine Borrow Pit. Final Report.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-9


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsSensitive Receiver 0rv Season > • > , - ^'Sze Pak Wan12.53.8Discovery Bay BeachCSM10)Kau Yi Chau(SM9)Silvermine Bay Beach(SM11)12.612.63.83.8Notes :A11 values are depth averaged.Final Environmental impact Assessment•Wet $fatem&s "tv:,v^A^,s^>; 4 ;^ffe v v4% '11.03.335.210.618.05A5.5.65.5.7The allowable elevation in suspended sediment concentration as defined by the WQO for aparticular site corresponds to the 30% tolerance level. The calculated maximum suspendedsediment concentrations from the dredging and filling have been compared with the 30%tolerance values in the above table to determine the acceptability of the impacts.At the Yam O reclamation site it will also be necessary to determine the distance from thedredging operation at which compliance with the WQO is achieved. The closest station tothe works is NM1, where the 90 th percentile suspended sediment concentrations in the wetand dry seasons were 7.6 mg L" 1 and 10.6 mg L" 1 respectively. The allowable increases insuspended sediment concentrations are therefore 2.3 mg L" 1 and 3.2 mg L" 1 for the wet anddry seasons respectively. These allowable increases have then been compared to thecalculated suspended sediment concentrations to determine the distance from the dredgingoperations at which compliance with the WQOs will be achieved.Sediment Deposition5.5.8Impacts from the formation of suspended sediment plumes may also be related to the settlingof sediment onto the seabed and smothering any organisms present. A deposition rate of 0.2kg m" 2 day" 1 has been determined as a level of concern for corals. Further discussion of theselection of this value is contained in Section 8.5 (marine ecological impact assessment).The calculated rates of deposition have been compared to this level of concern at thosesensitive receivers at which it is applicable to determine whether the predicted impactswould be acceptable.Water Quality5.5.9The loss of sediment to suspension during dredging and filling may have chemical effects onthe receiving waters. This is because the sediment may contain organic and chemicalpollutants. As part of this Project laboratory testing of sediment samples was undertaken.The results of the testing found that a small proportion of the sediment would be classed ascontaminated (Class C) in both Penny's Bay and Yam O Bay, according to EPD's TechnicalCircular No 1-1-92, based on high levels of copper. Other parameters of concern have beenidentified as PAHs, PCBs and TBT. Further discussion of the sediment classification andmethods of disposal of dredged sediments is contained in Section 6 y which assesses wastemanagement. The results of the sediment quality testing, which have relevance to the waterquality assessment are summarised in Table 5.5b.Table 5.5b - Summary of Sediment Quality TestingChemical Oxygen Demand (mg kg )Ammoniacal Nitrogen (mg kg )Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (mg kg" 1 )Copper (mg kg )35,100401,5908551,900781,040502Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-10


Theme Park and Associated Developmentsitmmg rarameierTotal PAHs (pg kg 1 )Total PCBs (fig kg' 1 )TBTOigkg 1 )reimy's j*ay > ^ . found that thevalues measured in 1998 represented abnormally low dissolved oxygen values and in 1999the values had increased to be in compliance with the WQO, although they were still lowerthan in previous years. It is proposed that the assessment of impacts be based on thebackground values in 1999 as these are more likely to be representative of the areasurrounding the Theme Park reclamations, rather than the unrepresentative values measuredin 1998. In 1999 the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, which were exceeded on 90% ofthe sampling occasions, were 4.2 mg L" 1 , 4.9 mg L" 1 and 4.6 mg L" 1 at Stations WM4, SM10andNMl respectively.5.5.12 The assessment of nutrient impacts from increased suspended sediment concentrations hasbeen based on the sediment and water quality parameters of total inorganic nitrogen andammonia. The concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen and ammonia have been used todetermine increases in these parameters in the receiving waters, based on the calculatedsuspended sediment concentrations. These increases have then been compared with theambient levels at Stations SM10, WM4 and NM1 to determine the relative effects of theincreases in suspended sediment concentrations on total inorganic nitrogen and ammoniaconcentrations, which could then be converted to unionised ammonia.5.5.13 Based on EPD routine water quality monitoring data for 1998 ( 13 >, the mean depth averagedtotal inorganic nitrogen concentrations at Stations SM10, WM4 and NM1 were 0.27 mg L",0.29 mg L" 1 and 0.43 mg L" 1 respectively. It should be noted that the WQO for totalinorganic nitrogen is already breached at Station SM10 has been breached for the last 10years of monitoring; concentrations at Station WM4 are within the WQO. The mean depthaveraged unionised ammonia concentrations at Stations SM10, WM4 and NM1 were 0.003mg L" 1 , 0.005 mg L" 1 and 0.005 mg L" 1 respectively, determined from EPD routine waterquality monitoring data for 1998< 14) .5.5.14 The sediment to be dredged at both Penny's Bay and Yam O would be classed ascontaminated according to EPD's Technical Circular No 1-1-92, based on copperconcentrations of 85 mg kg" 1 and 502 mg kg" 1 for Penny's Bay and Yam O respectively. It istherefore proposed that, of the metals tested, only the release of copper to the receiving(12) Personal correspondence with EPD.(13) EPD (1999). Opc/t(14) EPD (1999). OpcitScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in associate 5-11Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentwaters be considered as this is the only metal found in the sediment at levels high enough tobe of concern. There are currently no Hong Kong specific criteria governing levels ofconcern for PAHs, PCBs and TBT in sediment and as such it is proposed to assess therelease of these pollutants to the water column. The release of copper, PAHs, PCBs and TBTto the receiving waters has been estimated based on the calculated suspended sedimentconcentrations and a partitioning coefficient between the adsorbed and desorbed phases ofthese pollutants associated with the sediment.5.5.15 At present there are no standards for Hong Kong governing the allowable concentrations ofcopper, PAHs, PCBs and TBT in marine waters and so reference has been made to theEuropean Community water quality standards^15 ). These standards specify allowable levelsof copper, PAHs and TBT. It is noted that the European Community standards for TBT arestringent and may not necessarily be applicable to Hong Kong waters but are used here tomaintain consistency with the other quoted standards. There are no standards specified forPCBs in marine waters and allowable levels have been derived from work published in theUS< 16 > . In order to determine whether the increases in copper, PAHs, PCBs and TBTconcentrations in the receiving waters are acceptable it is necessary to obtain an estimate ofthe ambient levels in the marine water. As part of a recent study of dredging an area ofKellett Bank < I7 > a review was made of data collected as part of the SSDS Stage I BaselineMonitoring and Performance Verification. It was determined that the mean copperconcentration in the marine waters was 2.51 |0g L" 1 . This data represents concentrations inthe vicinity of the SSDS Stage I outfall, but in view of a lack of such data in the vicinity ofthe Theme Park reclamations in Penny's Bay and Yam O, this value has been used in thisassessment. Data on background levels in marine water of TBT has been obtained from thestudy A Study of Tributyltin Contamination of the Marine Environment of Hong Kong < 18 ) .In this study data was obtained in the vicinity of Yam O and North Tsing Yi. These datawere obtained in the vicinity of shipyard works and as such will be applicable to this study,given the proximity of the Penny's Bay reclamation to the Cheoy Lee Shipyard and theproximity of the Yam O reclamation to the floating dry docks moored offshore. Themonitoring data determined representative concentrations of TBT in the marine waters of0.01 jag L" 1 at North Tsing Yi and 0.009 \ig L" 1 at Yam O. The North Tsing Yi data will beused in the assessment of the impacts of the Penny's Bay reclamation as this is the closestmonitoring station. There is currently no data on the background levels of PAHs, PCBs inmarine waters and as such it will only be possible to compare the predicted increase inconcentrations with the relevant standards. The relevant standards and backgroundconcentrations are summarised in Table 5.5c.Table 5.5c - Summary of Assessment Standard Pollutant Concentrations in Water (|agL" 1 ) and Background Concentrations (fig L" 1 )CopperTotal PAHsTotal PCBs0.20.0142.51No dataNo data(15) HMIP (1994), Environmental Economic and BPEO Assessment Principles for Integrated Pollution Control Environmental Quality Standards andAssessment Levels for Surface Water.(16) Sittig (1981).(17) ERM (1999). Environmental Impact Assessment: Dredging an Area of Kellett Bank for Reprovisioning of Six Government Mooring Buoys. Final:Report. •• .' ^ • . • • '.• ' /.• . '" • '. • ' ' . " • . . . . • •• ' ' . . ' '' . ". ' • ' . ' '(18) Aspinwall Clouston Limited (1998). A Study of Tributyltin Contamination of the Marine Environment of Hong Kong. Final Report.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in associate 6-12ShanMand Cox • Wilbur'Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentPilfOTWA^Ar'TBTA ± £U J ' .J ^ , - -. 'Assessment Marmara0.002'_: V; s'^ >, ' ..^.-yu^.Jn¥%uir, TT ^^ ^ ,Background Concentration N»' v » ' "* \ ^ ;0.01 (Penny's Bay)0.009 (Yam O)5.5.16 It should be noted that the data in the above table show that the background concentrationsof TBT already exceeds the stringent European Community criterion. However, thebackground levels in Hong Kong are typical of those measured in comparable marine watersaround the world, such as major ports. It may be that the European Community criteria arenot entirely applicable to Hong Kong, but are nevertheless used in this Study to provide areference on the relative magnitudes of the release of TBT from sediments suspended duringthe dredging works.Cumulative Impacts5.5.17 If the suspended sediment plumes from the construction of the reclamations associated withthe Project at Penny's Bay and Yam O were to overlap with those from other concurrentprojects, there would be a potential for cumulative impacts. Such cumulative impacts couldprimarily occur in terms of elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Increases insuspended sediment concentrations from concurrent projects have been determined byreviewing computer modelling results of suspended sediment dispersion for these projects.The following concurrent projects with the potential for cumulative impacts have beenidentified:• Dredging and filling at the Container Terminal 9 reclamation W);• Backfilling of South Tsing Yi and North Lantau Marine Borrow Areas with uncontaminated mud ( 2 °);• Sand winning at the South Tsing Yi and West Sulphur Channel Marine Borrow Areas for the construction of theContainer Terminal 9 reclamation ( 21 );• Sand winning at the East Lamma Channel Marine Borrow Areas for the Theme Park reclamation ^;• Dredging and filling at the Sham Tseng Further Reclamation ( 23 );• Dredging at the Tang Lung Chau Dangerous Goods Anchorage ( 24 );• Dredging and filling at the Tsuen Wan Bay reclamation @ 5^;• Dredging and filling at the Lamma Extension power station reclamation ^;• Dredging and filling at the Tung Chung and Tai Ho Further Development < 27 ); and• Disposal of contaminated mud at the East Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits < 28 l5.5.18 There is also a potential for cumulative impacts with the construction of the Route 10 TollPlaza in the vicinity of the Fa Peng headland.(19) ERM (1998). Environmental Impact Assessment: Dredging and Area of Kellett Bank for Reprovisioning of Six Government Mooring Buoys. FinalReport.(20) ERM (1995). Backfilling of South Tsing Yi and North of Lantau MB As. Final Environmental Impact Assessment.(21) Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick (1994). Agreement No CE 52/94. West of Sulphur Channel Marine Borrow Area. Focused EnvironmentallmpactAssessment. Final Report.(22) Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick (1994). Opcit.(23) Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd (2000). Agreement No CE 93/97. Planning and Engineering Feasibility Study for Development on Sham Tseng FurtherReclamation. Draft EIA - Final Report (in preparation).(24) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1999). Tsuen Wan Bay Further Reclamation, Area 35. Engineering, Planning and Environmental Investigation.Volume 1 of 3: Tang Lung Chau Dangerous Goods Anchorage EIA Final Assessment Report.(25) ERM (1998). Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation, West Rail. Final Assessment Report. West Kowloon to Tuen Mun Centre. Contract No TS-900.Environmentallmpact Assessment(26) ERM (1999). Environmental Impact Assessment of a 1,800 MW Gas-Fired Power Station at Lamma Extension, Final Report.(27) Mott Connell Ltd (1999). Agreement No CE 1/97. Remaining Development in Tung Chung and Tai Ho. Comprehensive Feasibility Study.Environmental Studies. Final Assessment Report.(28) ERM (19997). Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Disposal of Contaminated Mud in the East Sha Chau Marine Borrow Pit. Final Report.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong .5-13Shankland Cox • .Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentReclamation Phasing5.5.19 During the construction of the reclamation there may be the potential for the formation ofembayed areas. Such areas would have low rates of exchange with the outside marinewaters and the residence times of pollutants would be long. There would be the potential forpoor water quality conditions to occur.LAND BASED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES5.5.20 During land based construction activities for the Theme Park and for the road and rail links,the primary sources of potential impacts to water quality will be from pollutants in site runoff,which may enter marine waters directly or enter the storm drain system whichdischarges into these waters. Pollutants, mainly suspended sediments, may also enter thereceiving waters if pumped groundwater is not adequately controlled.5.5.21 Wastewater from temporary site facilities should be controlled to prevent direct discharge tomarine waters adjacent to the reclamation. Such wastewater may include sewage effluentfrom toilets and discharges from on-site kitchen facilities. Water from plant servicingfacilities may be contaminated with oil and other petroleum products and would have thepotential to discharge to surface waters if spillages are not contained.5.6 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION5.6.1 The assessment of the impacts to water quality during the construction phase has beendivided into two aspects, formation of the reclamation and construction activities on land.RECLAMATION FORMATION5.6.2 The assessment of impacts from the construction of the Penny's Bay and Yam Oreclamations is split into three aspects; suspended sediment concentrations, sedimentdeposition and chemical effects. Potential impacts on ecological resources as a result ofreclamation construction activities are covered under Section 8.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-14Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentSuspended Sediment ConcentrationsPREVIOUS STUDIES5.6.3 Computer modelling of a range of different dredging and filling rates was undertaken as partof the EIA study fox Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals 10and 11 < 29 >. The scenarios simulated dredging and filling for the Container Terminals 10 and11 reclamation at Penny's Bay and dredging for an access channel to the terminals and for abreakwater to provide shelter to the terminals. Four of the computer modelling scenarios areconsidered to be applicable for this Project in determining the impacts from the Penny's Bayreclamation in terms of suspended sediment concentrations. The scenarios may besummarised as follows.« Scenario 1 simulated dredging for Container Terminal 10 berth 1, Container Terminal 11 and the accesschannels, assuming a fully dredged reclamation;• Scenario 2 simulated dredging for Container Terminal 10 berth 1, Container Terminal 11 and the accesschannels, assuming a drained reclamation;• Scenario 3 simulated the maximum combined dredging and filling for Container Terminals 10 and 11 and theaccess channels, assuming a fully dredged reclamation; and• Scenario 4 simulated the highest rates of filling for Container Terminals 10 and 11, assuming a drainedreclamation.5.6.4 The above scenarios will be applicable for comparison with the proposed constructionprogramme for the Theme Park reclamation in Penny's Bay, which will involve dredgingand filling in broadly similar areas to those simulated previously. A fifth scenario wassimulated in the previous study to represent dredging and filling at an intermediate stage ofconstruction, ie with some of the seawalls already constructed. This scenario will not besuitable for comparison purpose because the sequence of construction of the seawalls will bedifferent in this Study.5.6.5 The predicted maximum elevations in suspended sediment concentrations at the identifiedsensitive receivers (see Section 5.3.3) in each of the wet and dry seasons are presented inTables 5.6a and 5.6b respectively. The tables show that the total loss rate of suspendedsediments, which were used as input data to the computer modelling.Table 5.6a - Maximum Predicted Elevations in Suspended Sediment Concentrations atSensitive Receivers (mg I/ 1 ) in the Dry SeasonNotes:1. Shaded cells indicate exceedance of the WQO (see Table 5Aa)(29) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). Op citScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShanktand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-15


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.6b - Maximum Predicted Elevations in Suspended Sediment Concentrations atSensitive Receivers (mg L" 1 ) in the Wet SeasonSensitive ReceiverMa Wan Fish Culture ZoneTung Wan Beach, Ma WanSze Pak WanDiscovery Bay BeachKau Yi ChauSilvermine Bay Beach1


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.6c - Summary of Plant Operating During Month 4 of the ConstructionProgramme (Maximum Dredging)Plant TypeDredgingTSHD 8000TSHD 5000Grab FullGrab CleanFillingTSHD 8000Nominal Mate ofWorking(m 3 week" 1 )112,40066,80060,00025,000Number of Want3132^^fff.Q07, Q02Q07P01JP03, Q01P01, Q07165,8002 Q04, Q07Notes:1. TSHD 8000 refers to an 8,000 m 3 capacity trailing suction hopper dredger.2. TSHD 5000 refers to an 5,000 m 3 capacity trailing suction hopper dredger.3. Grab Full refers to an 8.5 m 3 grab dredger working at full rate.4. Grab Clean refers to an 8.5 m 3 grab dredger working at a reduced rate on trimming activities.* ^ C%n^t^Jt^lg of) -^«^4 *• ••? %V4' \ ^iv'^vVf' \ ^ ^ X0;;-\ WorWngr^" : ^"v-V^ " ifiitfweeic" 1 );' 1 "^-Table 5.6d - Summary of Plant Operating During Month 10 of the ConstructionProgramme (Maximum Filling)Plant TypeDredgingTSHD 8000TSHD 5000Grab FullGrab CleanFillingTSHD 8000Nominal Rate ofWorking(m 3 week" 1 )112,40066,80060,00025,000165,800Number of Plant21326Areay $$ W0rMisg«v(m*metth$^^--224,80066,800180,00050,000994,8005.6.9 In order to compare the proposed rates of working with the modelling predictions in theprevious study for Container Terminals 10 and 11 it is necessary to determine the loss ratesof fines to suspension from the activities described in Tables 5.6c and 5.6d. This will thenenable a direct comparison with the loss rates and the modelling predictions shown in Tables5.6a and 5.6b.5.6.10 For studies assessing the impacts of dredging areas of Kellett Bank for mooring buoys,estimates of the loss rates from grab dredging and dredging using trailing suction hopperdredgers were made w$ 2 \ For these two previous studies, the estimates of loss rate weremade based on an extensive review of world wide data on loss rates from dredgingoperations. The assessment concluded that for 8 m 3 grab dredgers working in areas withsignificant amounts of debris on the sea bed (such as in the vicinity of existing mooring(31) ERM (1997). Environmental Impact Assessment: Dredging an Area of Kellett Bank for Reprovisioning of Six Government Mooring Buoys. WorkingPaper on Design Scenarios.(32) Babtie BMT Harris & Sutherland (1998). Supplementary Agreement No 1 to Agreement No CE 31/96. Green Island Development - Studies onEcological, Water Quality and Marine Traffic Impacts, Dredging Study for New Fairway and Reprovisioning of Mooring Buoys. Working Paper forDredging and Disposal Scheme.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates5-17


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentbuoys) that the loss rates would be 25 kg mf 3 dredged, while the loss rate in areas wheredebris is less likely to hinder operations would be 17 kg m" 3 dredged. For this Study it isproposed that the loss rate of 17 kg m" 3 dredged for grab dredging be used as there areunlikely to be significant quantities of debris in the vicinity of the dredging works due to thefact that there are no existing mooring buoys or port facilities.5.6.11 A review of international data on losses from trailer dredgers in the previous study fordredging Kellett Bank( 33 ) determined that a loss rate of 7 kg m" 3 dredged would beappropriate irrespective of the size of the dredger, assuming no overflowing but that theLean Mixture Overboard (LMOB) systems are in operation. LMOB is used at the beginningand end of the dredging cycle when the suction arm is being lowered and raised. At thesetimes the majority of the material entering the hopper will be water with small amounts offine sediments, which is discharged to the sea via the overflow system. Overflowing refersto the discharge of fine sediment and water during bulk dredging and results in high lossesof sediment to suspension. Overflowing is not usually permitted when dredging in marinemud and is usually only allowed during dredging of sand deposits, when overflowing isutilised to increase the density of the material in the hopper. The value of 7 kg m" 3 dredgedfor dredging using trailing suction hopper dredgers will be appropriate for this Study asLMOB will be used but overflowing will not be permitted.5.6.12 The calculation of the loss rate from filling activities is more complicated and is based on anapproach developed during the assessment of the proposed Kowloon Point Reclamation ( 34 >.This method of calculation of loss rate is summarised as follows:• A series of trial uncontaminated marine mud disposal events were carried out at the East Tung Lung ChauMarine Borrow Area ^35^ and it was determined that the representative loss rate of fines to suspension frombottom dumping was 5%;• The material disposed of at the east Tung Lung Chau MBA consisted of approximately 60% fines;» By taking the fines content of the sand fill material for this Study and using a simple pro-rata basis of finescontent divided by 60%, and multiplying by 5% gives the percentage loss rate from sand filling for this Study;• A representative dry density of the sand fill in the hopper of the trailer dredger should be taken as being 1,400 kgm" 3 ; and• The loss rate in kg s" 1 is calculated by multiplying the percentage loss rate by the volume rate of filling multipliedby the dry density of the sand fill.5.6.13 The sand fill for the reclamation will be obtained from marine borrow areas by trailingsuction hopper dredgers. It is currently proposed that the majority of the sand fill materialwill be obtained from the Weilingding Marine Borrow Area, which is on mainland Chinesewaters. The in situ fines content of the sand in the borrow area varies between 2% to30% (36 > , with the upper values representing marine sand deposits and the lower valuesfound in the alluvial deposits. Whilst dredging the sand, particularly the marine sanddeposits, the dredgers will be permitted to overflow to reduce the fines content of the(33)ERM(1997). Opcit.(34) Kowloon Point Development Feasibility Study, Environmental Impact Assessment.(35) Dredging Research Ltd (1996), Measurements of Sediment Transport after Dumping from Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers in the East Tung LungChau Marine Borrow Area. Report to GEO/CED.(36) Communication with DEMAS dredging consultants.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) UShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates5-1 a


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentmaterial in the hopper. It is estimated that a fines content of 3% to 8% < 37 > can be achievedin the material in the hopper of the dredger. A small portion of the sand fill material is likelyto be obtained from the East Lamma Channel Marine Borrow Area. The in situ fines contentof the sand is 4% to 6% < 38 > < 39 ), which will be the fines content of the material delivered tothe reclamation site because overflowing is prohibited at this borrow area. It is proposedthat the upper bound of 8% on the fines content be used to calculate the loss rate to ensure asuitably conservative assessment.5.6.14 The calculated loss rates for the dredging and filling rates shown in Tables 5.6c and 5.6d arepresented in Tables 5.6e and 5.6ffor the maximum rates of dredging and filling respectively.It has been assumed that 24 hour working will be undertaken 7 days per week for bothdredging and filling. The loss rates presented in Tables 5.6e and 5.6f thus represent theaverage daily values.Table 5.6e - Calculated Loss Rates of Fine Sediment to Suspension During Month 4 ofthe Construction Programme (Maximum Dredging)Plant TypeDredgingTSHD 8000TSHD 5000Grab FullGrab CleanFillingTSHD 8000Total Loss RateHate of Working(m 3 week" J >337,20066,800180,00050,000331,600Itate of Working V < *\7


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentthe most appropriate from the previous modelling work because it represented the highestcombined dredging and filling rates, which provides the closest analogy to the assessmentfor this Study. The results of the calculated increases in suspended sediment concentrationsare given in Tables 5.6g and 5.6h for the maximum dredging and filling rates respectively.Table 5.6g - Calculated Elevations in Suspended Sediment Concentrations at SensitiveReceivers (mg L" 1 ) for the Maximum Rate of DredgingSensitive ReceiverMa Wan Fish CultureZoneTung Wan Beach, Ma WanSze Pak WanDiscovery Bay BeachKau Yi ChauSilvermine Bay BeachWQO Allowable Elevation in SuspendedSediment Concentration (*»g L" 4 )Wet Season Dry Season3.24.53.23.33.310.65.44.53.83.83.83.8Calculated Elevations lit SuspendedSediment Concentrations (mfriC 4 )Wet SeasonDry Season1.72.70.80.20.00.40.00.50.10.00.00.0Table 5.6h - Calculated Elevations in Suspended Sediment Concentrations at SensitiveReceivers (mg L" 1 ) for the Maximum Rate of FillingSensitive ReceiverMa Wan Fish CultureZoneTung Wan Beach, Ma WanSze Pak WanDiscovery Bay BeachKau Yi ChauSilvermine Bay BeachWQO Allowable Elevation in SuspendedSediment Concentration (mg L" 1 }Wet SeasonDry Season3.24.53.23.33310.65.44.53.83.83.83.8Calculated Elevations in Suspended ?;;" f r;;Sediment Concentrationis (nig O*) ; I,,Wet Season Dry Seas 0»Vy v^ \,2.74.21.30.30.10.60.00.70.60.10.00.05.6.16 The data in Tables 5.6g and 5,6h predict that the Water Quality Objective for suspendedsediment concentrations will not be breached at any of the identified sensitive receivers inthe vicinity of the Penny's Bay reclamation.5.6.17 The above assessment for the impacts during Month 10 of the construction programme islikely to be somewhat conservative. This is because the seawalls in Section Q4 and a largepart of Section Q7 (see Figure 5.6b) will have been completed prior to commencing this rateof working (see Figure 5.6d). The construction of these seawalls will mean that thereclamation area will be partially sheltered from tidal currents on the flood tide, whichwould be responsible for carrying the sediment plumes towards the Ma Wan Fish CultureZone. This would mean that the impacts are likely to be lower than those predicted above,which have been shown to be acceptable despite the conservative nature of the assessment.5.6.18 During the filling operations it is proposed to make use of cutter suction dredgers operatingin a rehandling basin. During the initial phases of reclamation construction the rehandlingbasin is planned to be situated in the north eastern corner of area Q6 (see Figure 5.6b). Thisarea is within Penny's Bay and as such the tidal currents are very low. The cutter suctionScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Gox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-20


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentdredger will commence work in Month 6 of the construction programme, when the seawallsfor Section Q4 (see Figures 5.6a and 5.6b) will have largely been completed. This willmean that the rehandling basin will be further sheltered from tidal currents. As thereclamation construction progresses from west to east the rehandling basin will move withthe leading face of the reclamation. However, the construction of the seawalls will progressconcurrently with the reclamation formation. The rehandling basin will, therefore, always besheltered from tidal currents, provided that the seawalls are constructed in advance of theposition of the re-handling basin. The above described factors should ensure that anysediment lost to suspension during the operation of the cutter suction dredger in therehandling basin will not be transported beyond the immediate vicinity of the works areaand, as such, adverse impacts at sensitive receivers, notably the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone,are not expected. In order to further ensure that there are no adverse impacts, it isrecommended that measures are implemented to minimise the loss of fine sediment tosuspension during the operation of the cutter suction dredger in the rehandling basin andthese are detailed in Section 5.7.1.YAM O RECLAMATION5.6.19 The Yam O reclamation will be constructed at a much slower rate than the Penny's Bayreclamation. Dredging will only be required along the line of the seawalls and will becarried out by a single 8.5 m 3 grab dredger working at a rate of 2,000 m 3 day" 1 . Sand fillingwill be carried out by bottom dumping from split barges at a rate of working of 14,000 3 day"*. The construction programme is such that sand filling will only take place behind seawalls,which have reached the stage of construction where they break the water surface. Any lossesof fine sediment to suspension during sand filling should be contained by the seawalls andwould therefore not be expected to impact the receiving waters outside of the reclamationworks. Therefore dredging will be the only source of suspended sediment with the potentialto impact sensitive receivers. Based on the calculation method described above for thePenny's Bay reclamation, the loss rate from grab dredging will be 0.39 kg s" 1 .5.6.20 The method of calculation of the near field concentrations of suspended sediment plumes isthe same as was used in the Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for ContainerTerminals 10 and 11 < 40 >. In this method, a simple model is used to calculate the depthaveraged suspended sediment concentrations along the centreline of a plume by solving theadvection-diffusion equation for a continuous line source < 41 >. This model is consideredappropriate for the calculation of suspended sediment concentrations from the Yam Oreclamation dredging because the equation is based on a continuous line source of sediment,which is a reasonable approximation of the loss of sediment to suspension during grabdredging. It is appropriate for areas where the tidal current is uni-directional for each phaseof the tidal cycle (ie the ebb and flood phases), which is the case at Yam O where thecurrents generally follow the coastline. This method is applicable for suspended sedimentplumes of length no greater than the maximum tidal excursion. At the Yam O site themaximum tidal current speeds may be up to 0.5 m s" 1 and a representative period for eachphase of the tidal cycle in Hong Kong is 6 hours. The tidal excursion may be calculatedaccording to the following equation.(40) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). Opcit(41) RE Wilson, A Model for the Estimation of the Concentrations and Spatial Extent of Suspended Sediment Plumes. Estuarine and Marine CoastalScience (1979), Vol 9, pp 65-78.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-21Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTidal excursion = maximum speed * period * 2/n5.6.21 The tidal excursion is thus calculated to be 6.9 km and hence this approach may beconsidered appropriate because of the low rate of dredging and thus the expected limitedextent of the plumes, which will certainly be within the tidal excursion. The formula whichis used is as follows.C(x) = q/(D*x*co*V7r)whereC(x) = concentration at distance x from the sourceq = sediment loss rate = 0.39 kg s" 1D = water depth = 15 mx = distance from sourceco = diffusion velocity = 0.01 m s" 15.6.22 The representative water depth along the direction of dispersion of the sediments suspendedduring dredging, varies from approximately 15 m to 20 m. For the calculation of suspendedsediment concentrations, a depth of 15 m has been selected to give a worst case assessmentas concentration is inversely proportional to depth. The value for diffusion velocity is thesame as that which was used in the previous study for the near field assessment of sedimentplumes from the construction of Container Terminals 10 and 11 < 42 ) and is consideredappropriate for use in this Study, given the proximity of the Yam O reclamation to thoseconsidered previously. The diffusion velocity represents reductions in the centre-lineconcentrations due to lateral spreading.5.6.23 The use of the above equation is limited to situations where the value of y, as defined by thefollowing equation, is small and where co/u is also small.y=Wt/DwhereW = settling velocity of suspended sedimentt = timeD = water depth = 15 m5.6.24 The sediments suspended by the dredging operations may be split into a fine fraction and acoarse fraction. The fine fraction is assumed to remain in suspension indefinitely, which isbased on the fact that the settling velocity for the sediment particles according to Stokes Lawis offset by local turbulence. The settling velocity of the coarse fraction is taken to be 0.128mm s" 1 , as derived from Stokes Law for a particle size of 0.012 mm. This value was derivedfrom the D?s diameter of a number of sediment samples from Penny's Bay< 43 ), whichassumes that the fine fraction is represented by the smallest 50% of the sample and thecoarse fraction is represented by the largest 50%. The value for t is taken to be half of thetidal period, which may be taken to be the time between the ebb and flood phases of the tidalcycle. In Hong Kong this is greatest for the ebb phase of a spring tide where the time fromhigh water to low water can be up to 8 hours. The value of y for the coarse fraction of thesuspended sediment is calculated to be 0.25, while for the fine fraction would approach zero.These values are small and as such the above equation would be valid for both the fine andcoarse fractions. The average current speed in the vicinity of the Yam O works is taken to(42) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). Op dt(43) Data provided by the Geotechnical Engineering Office of the Civil Engineering Department.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-22Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentbe 0.25 m s" 1 , which means that the value of co/u is calculated to be 0.04, which is consideredto be small and the use of the above equation is considered valid.5.6.25 The results of the calculation of suspended sediment concentrations are given in Table 5.6i.Table 5.61 - Calculated Suspended Sediment Concentrations from the Dredging at theYam O ReclamationDistance from Source (m)100200300400500600700800Suspended Sediment Concentration (mg Hf *) < ; ' ' - \. , /' ^ ^'\ \^ ^ s14.77.34.93.72.92.42.11.85.6.26 The closest identified sensitive receiver to the Yam O reclamation is the Ma Wan FishCulture Zone, which is 2,800m from the dredging operations. The allowable increases insuspended sediment concentrations at this sensitive receiver are 4.5 mg L" 1 in the dry seasonand 3.2 mg L" 1 in the wet season (see Table 5.5a). The data is the above table predicts thatat less than 500 m from the dredging operation, the suspended sediment concentrations willbe below 3.2 mg L" 1 . Predicted suspended sediment concentrations at the closest sensitivereceiver are below the WQO.5.6.27 The allowable increases in suspended sediment concentrations according to the WQO in thevicinity of the dredging works is 2.3 mg L" 1 in the wet season and 3.2 mg L" 1 in the dryseason, derived from data at Station NM1. The data in Table 5.6i shows that at less than 700m from the dredging works compliance with the WQO will be achieved. As discussedabove, this area does not contain any sensitive receivers and as such the area of exceedanceof the WQO could be classed as a 'mixing zone' and the predicted impacts would be deemedacceptable.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-23


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentSEDIMENT DEPOSITIONPrevious Studies5.6.28 In the study Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals 10 and 11and Back-up Areas w the results of the computer modelling were analysed to producecontours of net deposition of fine sediment over a complete tidal cycle. The maximum ratesof sediment deposition were found for Scenario 3, which, as discussed above, simulated thehighest rates of sediment lost to suspension of 46.5 kg s" 1 . The predicted rates of depositionwere similar for both the wet and dry season tides. In the immediate vicinity of the dredgingoperation, rates of deposition exceeded 0.6 kg m" 2 day" 1 while rates of 0.2 kg m" 2 day" 1 to 0.4kg m" 2 day" 1 were predicted to occur over an area of approximately 1.5 km by 3.5 km. Thisarea encompassed the region of the Penny's Bay reclamation and seaward of the line of theseawalls and along the coastline of Lantau Island to the north east up to the Fa Pengheadland. Deposition rates of less than 0.2 kg m" 2 day" 1 were predicted to occur south of theworks areas, and affected the coastlines of outer Discovery Bay, Peng Chau, Siu Kau YiChau and the headland at the south western end of Penny's Bay. Elsewhere deposition rateswere predicted to be less than 0.01 kg m" 2 day" 1 .PENNY'S BAY5.6.29 The maximum loss rate of sediment to suspension during the construction of the Penny'sBay reclamation for the Theme Park occurs at the time of the maximum rate of filling inmonth 10 of the construction programme. At this time, the loss of fine sediment tosuspension has been calculated to be 25.3 kg s" 1 , which is 54.4% lower than the maximumloss rate in the previous study. In assessing the impacts of suspended sedimentconcentrations on sensitive receivers for this Study the results from the previous modellingwere reduced by 54.4%. The same approach has been used here to calculate the rates ofsediment deposition from the filling and dredging at the Penny's Bay reclamation for theTheme Park. This approach is considered to be reasonable because rates of deposition aredirectly related to the quantities of sediment in suspension.5.6.30 In the vicinity of the works area for the Penny's Bay reclamation, the rates of deposition arecalculated to be 0.33 kg m" 2 day" 1 . In the area along the face of the reclamation and thenorth eastern coastline of Lantau Island up to the Tsing Chau Tsai headland the depositionrates are calculated to be in the range of 0.22 kg m" 2 day" 1 to 0.11 kg m" 2 day" 1 , which coversan area approximately 5 km long by 1.5 km wide. Within this area, only the deposition ratesalong the face of the reclamation area are predicted to exceed the threshold value of 0.2 kgm" 2 day" 1 for hard corals, while along the coastline of Lantau Island from the Pa Tau Kwuheadland to the Fa Peng headland deposition rates are predicted to be lower than thethreshold value. The area of exceedance of the threshold value is open seabed and, as such,deposition rates would not be considered to represent an adverse impact. Further afield,around Discover Bay, Peng Chau and Siu Kau Yi Chau, sediment deposition rates arecalculated to be less than 0.11 kg m" 2 day" 1 , which is less than the critical value. AroundKau Yi Chau and at Sze Pak Wan sediment deposition rates are predicted to be less than0.005 kg m" 2 day" 1 . No adverse impacts due to sediment deposition from the construction ofthe Penny's Bay reclamation for the Theme Park are therefore predicted.(44) Maunsell Consultants Asia Ltd (1995). Op dtScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-24Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentYAMO5.6.31 The rate of deposition due to the sediment plumes from the dredging at Yam O may bedetermined by the following equation.rate of deposition = average SS concentration * daily settling rate5.6.32 The average suspended sediment concentration is determined from the calculated suspendedsediment concentrations in Table 5.6i. The average suspended sediment concentration alongthe sediment plume is thus calculated to be 5.0 mg L" 1 . The daily settling rate is calculatedfrom the settling velocity for the coarse fraction of sediments, as discussed above, which isthus 11.1 m day" 1 . The deposition rate is thus calculated to be 0.055 kg m- 2 day" 1 . Thisvalue is less than the critical value for corals of 0.2 kg m" 2 day" 1 and as such would not causean adverse impact. It should be noted that the deposition will occur in an area which is notexpected to contain hard corals. The predicted impacts due to sediment deposition fromdredging at the Yam O reclamation are therefore considered to be acceptable.WATER QUALITYPrevious Studies5.6.33 In the study Design of Reclamation and Edge Structures for Container Terminals 10 and 11and Back-up Areas < 45 > the results of computer modelling of sediment dispersion were usedto calculate decreases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and increases in nutrient (totalinorganic nitrogen) concentrations. Scenario 3 from the previous study has again been usedas the reference scenario since it simulated the highest loss of sediment to suspension of 46.5kgs" 1 .5.6.34 The previous results predicted that the greatest decreases in dissolved oxygen levels wouldoccur during the dry season and it is these results which have been considered here. Themodelling predicted that in the vicinity of the works area the maximum depletion indissolved oxygen concentration would be 0.06 mg L" 1 , while in the region around the worksarea and along the north eastern coast of Lantau Island, decreases in dissolved oxygen werepredicted to be in the range 0.04 to 0.02 mg L" 1 . Further from the works area, in Sze PakWan, Discovery Bay, Peng Chau and around Ma Wan Island, depletions in dissolved oxygenconcentration were less than 0.02 mg L" 1 . In the previous modelling it was assumed that theoxygen demand of the sediment was 22,500 mgO kg" 1 sediment, which was based on typicalvalues recorded in Victoria Harbour.5.6.35 The previous modelling predicted that the increases in nutrient levels would be similar forboth the wet and dry seasons. The maximum increases in nutrient concentrations werepredicted to be in excess of 0.01 mg L" 1 in the immediate vicinity of the dredging operations.In the area along the seaward face of the reclamation and off the north eastern coast ofLantau Island the predicted increases in nutrient concentrations were in the range of 0.0025mg L" 1 to 0.005 mg L" 1 . The remainder of the predicted increases in nutrient levels were lessthan 0.0025 mg L" 1 and were only predicted to effect the open water to the south and southeast of the reclamation site and the coastlines of north east Lantau Island and Tang LungChau, The modelling assumed that the nutrient content of the sediments was 500 mg N kg"(45) MaunseU Consultants. Asia Ltd (1995). OpcitScott Wilson (Hong Kong)Ltd in association with ERM HongKong 5-25Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentsediment, which was based on the upper bound of sediment quality values in VictoriaHarbour.PENNY'S BAY5.6.36 In order to predict the effects of the loss of sediment to suspension from the dredging andfilling for the Penny's Bay reclamation on oxygen concentrations, the results from theprevious modelling have been factored by the ratio of the loss rate from the Penny's Bayreclamation to the loss rate in the previous modelling (ie 25.3/46.5) and by the ratio of thesediment oxygen demand values (ie 35,100/22,500). This gives an overall factor of 0.85.This is considered to be a reasonable approach to adopt because decreases in dissolvedoxygen concentrations are directly related to suspended sediment concentration andsediment oxygen demand. It should be noted however, that this approach is inherentlyconservative because the sediment lost to suspension is composed of that lost from dredgingand that lost from sand filling. The fines content of the sand filling material is likely to havea considerably lower oxygen demand that the sediment being dredged and so applying thesame sediment oxygen demand to all of the fine sediment lost to suspension (ie that of thesediment to be dredged) will lead to a conservative assessment.5.6.37 The dissolved oxygen depletion from the loss of sediment to suspension during theconstruction of the Penny's Bay reclamation for the Theme Park is calculated to be greaterthen 0.051 mg L"" 1 in the vicinity of the works, while decreases over a wider area, including aportion of the coastline of north east Lantau Island are predicted to be in the range of 0.034to 0.017 rng L" 1 . Further from the works area, in Sze Pak Wan, Discovery Bay, Peng Chauand around Ma Wan Island, the reductions in dissolved oxygen levels are predicted to beless than 0.017 mg L" 1 . The background dissolved oxygen values, which are considered inthis assessment, are 4.2 mg L" 1 and 4.9 mg L" 1 at Stations WM4 and SM10 respectively. Inthe immediate vicinity of the works the sediment plumes will be closest to Station SM10,and the maximum depletion in dissolved oxygen concentrations constitutes 1% of thebackground and the predicted depletion would not cause a breach of the WQO. Furtheraway from the works area the predicted depletion is less than 0.017 mg L" 1 , whichconstitutes less than 0.5% of the background concentrations at Station WM4, the closest andmost relevant station. The predicted depletion in dissolved oxygen concentrations wouldalso not cause a breach in the WQO around Ma Wan Island. It should also be noted that thepredicted depletions in dissolved oxygen concentrations would only persist during themaximum rates of dredging and filling, and at other times the reductions in dissolvedoxygen concentrations would be less. It is concluded that there will be no adverse effects ondissolved oxygen concentrations as a result of the dredging and filling works at the Penny'sBay reclamation as the predicted depletions in dissolved oxygen concentrations would notcause a breach of the WQO.5.6.38 In order to predict the effects of the loss of sediment to suspension from the dredging andfilling for the Penny's Bay reclamation on nutrient concentrations, the results from theprevious modelling have been factored by the ratio of the loss rate from the Penny's Bayreclamation to the loss rate in the previous modelling (ie 25.3/46.5) and by the ratio of thenutrient content of the sediment. Two factors are considered here, unionised ammonia andtotal inorganic nitrogen.5.6.39 Ammoniacal nitrogen concentration has been calculated by taking the ratio of ammoniaconcentrations in the sediment to the assumed nitrogen content in the previous modelling,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-26Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentwhich is 40/500. In the vicinity of the dredging works, routine EPD water qualitymonitoring data for 1998 < 46 ) has found that unionised ammonia is approximately 3.3% of thetotal ammonia concentration. The total factor for calculating unionised ammoniaconcentrations is thus 0.0014 (ie 25.3/46.5 x 40/500 x 0.033).5.6.40 There is no data available on total inorganic nitrogen content of the sediments in Penny'sBay and as such, the total nitrogen concentration has been used; this provides a conservativeestimate. The ratio of total nitrogen concentration in the sediment to that assumed in theprevious modelling is 1,630/500. The total factor for calculating total nitrogenconcentrations, which is equated to total inorganic nitrogen, is thus 1.77 (ie 25.3/46.5 x1,630/500).5.6.41 These assumptions for calculating nitrogen concentrations from the Penny's Bay reclamationare considered reasonable because the nitrogen concentrations are directly dependent uponthe quantities of sediment lost to suspension and the nitrogen content of the sediments. Itshould be noted however, that this approach is inherently conservative because the sedimentlost to suspension is composed of that lost from dredging and that lost from sand filling.The fines content of the sand filling material is likely to have a considerably lower nitrogencontent than the sediment being dredged and so applying the same nitrogen content to all ofthe fine sediment lost to suspension (ie that of the sediment to be dredged) will lead to aconservative assessment.5.6.42 The calculated increases in total nitrogen (equated here to total inorganic nitrogen) in theimmediate vicinity of the works area are predicted to be in excess of 0.018 mg L" 1 . Outsideof the works area, and along the coast of north east Lantau Island, increases are predicted tobe in the range of 0.004 to 0.009 mg L" 1 . These areas are best represented by EPD routinewater quality monitoring Station SM10, where the depth averaged total inorganic nitrogenconcentrations were 0.27 mg L" 1 . The predicted increases in the vicinity of the works areawould only elevate the background levels by less than 7%; this is considered to represent asmall increase. Further away from the works, increases due to the reclamation constructionwould elevate the background levels by 3.3%, which is considered to be negligible.5.6.43 The assessment of the increases in total inorganic nitrogen levels has predicted that thedredging works will only increase the background levels by small amounts, despite theconservative nature of the assessment. The existing total inorganic nitrogen levels alreadybreach the WQO and as such the water body would be considered to be 'stressed'.However, the predicted levels represent an insignificant increases compared to thebackground levels and will only persist as long as high rates of dredging and filling aremaintained. The reclamation construction would thus not contribute significantly to thebackground concentrations nor would it prevent the long term recovery of the water body.The predicted increases in total inorganic nitrogen levels are therefore considered to beacceptable.5.6.44 Increases in unionised ammonia in the immediate vicinity of the works area are predicted tobe in excess of 0.000014 mg L" 1 , which is extremely small. The background level ofunionised ammonia at Station SM10, the closest EPD routine water quality monitoringstation, was 0.003 mg L" 1 . The addition of the unionised ammonia from the reclamationworks will not significantly add to the background levels nor will the additional ammonia(46) EPD (1999). OpcitScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-27Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentcause the WQO of 0.021 mg L" 1 be breached. Predicted increases in unionised ammonialevels are therefore considered to be acceptable.5.6.45 In the previous studies for the Container Terminals 10 and 11 no modelling of the release ofmetals to the water column from the suspended sediments was carried out. The prediction ofpollutant release to the water column for the Penny's Bay reclamation have therefore beenbased on the previous predictions of suspended sediment concentrations. The prediction ofthe release of metals has been based on the following equation, which has been used onprevious projects in Hong Kong < 47 > < 48 >, and represents the partitioning of pollutants betweenthe adsorbed and desorbed phases. This equation is applicable to determine partitioning ofpollutants associated with cohesive sediments and is thus suitable for this Study. Theequation describing the partitioning is as follows:Q = C s + (C s xK d xSS)WhereC s = concentration of metal in water (desorbed)K. The values of thepartitioning coefficients for PAHs and PCBs were derived from a previous study whichassessed the environmental impacts of the disposal of contaminated mud at East ShaChau < 50 >. There is, however, no simple partition coefficient for TBT and it is proposed toassume that all of the TBT is released, which will give a very conservative estimate. Theconcentration of copper, PAHs, PCBs and TBT in the sediment was derived from sedimentquality monitoring data collected for this Study, as presented in Table 5.5b. It should benoted that for PAHs and PCBs the values were all below the detection limit and so thedetection limit has been used in order to provide a conservative estimate of the release to thewater column. The partition coefficients are summarised in Table 5.6j.(47) ERM (1998). Environmental Impact Assessment: Dredging an Area of Kellett Bank for Reprovisioning of Six Government, Final Report.(48) ERM (1997). Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Disposal of Contaminated Mud in the East Sha Chau Marine Borrow Pit. Final Report.(49) ERM (1998). OpdL(50) ERM (1997). Op citScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-28Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTable 5.6j - Partition Coefficients (L g' 1 ) for Pollutants in SedimentParameterCopperTotal PAHsTotal PCBsTBTPartition Co$ffite&ii€ ; - -' Vs //:~; '\\\ :


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentsediment in suspension. A review of the routine EPD water quality monitoring data forStation NM1 has determined that unionised ammonia constitutes approximately 3.8% of thetotal ammonia concentrations and this value has therefore been used to convert the release oftotal ammonia to unionised ammonia. In order to compare the predicted increases innitrogen to the water column with the WQO for total inorganic nitrogen it has been assumed,conservatively, that the release of total nitrogen can be used to represent total inorganicnitrogen. The results of the calculations of the effects of the dredging works on waterquality are given in Table 5.61.Table 5.61 - Calculated Water Quality Impacts from Dredging at the Yam OReclamationDistance fromSource (m)100200300400500600700800ss(mgL 4 )14.77.34.93.72.92.42.11.8DO Decrease(mgl/ 1 )0.760.380.250.190.150.130.110.10IMoni$ecJ Ammonia(mgL-Y'^ •>'* '0.000040.000020.00001O.00001O.00001O.00001O.OOOOl0.00001ToMHitrogeibs \ ^ 'Cwg'lf)," v >,


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.6m - Calculated Water Quality Impacts from Dredging at the Yam OReclamationDistance fromSource (m)100200300400500600700800ss(mgr 1 )14.77.34.93.72.92.42.11.8Copper


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.6.56 Cumulative impacts have therefore only been considered at these two sensitive receivers.5.6.57 The calculation of the elevations in suspended sediment concentrations at the sensitivereceivers from the dredging and filling for the reclamation at Penny's Bay found that thehighest impacts at the sensitive receivers (see Tables 5.6g and 5.6h) were generated duringthe dry season. A review of the previous studies for the concurrent projects determined thatfor the majority of those projects that the highest impacts at the above identified sensitivereceivers were also predicted to occur in the dry season. The assessment of cumulativeimpacts to sensitive receivers has been carried out for this worst case condition from theimpacts of the construction of the Theme Park reclamations at Penny's Bay and Yam O.5.6.58 The results of the cumulative impact assessment are presented in Table 5.60 which containspredictions of the elevations in suspended sediment concentrations at the two identifiedsensitive receivers for the concurrent projects; the predicted increases in suspended sedimenthave been derived from specific sediment plume modelling studies conducted for theidentified projects.Table 5.6o - Maximum Predicted Cumulative Elevations in Suspended SedimentConcentrations (mg L" 1 ) at Sensitive ReceiversProjectSensitive Eeed*veih>v fMaWanFCZ(Allowable increase in concentrationconcentration 4.5 mgCT9 Reclamation 3.7 2.5Backfilling North of Lantau and 3.0South Tsing Yi MBAs7,0Sand Winning at West SulphurChannel


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentless than 5% of the total and alone does not breach the WQO. Specific constraints on thefilling and dredging at the Theme Park reclamation at Penny's Bay will not reduce thepredicted cumulative impact to below the WQO and it will thus be the responsibility of theconcurrent projects to apply mitigation measures, should unacceptable impacts be detectedduring construction.5.6.60 At the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone exceedances of the WQO are predicted to occur due tothe cumulative impacts of the above projects. The total cumulative increase in suspendedsediment concentrations are predicted to be 12.8 mg L" 1 and 14.3 mg L" 1 , of which theconstruction of the Penny's Bay reclamation contributes 2.7 mg L" 1 and 4.2 mg L" 1 orapproximately 21.1% and 29.4% respectively. It will therefore be necessary to consider theprovision of mitigation measures to protect water quality at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone.5.6.61 There is the potential for the suspended sediment plumes from the construction of thePenny's Bay reclamation to overlap with those from the construction of the Route 10 TollPlaza, in the vicinity of the Fa Peng headland. However, such cumulative impacts may beprevented by ensuring that the seawalls along Section R6, R7 and the eastern side of SectionR4 are constructed above the water level prior to the commencement of the construction ofthe Route 10 Toll Plaza. This should prevent any sediment plumes from the Penny's bayreclamation being transported over the Route 10 site on the flood tide and prevent anyplumes from the Route 10 construction works being carried over the Penny's Bayreclamation site on the ebb tide.Reclamation Phasing5.6.62 The reclamation in Penny's Bay will be constructed progressively from west to east. Thismeans that there will be no formation of embayed areas during the construction of thereclamation, as might have occurred if the reclamation was constructed in segmentsadvancing from either side of reclamation area. There will therefore be no need to considermitigation measures to prevent the formation of embayed areas, such as altering the phasingof the reclamation.LAND BASED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES5.6.63 The potential sources of impacts, described in Section 5.5.2, may be readily controlled byappropriate on-site measures to minimise potential impacts and, as such, no furtherassessment of impacts has been carried out.5.7 MITIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION PHASE5.7.1 The description of mitigation measures to prevent adverse impacts to water quality duringthe construction phase has been divided into two aspects, formation of the reclamation andland based construction activities, including those for the Theme Park and for the road andrail links.RECLAMATION FORMATION5.7.2 Suitable mitigation measures to prevent adverse impacts to water quality during reclamationformation are discussed here for the Penny's Bay and Yam O reclamations. The implicationsof potential concurrent projects for the mitigation of dredging and filling at the reclamationsite are also discussed.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-33Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentPenny's Bay5.7.3 Mitigation for the dredging and filling for the construction of the Theme Park reclamation atPenny's Bay will take two main forms, operation constraints and general plant workingmethods, which are both discussed below.5.7.4 The impacts to water quality from the loss of sediment to suspension was assessed in termsof the maximum rates of dredging and filling during the construction of the Penny's Bayreclamation. The assessment was carried out based on the predicted loss rates of finesediment to suspension from the different types of plant working on the site during the timesof maximum dredging and filling. The highest loss rate was predicted to occur during thetime at which the maximum rate of filling was occurring. The maximum loss rate wascalculated to be 25.3 kg s" 1 and it was predicted that this rate of loss would not give rise toadverse impacts. It is therefore recommended that the maximum loss rate during theconstruction of the reclamation be kept below this limit. In order to ensure compliance withthis measure it will be necessary to calculate the loss rates during the construction of thereclamation for the plant operating at any one time. The calculation of the loss rate may beaccomplished using the information given in Table 5.7a, which is based on the loss ratesused in the above assessment.Table 5.7a - Calculation of the Loss of Fine Sediment to SuspensionPlantType/OperationGrab dredgerLoss Rate (A)1 7 kg m" 3 dredgedRate of Working in m 3 tf* (B)Trailer dredger - 7 kg m" 3 dredgeddredgingTrailer dredger - 9.33 kg m- 3 filledfillingTotal--Notes:1. The rate of working is to be filled in and the loss rate calculated.2. The total loss rate should be less than 25.3 kg s" 1JLos* Rate Jn% jft^t 3^4x/


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentreclamation. However, an additional measure would be to ensure that seawalls along theface of the reclamation are constructed early in the programme, which would serve to shelterthe works area from tidal currents and hence minimise the transport of fine sediment insuspension away from the works area. Priority should be given to the seawall along thewestern frontage of the reclamation. A requirement is that the filling activities should beundertaken (ie discharge of sand fill from trailing suction hopper dredgers) behind seawallsor other similar structure to act as a barrier. The seawalls, or other suitable barrier, shouldbe constructed at least 200 m in advance of the filling point.5.7.8 The following general working methods shall be applied to supplement the operationalconstraints described above for dredging and filling to further minimise the loss of finesediment to suspension.• for dredging contaminated (Class C) sediments fully-enclosed (water tight) grabs should be used to minimise theloss of sediment during the raising of the loaded grabs through the water column;• for dredging uncontaminated sediment tightly closing grabs should be used to restrict the loss of fine sediment tosuspension;• the descent speed of grabs should be controlled to minimise the seabed impact speed;• barges should be loaded carefully to avoid splashing of material;• all barges used for the transport of dredged materials should be fitted with tight bottom seals in order to preventleakage of material during loading and transport;• all barges should be filled to a level which ensures that material does not spill over during loading and transportto the disposal site and that adequate freeboard is maintained to ensure that the decks are not washed by waveaction;• the speed of trailer dredger should be controlled within the works area to prevent propeller wash from stirring upthe sea bed sediments;• when dredging mud at the reclamation site trailer dredgers should be prohibited from overflowing;• the use of Lean Mixture Overboard (LMOB) will be permitted during the raising and lower of the suction head,but should cease once the suction head is in contact with the sea bed;• "rainbowing" sand fill from trailer dredgers will not normally be permitted, except when the material isdischarged onto areas above water level and are sheltered behind seawalls, or other suitable barriers, which havebeen constructed at least 200 m in advance of the discharge point; and• the works shall cause no visible foam, oil, grease or litter or other objectionable matter to be present in the waterwithin and adjacent to the reclamation site and along the route to and from the marine borrow area and disposalsite.5.7.9 There is planned to be cutter suction dredgers operating in a re-handling basin, the operationof which may cause fine sediment lost to be lost to suspension. It is recommended that asuitable device, such as a diffuser or similar, be fitted to the cutter suction dredger, whichdischarges the re-handled fill in thin layers. The design of the device should be such that thefill material does not disturb the sea bed and that a density flow is formed close to the seabed. The location of the re-handling basin should be such that it is always positioned behindcompleted seawalls or other suitable barriers, which have been constructed at least 200 m inadvance of the location of the re-handling basin. This measure will ensure that any fineScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-35Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentsediment lost to suspension during the operation of the re-handling basin is retained withinthe filling area, ie behind the seawalls.5.7.10 The implementation of the above described operational constraints and general workingmethods as mitigation measures will ensure that the potential water quality impactsassociated with the construction of the reclamation for the Theme Park in Penny's Bay willbe minimised to levels that are not predicted to cause unacceptable impacts to eithersensitive receivers of the receiving waters.Yam O5.7.11 Mitigation for the dredging and filling for the construction of the Theme Park reclamation atPenny's Bay will take two main forms, operational constraints and general plant workingmethods, which are both discussed below.5.7.12 The following operational constraints should be placed on the construction of thereclamation at Yam O for the Theme Park.• dredging should be undertaken using a single grab dredging with a maximum rate of working of 2,000 m 3 day" 1 ;and• filling should be undertaken behind seawalls which have been constructed above the water surface.5.7.13 The above operational constraints will be sufficient to prevent adverse impacts to waterquality. However, to supplement the operational constraints the same general methods ofworking described above for the Penny's Bay reclamation should also be applied to the YamO reclamation.Cumulative Impacts5.7.14 The potential cumulative impacts to sensitive receivers arising from concurrent projectshave been assessed. Exceedances of the WQO were predicted to occur at the Ma Wan FishCulture Zone and Tung Wan Beach on Ma Wan. However, the contribution of theconstruction of the Theme Park reclamations to the adverse impacts at the Tung Wan Beachwas considered to be negligible and it would therefore be the responsibility of other projectsto employ mitigation measures. The construction of the Theme Park reclamation at Penny'sBay was predicted to contribute up to approximately 29% of the total predicted increase insuspended sediment concentrations at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone and it wasrecommended that the need for specific mitigation measures be considered.5.7.15 The above described mitigation measures for filling operations (ie filling behind completedseawalls) will ensure that the loss of fine sediment to suspension during filling of thePenny's Bay and Yam O reclamation is minimised. In the calculation of the increase insuspended sediment concentrations from the dredging and filling at the Penny's Bayreclamation for the maximum rate of filling the losses from filling contributed 15.4 kg s" 1out of a total of 25.3 kg s" 1 (see Table 5.6f), which is 60.9% of the total. With the reductionin losses from filling, the calculated increases in suspended sediment concentrations at theMa Wan Fish Culture Zone due to the maximum rate of filling of the Penny's Bayreclamation will be reduced from 4.2 mg L" 1 to 1.6 mg L" 1 . For the maximum rate ofdredging the losses from filling contributed 5.1 kg s" 1 out of a total of 16.3 kg s" 1 (see Table5.6e) y which is 31.3% of the total. The calculated impacts at the Ma Wan Fish Culture ZoneScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-36Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentdue to the maximum rate of dredging will therefore reduce from 2.7 mg U 1 (see Table 5.6g)to 1.9 mg L" with the retention of the losses from filling. The total predicted increases inconcentrations at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone will thus be reduced to 12.0 mg L" 1 and11.6 mg L" , to which the construction of the Penny's Bay reclamation contributes 15.8%and 13.8%. The contribution due to the construction of the Penny's Bay reclamation hasthus been reduced as much as is practicable (ie to less than 2 mg L" 1 ) and does not contributesignificantly to the total concentrations at this sensitive receiver. Any further reductions inthe impacts at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone will thus fall to the other concurrent projects.5.7.16 In order to determine whether the predicted potential exceedance of the WQO at the MaWan Fish Culture Zone will adversely affect the fish stocks and thus whether thisexceedance would constitute an adverse impact it is necessary to calculate the totalsuspended sediment concentrations (ie ambient plus the predicted increase). In determiningthe ambient concentration the maximum recorded suspended sediment concentration for thelast five years has been considered, which was 27.3 mg L" 1 at EPD routine water qualitymonitoring Station WM4 in 1995 < 52 > . Station WM4 is used because it is the closest stationto the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone. The use of the maximum recorded concentrationsensures that a conservative assessment is carried out. The maximum calculated increase insuspended sediment concentrations from cumulative projects is 12.0 mg L" 1 , as discussedabove. The total suspended sediment at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone used in theassessment is thus 39.3 mg U 1 . The potential impacts to fish stocks are assessed in Section9, which discusses impact to fisheries. In that section it is concluded that a total suspendedsediment concentration of 39.3 mg L" 1 would not cause adverse impacts to the fish stocks inthe Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone.5.7.17 It should be noted that in the assessment the contributions of other concurrent projects at theMa Wan Fish Culture Zone were based on worst case scenarios for each of those projects (iethe concurrent projects were assumed to be operating at their highest allowable rates) andthat the probability of each of those worst case scenarios operating concurrently isconsidered to be low. Furthermore, it has been assumed that the maximum predictedincreases in concentrations at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone for each of the concurrentprojects occur at the same time within the tidal cycle, which may not necessarily be the case.For instance the impacts due to the disposal at North of Lantau, the Sham Tseng FurtherReclamation and the CT9 construction works are likely to occur during the ebb phase of thetidal cycle, while the impacts from the construction of the Penny's Bay reclamation are mostlikely to occur on the flood tide. It may thus be concluded that the cumulative impactsassessed here are very much worst case and that the actual impacts are likely to be verymuch lower. As such there will be a low probability of the exceedance of the WQO at theMa Wan Fish Culture Zone due to the impacts from the construction of the Theme Parkreclamation at Penny's Bay in combination with other projects.5.7.18 The predicted cumulative exceedance of the WQO will only occur when the maximum ratesof working are being employed at each of the concurrent projects and at certain stages of thetidal cycle. This means that the duration of the exceedances will be limited, both in terms ofthe number of days upon which an exceedance could be recorded and the duration of theexceedance once recorded within a day. The maximum contribution of the construction ofthe reclamations for the Theme Park to the elevated suspended sediment concentrations atthe Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone will only occur during periods of high rates of dredging,(52) EPD (1996). Marine Water Quality in Hong Kong for 1995.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-37Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentwhich occur in the early parts of the reclamation formation within the first year ofconstruction. The sediment plumes from the dredging activity would only be expected toimpact the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone on the flood phase of the tidal cycle, causing shortduration 'spikes' in the suspended sediment concentrations. The duration of these spikes islikely to be less than 2 hours during each tidal cycle.5.7.19 As there will be multiple projects occurring in areas in the vicinity of the Theme Park it hasbeen recommended in the Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A) Manual that anEnvironmental Projects Office (ENPO) be set up for the Project. The responsibility foremploying further mitigation measures and the implementation of such measures for theabove discussed sensitive receivers would be determined through the ENPO. This willensure that there are no adverse impacts at the above discussed sensitive receivers.5.7.20 In order to prevent cumulative impacts with the concurrent construction of the Route 10 TollPlaza the seawalls along the eastern side of the Phase II reclamation (see Figure 5.6b) shouldbe constructed to above the water surface prior to the commencement of the works for theRoute 10 Toll Plaza.LAND BASED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES5.7.21 In this section appropriate on-site measures are defined to minimise potential impacts, whichwill be sufficient to prevent adverse impacts to water quality from land based constructionactivities, including those for the Theme Park and for the road and rail links. Thesemeasures are appropriate for general land based construction activities. However, specificmeasures associated with the Penny's Bay Rail Link (PBRL) are detailed in Annex M 9 whichcontains the EIA for the PBRL.SurfaceRun-off5.7.22 Surface run-off from the Theme Park construction site should be directed into storm drainsvia adequately designed sand/silt removal facilities such as sand traps, silt traps andsediment basins. Channels, earth bunds or sand bag barriers should be provided on site toproperly direct stormwater to such silt removal facilities. Catchpits and perimeter channelsshould be constructed in advance of site formation works and earthworks.5.7.23 Silt removal facilities, channels and manholes should be maintained and the deposited siltand grit should be removed regularly, at the onset of and after each rainstorm to ensure thatthese facilities are functioning properly at all times.5.7.24 If excavation cannot be avoided during rainy seasons, temporarily exposed soil surfacesshould be covered e.g. by tarpaulin, and temporary access roads should be protected bycrushed stone or gravel, as excavation proceeds. Intercepting channels should be provided(e.g. along the crest/edge of the excavation) to prevent storm runoff from washing acrossexposed soil surfaces. Arrangements should always be in place to ensure that adequatesurface protection measures can be safely carried out well before the arrival of a rainstorm.5.7.25 Earthworks final surfaces should be well compacted and the subsequent permanent work orsurface protection should be carried out as soon as practical after the final surfaces areformed to prevent erosion caused by rainstorms. Appropriate intercepting channels shouldbe provided where necessary. Rainwater pumped out from trenches or foundationexcavations should be discharged into storm drains via silt removal facilities.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-38Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.7.26 Open stockpiles of construction materials (e.g. aggregates and sand) on site should becovered with tarpaulin or similar fabric during rainstorms. Measures should be taken toprevent the washing away of construction materials, soil, silt or debris into any drainagesystem.5.7.27 Manholes (including any newly constructed ones) should always be adequately covered andtemporarily sealed so as to prevent silt, construction materials or debris from getting into thedrainage system, and to prevent storm run-off from getting into foul sewers. Discharges ofsurface run-off into foul sewers must always be prevented in order not to unduly overloadthe foul sewerage system.Excavation for the Artificial Lake5.7.28 The sediments to be excavated for construction of the artificial lake have been found to becontaminated with products associated with the shipyard in Penny's Bay. The abovedescribed measures for controlling run-off from the construction site will be sufficient toprevent any contaminated sediments from being carried into the stormwater drains anddischarged to marine waters. Any particular measures for handling and disposal of thesesediments are described in Section 6, which assesses waste management.Groundwater5.7.29 Groundwater pumped out of wells, etc. for the lowering of ground water level in foundationconstruction, such as that required for new buildings, should be discharged into storm drainsafter being passed through appropriate silt removal facilities.Wheel Washing Water5.7.30 All vehicles and plant should be cleaned before they leave the construction site to ensure thatno earth, mud or debris is deposited by them on roads. A wheel washing bay should beprovided at every site exit, if practicable, and wash-water should have sand and silt settledout or removed before being discharged into the storm drains. The section of constructionroad between the wheel washing bay and the public road should be paved with backfall toreduce vehicle tracking of soil and to prevent site run-off from entering public road drains.Wastewater from Building Construction5.7.31 Wastewater generated from concreting, plastering, internal decoration, cleaning work andother similar activities, should undergo large object removal by installing bar traps at thedrain inlets. It is not considered necessary to carry out silt removal due to the smallquantities of water involved. Similarly, pH adjustment of such water is not considerednecessary due to the small quantities and the fact that the water is only likely to be mildlyalkaline.Wastewater from Site Facilities5.732 Sewage from toilets, kitchens and similar facilities should be discharged into a foul sewer orchemical toilets should be provided. Should the use of chemical toilets be necessary thenthese should be provided by a licensed contractor, who will be responsible for appropriatedisposal and maintenance of these facilities. Wastewater collected from canteen kitchens,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-39Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentincluding that from basins, sinks and floor drains, should be discharged into foul sewers viagrease traps.5.7.33 Vehicle and plant servicing areas, vehicle wash bays and lubrication bays should, as far aspossible, be located within roofed areas. The drainage in these covered areas should beconnected to foul sewers via a petrol interceptor. Oil leakage or spillage should becontained and cleaned up immediately. Waste oil should be collected and stored forrecycling or disposal, in accordance with the Waste Disposal Ordinance.Storage and Handling of Oil, Other Petroleum Products and Chemicals5.7.34 All fuel tanks and chemical storage areas should be provided with locks and be sited onsealed areas. The storage areas should be surrounded by bunds with a capacity equal to110% of the storage capacity of the largest tank to prevent spilled oil, fuel and chemicalsfrom reaching the receiving waters. The Contractors should prepare guidelines andprocedures for immediate clean-up actions following any spillages of oil, fuel or chemicals.Surface run-off from bunded areas should pass through oil/grease traps prior to discharge tothe stormwater system.5.8 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY - OPERATION5.8.1 The assessment of the impacts to water quality from the operation of the Theme Park is splitinto four main aspects.• The surrounding marine waters;• The artificial lake;* The adequacy of the sewerage system, including the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works (STW); and* The road and rail links.MARINE WATERS5.8.2 The operation of the Theme Park will have the potential to affect the water quality of thesurrounding marine waters in two ways, by changing the hydrodynamics and through thedischarges of pollutants from the Theme Park. The impacts to hydrodynamics and thedischarge of sewage effluents and stormwater from the Theme Park have been assessedthrough computational modelling. The impacts from the potential discharge of toxicsubstances (residual chlorine, pesticides and herbicides) have been assessed qualitatively.Hydrodynamics5.83 The formation of the reclamations for the Theme Park at Penny's Bay and Yam O have thepotential to affect tidal current patterns and tidal discharges, which could affect water qualityover a wide area and local sediment erosion/deposition patterns in the vicinity of thereclamations. In order to assess the effects of the reclamations on tidal current patterns anddischarges computational hydraulic modelling has been undertaken using the Delft SB-FLOW hydrodynamic model. This model calculates flow and transport phenomena resultingfrom tidal and meteorological forcing by solving the unsteady shallow water equations ofcontinuity and momentum. The main application of Delft3D-FLOW is the threedimensionalsimulation of tidal and wind driven flows, including the effect of. densitydifferences due to non-uniform temperature and salinity distributions in shallow seas, coastalareas, estuaries, rivers and lakes. The model aims to simulate flow phenomena where theScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd jn association with ERM Hong Kong 5-40Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmenthorizontal length scales are significantly larger then the vertical scales. This model is ,therefore, suited to simulating the complex hydrodynamic conditions in the Hong Kong SARwaters and the Pearl River estuary.5.8.4 The hydrodynamic modelling for this Study was based on the model which was originallyset up, calibrated and validated for the Hong Kong SAR Government < 53 >. This model,known as the Upgrade Model, covers the whole of the Hong Kong SAR waters, the PearlRiver estuary, Mirs Bay, the Lema Channel and stretches of the South China coastline to thewest of Macau and to the east of Mirs Bay. This model has recently been updated using anextensive new field data set ( 54 > , which has resulted in an improved representation of thehydraulics of the Hong Kong SAR waters.5.8.5 The grid of the updated model was refined in the vicinity of the reclamations at Penny's Bayand Yam O to provide an improved representation of the features of the reclamations. Theoverall model grid is shown in Figure 5.8a and the detail of the model grid around LantauIsland is shown in Figure 5.8b. The hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate twoscenarios, which are defined below. Each of the scenarios was simulated for 15 day springneaptidal cycles in the wet and dry seasons.• Baseline, corresponding to all planned reclamations in 2012; and• Completed, including the reclamations at Penny's Bay and Yam O.5.8.6 The reclamations in the Baseline Scenario were defined with reference to those adopted forthe study Update on Cumulative Water Quality and Hydrological Effect of CoastalDevelopment and Upgrading of Assessment 7bo/< 55 ) . Major future reclamations anddevelopments, which are included in the baseline are as follows.• Tuen Mun Port;« Tung Chung and Tai Ho reclamations;• Siu Lam Typhoon Shelter;• Tang Lung Chau Dangerous Goods Anchorage;• Container Terminal 9;• Tsuen Wan Bay Further Reclamation, including the reclamation for the KCRC West Rail;• Sham Tseng Further Reclamation;• Peng Chau Typhoon Shelter;• Kowloon Point Reclamation;• Green Island Reclamation;• Central-Wanchai reclamations;• South East Kowloon Reclamation;• Tseung Kwan O reclamations;• Hongkong Electric Lamma Extension on western Lamma Island; and• The bridges for Crosslinks and Route 10.5.8.7 Based on the most recently available information the following modifications were made tothe reclamations and developments included in the study Update on Cumulative WaterQuality and Hydrological Effect of Coastal Development and Upgrading of AssessmentTool(53) Delft Hydraulics (1998). Upgrading of the Water Quality and Hydraulic Mathematical Models. Final Model Calibration and Validation Report; Part 2,Hydraulic Validation and WQ Calibration.(54) Hyder Environmental (1999). Update on Cumulative Water Quality and Hydrological Effect of Coastal Developments and Upgrading of Assessment,Calibration and Verification of the Hydrodynamic Model.(55) Hyder Environmental (1999). OpcitScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association 5-41Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• The layouts of the Tseung Kwan O reclamations were modified to account for a revised Area 131 and anextension of reclamations up to the cross bay bridge;• The island reclamation in Tung Chung Bay was deleted;• The layout of the South East Kowloon reclamation was reduced to account for the new planning proposals forthe area;• A reclamation was introduced on the western side of Lamma Island for a proposed Waste to Energy IncinerationFacility; and• The West Lamma Breakwater was deleted from the Baseline scenario, which would only be necessary once anyproposed container terminals were constructed in the vicinity of Kau Yi Chau.5.8.8 The layouts for the Penny's Bay and Yam O reclamations were defined as part of this Study.Water Quality5.8.9 During the operation of the Theme Park discharges of waste water will occur in the form ofsewage effluents and storm water. The sewage effluent will be transported to the Siu HoWan Sewage Treatment Works (STW) for treatment and subsequent disposal to the marinewaters via a submarine outfall, which discharges to the south east of the Brothers islands.Storm water will be discharged to the marine waters to the south and east of the Theme Parkreclamation at Penny's Bay via a number of culverts. Both of these discharges will increasethe pollutant loads to the receiving marine waters and have the potential to cause adverseimpacts to water quality. Also, the changes in hydrodynamics associated with the formationof the reclamation may have the potential to affect water quality.5.8.10 In order to study the above described impacts computational modelling has been carried outusing the Delft3D-WAQ water quality model. The model simulates water quality processesin three dimensions. The model includes such parameters as dissolved oxygen, bacteria,nutrients, phytoplankton and suspended sediments. Physical processes, such as theexchange of oxygen with the atmosphere and the setting of suspended substances, areincluded. Biochemical processes simulated in the model include nitrification, algal growthand decay and the decay of organic matter, which affect dissolved oxygen concentrations.Hydrodynamic data for the water quality model is provided by the Delft3D-Flowhydrodynamic model.5.8.11 The water quality model used in this Study is based on the model which was originally setup, calibrated and validated for the Hong Kong SAR Government < 56 ). This model has thesame coverage as the hydrodynamic model, which includes the whole of the Hong KongSAR marine waters, the Pearl River estuary, Mirs Bay and the Lema Channel. Like thehydrodynamic model, the water quality model has recently been updated during the studyUpdate on Cumulative Water Quality and Hydrological Effect of Coastal Developments andUpgrading of Assessment Tool.5.8.12 The water quality model uses the grid of the hydrodynamic model as a basis, as shown inFigures 5.8a and 5.56, but in order to make the simulations more efficient the grid isaggregated by a factor of 2 in the horizontal plane for the areas remote from the Theme Parkreclamation. In the vicinity of the Theme Park reclamations the hydrodynamic grid remains(56) Delft Hydraulics (1998). Op cit.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with 5-42Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentunaggregated so that the a good representation of the reclamations is achieved. The grid forthe water quality model is shown in Figure 5.8c. In the vertical there is an aggregation ofthe ten layers used in the hydrodynamic model to five layers with relative thicknesses of10%-20%-20%-30%-20% of the water depth from the surface to the bed.5.8.13 The water quality model has been used to simulate a complete year so that long termtemporal variations in various water quality parameters may be determined. Inputhydrodynamic data has been provided by aggregating the results from the Delft SD-Flowmodel for the 15 day spring-neap tidal cycles in the wet and dry seasons.5.8.14 The water quality model has been used to simulate two scenarios, as follows.• Baseline, corresponding to all pollutant discharges in 2012; and« Completed, including the discharges from the Theme Park reclamations.5.8.15 A comparison between the two scenarios will enable the effects of the operation of theTheme Park on water quality to be determined.5.8.16 During operation of the Theme Park there are proposed to be nightly fireworks displays.The majority of the residue from the spent fireworks is likely to fall onto the Theme Parkand may then be transported to the surrounding marine waters. The assessment has focusseddevising measures to prevent adverse impacts to water quality from the discharge offireworks residue.Uncertainties in Assessment Methodology5.8.17 Quantitative uncertainties in the hydrodynamic and water quality modelling should beconsidered when making an evaluation of the modelling predictions. For the hydrodynamicmodelling these are considered to be negligible for the following reasons.• The computational grid is sufficiently refined to provide representative simulations results;• The model has been calibrated and validated to provide reliable predictions of hydrodynamics in the areasaffected by the Theme Park reclamations; and• The simulations comprise a sufficient spin up period of 8 days so that the initial conditions do not affect theresults.5.8.18 For the water quality modelling realistic worst case assumptions were made in deriving theinput data for the model in order to provide conservative predictions of impacts. It istherefore possible that the input data for the relevant parameters may cause anoverestimation of the water quality impacts. Some examples of the conservative nature ofthe input parameters are given below.• The upper bound estimates were used for the sewage effluent flows and pollutant concentrations from the ThemePark and from other developments on Lantau Island; and• The background pollutant loads have been derived from conservative population estimates, and may thereforeover-predict the loads.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-43Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Jlierne Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentToxic Substances5.8.19 The operators of the Theme Park propose to use sodium hypochlorite to disinfect any watersused on attractions within the park. Sodium hypochlorite produces residual chlorine, whichis a toxic substance and leads to the production of toxic by-products. The discharge of watercontaining high concentrations of residual chlorine and its by-products to marine watersshould be avoided so as to prevent the build-up of such a toxic substance to a level at whichharmful effects on marine organisms could occur. The assessment focuses on determiningsuitable measures to prevent the discharge of residual chlorine and its by-products.5.8.20 It is likely that both pesticides and herbicides will be used on the landscaped areas of theTheme Park. As for residual chlorine, these substances are toxic and the discharge of suchsubstances in significant quantities to the marine environment should be prevented. Theassessment focuses on deriving suitable measures to prevent the discharge of pesticides andherbicides to the marine environment.Territory Wide Assessment5.8.21 The hydrodynamic and water quality models cover the whole of Hong Kong waters, thePearl River, Mirs Bay and the Lema Channel and as such are able to predict far field effectsof the Theme Park on hydrodynamics and water quality. However, such wide rangingeffects to water quality are unlikely and the assessment has focussed on the areas most likelyto be affected, as shown on Figure 5.3a.ARTIFICIAL LAKE5.8.22 The artificial lake will serve three purposes as follows :• providing a water recreation area;• providing an aesthetically pleasing environment; and• providing a source of irrigation water for the Theme Park.5.8.23 The assessment of water quality within the lake makes use of the above defined beneficialuses to determine acceptable water quality within the lake. The water quality within the lakehas been examined by considering the potential sources of water and the quality of thatwater. It is envisaged that during the wet season stormwater run-off will be used to maintainthe water level, while during periods of low rainfall in the dry season the water will be'topped-up' with water from an external source. Suitable mitigation measures have beendefined to maintain water quality within the lake so that beneficial uses of the lake will notbe compromised.SEWERAGE SYSTEM5.8.24 The sewerage system is assessed in terms of three aspects, the adequacy sewerage pipes tocarry sewage effluent from the Theme Park to the Siu Ho Wan STW, the capacity of the SiuHo Wan Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and the potential for failure/emergency shutdown of the sewerage system.5.8.25 The adequacy of the sewerage pipes has been assessed by comparing the design capacity, ofthe pipes with expected sewage effluent flows generated by the Theme Park. The sewageeffluent flows for various stages of the Theme Park development have been provided by theoperator,, based on experience with similar facilities in other parts of the world.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-44Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.8.26 The Sin Ho Wan STW is currently receiving effluent flows from the Hong KongInternational Airport at Chek Lap Kok and from the Tung Chung New Town. In the futurethe STW will receive increased flows from these two areas as a result of the expansion ofthe airport and from the increased residential developments in Tung Chung and Tai Ho. It isalso proposed to transport the sewage flows from Discovery Bay to the STW, as well as,ultimately, the flows from Mui Wo on the southern side of Lantau Island. An upgrade to theSiu Ho Wan STW is currently being designed to cater for these increased flows. Originallythe design had been carried out assuming that sewage effluents from the potential ContainerTerminals 10 and 11 in Penny's Bay and from Peng Chau would be carried to the STW.However, the planned Container Terminals 10 and 11 have now been replaced by the ThemePark development and it is no longer planned to connect Peng Chau to the STW. It will benecessary to determine whether the changes in the land use in Penny's Bay will result in thesewage flows to the Siu Ho Wan STW exceeding the design capacity. Both the flows fromthe initial phases of the Theme Park and the ultimate development are considered usingsewage effluent flows provided by the Theme Park operator.5.8.27 Either the failure of the sewerage system or the emergency shut down of the system willresult in the discharge of untreated sewage effluent to the marine waters surrounding theTheme Park. The potential for such discharges is considered and suitable measures havebeen devised to minimise the risk of such occurrences and reduce the duration of thesedischarges should they occur.ROAD AND RAIL LINKS5.8.28 The operational design of the road and rail links have been reviewed to determine wherethere may be the potential for impacts to water quality to occur and suitable measuresdevised to mitigate the potential impacts.5.9 IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - OPERATION5.9.1 The identification of potential impacts to water quality from the operation of the Theme Parkis split into four main aspects.• The surrounding marine waters;• The artificial lake;« The adequacy of the sewerage system, including the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works (STW); and• Road and rail links.MARINE WATERS5.9.2 The operation of the Theme Park will have the potential to affect the water quality of thesurrounding marine waters in two ways, by changing the hydrodynamics and through thedischarges of pollutants from the Theme Park.Hydrodynamics5.9.3 Impacts to the hydrodynamic regime of the waters surrounding the Theme Park reclamationsmay be caused by the presence of the reclamations altering tidal currents. These changesmay be in the form of increased current speeds in some areas and decreased speeds in others.Impacts may also occur to the discharge rates in the region surrounding the reclamations,which include the flow channel into and out of the Western Harbour and Victoria Harbour.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-45Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentAny changes in tidal discharge would be important as they would indicate changes in theflushing capacity of the region, which could in turn affect water quality. An indicator of theeffects on water quality of any changes to flushing capacity is salinity, which effectively actsas a conservative tracer and changes in concentration of salinity could be represent ofchanges in other water quality parameters. A cause for concern in terms of changes toflushing would be the areas to the west of the Penny's Bay reclamation, including Discoverybay and Sze Pak Wan, becoming poorly flushed because of a sheltering effect of thereclamation and thus leading to a deterioration in water quality. Such an impact would beundesirable due to the recreational uses of this area.5.9.4 In order to address the above described potential impacts the following analyses have beencarried out.• Calculation of instantaneous, residual and average discharges through major flow channels;• Presentation of tidal current vectors; and• Presentation of contours of salinity.5.9.5 The model results have been processed to calculated residual and average flood and ebbdischarges through major flow channels for each of the wet and dry season simulations. Thelocations of the flow channels are shown on Figure 5.9a and have been selected to representthe flows into and out the areas where the Theme Park reclamations at Penny's Bay andYam O may affect global hydrodynamics. At these same cross section graphs ofinstantaneous and accumulated discharges have been plotted for each of the wet and dryseasons. A comparison of the discharges for the Baseline and Completed Scenariosdetermines the effects of the reclamations on tidal discharges. This is an important factor asthe rate at which pollutants are transported out of a particular body of water is related to thedischarge rate.5.9.6 Tidal current vectors have been plotted for each of the scenarios to determine the effects ofthe reclamations on tidal current speeds and directions. The vectors have been plotted fortwo instances during the tidal cycle, a falling (ebb) tide and a rising (flood) tide. The vectorshave been produced for a spring tide only because the current speeds will be higher thanthose on a neap tide and any changes in speed and direction will therefore be mostnoticeable. For the wet season spring tide the vectors have been produced for the surfaceand bed layers as the wet season stratification results in differences in current speeds anddirections between the surface and bed. In addition, contours of salinity are included on thewet season vector plots. The vectors for the dry season spring tide have been produced forthe surface only as the waters are well mixed and there is little vertical difference in the tidalcurrents. No contours of salinity have been produced for the dry season tide as there is notexpected to be significant spatial or vertical variations in salinity.Water Quality5.9.7 During the operational phase of the Theme Park sewage effluents from the Theme Park willbe collected and transported to the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment works via sub-surfacesewerage pipelines. The effluents will be treated at the Siu Ho Wan STW and discharged tothe marine waters to the north of the STW via a submarine outfall. In the future, during theoperation of the Theme Park, the Siu Ho Wan STW will treat also effluents from the ChekLap Kok airport, the Tung Chung and Tai Ho developments and Discovery Bay. Theincreasein the treated effluent flows and loads from the SiuHo Wan STW as a result of thesewage generated by the Theme Park will have the potential to cause adverse impacts toScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-46Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentwater quality. Stormwater run-off from the Theme Park developments areas will bedischarged to the marine waters to the south and east of the Theme Park at Penny's Bay viaculverts. The stormwater may contain contaminants, which would have the potential tocause adverse impacts to water quality, most likely in the immediate vicinity of the dischargepoints due to the relatively low flow rates from these culverts. In order to determine theimpacts on water quality from the increased discharges treated sewage effluents and stormwater detailed water quality modelling has been carried out for two scenarios, Baseline andCompleted.5.9.8 The pollution loads for the baseline scenario, including sewage effluents and storm waterdischarges were derived from the pollution load inventory produced as part of the studyUpdate on Cumulative Water Quality and Hydrological Effect of Coastal Developments andUpgrading of Assessment Tool This data was used because it provides the most up to dateinformation on pollution loads to the whole of the Hong Kong SAR marine waters and thePearl River Estuary. The key features of the pollution load inventory, which affect the waterquality in the vicinity of the Theme Park reclamations are the assumptions that the PengChau STW continues to discharge off Tai Lei and that the Strategic Sewage DisposalScheme Phases I-IV, including the long sea outfall, have been implemented. Should adverseimpacts to water quality be found to be occurring to the south of the Theme Park, which areattributable to the continued discharge of treated sewage effluents from the Peng Chau STW,then it may be necessary to consider devising alternate discharge locations for the treatedsewage effluent.5.9.9 As part of this Study the flows and loads from the Siu Ho Wan STW have been examinedand modified to better reflect the expected conditions in 2012 without the additional flowsfrom the Theme Park. At this time the Siu Ho Wan STW is expected to be receiving flowsfrom the Chek Lap Kok airport, the Tung Chung and Tai Ho developments and DiscoveryBay. Data on the influent flows and quality from the Chek Lap Kok airport and the TungChung and Tai Ho developments have been obtained from the Final Design Memorandumfor the Siu Ho Wan STW. The influent flows and loads from Discovery Bay have beenestimated assuming a population of 25,000 < 57 >, which is the expected ultimate developmentfor the area and are based on the unit flow factors for domestic sewage in the DrainageServices Department Sewerage Design Manual < 58 >. The treated effluent quality from the SiuHo Wan STW has been calculated assuming a removal efficiencies of 70% for suspendedsolids and 55% for biochemical oxygen demand and a discharge concentration of E. coli of20,000 cfu lOOmL"^59 ). The influent flows and loads to the Siu Ho Wan STW for theBaseline scenario are shown in Table 5.9a and the resulting treated effluent flows and loadsare shown in Table 5.9b.(57) Communication with the Planning Department of the HKSAR Government,(58) Drainage Services Department Sewerage Manual159) Communication with the Sewage Infrastructure Group of the Environmental Protection Department of the HKSAR Government— •Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-47Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.9a - Influent Flows and Loads to the Siu Ho Wan STW for the Baseline ScenarioAirport 16,596 4,979BODqcgday 1 )4,979COB10,757TKMQcgday 1 )769.0(kg day' 1 )429.0TIM31.0Kcoli(cfudaf 1 )3.3E+15Tung Chung/Tai Ho 130,860 25,877 31,877 68,871 4,920.0 2,751.0 201.0 2.04E+16Discovery Bay 9,250 1,000 1,050 2,250 212.5 125.0 14.8 1.08E+15Total 156,706 31,856 37,906 81,878 5,901.5 3,305.0 246.8 2.48E+16Table 5.9b - Treated Effluent Quality from the Siu Ho Wan STW for the Baseline ScenarioJlgaraineter Mow ss BOD COD(ragl/ 1 )TKN NH3-N TTM E.coliEffluent Quality 156,706 60.99 108.85 522.49 37.66 21.09 1.57 20,000Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-48


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.10 Data on the expected sewage flows from the Theme Park developments, including visitors tothe Theme Park and other recreational facilities, hotel guests and employees, were providedby the Theme Park operator. The expected average daily flows have been split into anumber of stages of development as follows.• Theme Park opening day (2005) - 2,706 m 3 day" 1 ;« Theme Park Phase 1 Build out (2014) - 5,593 m 3 day 1 ; and• Theme Park Phase 2 completion (2024) -12,140 m 3 day 1 .5.9.11 The Theme Park Phase 2 completion flows have been used in the water quality modelling,so that the worst case sewage flows from the Theme Park may be considered. Should theresults of the water quality modelling be acceptable then it would be concluded that theinterim phases of the Theme Park would also considered to be acceptable in terms of waterquality impacts.5.9.12 The Theme Park operator also provided data on the expected quality of the sewage effluentsgenerated by the Theme Park, which are as follows.Suspended Solids - 120 to 250 mg L~ l ;Chemical Oxygen Demand - 500 to 600 mg L" 1 ;Biochemical Oxygen Demand - 250 to 450 mg L" 1 ;Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen - 28 to 32 mg L" 1 ; andAmmoniacal Nitrogen - 24 to 26 mg L" 1 .5.9.13 In order to ensure that the water quality modelling is suitably conservative the upper boundconcentrations for each of the above pollutants have been used to determine the input datafor the water quality modelling. No data, however, were provided for Total Toxic Metals(TTM) and E. coli. In order to estimate the loads for these parameters worst case factorswere derived from the data contained in Table 5.9a and applied to the flows from the ThemePark. It should be noted that the lack of data on E. coli is not critical because it is assumedthat the Siu Ho Wan STW will still be able to meet the discharge standard of 20,000 cfulOOmL" 1 with the additional flows from the Theme Park. The influent flows and loads to theSiu Ho Wan STW for the Completed scenario are shown in Table 5.9c and the resultingtreated effluent flows and loads are shown in Table 5.9 d.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-49Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.9c - Influent Flows and Loads to the Siu Ho Wan STW for the Completed Scenariofa *• ^'1*- .*^v^C^;-^ ^fBODCODTKN{kg day 1 )769.0NH3-N(kg da429.0TTM(kg da/ 1 )31.0(cfitdaf 1 )3.30E-H5Airport16,596 4,9794,979 10,757Tung Chung/Tai Ho 130,860 25,877 31,877 68,871 4,920.0 2,751.0 201.0 2.04E+16Discovery Bay 9,250 1,000 1,050 2,250 212.5 125.0 14.8 1.08E+15Theme Park 12,140 3,035 5,463 7,284 388.5 315.6 77.3 4.48E-H5Total 168,846 34,891 43,369 89,162 6,290.0 3,620.6 324.1 2.94E+16Table 5.9d - Treated Effluent Quality from the Siu Ho Wan STW for the Completed ScenarioBOD COD TKN NH3-N TTM Kcoli(mgU 1 ) OngL" 1 ) (cfu lOOmL*Effluent Quality 168,84661.99 115,58 528.07 37.25 21.44 1.92 20,000Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-50


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.14 In addition to the sewage effluents generated by the Theme Park storm water dischargeshave also been included in the water quality modelling. The Theme Park at Penny's Bay hasbeen divided into two main areas, the Theme Park and the commercial/developed areasbehind the Theme Park. Based on an annual average rainfall of 1,756 mm at Discovery Baythe annual average flows rates from the Theme Park and commercial/developed areas hasbeen calculated to be 2,907,930 m3 and 2,778,700 m3 respectively (60) and is based on a runofffactor of 0.92 (ie 8% loss in run-off). Rainfall data for Discovery Bay from the period1980 to 1997 was analysed to determine the proportions of rainfall for the wet and dryseasons. For the purposes of the assessment the wet season was assumed to extend fromApril to September and the dry season from October to March. The analysis determinedthat, on average, 83.6% of the rainfall occurs in the wet season and 16.4% in the dry season.5.9.15 The run-off from these areas are proposed to be discharged to marine waters via threeculverts, two for the Theme Park and one for the commercial/developed areas. Thelocations of these outfalls are shown in Figure 5.9b, which show Outfalls 1 and 2 servingPhases 1 and 2 of the Theme Park respectively and Outfall 3 serving thecommercial/developed areas. The catchment area for Outfall 1 is 99 ha and the catchmentarea for Outfall 2 is 81 ha. The average wet and dry season flows for the Theme Park weresplit according these areas. The resulting average wet and dry season storm water flows areshown in Table 5.9e.Table 5.9e - Average Wet and Dry Season Stormwater Flows^jrea ; , N < > ;Wet SeasonTheme ParkOutfall 1Outfall 2Commercial/Developed AreasOutfall 30.08480.06940.1473, v , Fiow(m 3 $ 4 ) ; ~A\*; ::i^5.ife>:;^;Bry Swim ^ > vr^Kr/X;^ V*.0.01660.01360.02895.9.16 Data on the pollutants in the Stormwater were obtained from the Theme Park operator andwere based on measurements made at a similar facility in Florida. The data can beconsidered to be representative for the proposed Theme Park at Penny's Bay and was used asinput data for the water quality modelling. The pollutant concentrations are presented inTable 5.9f.Table 5.9f - Pollutant Concentrations in the Stormwater from the Theme ParkBiochemical Oxygen Demand (mg L )


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.18 The quality of the stormwater from the commercial/developed areas was obtained from theStormwater Pollution Loading Working Paper, which was prepared as part of the ongoingfeasibility study for the Northshore Lantau Development^61 ). The stormwater quality forthese areas is suitable to provide input data to the water quality modelling as it represents themost up to date source of information. The stormwater quality data are presented in Table5.9g.Table 5.9g - Pollutant Concentrations in the Stormwater from the Commercial/Developed AreasParameterSuspended Solids (mg L" 1 )Biochemical Oxygen Demand (mg L" 1 )Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg L" 1 )Total Phosphorous (mg L" 1 )Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (mg L" 1 )Nitrate + Nitrite (mg L" 1 )Copper (fig L' 1 )Lead (fig L" 1 )Zinc ftig L' 1 )Concentration > ' > / ; \ ; : v, - ' ^ I / -^43.322.845.80.21.40.414.89.61355.9.19 It should be noted that in Table J.9/the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous arehigher than those in Table 5.9g. This due to the use of fertiliser on the landscaped areas ofthe theme park in Florida, which would also occur at the Theme Park in Penny's Bay.5.9.20 In order to compare the results of the water quality modelling with the relevant WaterQuality Objectives statistical analyses of water quality parameters were carried out for theidentified sensitive receivers (see Figure 5.3d) and contours of water quality parameters forboth the Baseline and Completed scenarios were produced. Both the statistical analyses ofthe results at sensitive receivers and contours of the water quality parameters were producedfor the following.• Dissolved oxygen - depth averaged values which are exceeded for 90% of the simulation time;• Dissolved oxygen - bottom values which are exceeded for 90% of the simulation time;• 5-day biochemical oxygen demand - depth averaged mean values;• Total inorganic nitrogen - depth averaged mean values;• Unionised ammonia - depth averaged mean values;• Chlorophyll-a - depth averaged mean values;• E. coli - depth averaged geometric mean values; and• Suspended sediment - depth averaged maximum values.5.9.21 In order to compare the results with the WSD criteria for abstracted sea water the waterquality modelling results were analysed for the following parameters at the WSD sea waterintakes.• Dissolved oxygen - minimum surface layer concentrations;• 5-day biochemical oxygen demand - maximum surface layer concentrations;• Ammoniacal nitrogen - maximum surface layer concentrations;• E. coli - maximum surface layer concentrations; and• Suspended solids - maximum surface layer concentrations.(61) Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd (1999). Op citScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-52


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.22 The analysis of data for comparison with the WSD criteria was undertaken for the surfacelayer in the water quality model because this corresponded most closely with the verticalpositioning of the intakes.5.9.23 The above analyses were carried out for the wet and dry seasons separately. The values werederived by assuming that the wet season could be represented by the period early June tomid September and the dry season by the period of late September to early April.5.9.24 During operation of the Theme Park fireworks displays will be held nightly. The majority ofthe residue from the fireworks is likely to fall onto the Theme Park, where it may betransported to the stormwater system by surface run-off and then discharged to the marinewaters. The fireworks residue may contain pollutants, such as metals, which, if released, tothe marine waters may affect water quality.Toxic Substances5.9.25 There is the potential for three toxic substances to be discharged to the marine environmentduring the operation of the Theme Park, which are residual chlorine, pesticides andherbicides. Residual chlorine could enter the marine waters in the vicinity of the ThemePark if the water from the attractions within the Theme Park are either directly discharged orif the water is discharged to storm drains. Pesticides and herbicides could enter the marineenvironment through run-off from the landscaped areas entering the storm drains. If eitherof these substances is allowed to reach significant concentrations, then toxic effects tomarine organisms could result.Territory WideEffects5.9.26 The operation of the Theme Park has the potential to affect both hydrodynamics and waterquality in areas remote from the development. These have been assessed by making use ofboth hydrodynamic and water quality models with a large area of coverage.ARTIFICIAL LAKE5.9.27 In order to maintain the above identified beneficial uses (see Section 5.8.2) for the artificiallake it is necessary that the water quality be maintained above certain standards. Althoughthe Water Quality Objectives for inland waters of the Southern Water Control Zone (seeTable Dlb in Annex Dl) are not directly applicable to the artificial lake, it is considered thatthe WQOs could be used as water quality criteria for assessing the suitability of the waterquality of the artificial lake for the identified beneficial uses. However, it is recommendedto adopt a stricter criterion for E. coli of 180 cfu lOOmU 1 expressed as geometric mean,which is the objective adopted locally for bathing beaches, in order to provide a higherdegree of protection to participants in water sports. The proposed water quality standardsfor the artificial lake are presented in Table 5.9h.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-53Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.9h - Proposed Water Quality Standards for the Artificial LakeWater Quality Parameter(a) Aesthetic appearance(b) Bacteria(c) Dissolved oxygen(d)pH(e) Temperature(f) Salinity(g) Suspended solids(h) Ammonia(i) Nutrient(j) 5-day BOD(k) COD(1) Dangerous substancesStandard \ % x - ^ > ,/ - / ^VJ^.V^.v ^>;^'-^/ V'V^ -^''i*no objectionable odours or discolouration of waters;no tarry residues, floating wood, articles made of glass, plastic or rubber;no visible mineral oil or lasting foam on the surface;no recognisable sewage-derived debris;no floating, submerged and semi-submerged objects of a size likely to cause interferencewith the free movement of vessels or cause damage to vessels; and* no objectionable deposits. 4 mg L" 1Within the range of 6 - 9No discharges or human activities shall cause the natural daily temperature range to changeby more than 2°C.No discharges or human activities shall cause the natural daily salinity range to change bymore than 10%.< 25 mg L" 1 , measured as annual median.< 0.021 mg L" 1 , as unionised form, calculated as annual average.Not to be present in quantities sufficient to cause excessive or nuisance growth of algae orother aquatic plants.< 5 mg L' 1


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.31 If dissolved oxygen concentrations are reduced to low levels then the waters of the lake willnot be able to support any aquatic life, such as ornamental fish, which would reduce theamenity value of the lake. Also, at very low dissolved oxygen concentrations anaerobicbacteria produce hydrogen sulphide, a foul smelling gas, which would again reduce theamenity value of the lake.5.9.32 Increasing concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) within the waters of thelake could lead to excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants. This would be consideredan adverse impact due to the reduction in the general amenity value of the lake and theeffects on water sports, such as those involving boating by fouling of vessels.5.9.33 The health of waters sports users of the lake could be at risk if the concentrations of E. coliexceed the levels specified in Section 5.8.2. Increasing E. coli concentrations would also bean indicator that sewage effluent is entering the lake, which would also serve to affect bothdissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations.5.9.34 The artificial lake is to be constructed in an area where the land may have been contaminatedby the former shipyard. There may be the potential for contaminants to leach into thegroundwater, which may then enter the artificial lake. The primary contaminant of concernwould be TBT, which is contained within anti-foulant paints, and would have the potentialto cause adverse impacts to aquatic organisms in the lake.SEWERAGE SYSTEM5.9.35 In order to prevent adverse impacts to water quality from the discharge of untreated sewageeffluent from the Theme Park to the surrounding marine waters the sewage will be conveyedto the Siu Ho Wan STW for treatment prior to disposal to marine waters via a submarineoutfall. Both the sewerage system to transport the sewage effluent and the Siu Ho WanSTW should be of sufficient capacity to cater for the effluent flows from the Theme Park.Should either system be below the required capacity then there would be the riskof/necessity for the discharge of untreated sewage to the marine waters.5.9.36 The discharge of untreated sewage to marine waters may also occur due to the failure of thesewerage system or the emergency shut down of the system.5.9.37 Should untreated sewage be effluent be discharged to marine water there would be thepotential of adverse impacts to water quality. The extent of such impacts would be relatedto the quantities and duration of any discharges. The impacts would likely be in the form ofelevated E. coli concentrations, which would primarily cause adverse effects on bathingbeaches and secondary contact recreation sub-zones, decreased dissolved oxygenconcentrations, affecting marine ecology and fish culture zones and increased nutrient levels,which would increase the risk of algal growth.ROAD AND RAIL LINKS5.9.38 Run-off from the road links will enter the stormwater drainage system in Penny's Bay andYam O before being discharged to the surrounding marine waters. The run-off may containa number of pollutants that result from the normal wear and tear of road vehicles, includingsuspended solids, adsorbed pollutants such as heavy metals and PAHs and petroleumproducts such as oil and grease.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-55Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.9.39 The potential sources of impacts to water quality from the operation of the PBRL have beenidentified as follows.• Surface track runoff during rainfall may be contaminated with oil, grease and SS arising from track grindings,corrosion of rolling stock, and passing trains, which may cause downstream impacts on the stormwater system;• Drainage from the tunnel will comprise groundwater seepage to the outer tunnel lining, which will beuncontaminated and may therefore be discharged directed to the stormwater drainage system.• Rainwater runoff from the station structure, such as the station roofs, is expected to be "clean" and may thereforebe discharged directly to the stormwater system.• Sewage effluent will be generated at the stations, where staff toilet facilities will be provided. Uncontrolleddischarge of sewage will cause unacceptable water quality impacts to the receiving waters.• A train washing plant will be situated between the refuge siding and the Theme Park Station, which will employmechanic scrubbers and detergent to clean the trains. Uncontrolled discharge of detergent contaminated waterwould have the potential to cause adverse impacts.5.10 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - OPERATION5.10.1 The assessment of impacts to water quality from the operation of the Theme Park is splitinto three main aspects.« The surrounding marine waters;• The artificial lake; and• The adequacy of the sewerage system, including the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works (STW).MARINE WATERS5.10.2 The operation of the Theme Park will have the potential to affect the water quality of thesurrounding marine waters in two ways, by changing the hydrodynamics and through thedischarges of pollutants from the Theme Park. These two aspects have been assessedseparately using computational modelling.Hydrodynamics5.10.3 The residual discharges across major flow channels are shown in Table S.lOa for both theBaseline and Completed Scenarios and include a calculation of the percentage differencesbetween the Completed and Baseline Scenarios. The average flood and ebb discharges areshown in Tables 5.1 Ob and 5.10c, including a calculation of the percentage differencesbetween the Completed and Baseline scenarios.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-56Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Jheme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.10.4 The data in the above tables show that in the wet season the Penny's Bay reclamation for theTheme Park causes small changes of less than 3% in the average flood and ebb dischargesthrough the flow channels. The same assessment may be made for the residual discharges,except for Kap Shui Mun. The Baseline residual discharges through Kap Shui Mun,however, are small and a small absolute change in discharge results in a relatively largepercentage difference. The predicted changes in discharge through Kap Shui Mun are,therefore, not considered to be significant.5.10.5 In the dry season the data in the tables show that the Penny's Bay reclamation for the ThemePark causes small changes, less than 1.5%, in the average flood and ebb discharges throughthe flow channels. The changes in residual discharges are larger, although they are still lessthan 3% which is considered small, except for the West Lamma Channel where there is a5.7% decrease. The absolute change in residual discharge through the West LammaChannel is small, but when compared with the Baseline discharges, which is relatively lowcompared to the other main flow channels, this results in a larger relative change. Thedecrease in residual flows through the West Lamma Channel is therefore not considered tobe significant.5.10.6 The graphs of momentary of cumulative discharges for the wet season are shown in FiguresD2a to D2g in Annex D2. For all of the cross section there is little discernible differencebetween the Baseline and Completed scenarios, which demonstrates the lack of effect of theTheme Park reclamation on tidal discharges in the wet season. The graphs of momentary ofcumulative discharges for the dry season are shown in Figures D2h to D2n in Annex D2.There are no discernible differences between the Baseline and Completed scenarios, as forthe wet season, and indicates the minimal effects of the reclamation on tidal discharges inthe dry season.5.10.7 Vector plots of current speed and direction for the wet season, which also include contoursof salinity, are presented in Figures D2o to D2r in Annex D2. The Theme Park reclamationsare predicted to have a small impacts on tidal current patterns, as can be seen by comparingFigures D2q and D2r with Figures D2o and D2p. The only discernible differences are at theeastern and western ends of the Penny's Bay reclamation. At the eastern end there ispredicted to be a slight increase in current speed as the currents turn into Kap Shui Munfrom the face of the reclamation, while at the western end current speeds reduce slightly inSze Pak Wan due to the sheltering effect of the reclamation. The only differences in salinityare found in the bed layer, where there are predicted to be small increases in salinity to thewest of the Penny's Bay reclamation in the vicinity of Discovery Bay, which indicates adecrease in flushing in this area. The effects of the predicted reduction in flushing has beendetermined through water quality modelling and is discussed below.5.10.8 Vector plots of current speed and direction for the dry season are shown on Figures D2s toD2v in Annex D2. The patterns of current speed change are similar to those for the wetseason, which have been discussed in detail above. No further discussion is thereforenecessary here.Water Quality5.10.9 The results of the water quality modelling at sensitive receivers are contained in TablesSJQd and 5JOe for the wet and dry seasons respectively. In these tables the water qualitymodelling results are presented as statistical parameters (10 th percentile, mean, geometricScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5_58Shankland Gox » Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developments ____ Final Environmental Impact Assessmentmean and maximum) for comparison against the Water Quality Objectives. The locations ofthe sensitive receivers are shown in Figure 5.3a. In Tables J./0/and 5.10g the water qualitymodelling results have been analysed to provide relevant statistical comparisons (minimumand maximum) for comparison against the Water Supplies Department's criteria forseawater intakes in the wet and dry seasons respectively.S.lO.lOThe data in Tables 5JOd and 5. We show that the water quality modelling predicts there willbe no exceedances of the WQO for dissolved oxygen, unionised ammonia and suspendedsolids. There are predicted to be minimal changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations,except at Discovery Bay Beach and Sze Pak Wan in the wet season. At Discover Bay Beachthe dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom of the water column are predicted todecrease from 3.7 mg L~ l to 3.4 mg L" 1 , which is most likely to a decrease in the flushing ofthis area resulting from the sheltering effect of the Penny's Bay reclamation for the ThemePark. However, this impact is not considered to be adverse as the WQO is not predicted tobe breached. At Sze Pak Wan both the depth averaged and bottom dissolved oxygenconcentrations are predicted to increase and this is most likely due to the reduced flushing ofthis area providing conditions more conducive to algal growth, as shown by the increase inchlorophyll-a concentrations.5.10.11 There are predicted to be a number of exceedances of the WQO for total inorganic nitrogenin both the wet and dry seasons. However, in all cases the exceedances are predicted tooccur in both the Baseline and Completed scenario and it may be concluded that theoperation of the Theme Park is not contributing to the exceedance of the WQO.Furthermore, the operation of the Theme Park is not predicted to increase the level ofexceedance of the WQO. There are predicted to be only small changes in the chlorophyll-aconcentrations as a result of the operation of the Theme Park. At Sze Pak Wanconcentrations increase from 5.4 |LLg L" 1 to 8.2 jig L" 1 in the dry season and from 9.1 jig L" 1 to11.0 Jig L" 1 in the wet season. It is assessed that these changes do not represent excessive ornuisance growths of algae and as such should not be considered as an adverse impact.5.10.12Exceedances of the WQO for E. coli at bathing beaches are predicted to occur in both thewet and dry seasons. In all cases the operation of the Theme Park is not predicted tocontribute to the level of exceedances, and only results in small increases at a few of thebathing beaches. It is therefore assessed that the Theme Park is not causing adverse impactsin terms of E. coli concentrations.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5.59Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developments Final Environmental impact >Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5_ 60Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates5_6i


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ud in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-62Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.10.13The data in Tables 5JO/and 5.10g show that the water quality modelling results predict thatthere will be exceedances of WSDs criteria at a number of seawater intakes, primarily interms of E. coli concentrations. However, these exceedances are predicted to occur in boththe Baseline and Completed scenarios and it can be seen that the operation of the ThemePark is not contributing significantly to the levels of exceedance of these standards. It istherefore assessed that the operation of the Theme Park is not causing adverse impact to thewater quality at WSDs intakes.5.10.14Contours of water quality parameters are contained in Annex D3 9 in Figures D3a to D3p forboth the Baseline and Completed scenarios. The contours represent the same values as thoseshown in the tables above and are therefore suitable for direct comparison with the WaterQuality Objectives. The contours of dissolved oxygen (Figures D3a to D3d) show littledifferences in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the wet and dry season between theBaseline and Completed scenarios. The most apparent changes are shown in the wet seasonfor depth average and bottom concentrations (Figures D3a and D3c respectively). For thedepth average concentrations there is shown to be an increase in concentrations in Sze PakWan, which has been explained above by the increase in algal growth in this area, and asmall decrease in concentrations around Hei Ling Chau. In the bottom layer there ispredicted to be a decrease in concentrations around Peng Chau and again an increase in SzePak Wan. None of these changes are predicted to cause a breach of the WQO and as suchare considered to be acceptable. There is predicted to be a small decrease in BODconcentrations in the vicinity of Peng Chau as a result of the operation of the Theme Park inthe dry season (Figure D3f), which would be considered to be an environmentalimprovement. No other changes in BOD concentrations are evident from the contour plots.5.10.15The contours of total inorganic nitrogen (Figures D3g and D3f) demonstrate that the majorsource of this pollutant in the waters around the Theme Park is the outflow from the PearlRiver Estuary. The contour plots show only minimal differences between the Baseline andCompleted scenarios for the wet and dry seasons, the most obvious of which is evidentaround the outfall from the Siu Ho Wan STW. This change is shown to be a slight increasein concentrations, which does not result in an exceedance of the WQO in the vicinity of theoutfall. This impact is therefore considered to be environmentally acceptable. The onlychanges in the unionised ammonia concentrations (Figures D3i and D3j) are predicted tooccur in the vicinity of Silvermine Bay, where concentrations are predicted to marginallyincrease but do not breach the WQO for this parameters. This impact is therefore consideredto be environmentally acceptable.5.10.16Contours of chlorophyll-a concentrations are contained in Figures D3k and D31 and showthat the water quality predicts only small changes in this parameters as a result of theoperation of the Theme Park. The modelling predicts increases in chlorophyll-aconcentrations in Sze Pak Wan and Yam O Wan. However, these increases are notconsidered to be excessive and would therefore not constitute a breach of the WQOs.5.10.17The contours of geometric mean E. coli concentrations (Figures D3m and D3ri) show thatthe modelling only predicts changes in this parameter in the vicinity of the Peng Chausewage outfall. The concentration in the areas offshore of Sze Pak Wan and Discovery Bayare predicted to increase marginally. However, in these two areas the concentrations arepredicted to remain below 610 cfix lOOmL" 1 , the WQO for secondary contact recreation subzones,and as such are considered to be environmentally acceptable. Offshore of theScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5. 63Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentdevelopments along the north Lantau coast the concentrations are also predicted to remainbelow that for secondary contact recreation sub-zones.5.10.18The contours of maximum suspended sediment concentrations (Figures D3o and D3p) showthat the modelling predicts no discernible differences in suspended sediment concentrationsbetween the Baseline and Completed scenarios.5.10.19The water quality modelling has predicted that there will be no exceedances of the WQO atsensitive receivers due to the sewage effluent and stormwater discharges from the operationof the Theme Park. There are, however, a number of exceedances of the WQO predicted forthe Baseline and Operation scenarios, but in these cases the operation of the Theme Park isnot contributing to the exceedance. The only exceedance of a WQO due to the operation ofthe Theme Park is predicted to be in the vicinity of the discharge point for the Siu Ho WanSTW outfall, where the area of exceedance from the Baseline to Operation scenarios ispredicted to increase marginally. However, the increased area of exceedance is in openwater and does not contain any sensitive receivers. The operation of the Theme Park interms of sewage effluent and stormwater discharges is therefore not expected to causeadverse impacts to water quality.5.10.20The potential impacts to water quality may be readily controlled through suitable mitigationmeasures, which are described in Section 5.10.1.Toxic Substances5.10.21 The potential adverse impacts to water quality from the discharge of toxic substances duringnormal operating conditions may be readily controlled by appropriate measures at the ThemePark to minimise the effects, which are described in Section 5.11.1.5.10.22In the event of an emergency requiring complete shut down of the water attractions, such asmechanical failure, it may be necessary to empty the rides. In this case it is likely that thewater will be discharged to the nearby marine waters. There would therefore be the potentialfor adverse impacts to the marine ecosystem. However, the frequency of such events islikely to be small and the adverse impacts would be of short duration, ie during dischargeand the time taken for the residual chlorine to dissipate. In view of the infrequent and shortduration nature of these impacts it is considered that there will not be the need for mitigationmeasures.Territory WideEffects5.10.23The hydrodynamic modelling predicted that the Theme Park reclamations would only affecttidal current speeds and directions local to the Theme Park, most noticeably in a reduction incurrent speeds to the south west of the Theme Park, and thus broader territory-wide impactsare not predicted to occur.5.10.24The operational water quality modelling predicted that there would be no breaches of theWater Quality Objectives due to the sewage effluent and stormwater discharges from theoperation of the Theme Park and associated developments. It was also predicted that thewater quality in the areas to the south west of the Theme Park would be acceptable. It istherefore concluded that there would be no adverse impacts to water quality due to sewageeffluent and stormwater discharges from the Theme Park and thus broader territorial impactsScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5. 64Shankland Cox. • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentto water quality are not, therefore, predicted to arise from the operation of the Theme Parkand associated developments.ARTIFICIAL LAKE5.10.25The level of the water in the artificial lake will be limited to a level of 1 m below +7.5 mPD.Water will be extracted from the lake to provide irrigation waters for the landscaped areas ofthe Theme Park. In the wet summer months the waters within the lake will be replenishedwith run-off from the surrounding undeveloped hillsides. In the months when rainfall is lowthe waters of the lake will be replenished with waters from an external source. The waterquality in the lake will therefore be a function of the quality of the water used to replenishthe waters levels.5.10.26The stormwater run-off, used to replenish the lake during the wet summer months, will beessentially free of pollutants as it will not pass through any urban, developed areas. Thesewaters may, however, contain high levels of suspended sediments and in order to preventsiitation within the reservoir will pass through silt traps before being discharged to the lake.Therefore, during the wet summer months water quality within the lake will be maintained.5.10.27Another factor associated with the operation of the lake during periods of high rainfall is thatthere will be an overflow weir to prevent the water level from exceeding +7.5 mPD. Theoverflow water will pass along the open drainage channel on the western side of the ThemePark reclamation at Penny's Bay and discharged to marine waters. It is to be expected thatthis water will be relatively free of contaminants, having come from a clean water source (iethe lake) and as such adverse impacts to marine water quality are not expected. The onlypotential impact will be to salinity in the immediate vicinity of the discharge point, which islikely to be lowered by the incoming fresh water. The natural, background salinity will soonbe restored following the cessation of overflow from the lake. Therefore this potentialimpact will be short term and reversible in nature and will not therefore give rise to adverseimpacts to the marine environment.5.10.28The major concern for the water quality of the lake will be from the replenishment of thewater levels from an outside source during periods of low rainfall. It will be necessary toensure that the quality of the water used to replenish will not cause the water quality withinthe lake to deteriorate. The Tai Lam Chung Reservoir has been identified by the WaterSupplies Department < 62 > as a potential source of water to replenish the lake. A summary ofthe measured quality of the lake for the period 1998 to 1999 compared with the standards inthe Technical Memorandum for Standards for Effluents Discharged into Drainage andSewerage Systems, Inland and Coastal Waters (TM) for waters discharged into Group Binland waters is given in Table 5.1 Oh, A comparison of the quality of the water in the TaiLam Chung Reservoir with the proposed water quality criteria, which were derived based onthe WQOs for inland waters in the Southern WCZ. These comparisons provides usefulguidance on the quality of the water used to fill the lake during dry periods.Table 5.10h - Measured Water Quality in the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir in 1998 - 1999Compared with the TM Standards(62) Communication with WSD.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-65Shankland Cox •Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentParameterpHTemperature (°C)Colour (HU)Suspended Solids (mg L" 1 )DO (mg U 1 )BOD (mg L" 1 )Iron (mgL' 1 )Cyanide (mgL" 1 )Fluorides (mgL~ l )Sulphates (mg L' 1 )Chlorides (mg L" 1 )Phosphate (mg L" 1 )Ammonia (mg L" 1 )Nitrate (mg L' 1 )Nitrite (mgL" 1 )Nitrate + Nitrite (mg L" 1 )Chlorophyll-a (Jig L" 1 )E. coli (cfa lOOmV 1 )Boron (mg L" 1 )Barium (mg L" 1 )Mercury (mg L" 1 )Cadmium (mg L )Selenium (mg L" 1 )Maximum7.531.0868.85.10.15


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5.101 - Comparison of the Water Quality of Tai Lam Chung Reservoir in 1998 -1999 with the Proposed Water Quality StandardsParameter(a) Aestheticappearance(b) Bacteria(c) Dissolvedoxygen(d)pH(e) Temperature(f) Salinity(g) Suspendedsolids(h) Ammonia(i) Nutrient(j) 5-day BOD(k) COD(1) DangeroussubstancesStandard < «'s %%%^ h "- x -• no objectionable odours or discolouration of waters;• no tarry residues, floating wood, articles made of glass,plastic or rubber;• no visible mineral oil or lasting foam on the surface;• no recognisable sewage-derived debris;• no floating, submerged and semi-submerged objects of asize likely to cause interference with the free movementof vessels or cause damage to vessels; and* no objectionable deposits.


Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentunlikely that this standard will be breached as the incoming water will be diluted with thewater in the lake.5.10.31 The above assessment has concluded that the quality of the water within the lake may bemaintained by using the water from the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir as the source of waterduring periods of low rainfall. It has been assumed that there will be no other sources ofpollutants into the lake and therefore controls on any potential sources of pollutants shouldbe implemented , which are discussed in Section 5.11.2.5.10.32There may be the potential for the accidental discharge of petroleum products, which areused to fuel boats used for water sports. Suitable mitigation measures have been devised tominimise the likelihood of such events and if the unlikely event of such an occurrencemeasures to control the impact have been devised (see Section 5.11.2).5.10.33The lining for the artificial lake will be constructed from a high density polyethylene(HOPE) geomembrane, which is impermeable, sandwiched between protective geotextiles.The use of such a liner will prevent the migration of contaminated groundwater into the lake,which means that the quality of the water in the lake will not be affected by any pollutantscontained within the groundwater.SEWERAGE SYSTEM5.10.34The sewerage system to be used for the Theme Park was originally designed toaccommodate the flows from the previous planning proposals for the Penny's Bay area,which principally comprised Container Terminals 10 and 11 and the associated back-upareas. The sewerage system comprises two principal sewers in the Penny's Bay area, whichmay be described as follows.• The ring road to the south of the park defines the route of a sewer that will collect all sewage from the area to thesouth of the railway line that bisects the site. The sewer will convey flows from east to west, ultimately to apumping station north east of the Theme Park. Due to the distance involved and the requirement to minimiseexcavation in a reclaimed area, a gravity system with lift pumping stations at approximately 300m intervals willbe required along the ring road. The pumping stations will comprise underground chambers housing submersiblepumps. There will be a small control kiosk above-ground (say 2mx2mxlm) housing telemetry and controlequipment. The pumps will operate to ensure that under normal flow conditions the sewer will not surcharge andflushing velocities will be maintained. In the event of pump failure the system will surcharge and operate bygravity and flooding will not occur under this condition.* A sewer following the road on the north boundary of the Penny's Bay Theme Park site will collect flow from thenorth of the railway line that bisects the site. This sewer will convey flow from east to west to the pumpingstation to the north east of the Theme Park.5.10.35The pumping station in the utility yard to the north-east of the Penny's Bay theme park willconvey flows via twin rising mains northwards to the previously constructed gravity mainthat conveys flows to the Yam 0 Sewage Pumping Station. There will be an emergencyoverflow into the adjacent drainage channel to the west. A standby pump will be providedtogether with twin rising mains which provide for a situation whereby one of the risingmains is temporarily taken out of operation. The anticipated frequency of discharge throughthe emergency outfall will be very low.5.10.36The Yam O Pumping Station is to be completed in advance of the development. Thepumping station will convey flows to SHWSTW via twin 700 mm diameter pumping mainsScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-68Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentapproximately 4,000 m in length. One of the 700 mm diameter mains is already in place andthe second main would be constructed in the same service reserve when required as thephased development proceeds.5.10.37In order to assess the adequacy of the sewerage system to convey the sewage effluents fromthe Theme Park to the Siu Ho Wan STW it is first necessary to determine the quantities ofsewage effluent generated by the Theme Park. The operator of the Theme Park has providedinformation on daily average flow rates and peak flow rates, based on their experience withsimilar facilities in other parts of the world. The predicted flows have been provided basedon various phases of the development of the Theme Park. The average daily flows andinstantaneous peak flows are presented in Table 5.10LTable 5.101 - Average Daily and Peak Sewage Effluent Flows from the Theme ParkDevelopment ScenarioOpening Day (2005)Phase 1 Buildout(2011)Phase 2 Buildout (2024)Average Daily Flow (ra* day 4 )2,7065,59312,140FeakF^wtui 3^; -\^ V , >, :0.1820.3600.7765.10.38The sewerage system within the Theme Park has yet to undergo detailed design to cater forthe above average and peak daily flows. The design should ensure that the system isadequate with a suitable factor of safety to minimise the risk of failure, following proceduresdefined in the DSD Sewerage Manual.5.10.39A design for upgrading the Siu Ho Wan STW is currently being carried out to increase thecapacity of the STW and to provide a higher level of treatment for the sewage effluent priorto discharge. The design flows have been calculated based on the development of containerterminals in Penny's Bay and the connection of sewage flows from Peng Chau. It is now notproposed to connect the sewage from Peng Chau to the Siu Ho Wan STW and it willcontinue to discharge of Tai Lei. Due to the changes in the sewage effluents to betransported to the Siu Ho Wan STW it is necessary to determine whether the STW will beable to accommodate the changes in sewage effluent flows due to the development of theTheme Park. The future cumulative flows to the Siu Ho Wan STW are presented in Table5JO/, which includes flows for 2005 (the Theme Park opening day), 2011 and the ultimatedevelopment beyond 2011.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-69Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 5,10j - Cumulative Sewage Effluent Flows to the Siu Ho Wan STWSourceChek Lap Kok Airport 4Tung Chung/Tai Ho aDiscovery Bay bSouth Lantau aTheme Park cTotalAverage Flow{m 3 da/ 1 )16.586130,8609,250-2,706159,4022005Peak Flow*(mV J )0.3342.6050.184-0.0543.177: > .* ^aoii^u, v;!*V -, -; ^ *\WMtf&&s *;rfv^-Average Flow Pei*&i1w*>: Average JloWv i^jiw^vi(m 3 Wf'4$f*y /v $rfi^T:^16,586130,86027,434 0.7629,250-5,593162,289(n#itf)\:;!0.4663.6350.257-0.1554.513130,8609,25012,61012,1403.6350.2570.3500.3385.342192,294Notes:a. Data derived from the Final Design Memorandum for the Siu Ho Wan STW.b. Data calculated assuming a residential population and flow factors given in the DSD Sewerage Manual.c. Data on average flows provided by the Theme Park operator.d. Peak flows calculated based upon a peaking factor of 1.72, which represents a new system without infiltration.e. Peak flows calculated based upon a peaking factor of 2.40, which includes an allowance for infiltration.5.10.40It should be noted that in the above table the peak flows from the Theme Park are differentfrom those contained in Table 5.10i. This is because the data in Table 5.10i represents thepeak flows within the sewerage system in and adjacent to the Theme Park, while the data inthe above table represents the peak flows at the Siu Ho Wan STW. The differences arebecause there will be attenuation of the peaks in the flows between the Theme Park and theSiu Ho Wan STW.5.10.41The peaking factor of 1.72 used in the Final Design Memorandum for the Siu Ho Wan STWis based upon the assumption that the sewerage system is relatively new and free frominflow/infiltration, which is applicable to the 2005 scenario. For the 2011 and Ultimatescenarios the peaking factor has been increased to one which includes an allowance forinflow/infiltration to account for potential deterioration of the network.5.10.42The design flows for the Siu Ho Wan STW are shown in Table 5.10k and are derived fromthe Final Design Memorandum and upon advice provided by the Drainage ServicesDepartment.Table 5.10k - Design Sewage Flows for the Siu Ho Wan STWAverage yio^Up to 2011 179,433 3.75Ultimate 202,881 4.2265.10.43A comparison of the data in Tables 5.10j and 5.10k show that the predicted average flowsare predicted to be within the design capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW. The data show thatin 2005 at the opening of the Theme Park the peak flows are predicted to be within thedesign capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW. However, in 2011 and for the Ultimate case thepeak flows are predicted to exceed the design capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW, assuming apeaking factor which allows for infiltration/inflow. It will therefore be necessary to carryout upgrading works at the Siu Ho Wan STW prior to 2011 to prevent overloading of theSTW and the potential for overflow of untreated sewage effluent.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShanklandCox* Wilbur Smith Associates . . . . . .5-70


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.10.44It should be noted that the assessment is carried out to determine whether increased flowsfrom the Theme Park would result in overloading the Siu Ho Wan STW. Otherdevelopments associated with the Northshore Lantau Development will also contributesewage effluent flows to the Siu Ho Wan STW. The effects of these other flows are beinginvestigated as part of the Northshore Lantau Development Feasibility Study.5.10.45The major cause of emergency discharge from either the sewerage system or the Siu HoWan STW will be from overflows from the system or bypassing at the STW. However, asdiscussed above, with the implementation of an upgrade to the Siu Ho Wan STW thesewerage system will be designed to cater for the predicted sewage effluent flows generatedby the Theme Park and that with the increased flows from the Theme Park the Siu Ho WanSTW will not exceed the design capacity of the STW. Therefore the risk of overflows fromand bypassing of the STW will be low, although certain measures may be installed to ensurethat the risk is reduced further. It should be noted that any measures for reducing the risk ofover-flow at the Siu Ho Wan STW will be the responsibility of the Drainage ServicesDepartment and not the Theme Park developer or operator.5.10.46There may be a risk of failure of systems, such as pumping stations, which could result inthe discharge of raw sewage to the surrounding waters for periods of days. Such dischargeswould be likely to lead to adverse water quality impacts and should therefore be preventedthrough the provision of suitable redundant/back-up systems.5.10.47Sewers constructed using the standard flexible joint systems found on concrete or claywarepipes often perform badly in reclaimed land due to differential settlement. This can result inhigh levels of infiltration or exfiltration, depending upon the level of the pipes in relation tothe water table. Infiltration will cause capacity problems in the sewer network and at theSTW, while exfiltration will pollute groundwater and ultimately the surrounding marinewaters. It will be necessary to utilise alternate types of pipe and jointing to prevent suchproblems.ROAD AND RAIL LINKS5.10.48The identified potential impacts to water quality from the operation of the road and rail linksmay be readily controlled through engineering design and the implementation of suitableoperating procedures. There is therefore no further assessment of impacts carried out here.5.11 MITIGATION OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - OPERATION5.11.1 The identification and discussion of suitable measures to mitigate any adverse impacts towater quality from the operation of the Theme Park is split into four main aspects.• The surrounding marine waters;• The artificial lake;• The adequacy of the sewerage system, including the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works (STW); and• Road and rail links.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong - 5 . 71Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentMARINE WATERS5.11.2 The operation of the Theme Park will have the potential to affect the water quality of thesurrounding marine waters in two ways, by changing the hydrodynamics and through thedischarges of pollutants from the Theme Park. Any mitigation measures for these twoaspects are discussed separately.Hydrodynamics5.11.3 The hydrodynamic modelling has predicted that the reclamations for the Theme Park atpenny's Bay and Yam O will have minimal effects on tidal discharges through major flowschannels. The only effects on tidal current speeds and directions are in the immediatevicinity of the reclamation at Penny's Bay, which are not considered to be significant.Mitigation measures for changes to tidal discharges and current patterns are therefore notconsidered to be necessary.5.11.4 The modelling has, however, predicted that there will be a reduction in the flushing of SzePak Wan and Discovery Bay, as demonstrated by the increased salinity in these areas. Thiseffect may cause changes in the water quality of these areas. The acceptability of suchchanges has been assessed through water quality modelling, which has determined whethersuch impacts would be acceptable. The need for mitigation measures in these two areas isdiscussed below.Water Quality5.11.5 The water quality modelling has predicted that the sewage effluent and stormwaterdischarges from the operation of the Theme Park will not cause adverse impacts to waterquality. However, on a precautionary principle it is recommended that all storm water willpass through silt trap within the Theme Park and Commercial/Developed areas prior toentering the stormwater system. This will serve to ensure that the pollutants in thestormwater discharges are minimised as far as is practicable. The assessment also assumesthat the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works will be able to cater for the increased flowsfrom the Theme Park, whilst maintaining the same level of treatment. Mitigation measuresfor this aspect are discussed below.5.11.6 In order to control the potential impacts to water quality from fireworks residue it isrecommended that large pieces of spent fireworks be collected as soon after the completionof the display as is practicable. The measure of installing silt traps, described above, willthen serve to prevent smaller particles from being discharged to the marine waters.Toxic Substances5.11.7 During operation of the attractions the water will be dosed with sodium hypochlorite, whichacts as a disinfecting agent and as a biocide. Under normal operating conditions the waterwill be re-cycled around the rides and should not be allowed to be discharged to either stormdrains or the nearby marine waters. However, during routine maintenance the water fromthe attractions will be emptied. In this case monitoring of the residual chlorineconcentration should be undertaken and discharge of the water only allowed once theconcentration is below 0.01 mg L"\ which is the level at which EPD have expressedScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-72Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Deveiopments _ Final Environmental Impact Assessmentconcern < 63 >. This measure will prevent the discharge of harmful quantities of residualchlorine during routine maintenance and hence prevent adverse impacts to water quality.5.11.8 The discharge of pesticides and herbicides in harmful quantities should be prevented throughthe implementation of the following measures.• the construction of trenches, backfilled with loose soil or similar porous material, around any areas wherepesticides and herbicides will be used;• pesticides and herbicides should not be used during periods of rainfall; and• biodegradable pesticides and herbicides with short half-lives of three days or less.5.11.9 The measure of constructing trenches around any areas where pesticides and herbicides willensure that the first flush of run-off from these areas, which is likely to contain the highestconcentrations of pesticides and herbicides, will be absorbed in the material filling the trenchand prevented from entering the stormwater system. The prevention of the application ofpesticides and herbicides during periods of rainfall will prevent run-off of the substancesimmediately after application and allow some time for the substances to degrade,particularly through the use of substances which are biodegradable with short half lives. Inorder to determine compliance with these measures a log book detailing the application ofany pesticides or herbicides should be kept, containing such information as date and time,location of application, quantities applied, pesticide/herbicide used and weather conditions.ARTIFICIAL LAKES.ll.lODuring the wet summer months stormwater run-off from the surrounding hillsides will beused to provide water to fill the artificial lake. Prior to entering the lake the stormwater willpass through silt traps to prevent siltation within the lake. The silt traps should be designedto have adequate capacity to retain any silt/sediment contained within the stormwater. Thesilt traps should be frequently maintained/cleaned to prevent a deterioration in performance.5.11.11 During months with low rainfall it is proposed that water from the Tai lam Chung Reservoirbe used to 'top up' the water within the lake. At present the quality of the water within thereservoir is sufficient to maintain the quality of the water within the lake. However, if infuture the quality of the water in the lake were to deteriorate below the present levels,particularly with regard to E. coli concentrations, then it would be necessary to adopt analternate supply of water. The alternate supply of water should be at least as good as thecurrent standard of the water within the Tai lam Chung Reservoir.5.11.12A potential concern with regard to the quality of the lake could be algal growth. If growthbecomes excessive then it may be necessary to add an algicide to the waters of the lake. Thealgicide should be biodegradable with a short half life of three days or less. During use ofthe algicide, discharge of the lake water to marine waters should be prohibited, until thealgicide has decayed. This means that the algicide may not be used during periods of heavyrainfall, when overflow of the lake is possible.5.11.13Stormwater run-off from the surrounding hillsides, passed through silt traps, and water fromthe Tai lam Chung Reservoir should be the only discharges to the lake. Stormwater from(63) ERM (1999). Environmental Impact Assessment of a 1,800MW Gas-Fired Power Station at Lamma Extension. Final Report.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in -association with ERM Hong Kong 5-73Shankfand Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentany urban/developed areas should not be allowed to enter the lake as they may containpollutants. Sewage effluent from the water recreation centre should be transported to thesewerage mains for conveyance to the Siu Ho Wan STW.5.11.14Any fuel for motorised vessels should be stored in bunded areas, of at least 110% capacity ofthe largest fuel storage container to prevent any accidental spills entering the lake. Servicingof any vessels should be undertaken at suitable facilities away from the artificial lake. In theunlikely event that fuel or other petroleum products do enter the lake a suitable clean-up planshould be implemented. The clean-up plan being devised by the operators of the waterrecreation centre and approved by EPD prior to the commencement of operations at thewater sports centre.5.11.15The quality of the water in the lake is not predicted to be affected by the ingress of thecontaminated groundwater because the lake will be lined with an impermeable liner.However, such liners may have a limited life span, beyond which the performance maydeteriorate. In this case it is recommended that the liner be replaced once the manufacturer'sspecified life span is reached.SEWERAGE SYSTEM5.1L16The flows to the Siu Ho Wan STW in 2005 at the time of the opening of the Theme Parkhave been found to be within the design capacity of the STW and as such no mitigationmeasures will be required in the form of increasing the capacity of the STW at this time.However, the assessment determined that in 2011 and later the STW would not havesufficient capacity to cater for the flows. This assessment was based on allowance forinfiltration/inflow into the sewerage system as the system ages. There will be therefore bethe necessity of increasing the capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW prior to 2011. Suchupgrade works would be the responsibility of the Drainage Services Department, theoperators of the Siu Ho Wan STW.5.11.17The sewerage system to transport the sewage effluent from the Theme Park will undergo adetailed design to ensure that it is adequate to cater for the predicted flows. As part of thisprocess it is recommended that rising mains be duplicated in order to minimise the risk ofoverflow under peak flows and to provide a means of facilitating routine maintenance.5.11.18In order to minimise the risk of failure at the two pumping stations serving the Theme Parkdevelopment, at Yam O and at the north west boundary of the Theme Park the followingmeasures should be implemented.• dualling of rising mains;• dualling of power supply; and• provision of duty/stand by pumps.5.11.19The sewers following the boundary of the theme park are proposed to have on-line liftstations at approximately 300-600m intervals. The provision of these stations will reducethe depth of sewers and accordingly facilitate maintenance and eliminate potential problemsassociated with settlement in the deeper parts of the reclamation infill causing deformationto pipes;5.11.20In the event of failure of one or more of the on-line lift stations the consequence will be thatthe sewer upstream of the station will be surcharged and flows will be conveyed to theScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-74Shankland Cox « Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developments«-•.,=••——" ——-__«__ .__ r inal environmental Impact Assessmentoutfall to the pumping station at the north west corner of the theme park site. Provision ofsecondary power supply and standby pumps at each site will minimise the risk of failure Inaddition, temporary storage tanks/wells should be provided where practical to furtherminimise the risk of the discharge of untreated sewage effluent. Furthermore, the proposedsystem will have adequate pipe gradients to ensure that cleansing velocities are achievedhence siltation is prevented.5.11.21 All electrical and mechanical installations such as pumping stations should have telemetrysystems to ensure that system failure is identified. This will facilitate early response torectify any system failure. In order to reduce the potential of the failure of the pipes andjoints due to differential settlement on the reclaimed land it is recommended that thefollowing options for pipe construction be considered, which perform considerably betterthan clayware or concrete pipes.» jointless pipes;• HDPE pipes; and• ductile iron pipes.5.11.22The provision of the above described measures will ensure that the risk for the discharge ofuntreated sewage to marine waters is minimised and as such it is predicted that no adverseimpacts to water quality will occur as a result of the adequacy of the sewerage system.ROAD AND RAIL LINKS5.11.23The following mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent adverse operationalimpacts to water quality from the road links.• all road run-off should be collected and discharged via a stormwater drainage system;• oil and grit interceptors should be incorporated into areas where spills are likely to remove any oil or grease andsediment before being diverted to the public stormwater system;• the contents of oil and grit interceptors should be transferred to an appropriate disposal facility on a regular basis,the frequency of which would depend upon the amount of rainfall (ie more frequent removal during the wetseason);» silt traps or sedimentation tanks should be installed to remove suspended solids, which may contain heavy metalsand PAHs, from run-off water and, in the same way as oil and grit interceptors, they should be regularly cleanedand maintained in good working condition.• The following measures shall be incorporated into the operation of the PBRL to prevent adverse impacts to waterquality.• a surface water drainage system shall be provided to collect operational tunnel seepage. Where oils andlubricating fluids could be spilt, facilities shall be provided to remove the oil / grease before being pumped to thepublic stormwater drainage system. It is envisaged that the operational tunnel discharge and track runoff willpass through the oil and grit / silt interceptors / chambers to remove oil, grease and sediment, however, othersuitable alternative methods may be used;• sewage effluents shall be directed to the public foul sewerage system and/or on-site sewage treatment facility fortreatment prior to discharge to the public foul sewerage system;• the efficiency of silt traps and oil interceptors is dependent on regular cleaning and maintenance. Theseinstallations shall be regularly cleaned and maintained in good working condition; and this shall be incorporatedinto operational procedures;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5.75Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developments ___ Final Environmental Impact Assessment• oily contents of the oil interceptors shall be collected for reuse, or transferred to a disposal facility;• the design of the sanitary fitments and drainage works shall take into account the guidelines published inDrainage Plans subject to Comment by the EPD, Practice Note for Professional Persons, EnvironmentalProtection Department (ProPECC PN 5/93); and« a small waste water treatment plant (or other suitable alternative method) should be provided to removedetergents from the waste waters arising from the train washing facilities prior to discharging to the foul sewers.5.12 RESIDUAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION5.12.1 No residual environmental impacts were predicted to occur due to the Theme Park aloneduring the construction phase, provided that the mitigation measures, described in Section5.7 are implemented. The mitigation measures were specified in the form of constraints onthe construction programme and as a series of 'best practice' methods of working.5.12.2 However, the assessment of the cumulative impacts due to the construction of the ThemePark reclamations and other concurrent projects predicted that there would be an exceedanceof the WQO for suspended sediment concentrations at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone. Theimplementation of the mitigation measures to the construction of the reclamations for theTheme Park resulted in the contribution of the construction of the reclamations for theTheme Park being minimised, less than 2 mg L" 1 . It was noted that the predicted increases insuspended sediment concentrations were based on very much worst case assumptions andthat the duration of the contribution of the Theme Park construction to the predicted elevatedsuspended sediment concentrations would be short. These assumptions were that the highestrates of working (ie highest predicted impacts) for each of the concurrent projects wereassessed and that the impacts from each of the concurrent projects would occur at the samephase of the tidal cycle. The probability of these worst case impacts occurring is very small.In spite of the conservative nature of the assessment, it was determined that the predictedincrease in suspended sediment concentrations at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone would notadversely affect the fish stocks. It is therefore concluded that the predicted exceedance ofthe WQO at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone is not an adverse impact and that there will thusbe no residual impacts.5.12.3 The monitoring programme for this project, coordinated with monitoring programmes forother concurrent project through an ENPO, will be able to determine whether adverseimpacts are occurring at sensitive receivers and be able to attribute any exceedances toparticular projects so that effective mitigation measures may be implemented. This willensure that there are no exceedances of the relevant water quality standards and thus thatthere will be no residual impacts.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association 5-76Shankland Cox •Wilbur Smith Associates


Jheme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentOPERATION5.12.4 Modelling of the impacts to water quality from sewage effluent and stormwater dischargesassociated with the operation of the Theme Park predicted that no exceedances of the WaterQuality Objectives would result from such discharges. For total inorganic nitrogen and E.coli there were predicted to be exceedances of the WQOs, which were predicted to occurwithout the discharges from the Theme Park. It was concluded that the discharges from theTheme Park were not causing adverse impacts to water quality as any breaches in the WQOcould not be attributed to the Theme Park and that the Theme Park was not causing adeterioration in those areas where the WQOs were already breached. There are therefore notanticipated to be residual impacts to water quality as a result of discharges from the ThemePark.5.12.5 Operational measures were defined to protect water quality within the artificial lakeassociated with the water sports centre and maintain its beneficial uses as a source ofirrigation water, as a water sports recreation area and as an area of general amenity value.Measures were also defined to control accidental spills into the lake. The implementation ofthese measures will maintain water quality at acceptable levels and as such it is notanticipated that there will be any residual impacts from the operation of the artificial lakeand water sports centre.5.12.6 Provided that the sewerage system to convey the sewage effluents from the Theme Park tothe Siu Ho Wan STW was designed to cater for the predicted flow rates then there would notbe any adverse impacts to water quality in the vicinity of the Theme Park through thedischarge of untreated sewage. It was determined that the Siu Ho Wan STW would not havesufficient capacity to treat the sewage effluent flows predicted to be generated beyond 2011and as such there is a requirement to upgrade the STW. Provided adequate additionalcapacity is provided at the STW there are not predicted to be any residual impacts to waterquality due to the inadequacy of the sewerage system and the Siu Ho Wan STW.5.12.7 No residual environmental impacts to water quality were predicted to occur during theoperation of the road and rail links, provided that the mitigation measures, described inSection 5,12.3 are implemented. The mitigation measures were specified in the form of aseries of measures to be included in the engineering design of the road and rail links and asoperational constraints.5.13 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND AUDITCONSTRUCTION PHASE5.13.1 Water quality monitoring and auditing has been recommended for the construction phase.The specific monitoring requirements are detailed in Annex N of this EIA Report whichcomprises the stand-alone Project EM&A Manual.OPERATION PHASE5.13.2 Monitoring of marine water quality during the operations of the Theme Park is notrecommended to be carried. It is, however; recommended that post construction monitoringof the quality of the water in the artificial lake be undertaken. The specific monitoringScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5-77Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentrequirements are detailed in Annex N of this EIA Report which comprises the stand-aloneProject EM&A Manual.5.14 CONCLUSIONSCONSTRUCTION5.14.1 The construction phase assessment has considered the following aspects.• the potential impacts to marine water quality from the construction of the reclamations at Penny's Bay and atYam O, including cumulative impacts with other concurrent projects; and* the potential impacts to marine water quality from land based construction works for the Theme Park and theassociated infrastructure, including road and rail links.Reclamation Construction5.14.2 The potential impacts to marine water quality from the construction of the reclamations forthe Theme Park at Penny's Bay was assessed by making reference to previous computermodelling studies of suspended sediment dispersion and water quality impacts of theconstruction of a reclamation at Penny's Bay for container terminals. The current proposedreclamation and measured sediment quality were compared to those assumed for theprevious reclamation to calculate the water quality impacts due to the Theme Parkreclamation from those predicted in the previous modelling. It was determined that therewould be no adverse impacts to water quality from the construction of the reclamation atPenny's Bay provided that a number of mitigation measures were implemented.5.14.3 The impacts from the construction of the Yam O reclamation were assessed by calculatingthe increases in suspended sediment concentrations due to the dredging works using a desktop calculation method and then calculating the associated water quality impacts usingmeasured sediment quality. It was predicted that there would be no adverse impacts to waterquality provided that suitable mitigation measures were implemented.5.14.4 The assessment of cumulative impacts was made by taking the results of previous computermodelling of increases in suspended sediment concentrations at sensitive receivers forpotentially concurrent projects. The results of the previous computational modelling weresummed with the predicted increases in suspended sediment concentrations from the ThemePark reclamations at the sensitive receivers. It was determined that there would be anexceedance of the WQO for suspended sediment at the Ma Wan Fish Culture Zone.Through mitigation of the construction of the Theme Park reclamation the contribution ofthe Theme Park reclamation construction to the total suspended sediment concentrationcould be minimised to contribute only a small amount to the total predicted increase inconcentrations. It was noted that the cumulative assessment was based on a veryconservative assessment methodology, which meant that the likelihood of the predictedcumulative impacts occurring will be very small and that the duration of the contribution ofthe Theme Park reclamation construction to the elevated suspended sediment concentrationswould be small Despite the conservative nature of the assessment it was determined thatthe predicted increases in suspended sediment concentrations would not result in adverseeffects on the fish stocks (see Section 9). It was therefore concluded that the predictedexceedance of the WQO could not be considered an adverse impact. In addition, themonitoring and audit programme would ensure that no adverse impacts would occur byScott Wilson'(Hong:Kong) Ud in.association with'ERM Hong Kon^ 5_78Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmenttriggering appropriate mitigation measures for the particular projects identified ascontributing to any detected impacts. Therefore, there are not predicted to be any adverseimpacts to water quality due to cumulative impacts.5.14.5 Mitigation measures for the construction of the Theme Park reclamations were specified interms of operational constraints (eg limiting the rate of working, construction sequence forthe reclamation and methods of construction) and 'best practice' working methods. Theimplementation of these measures would prevent adverse impacts to water quality.5.14.6 It was recommended that Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A) programme becarried out during the construction of the Theme Park reclamations at Penny's Bay and YamO to ensure that no adverse impacts to water quality would occur and to trigger furthermitigation measures should adverse impacts be detected. The EM&A programme wouldalso serve to identify whether the construction of the Theme Park reclamations wasresponsible for any adverse impacts or whether these could be attributed to other concurrentprojects.Land Based Construction Activities5.14.7 It was determined that the potential for adverse impacts to water quality from land basedconstruction activities for the Theme Park and associated infrastructure would primarily befrom contaminated surface run-off and from sewage effluent generated by the constructionworkforce. A number of mitigation measures were specified to reduce the potential adverseimpacts to acceptable levels.OPERATION5.14.8 The operation phase assessment has considered the following aspects.• the potential impacts to hydrodynamics from the Theme Park reclamations and to marine water quality fromsewage effluent and stormwater discharges from the Theme Park and surrounding areas;* the protection of water quality in the artificial lake so that its beneficial uses as a recreation are for water sports,as a source of irrigation water for the Theme Park and as an area of general amenity value may be maintained;• the adequacy of the sewerage system and of the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works so that adverse impacts towater quality due to the discharge of untreated sewage effluent to marine waters may be prevented; and* the potential impacts to marine water quality from the operation of the road and rail links for the Theme Park.Hydrodynamics and Water Quality5.14.9 The potential impacts to hydrodynamics from the Theme Park reclamations were assessedusing computational modelling. The modelling predicted that the Theme Park reclamationswould have only minimal effects on tidal current speeds and directions. It was predicted thatthere would be a reduction in the flushing of the areas to the south west of the reclamations,Sze Pak Wan and Discovery Bay, which would have the potential to cause adverse waterquality impacts. These potential impacts are discussed in the following paragraph.5.14. lOThe potential impacts to water quality from the discharge of sewage effluent and stormwaterwere using computational modelling. The sewage effluent flows from the Theme Park willbe conveyed to the Siu Ho Wan Sewage Treatment Works, while the stormwater will beScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5.79Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentdischarged to the south and east of the Theme Park. The increased treated effluent flowsfrom the Siu Ho Wan STW due to the load from the Theme Park and the stormwaterdischarges were included in the water quality modelling. The water quality modellingpredicted that there would be no breaches of the Water Quality Objectives due to the sewageeffluent and stormwater discharges from the Theme Park. It was also predicted that thewater quality in the areas to the south west of the Theme Park would be acceptable. It wastherefore concluded that there would be no adverse impacts to water quality due to sewageeffluent and stormwater discharges from the Theme Park and as such no specific mitigationmeasures would be required. It was recommended that a performance verification study tomonitor the performance of the Siu Ho Wan STW be carried out following the completionof the Theme Park to determine whether the STW was performing to the specified standards.5.14.11 During the operation of the Theme Park there would also be the potential for the dischargeof toxic substances comprising residual chlorine, pesticides and biocides. Suitableoperational constraints and mitigation measures were devised to prevent adverse impacts towater quality from the discharge of these substances.Artificial Lake5.14.12Appropriate standards were defined for the water quality within the artificial lake withreference to its beneficial uses. The quality of the water to be used to fill the lake wasassessed to determine whether it would be suitable to maintain water quality. Suitablesources of water with acceptable quality were identified. Operational constraints andmitigation measures were also devised and with the implementation of these measures it wasdetermined that water quality within the artificial lake could be maintained to an acceptablelevelAdequacy of the Sewerage System5.14.13The adequacy of the sewerage system was assessed with regard to the required capacity ofthe sewers to convey sewage effluent from the Theme Park to the Siu Ho Wan STW and ofthe capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW to cater for the increased flows due to the operation ofthe Theme Park. It was determined that the sewers could be designed to have adequatecapacity and that the capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW should be increased. This wouldnecessitate upgrading works at the STW, which would be the responsibility of the DrainageServices Department. Suitable measures were devised to minimise the risk of emergencydischarge from the sewers and to reduce the duration of any such events. It was assessedthat there would therefore be no adverse impacts to water quality due to the sewerage systemnot being able to cope with the sewage effluent flows from the Theme Park.Road and Rail Links5.14.14The road and rail links to the Theme Park would have the potential to cause adverse impactsto water quality through discharges from these infrastructure developments, primarilythrough surface run-off. Suitable mitigation measures were devised to minimise theseimpacts and hence prevent adverse impacts from occurring. Operational constraints wereplaced on aspects of the rail link to prevent adverse impacts. It was therefore assessed thatthere would be no adverse impacts to water quality from the operation of the road and raillinks to the Theme Park.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5. 80Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment5.15 IMPACT SUMMARY5.15.1 Water quality impacts due to construction and operation of the proposed InternationalTheme Park at Penny's Bay and Its Associated Infrastructure have been summarised inTable 5J5a as follows.Table 5.15a - Impact Summary TableIssue Construction Impact Operational Impact*>Assessment Points Impacts to water quality from dredging Impacts to hydrodynamics from the Theme Parkand filling for the Penny's Bay and Yam reclamations and the impacts to marine water0 reclamation, including the cumulative quality due to sewage effluent and stormwaterimpacts with potentially concurrent discharges;projects; andThe protection of water quality in the artificialImpacts to water quality from land based lake so that its beneficial uses may be maintained;construction works for the Theme Park The adequacy of the sewerage system and of theand the associated infrastructure,Siu Ho Wan STW so cater for the sewageincluding road and rail links.effluents from the Theme Park; andThe impacts to marine water quality from theRelevant CriteriaPotential ImpactsWater Pollution Control Ordinance;Technical Memorandum for EffluentsDischarged into Drainage and SewerageSystems, Inland and Coastal Waters;Environmental Impact AssessmentOrdinance (Cap, 499 SI6), TechnicalMemorandum on Environmental ImpactAssessment Process, Annexes 6 and 14;andPractice Note for Professional Persons,Construction Site Drainage (ProPECCPN I 794).No adverse impacts to water quality fromthe construction of the Theme Parkreclamations alone;It was predicted that there would anexceedance of the WQO at the Ma WanFish Culture Zone due to cumulativeimpacts, but that the Theme Park wouldcontribute minimally to the predictedadverse impacts following theimplementation of mitigation measuresand that the contribution would be ofshort duration;It was determined that the predictedexceedance of the WQO would be notcause an adverse impact to the fishstocks (see Section 9); andNo adverse impacts to water qualityduring land based construction activities,provided that 'best practice* measuresimplemented.operation of the road and rail links.Water Pollution Control Ordinance;Technical Memorandum for Effluents Dischargedinto Drainage and Sewerage Systems, Inland andCoastal Waters;Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance(Cap. 499 SI6), Technical Memorandum onEnvironmental Impact Assessment Process,Annexes 6 and 14; andDrainage Services Department Sewerage Manual.No adverse impacts to hydrodynamics and waterquality were predicted due to the reclamations andthe discharge of sewage effluents and stormwater;It was determined that the sewerage system toconvey sewage effluents from the Theme Park tothe Siu Ho Wan STW could be designed to haveadequate capacity;It was predicted that the Siu Ho WAN STWwould be able to cater for the sewage effluentflows from the Theme Park in 2005 (Theme Parkopening) but by 2012 the Siu Ho Wan STWwould not have sufficient capacity;No adverse impacts to water quality from theoperation of the road and rail links werepredicted, provided certain design features wereincorporated.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates5-81


Theme Park and Associated DeveiopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentMitigationMeasuresResidual ImpactsEnvironmentalAcceptabilityConstruction- Impact Operational Impact -Operational constraints were specifiedfor the construction of the reclamations,in terms of rates of working, methods ofconstruction and sequence ofconstruction;Mitigation measures would serve tominimise the Theme Park reclamationconstruction contribution to the predictedcumulative impacts, as discussed above;In addition, 'best practice* workingmethods were specified for reclamationconstruction; andFor the land based construction activitiesmeasures were specified to minimise thepotential for contaminated surface runoffentering marine waters and to preventthe discharge of untreated sewageeffluent.Cumulative impacts, based on a conservativeassessment methodology were predicted toexceed the WQO at the Ma Wan FishCulture Zone but would not be considered tobe an adverse impact (see Section 9).Acceptable.No mitigation measures were required due to thepotential impacts to water quality from thechanges to hydrodynamics and the discharges ofstormwater and sewage effluent;Operational constraints to control the quality ofthe water to fill the lake were devised;Further mitigation measures included the use of awatertight liner for the lake and preventingaccidental spills to the lake;The capacity of the Siu Ho Wan STW should beincreased prior to 2012 to prevent overloading;Measures were devised to minimise the risk ofemergency discharges; andMeasures were devised to mitigate the potentialimpacts due to surface run-off from the road andrail links.No residual impacts to occur were predicted to occurprovided that the recommended mitigation measureswere implemented.Acceptable.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd to association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates5-82


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCONTENTS5 WATER QUALITY 5-15.1 INTRODUCTION 5-15.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES 5-15.3 EXISTING ENVIRONMENT/SENSITIVE RECEIVERS 5-25.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY - CONSTRUCTION 5-65.5 IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION 5-85.6 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION 5-145.7 MITIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - CONSTRUCTION PHASE 5-335.8 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY - OPERATION 5-405.9 IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - OPERATION 5-455.105.11ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - OPERATION 5-56MITIGATION OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS-OPERATION 5-715.12 RESIDUAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 5-765.13 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND AUDIT 5-775.14 CONCLUSIONS 5-785.15 IMPACT SUMMARY 5-81Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 5.33ShanWand Cox « Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6 WASTE MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS6.1 INTRODUCTION6.1.1 This Section identifies the waste arising from the construction and operation of the ThemePark and associated developments at Penny's Bay and assesses the potential environmentalimpacts associated with the handling and disposal of the waste. The options for reuse,minimisation, recycling, treatment, storage, collection, transport and disposal of wastesarising from the Project have been examined. Where appropriate, procedures for wastereduction and management are considered and environmental control measures for avoidingand minimising the potential impacts are recommended.6.2 LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINESINTRODUCTION6.2.1 The criteria and guidelines for evaluating potential waste management implications are laidout in Annexes 7 and 15 of the EIAO TM under the EIAO (Cap 499).6.2.2 The following legislation covers, or has some bearing upon, the handling, treatment anddisposal of wastes in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HK SAR), and willalso be considered in the assessment.• Waste Disposal Ordinance (Cap 354);• Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation (Cap 354);• Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap 28);• Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance (Cap 132) - Public Cleansing and Prevention of Nuisances(Urban Council) and (Regional Council) By-laws; and• Dumping at Sea Ordinance (1995).WASTE DISPOSAL ORDINANCE6.2.3 The Waste Disposal Ordinance (WDO) prohibits the unauthorised disposal of wastes, withwaste defined as any substance or article which is abandoned. Construction and demolition(C&D) waste is not directly defined in the WDO but is considered to fall within thecategory of "trade waste". Trade waste is defined as waste from any trade, manufactureror business, or any waste building, or civil engineering materials, but does not includeanimal waste.6.2.4 Under the WDO, wastes can only be disposed of at a licensed site. A breach of theseregulations can lead to the imposition of a fine and/or a prison sentence. The WDO alsoprovides for the issuing of licences for the collection and transport of wastes. Licences arenot, however, currently issued for the collection and transport of C&D waste or tradewaste.WASTE DISPOSAL (CHEMICAL WASTE) (GENERAL) REGULATION6.2.5 Chemical waste as defined under the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General)Regulation includes any substance being scrap material, or unwanted substances specifiedunder Schedule 1 of the Regulation, if such a substance or chemical occurs in such a form,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-1Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentquantity or concentration so as to cause pollution or constitute a danger to health or risk ofpollution to the environment.6.2.6 A person should not produce, or cause to be produced, chemical wastes unless he isregistered with the EPD. Any person who contravenes this requirement commits anoffence and is liable to fine and imprisonment.6.2.7 Producers of chemical wastes must treat their wastes, utilising on-site plant licensed by theEPD or have a licensed collector take the wastes to a licensed facility. For eachconsignment of wastes, the waste producer, collector and disposer of the wastes must signall relevant parts of a computerised trip ticket. The system is designed to allow the transferof wastes to be traced from cradle-to-grave.6.2.8 The Regulation prescribes the storage facilities to be provided on site including labellingand warning signs. To minimise the risks of pollution and danger to human health or life,the waste producer is required to prepare and make available written procedures to beobserved in the case of emergencies due to spillage, leakage or accidents arising from thestorage of chemical wastes. He/she must also provide employees with training in suchprocedures.LAND (MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS) ORDINANCE (CAP 28)6.2.9 Construction and demolition materials (1) which are wholly inert may be taken to publicfilling areas. Public filling areas usually form part of land reclamation schemes and areoperated by the Civil Engineering Department (CED) and others. The Land(Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance requires that Dumping Licences are obtained byindividuals or companies who deliver inert C&D material (or public fill) to the public fillingareas. The licences are issued by the CED under delegated authority from the Director ofLands.6.2.10 Individual licences and windscreen stickers are issued for each vehicle involved. Under thelicence conditions public filling areas will accept only inert building debris, soil, rock andbroken concrete. There is no size limitation on the rock and broken concrete, and a smallamount of timber mixed with inert material is permissible. The material should, however,be free from marine mud, household refuse, plastic, metal, industrial and chemical wastes,animal and vegetable matters and any other materials considered unsuitable by the publicfilling supervisor.PUBLIC CLEANSING AND PREVENTION OF NUISANCES BY-LAWS6.2.11 These by-laws provide a further control on the illegal tipping of wastes on unauthorised(unlicensed) sites. The illegal dumping of wastes can lead to a fine and imprisonment.(1) "C&D material" refers to surplus materials arising from any land excavation or formadon, civil/building construction, road work, building renovation or demolition activities. Itincludes various types of reusable materials, building debris, rubble, earth, concrete, timber and mixed site clearance materials. When sorted properly, materials suitable for landreclamation and site formation (know as public fill) should be reused at public filling area whereas the remaining C&D waste are to be disposed of at landfills.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-2Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentDUMPING AT SEA ORDINANCE6.2.12 This Ordinance empowers the Director of Environmental Protection (DEP) to control thedisposal and incineration of substances and articles at sea for the protection of the marineenvironment. Under the Ordinance, a permit from the DEP is required for the disposal ofregulated substances within and outside the waters of the HK SAR. The permit containsterms and conditions that includes the following specifications:• type and quantity of substances to be dumped;• location of the disposal grounds;• requirement of equipment for monitoring the disposal operations; and• the need for environmental monitoring.OTHER RELEVANT GUIDELINES6.2.13 Other 'guideline' documents which detail how the contractor should comply with theregulations are as follows:• Waste Disposal Plan for Hong Kong (December 1989), Planning, Environment and Lands Branch GovernmentSecretariat;• Environmental Guidelines for Planning In Hong Kong (1990), Hong Kong Planning and Standards Guidelines,Hong Kong Government;• New Disposal Arrangements for Construction Waste (1992), Environmental Protection Department & CivilEngineering Department;• Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes (1992), EnvironmentalProtection Department;• Works Branch Technical Circular No. 6/92, Fill Management, Works Branch, Hong Kong Government;• Works Branch Technical Circular 22/92, Marine Disposal of Dredged Mud;• Works Branch Technical Circular, 32/92, The Use of Tropical Hard Wood on Construction Site; WorksBranch, Hong Kong Government;• Technical Circular No 1-1-92 Classification of Dredged Sediments for Marine Disposal, EnvironmentalProtection Department;• Works Branch Technical Circular No. 2/93, Public Dumps, Works Branch, Hong Kong Government;• Works Branch Technical Circular No. 16/96, Wet Soil in Public Dumps; Works Branch, Hong KongGovernment;• Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 4/98, Use of Public Fill in Reclamation and Earth Filling Projects;Works Bureau, HK SAR Government;• Works Bureau Technical Circular No 5/98, On-site Sorting of Construction Waste on Demolition Site', WorksBureau, HK SAR Government;• Waste Reduction Framework Plan, 1998 to 2007, Planning, Environment and Lands Bureau, GovernmentSecretariat, 5 November 1998;• Works Bureau Technical Circular No 5/99, Trip-ticket System for Disposal of Construction and DemolitionMaterial] Works Bureau, HK SAR Government; and• Work Bureau Technical Circular No. 25/99, Incorporation of Information on Construction and DemolitionMaterial Management in Public Works Su^-coiJi^^ee Papers; Worte Bureau, HK SAR Goverriment,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-3Shankland Gox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentCLASSIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT FOR MARINE DISPOSAL6.2.14 Dredged sediments destined for marine disposal are classified according to their level ofcontamination by seven heavy metals as stipulated in the EPDTC No. 1-1-92. The sevenmetals are cadmium (3d), chromium Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel ftfi), lead(Pb) and zinc (Zn). Definition of the classification is as follows:Table 6.2a - Classification of Dredged SedimentClassClass AClass BClass CTypeUncontaminated material, for which no special dredging, transport or disposal methods are required beyondthose which would normally be applied for the purpose of ensuring compliance with EPD's Water QualityObjectives (WQO), or for protection of sensitive receptors near the dredging or disposal areas.Moderately contaminated material, which requires special care during dredging and transport, and whichmust be disposed of in a manner which minimises the loss of pollutants either into solution or byresuspension.Seriously contaminated material, which must be dredged and transported with great care, which cannot bedumped in the gazetted marine disposal grounds and which must be effectively isolated from theenvironment upon Final disposal.Table 6.2b - Classification of Sediments by Metal Content (mg kg * dry weight)xCis*£$>,Class AClass BClass C:y£d V-- _|0.0-0.91.0-1.41.5 or more. Cr,, / . .0-4950-7980 or moreCii0-5455-6465 or more% -;' „-;0.0-0.70.8-0.91.0 or more-NIX '>;*>;0-3435-3940 or more»/,>X'^',0-6465-7475 or more;m^JK.^0-149150-199200 or more6.2.15 It should be noted that for sediments to be identified within a particular class, theconcentration of only one metallic species needs to be exceeded. In the case of both ClassB and Class C contamination, the final determination of appropriate disposal options,routing and the allocation of a permit to dispose of material at the designated disposal sitewill be made by the EPD and Fill Management Committee (FMC) in accordance withW5TC 22/92.6.2.16 It should be noted that Appendix I Item (c) of WBTC 22/92 stipulates that theconcentrations of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and tributyltin (TBT) should also be tested, if suspected tobe present. However, EPD has not specified the criteria for any of these parameters.6.2.17 In addition, in accordance with WBTC Nos 6/92 and 22/92 and Building Ordinance OfficePractice Note for Authorised Persons and Registered Structural Engineers No 155, anyproposal to remove more than 500,000 irf of clean mud or any quantity of contaminatedmud must be justified on both cost and environmental grounds and rationale for suchremoval should be provided to enable an allocation for disposal to be considered. It isdesirable, therefore, to demonstrate that the proposed mud dredging is the minimumnecessary, and to obtain in»principle agreement from the Geotechnical Engineering Officeat an early stage.6.3 BASELINE CONDITION6.3.1 The Theme Park and associated developments fail within the Tsuen Wan and OutlyingIslands Waste Arising Districts. Municipal solid waste (MSW) arisings in North Lantau isScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates6-4


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentmainly from the Tung Chung New Town, Hong Kong International Airport and theMTRC Siu Ho Wan Depot. Currently, the MSW collected from North Lantau is deliveredto the North Lantau Transfer Station (NLTS) at Siu Ho Wan.6.3.2 The NLTS was commissioned in April 1998 and has a throughput of 650 tpd which will beexpanded to 1,200 tpd to handle the anticipated growth of waste arising from NorthLantau. The anticipated waste throughput of NLTS are 180, 370, 770, and 880 tpd for theyears 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016, respectively®. At the NLTS, the waste is compactedinto 20 ft ISO containers for bulk transfer by marine vessels to the Western NewTerritories (WENT) landfill for final disposal. The WENT landfill was commissioned inNovember 1993 and has a design capacity and void capacity of about 61M irf and 53 Mm 3 respectively. Based on the current waste input forecasts, and making allowances for theimplementation of the Waste Reduction Plan, the HK SAR's strategic landfills will be filledby 2019.6.3.3 Currently there is no public filling area is available for the disposal of public fill arisingfrom North Lantau. A public filling area is proposed at Yam Tsai Wan but no commitmentis acknowledged.6.3.4 There is only one Public Filling Barging Point in Lantau Island at Mui Wo (operates since1998). The Siu Ho Wan Public Filling Barging Point (next to the NLTS) is scheduled tooperate in 2004. Before the commissioning of the Siu Ho Wan Public Filling BargingPoint, public fills generated in the construction of the Theme Park and the associatedinfrastructure will have to be either re-used on-site as far as practical or delivered to publicfilling areas in Kowloon and Tuen Mun or other reclamation sites on Lantau Island.6.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY6.4.1 The potential environmental impacts associated with the handling and disposal of wastearising from the construction and operation of the Theme Park and associated developmentsat Penny's Bay will be assessed in accordance with the criteria presented in Annexes 7 and15 of the EIAO TMand are summarised as follows:• estimation of the types and quantities of the wastes to be generated, including, but not limit to:dredged/excavated sediment, excavated material, construction and demolition waste, chemical waste and generalrefuse during construction phase; as well as municipal solid waste, chemical waste and sewage sludge duringoperation phase;• assessment of the secondary environmental impacts due to the management of waste with respect to potentialhazards, air and odour emissions, noise, wastewater discharges, pest nuisance and traffic; and• assessment of the potential impacts on the capacity of waste collection, transfer and disposal facilities.6.5 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION WASTE IMPACTS(2) EPD Communication ref EP 20/03/205 MScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-5Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.5.1 As detailed in Section 2, the construction of the Theme Park and associated developmentswill involve a wide range of construction activities which will lead to the generation ofsolid wastes. Major construction activities are listed below:• dredging and disposal of the marine sediment at the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stages I and II as well as Yam0 Reclamation;• construction of seawalls and reclamation;« construction of road and drains; and• construction of the Theme Park infrastructure.6.5.2 As described in Section 1.4, an existing shipyard Cheoy Lee Shipyard) will need to bedemolished as part of the Project. However, the potential environmental impacts associatedwith the decommissioning and demolition of the shipyard will be evaluated under a separateEl A to be commissioned by the CED.6.5.3 The Theme Park and associated developments construction activities will result in thegeneration of a variety of wastes which can be divided into distinct categories based ontheir composition, as follows:dredged/excavated marine sediment;excavated material;construction and demolition waste;chemical waste; andgeneral refuse.6.5.4 The nature and quantity of each of these waste types arising from the construction of thePenny's Bay and Yam 0 reclamations and the Theme Park infrastructure are identifiedbelow.Dredged/Excavated Sediment6.5.5 The construction of the Theme Park will involve the reclamation of 280 ha of marine seabed. The reclamation will be undertaken in two stages. Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage Ireclamation has to be completed by Q3 2002 (including dredging, placement of seawall,filling and placement of surcharge) in order to be handed over to Hongkong InternationalTheme Parks Limited (HKITP) for the construction and operation of the Theme Park. Thismeans that the dredging, reclamation and consolidation works have to be finished within 32months. The engineering feasibility of not dredging the marine sediment of the Penny'sBay Reclamation Stage I and increasing the consolidation rate by various groundimprovement techniques has been evaluated. However, taking into account the depth(approximately 20 to 30 m) of the marine sediment to be left in place and the limited timeavailable for undertaking the ground improvement prior to the construction for the ThemePark infrastructure, it is considered necessary to fully dredge the marine sediment ofPenny's Bay Reclamation Stage I. The volume of marine sediment to be dredged for thePenny's Bay Reclamation Stage I is approximately 40 M m 3Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-6Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.5.66.5.76.5.86.5.9The construction of the Phase II Theme Park on the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II willnot be required immediately after the reclamation. It is therefore feasible to leave themarine sediment in place and carry out ground improvement prior to the Phase II ThemePark construction. Dredging of marine sediment for the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage IIwill therefore be limited to the seawall area and the volume of marine sediment will beabout 5 Mm 3 which is significantly less than the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I.The construction of the Road P2 and the Temporary PTI at Yam 0 will require thereclamation of a 10 ha of marine seabed. Various reclamation methods aiming to minimisethe requirement of dredging works have been considered. It is recommended that dredgingof marine sediment should be limited to the seawall area. The amount of marine sedimentto be dredged will be about 0.3 M m 3 .The construction of a 32 ha Water Recreation Centre with a 12 ha artificial lake andassociated amenity facilities may require the dredging of about 1 M m 3 of marine sediment,which is approximately the top 1 m of the artificial lake. The construction of the CKWLRsection between Yam 0 and the Penny's Bay Interchanges will also require excavation anddisposal of a small quantity (approximately 1,300 m 3 ) of marine sediment for pileconstruction of elevation sections.The total volume of marine sediment to be dredged and disposed off-site will beapproximately 46.3 Mm 3 . Table 6.5a summarises the dredging and filling requirements forthe Penny's Bay Reclamation Stages I and II and Yam 0 Reclamation.Table 6.5a - Dredging and Filling Requirements for Penny's Bay and Yam OReclamationt&ctl^iti^kry ,/ ' - ' . " ^ /t^t^i^v,/ 1 -/ • *, • *.Dredging for Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage IDredging for Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage IIDredging for Yam 0 ReclamationDredging of sediment for the construction ofWater Recreation CentreExcavation for the construction of CKWLR sectionfoundation (Yam O to Penny's Bay Interchanges)Total Volume of Sediment to be DredgedFilling/Surcharge of Penny's Bay ReclamationStage I:Sand Fill/Sand SurchargePublic FillFilling/Surcharge of Penny's Bay ReclamationStage H:Sand Fill/Sand SurchargePublic Fill/Public Fill SurchargeFilHng/Surcharge of Yam 0 ReclamationSand FillPublic FillTotal Pitt RequirementReclamation Area in ha200801032N. A.M^ ^?£j$$


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentthe criteria stipulated in EPDTC 1-1-92. Vibrocores or grab samples were collected basedon a 200 m grid system (see Figures 6.5a and 6.5b) and they were tested for Cd, Cr, Cu,Ni, Pb, Ag, Zn and Hg in accordance with the requirements of the EPDTC 1-1-92. Theanalysis results are presented in Table 6.5b.Table 6.5b - Sediment Quality Analysis ResultsSample Moisture Cd",..V^VDepth: (%} (mg/kg)Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage 1TGS01 Seabed .


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTGS45TGS46TGS47TGS48TGS49TGS50TGS51TGS52TGS53VC1VC1VC1VC1VC1VC1VC1VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC2VC3VC3VC3VC3VC3VC3VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC5VC6VC6VC6SampleDepthSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabed0.9-1. Om1.9-2.0m2.9-3.0m5. 7-5. 8m8.9-9. Om117.-ll.8m14. 9-15. Om0.9-1.0 m1.9-2.0m2.9-3.0m5.7~5.8m5. 8-5. 9m8.9-9.0m11. 8-11. 9m14.7-15.0m17.8-17.9m20.9-21.0m0.9-1.0 m1.9-2.0m2.9-3.0m5.7-5.8m8.9-9.0m11. 7-11. 8m0.9-1. Om1.9-2.0m2.9-3.0m5.7-5.8m8.9-9.0m11. 7-11. 8m14.9-15.0m0.9-l.Om1.9-2.0m2.9-3.0m5.8-5. 9m8.9-9. Om1.8-1 1.9m4.9-15.0m7.847.9m20.9-21.0m23.8-23.9m26.8-27.0m3.9-1.0 m.9-2.0m-2,9-3.0mMoisture(%) .------52.1-53.2---------.-------------------Cd(mg/kg)


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentVC6VC6VC6VC6VC7VC7VC7VC7VC7VC7VC7VC7VC7VC8VC8VC8VC8Sample MoistureDepth (%)5.8-5. 9m -8.9-9. Om -11.8-11.9m -14.9-15. Om -0.9-l.Om -1.9-2.0m -2.9-3.0m -5.8-5. 9m -8.9-9.0m -11. 8-11. 9m -14.9-15. Om -17.8-17.9m -20.9-21. Om -0.9-1. Om -1.9-2.0m -2.9-3.0m -5.7-5.8m -Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage IITGS54 SeabedTGS55 SeabedTGS56 SeabedTGS57 SeabedTGS58 SeabedTGS59 SeabedTGS60 SeabedTGS61 SeabedTGS62 SeabedTGS63 SeabedTGS64 SeabedTGS65 SeabedYam 0 ReclamationSS6SS6SS6SS6SS6SS17SS17SS17SS17SS17SS18SS18SS18SS18SS18SS19SS19SS19SS190.3-0.9m0.9-1. 5m1.9-2.5m2.9-3.5m5. 2-5. 8m0.2-0.8m0.9-1. 5m1.9-2. 5m2.9~3.5m5.2-5.8m0.0-0.6m0.9-1. 5m1.9-2. 5m2.9-3.5m5. 2-5. 8m0.2-0.8m0.9-4.5m1.9-2. 5m2.9-3. 4m47.4-50.5-48.8--50.2-51.8-2344.539.744.543.148.443.740.847.845.949334836.443.942.450.126.437.638Cd(rag/fcg)


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment^- :-.;'SGS03SGS04SGS05SGS06SGS07SGS08SGS09SampleD«f*ttiSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedSeabedMoisture(%)31.865.359.356.657.260.953Cd(mg/kg)


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 6.5c - Estimated Classification and Volume of Dredged/Excavated Sediment-Am -,- , *Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage IPenny's Bay Reclamation Stage IIYam 0 ReclamationWater Recreation Centre or CKWLR sectionTotalClass A39.284.580.2850.7644.905Class B0.640.40.0050.241.285' - Volume iaM in® '"'';";",-


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentestimated that about 1.2 M m 3 of public fill (about 70% of the fill requirement) will be usedfor the reclamation and the balance will be sand fill (about 0.5 M rf which will mainlyused for the construction of the seawall).6.5.21 The use of public fill as filling material may give rise to floating debris during reclamation.Part of the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stages I and II as well as Yam 0 Reclamation will bedesignated as a public filling area. Public fill comprising earth, building debris and brokenconcrete may contain a small amount of floatable materials such as timber, plastic andpaper. If not properly controlled, it may give rise to floating refuse.Excavated Material6.5.22 Construction of Theme Park: The construction of the Penny's Bay Reclamation and Yam 0Reclamation will require importation of a large quantity of fill materials. The constructionof the building foundation for the Phase I of the Theme Park will generate some excavatedmaterials. The quality of the excavated material will be the same as the fill materials usedfor the reclamation (ie either marine sand fill or clean public fill). The exact amount ofsurplus excavated material to be generated from the foundation works cannot be determinedat this stage as detailed design information is not presently available. However, it isanticipated to be of a small percentage (less than 5%) of the fill requirement (15.9 M nf)for the Penny Bay Reclamation Stage II (which will be undertaken concurrently with theconstruction of the Phase I Theme Park) and can all be reused for the filling works ofPenny's Bay Reclamation Stage II. Therefore, no surplus excavated material will begenerated from the Phase I development of the Theme Park.6.5.23 The design of the Phase II development of the Theme Park will ensure a cut and fillbalance as far as practical. The small amount of excavated material to be generated fromthe foundation works will be used for landscaping works in order to minimise the need todispose of any surplus excavated material off-site.6.5.24 CKWLR section : Approximately 10,200 m? of excavated material will be generated fromslope excavation. The excavated materials will consist of clean rock and soil which couldbe reused on-site, for example, for filling at the Cheoy Lee Shipyard area. No surplusexcavated material will be generated.6.5.25 Road P2 : About 7,800 nf of excavated material will be generated from the excavationworks. The excavated materials will be reused on-site for filling at Cheoy Lee Shipyardarea and no surplus excavated material will be generated.6.5.26 Penny's Bay Rail Link: As the majority of the PBRL will be constructed at grade, theexcavation work will be limited to construction of cut and cover and drill and blast tunnels,and minor earthworks for the construction of tunnel portals. It is estimated thatapproximately 16,500 m 3 and 27,000 m 3 of excavated materials will be generated from theconstruction of the cut and cover tunnel, and the drill and blast tunnel, respectively. About25,000 irf of excavated materials will be generated from other minor excavation work.These excavated materials (a total of 68,500 m 3 ) will be generated between Q3 2002 ad Q22004 (approximately 21 months) and will comprise mainly clean rock and soil. The Yam0 station will be constructed on a pad foundation, and hence no piling will be required.The Theme Park station will be founded on steel H-piles or a pad foundation. No orScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong --6-13Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentminimal excavation will be required for the construction of an H-piles or pad foundation.The quantity of excavated material arising from all the foundation works will be minimal.6.5.27 As the Penny's Bay and Yam 0 reclamations require a large quantity of fill material andthe Project will have an overall deficit of fill material. It is anticipated that all the excavatedsoil and rock generated from the Project will be re-used for the reclamation works. Sincepublic filling areas only accept public fill with certain size (< 200 mm diameter). Some ofthe excavated material may require to be broken prior re-use on site. No surplus ofexcavated material will be generated.Construction and Demolition Material6.5.28 Construction and demolition material (C&DM) (4) will be generated from new buildingsconstruction. C&DM comprises unwanted materials generated during construction,including rejected structures and materials, materials which have been over ordered or aresurplus to requirements and materials which have been used and discarded. C&DM willarise from a number of construction and maintenance activities and may include:wood from formwork and falsework;equipment and vehicle maintenance parts;materials and equipment wrappings;unusable/surplus concrete/grouting mixes; anddamaged/contaminated construction materials.6.5.29 C&DM can be minimised with careful planning during the detail design stage as well asduring construction. The contractor should use reusable non-timber formwork andtemporary works. Moreover, the contractor should be required to carry out sorting of theC&DM into various categories and re-use/recycle the C&DM on site or other constructionsites.6.5.30 Theme Park and Associated Developments: The majority of the C&DM will be generatedfrom the construction of the Theme Park and associated developments. The buildings ofthe Theme Park will be constructed using concrete, steel or other appropriate materials.The total quantities of C&DM arising from the construction process will depend on theexact types of the buildings and the construction methods adopted. Information relating tothis is not available at this stage. This EIA therefore assumes that the maximum buildablearea as regulated by the North East Lantau OZP would be constructed within the ThemePark development area. The OZP limits the floor coverage in the hotel area to 1.5 and 1.0in the Theme Park and the RD&E area. This will lead to a conservative assessment, aslikely development may be below those maximum levels set in the OZP. The buildablegross floor areas (GFA) for the Theme Park and RD&E area are given in Table 6.5d.(4) Construction and Demolition material (C&D material) contains a mixture of inter and non-inert material. The inert portion is the "public fill". The non-inert portion is the "C&Dwaste".Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-14Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTable 6.5d Buildable GFA for the Theme Park/RD&E Area and HotelTotalo?^; ?Potential"A"risings (in 3)Public nt41,648Estimated Generation Rate ofEstimated G eneration RateAverage59C&B WastePeakPeak220,600 520,600 52,060 10,4121422Opening Day 2005Phase I - Q3 2008 to Q3 2011 100,000 105,100 205,100 20,510 4,102 16,408 11BuildoutPhase II -400,000 409,800 809,800 80,980 16,196 64,784 12 19 49 74BuildoutQ4 2003 to Q2 2005.Q2 2007 to Ql 2009and Ql 2014 to Q32015Total 800,000 735,500 I f 535 f 50 153,550 30,710 122,8400Note:(a) Based on a C&DM arisings rate of 0.1 nf per 1 m 2 of GFA constructed.(b) Forecast ratio for C&D waste : public fill is 2 : 8 (Source Monitoring of Solid Waste in Hong Kong 1997)(c) Peak factor of 1.5 is assumedScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates6-15


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.5.31 The Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II site will be handed over to HKITP after March2002. The construction of the Phase I Theme Park infrastructure is scheduled to becompleted by April 2005. The average and maximum (assuming a peak factor of 1.5)daily arisings of C&D waste will be approximately 14 m 3 d" 1 and 22 m 3 d" 1 , respectively.6.5.32 The average and peak arisings of C&D waste for the construction of the remaininginfrastructures of the Phase I Theme Park to Phase I - Build Out between 2008 and 2011will be about 2 m 3 d" 1 and 3 m 3 d" 1 , respectively.6.5.33 The average and peak arisings of C&D waste for the construction of the Phase II ThemePark infrastructures between 2003 and 2015 will be about 12 m 3 d" 1 and 19 m 3 d 4 ,respectively or at nearby public filling areas.6.5.34 For the public fill generated from the construction of the Theme Park and associateddevelopments, since the daily operation rate is low, all the public fill is likely to be re-usedon site.6.5.35 Penny's Bay Rail Link: The quantity of C&DM generated from the construction of cut andcover tunnel will be minimal (in the order of 350 m 3 ). The amount of concrete which maybe wasted from the shotcreting of the tunnel wall and construction of the tunnel lining willbe negligible (in the order of 80 m?) and will not be a concern. The Yam O Station willconsist of two separate platforms which will be constructed along the existing track at Yam0. Concourses will be constructed above each of the platforms and be connected by linkbridges. The Penny's Bay Rail Station will consist of two levels, the concourse and theplatform levels. Both stations will be constructed using by in situ concrete. The side wallsand roofs of the stations will largely be structural steel with cladding. The GFA for theYam 0 and Penny's Bay Rail Stations are about 16,000 irf and 30,000 nf, respectively.Based on a generation rate of 0.1 nf per 1 ni of GFA constructed®, the quantity ofC&DM to be produced from the construction of Yam 0 and Penny's Bay Rail stations willbe approximately 4,600 nf. Based on the construction timing (Q4 2002 to Q2 2004), theaverage and peak generation rate of C&D waste is 3 nf d" 1 and 4 nf d" 1 , respectively,whereas for public fill is 10 m 3 d" 1 and 16m 3 d" 1 , respectively.6.5.36 Water Recreation Centre: According to the development schedule of the NorthshoreLantau, GFA of the Water Recreation Centre is about 2,000 m 2 . Using the C&DMgeneration rate of 0.1 irf per nf of GFA constructed, the C&DM to be generated will beapproximately 200 nf. Based on the construction schedule (6) , the average daily C&DMarisings is about 1.2 nf d" 1 . Therefore the generation rate for C&D waste and public fillwill be minimal.6.5.37 CKWLR section: Based on the current information (7 >, demolition is required at NgongShuen Au, Wan Tuk Village and Cheoy Lee shipyard. These included an abandonedsingle storey concrete village school, one telephone exchange and one air qualitymonitoring station at Ngong Shuen Au as well as one concrete latrine, one refuse collectionpoint, four partial concrete/wooden structures and six wooden structures at Wan TukVillage. Although no details on the GFA is available, these structures are likely to be small(5) Reduction of Construction Waste Final Report (March 1993). Hong Kong Polytechnics.(6) From April 2004 to December 2004.(7) Scott Wilson Communication 97240/2/20/52361 dated 25 November 1999.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-16Shankland Cox •Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentand simple and the volume of demolition material to be generated is likely to be small. Atthe Cheoy Lee Shipyard, it is estimated that three stone built workshops of about 5-10 m inheight, ten iron sheet built workshops about 5-10 m high, two iron sheet built workshop ofabout 2 m high, some wooden structures and damaged structures (composition unknown)will be demolished. The potential environmental impacts associated with thedecommissioning and demolition of the shipyard will be evaluated under a separate EIA tobe commissioned by the CED.6.5.38 If not properly managed, the storage, handling, transport and disposal of C&D waste havethe potential to create visual, litter, dust and traffic impacts.Chemical Waste6.5.39 Chemical waste, as defined under the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General)Regulation, includes any substance being scrap material, or unwanted substances specifiedunder Schedule 1 of the Regulation. A complete list of such substances is provided underthe Regulation, however substances likely to be generated by construction activities for thePenny's Bay reclamation and construction of the Theme Park and the associatedinfrastructure will, for the most part, arise from the maintenance of equipment. These mayinclude, but need not be limited to the following:• scrap batteries or spent acid/alkali from their maintenance;• used paint, engine oils, hydraulic fluids and waste fuel;« spent mineral oils/cleaning fluids from mechanical machinery; and• spend solvents/solutions, some of which may be halogenated, from equipment cleaning activities.6.5.40 Chemical wastes may pose serious environmental, health and safety hazards if not storedand disposed of in an appropriate manner as outlined in the Waste Disposal (ChemicalWaste) (General) Regulation and the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling andStorage of Chemical Wastes. These hazards include:• toxic effects to workers;• adverse effects on air, water and land from spills;• fire hazards; and• disruption to sewage treatment works due to damage to the sewage biological treatment systems if waste isallow to enter the sewage system.6.5.41 It is difficult to quantify the amount of chemical waste which will arise from the ThemePark and associated developments construction activities as it will be highly dependent onthe Contractor's on-site maintenance intention and the quantities of plant and vehiclesutilised. However, it is anticipated that the quantity of chemical waste, such as lubricatingoil and solvent produced from plant maintenance will be small and in the order to a fewcubic metres per month.General Re fuse6.5.42 The presence of a construction site with large numbers of workers and site offices andcanteens will result in the generation of a variety of general refuse requiring disposalGeneral refuse will mainly consist of food wastes, aluminium cans and waste paper.6.5.43 The storage of general refuse has the potential to give rise to adverse environmentalimpacts. These include odour if the waste is not collected frequently (for example, daily),Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-17Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentwindblown litter, water quality impacts if waste enters water bodies, and visual impact.The sites may also attract pests, vermin, and other disease vectors if the waste storage areasare not well maintained and cleaned regularly. In addition, disposal of wastes at sites otherthan approved landfills, can also lead to similar adverse impacts at those sites.6.5.44 The peak construction period (around 2004) will occur during the construction of theTheme Park and the associated developments. It is anticipated that there will be about4,300 workers to be employed on-site during this period. Based on a generation rate of0.65kg per worker per day, the maximum daily arisings of general refuse during theconstruction period will be approximately 2.8 tonnes.OPERATION WASTE IMPACTSMunicipal Solid Waste6.5.45 The operation of the PBRL and road links to the Theme Park (including the CKWLRsection, Road P2, Resort Road) will generate a negligible amount of waste which,consisting mainly of litter, trimmed vegetation and road maintenance waste. It has beenestimated from experience that each of the PBRL stations may generate up to 5 nf d 4 ofsuch waste although it is difficult to estimate at this stage the precise contribution from thecommercial element all the stations until more details of their operations can be confirmed.The exact quantity of waste to be generated from the operation of the road links cannot beaccurately estimated as it depends very much on the design and maintenance schedule ofthese roads. However, it is anticipated that it will be in the order of a few cubic metres permonth.6.5.46 The operation of the Eastern Stormwater Drainage Channel will generate sand and gravelfrom de-silting operations. The amount of sand and gravel collected will vary between dryand wet seasons.6.5.47 The operation of the Theme Park, RD&E and hotels will generate a significant amount ofMSW. The quantity of MSW to be generated from the Theme Park and associatedfacilities is estimated based on the experience of other world class international theme parksand resorts and is presented in Table 6.5e.Table 6.5e - Predicted Waste Arisings from the Theme Park and Associated FacilitiesTheme Park 7,500,000 0.39RD&E 6,600,000 1.062 19.2Hotel 1,400 rooms 2823.53/room/yr 10.8Total 38Phase I - Build Out 2014Theme Park 10,000,000 0.59 16.2RD&E 10,100,000 1.1264 31.2Hotel 3,100 rooms 3076.92/room/yr 26.1Total 73.5Phase II - Build Out 2024Theme Park 20.000,000 0.83 45.5RD&E 17,100.000 1.4455 67.7Hotel 7,000 rooms 3,214.29/room/yr 61.6Total 175Note:(a) Waste generation rate of Theme Park, RD&E and Hotel has been obtained from HKITP,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates6-18


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.5.48 The storage and handling of MSW has the potential to cause adverse environmentalimpacts. These include odour if the waste is not collected frequently (for example, daily),noise impact from collection and storage of waste, windblown litter, water quality impactsif waste enters water bodies, and visual impact. The waste storage areas may also attractpests, vermin, and other disease vectors if they are not well maintained and cleanedregularly. In addition, disposal of wastes at sites other than approved transfer stations orlandfills, can also lead to similar adverse impacts at those sites.6.5.49 During operation of the Theme Park and associated developments, refuse collection binswill be installed both indoors and outdoors. If not collected properly, windblown debrisand litter in the open area may enter into the artificial lake of the Water Recreation Centreor the shore area of the reclamation. This may include litter, paper, package material,plastic bags, plastic bottles or food stuffs and give rise to floating refuse.Chemical Waste6.5.50 The operation of the Theme Park at Penny's Bay will use a variety of chemicals. Some ofthe used chemicals have to be disposed of. The operation of the Theme Park at Penny'sBay will be very similar to that of Disneyland. Based on the experience of Disneyland, thefollowing chemicals may also be used in the Theme Park at Penny's Bay, as shown inTable 6.5f.6.5.51 The remains of fireworks from the fireworks shows in the Theme Park may contain heavymetals in low concentrations (in a scale of ng kg" 1 ).6.5.52 According to the literature search, the fireworks remains from the mid-level fireworksshows may contains dioxins furans (see Section 3). The fireworks shells will be droppedwithin the safety zone at the back of house and immediately collected for proper disposal.The fireworks remains will be treated as chemical waste and stabilised, if necessary, withcement to avoid the hazards and potential environmental impacts associated with thedisposal of the waste. The stabilised fireworks remains should be safety for disposal atlandfills.6.5.53 As discussed in Section 6.5.1, if not properly managed the storage, handling, collection,transportation and disposal of chemical waste have the potential to cause significantadverse environmental impacts.Sewage Sludge6.5.54 According to the Sludge Treatment and Disposal Strategy Study (STDS) (8) , Siu Ho WanSewage Treatment Works will employ a chemical treatment plus disinfection process. It isexpected that the International Theme Park and associated developments will be a majorsource of sewage in the North Lantau area. The current projection indicates that in year2011 the baseline flow plus the flow generated from the Theme Park and associateddevelopments (12,140 m 3 d 4 ) will be about 168,846 m 3 d' 1 . The suspended solids (SS) andBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loading will be about 34,891 kg d 4 and 43,369 kg -d:! , respectively. Using the removal efficiency of 70% and 55%, for SS and BOD,respectively, the amount of sludge to be generated in 2011 will be approximately 14,356(8) Enviroranental Resources Management (1999). Sludge Treatment and Disposal Strategy Study Final Report, 9 July 1999.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-19Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmenttonnes dry solids per annum (tds a' 1 ) or about 40 tds d 4 . The amount of sludge contributedfrom the Theme Park and the associated developments will be 2,489 tds a" 1 or about 7 tdsd" 1 (about 17.5% of the total sludge generated). The STDS recommends that sludgegenerated at Siu Ho Wan STW be treated at a dedicated Centralised Sludge and DifficultWaste Incineration Facility (SDIF), which is planned to be in operation in 2007. Prior tothe operation of the SDIF, the sludge will be delivered to landfill for disposal.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-20Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.6 PREDICTION AND EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION WASTE IMPACTSDredged Material6.6.1 Although over 95% of the marine sediments to be dredged are either Class A or Class B,dredging of a large quantity of sediment within a short period of time will have thepotential to cause adverse water quality impacts if not properly managed. Section 5 hasdiscussed the mitigation measures necessary to avoid adverse water quality impacts duringthe dredging works. As FMC has already allocated sufficient capacity at the gazettedmarine dumping grounds for the disposal of the Class A and Class B sediments arisingfrom the Penny's Bay Reclamation and Yam 0 Reclamation (East Nine Pin, East TungLung and north of Lantau), the disposal of these sediment is secured.6.6.2 Seriously contaminated sediment (Class C) must be dredged with great care in order toavoid adverse water quality impacts. The amount of Class C sediment to be dredged issmall and contamination is limited to a few locations. Provided the mitigation measuresrecommended in Section 6.7 are properly implemented and the contractor follows theprocedures stated under WBTC 22/99 and applies for a dumping licence, no adverseenvironmental impact is envisaged. The Class C sediment should be disposed of at theEast Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits. With respect to the relatively small quantity (a totalof 0.11 M rrf) potentially seriously contaminated (Class C) sediment to be disposed of atEast Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits, it is not anticipated to have significant impact onthe operation of the mud pits. No adverse environmental impact is anticipated if the ClassC sediment is properly transported to and disposed at the East Sha Chau ContaminatedMud Pits. A SQR should be prepared to obtain dumping permit close to construction dateas possible, preferably at the detailed design stage.Use of Public Fill for the Reclamation6.6.3 The public fill, while relatively chemically inert, may contain a small amount of floatingdebris. If not properly managed, the floating debris may result in impacts and, if allowedto float into the marine channel, may cause damage to marine craft. Provided thatmitigation measures such as the use of surface booms to contain the floating debris, areproperly implemented, no insurmountable environmental impacts with regards to floatingdebris will be anticipated.Construction and Demolition Materials6.6.4 With respect to the nature of the construction activities, the C&D waste will consist of amixture of inert (ie concrete, tiles, bricks, etc. which are classified as public fill) and noninert(paper, plastic, wood, etc. which are classified as C&D waste) material. The publicfill should be re-used on site, as far as practicable. If on-site use is not practicable, thepublic fill should be delivered to other reclamation sites or to public filling areas available atthat time. The disposal of public fill at public filling areas or other reclamation sites isunlikely to raise any long term concerns because of its inert nature.6.6.5 Disposal of C&D waste to strategic landfills will not cause unacceptable environmentalimpacts. However, given the very limited landfill space which is available, it is importantScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-22Shankland Cox ••Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentto minimise, wherever possible, the wastes being delivered to landfill. Government policyis not to accept C&D waste with more than 20% (by weight) inert material at landfill sites.Wherever, practical, the production of C&D waste should be minimised.6.6.6 It is estimated that a peak rate of about 22 IE? d' 1 of C&D waste will be generated duringthe construction of the Phase I of the Theme Park. To minimise the amount of C&D wasteto be disposed of at strategic landfills and to maximise the recovery of inert material forsubsequent reclamation, it is recommended that segregation of inert and non-inert C&DMshould be carried out on-site. Taking account of the composition of the C&DM, it ispossible to divert 20% of the C&DM for landfill disposal. The segregated public fill canbe reused as fill for the Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I. The number of truck trips fordelivery of C&D waste to landfill will be about 3 trips per day ® and it is not anticipatedthat this will cause any adverse traffic impacts.6.6.7 Phase II of the Theme Park will be constructed over a much longer period (about 10 yearsinstead of three years), and the anticipated arisings of C&D waste is about 19 irf d" 1 . Thedaily traffic generated due to disposal of public fill and C&D waste will only be about 3trips per day and it is not anticipated as causing any adverse traffic impacts.6.6.8 On site sorting is recommended to separate C&DM into C&D waste and public fill tominimise the volume of waste to be disposal of at landfill. The highest daily cumulativeC&D waste and public fill generation will be from the period of Q4 2003 to Q2 2004,during the construction of Theme Park Phase I - Opening Day, Theme Park Phase II -Buildout and PBRL, where the average and peak generation rates for C&D waste are 29m 3 d" 1 and 45 m 3 d" 1 respectively, whereas for public fills materials, generation isanticipated as 118 m 3 d" 1 and 178 m? d" 1 , respectively. With respect to the relatively smallvolume of C&D waste generation, no adverse environmental impact associated with thehandling and disposal of C&D waste are anticipated. In addition, due to the large fillrequirement of Penny's Bay Reclamation the public fill is expected to be re-used on site.6.6.9 With the implementation of good construction site practices such as those stated in the AirPollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation, the handling and disposal of C&DM willnot cause adverse dust impacts.6.6.10 It is not anticipated that there will be any potential hazard associated with the handling anddisposal of C&D waste if general construction safety procedures are properly implemented.Chemical Waste6.6.11 It has been estimated that a few cubic metres of lubrication oil and solvent will be generatedper month from the maintenance of construction plant. The chemical waste to be generatedfrom the construction activities will be readily accepted at the Chemical Waste TreatmentCentre (CWTC) at Tsing YL6.6.12 Storage, handling, transport and disposal of chemical waste should be arranged inaccordance with the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling and Storage ofChemical Waste published by the EPD. Provided that this occurs, the potential(9) Assuming the payload of each truck Is about 6.7m3Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-23Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentenvironmental impacts arising from the handling, storage and disposal of a small amount ofchemical waste generated from the construction activities will be negligible.General Refuse6.6.13 It is expected that a maximum number of 4,300 workers will be employed on-site at anyone time. Based on the waste generation rate of about 0.65 kg per worker per day, it isestimated that the amount of general refuse to be generated will be in the order of 2.8 tpd.Waste recycling facilities such as separate facilities for paper, aluminium cans, plasticbottles, etc., should be made available during the construction period. Provided that themitigation measures recommended in Section 6.7 are adopted, the environmental impactscaused by the storage, handling, transport and disposal of general refuse are expected to beminimal. It is recommended that the general refuse should be collected on a daily basis andbe delivered to the North Lantau Transfer Station for bulk transfer to landfill for finaldisposal. With respect to the small quantity of general refuse to be disposed of, this is notanticipated that it will cause any adverse impact to the operation of the North LantauTransfer Station.OPERATION WASTE IMPACTSMunicipal Solid Waste6.6.14 As discussed in Section 6.5.2, the amount of MSW to be generated from the operation ofthe Theme Park will increase from about 38 tpd in 2005 to 75 tpd in 2014, then to 175 tpdin 2024 without any waste recycling/reduction. Although the majority (around 70%) of theMSW will be generated from the RD&E and hotels, a significant amount of waste will begenerated from the Theme Park. An efficient and effective waste collection system isessential in order to avoid any nuisance to visitors due to waste storage, collection andtransport within the site. The waste handling and collection system should also facilitatematerials recovery and recycling.6.6.15 Floating refuse from windblown refuse and litter may vary from small debris to largefloating objects such as plastic bags. The floating refuse is likely to be chemically inert,however, if not collected properly, this floating refuse may drift along the coastal area ofthe Theme Park and associated developments and the artificial lake of the Water RecreationCentre, which may create aesthetic or odour impact, or cause damage to marine craft.Provided that mitigation measures such as the use of a surface boom to contain the floatingrefuse, are properly implemented, no insurmountable environmental impacts with regardsto floating debris will be anticipated.6.6.16 The feasibility of waste collection using an automatic refuse collection system (ARCS) atthe Theme Park has been considered by the HKITP. The ARCS, which is a vacuumdrivensystem for refuse collection, was installed at the Magic Kingdom Park in Orlando,Florida when that park was built in the early 1970s. The ARCS is still used at the MagicKingdom for managing some of their solid waste, but not all. The ARCS system has notbeen installed at any other Disney theme park built since the Magic Kingdom in Orlando,Florida (ie Epcot Center, MGM Studios, Animal Kingdom/Disney's California Adventure,Disneyland Paris, Tokyo Disneyland or Tokyo Disney Seas).6.6.17 The reasons for not using the ARCS at other Disney theme park are:Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-24Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• The Magic Kingdom was constructed with a series of subterranean tunnels built beneath the park. Thesetunnels enabled the installation of the ARCS, whose vacuum piping runs through the tunnels. The ARCScannot be built without building a system of subterranean tunnels, since it would be extremely difficult toperform maintenance or otherwise service the ARCS system if the vacuum pipes were buried underground.Due to the potential settlement of the newly formed Penny's Bay reclamation, the construction of thesubterranean tunnel will be expensive and the long term maintenance of the tunnels could be high. It istherefore considered that ARCS will not be suitable for the International Theme Park at Penny's Bay.• Operational staff at the Magic Kingdom, Orlando, Florida notes that the ARCS system requires a significantamount of maintenance. The vacuum piping frequently gets clogged with refuse, which requires staff to locatethe obstruction, and requires frequent maintenance to ensure sufficient vacuum is being pulled to facilitate thecollection of refuse. Three parks have been built in Florida after the Magic Kingdom, and in each case parkdesigners elected not to install the ARCS system, in part because of the operating experience with the ARCSsystem at the Magic Kingdom and also because Disney has not built a park with a system of subterraneantunnels since the Magic Kingdom, Orlando, Florida.6.6.18 The HKITP proposes to collect refuse from the litter bins manually and immediatelytransport the waste to the Refuse Collection Points (RCPs) at the back of house (describedin Section 2.7.5) using electrical karts. To avoid any potential odour nuisance to theguests due to transportation of waste within the Theme Park, the waste collection vehicleswill travel along the roads at the back of house. At the RCPs the waste will either besorted to recovery recyclables (such as paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, wood, ferrous& non-ferrous metals, etc.) or compacted into containers for off-site disposal. Providedthat all the refuse bags are properly closed during transportation to prevent littering andleakage of leachate, and collection routes are properly planned to avoid conflict with thepedestrians, it is not anticipated that the proposed waste collection arrangements within theTheme Park will cause any nuisance to guests.6.6.19 RCPs will be located at strategic locations within the Theme Park and away from publicareas in back of house facilities. Therefore odour and noise impact to visitor or hotelresidents will be minimal. Although specific locations will be determined during the designstage, it is anticipated that one will be provided for each major waste generator.Therefore, each hotel will have a refuse collection point as will each theme park (ie Phase Iand Phase II Theme Park) and the RD&E. The RCPs will contain compactors, dumpsters,and related equipment to provide an adequate waste hauling service for the resort. For thepurpose of the EIA, it is assumed that there will be five hotel RCPs (one for each hotel),two RCPs for each theme park (four total) and two for the RD&E area. There will be atotal of approximately 11 RCPs in the entire theme park resort area. A solid waste storageand recycling area of about 0.3 ha will be allocated within each back of house in order toprovide sufficient space for undertaking materials recovery and recycling,6.6.20 To facilitate recycling, waste recycling bins for paper, aluminium cans and plastic bottlesetc. will be located throughout the Theme Park to promote waste separation at source.Collection of recyclables from the waste recycling bins will also be arranged properly tominimise the nuisance caused to the visitors.6.6.21 To avoid double handling of the waste at the transfer station, it is recommended that thewaste containers used at the Theme Park should be compatible with those used at theNLTS (standard 20 ft ISO container). This will enable direct transfer of the Theme Parkcontainers to NLTS by trucks and then to strategic landfill via marine vessels.RecyclingScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-25Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.6.22 This section estimates the quantity of wastes which are potentially recyclable and the marketfor these materials during the operational phase of Theme Park and associateddevelopments. Based on these assessments, the target for recycling of the solid wastearisings at the Theme Park is estimated. The waste arisings and amount of recoveredmaterials will be monitored closely after the commissioning of the Theme Park to moreaccurately estimate the target waste recovery rate. Key issues are identified when sourceseparation programmes are planned and implemented.6.6.23 The Waste Reduction Framework Plan (WRFP) set a target to reduce 58% of the totalwastes generated in 2007. While the reduction target in the WRFP is not mandatory, it isstill a useful reference. It should be noted that the target comprises three components: theexisting recycling rate under a predominantly market driven system, the reduction by wastebulk reduction facilities (mainly through waste-to-energy incineration) and the reduction bywaste prevention programmes to be initiated under the Plan. The targets for each of thesethree components are 30%, 14% and 14%, respectively in 2007. If it is assumed thatevery sector in society contributes the same target, the target is therefore to reduce 44% oftotal waste generated by recycling and avoidance, and to incinerate 14% of the wastes,with the remaining wastes sent to landfills for disposal in 2007.6.6.24 Estimation of the Quantity of Potentially Recyclable Materials: Due to the unavailabilityof information on waste generation and disposal and waste composition from similar worldclasstheme parks, the quantity of potentially recyclable materials has been estimated inthree indirect ways, each with some limitations. The first method is based on the experienceof Disneyland in California, USA. The second approach is based on the commercial andindustrial waste surveys carried out under the Waste Reduction Study* 1 ® (WRS) in 1994.The third approach is based on the MSW monitoring results by the EPD in 1998. Thesemethods and their limitations are discussed below.6.6.25 The first method is based on results of recycling in Disneyland, California. The followingassumptions are implicit in this method:• the quantities of recyclable materials in the waste stream generated from the Theme Park at Penny's Bay isassumed to be similar to those in Disneyland. It is noted that for example, fewer aluminium cans are used inDisneyland, with preference given to the use of purpose made plastic and paper containers. This could bedifferent from the Theme Park at Penny's Bay where more aluminium cans may be found in the waste streamgiven the availability of cheaper beverage in aluminium cans in line with similar theme parks in Hong Kong.• the markets for various recyclable materials in Hong Kong are similar to those in the Disneyland. A number ofissues should be noted for Hong Kong, including the small and virtually absence of market for food wastes andthe potentially higher acceptable level of contamination of the recyclables,6.6.26 Table 6.6a shows the estimated quantity of potentially recyclable material from the ThemePark at Penny's Bay using this method in 2005, 2014 and 2024.(10) Waste Reduction Study, Environmental Resources Management on behalf of the Environmental Protection Department, 1994.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-26Shankland Cox•• Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 6.6a - Predicted Quantity of Recyclable Materials in the Theme Park atPenny's Bay Based on US ExperienceBto^ylaiict / - « '" -- 'Total waste 18,030Potentially Recyclable MaterialFood wasteCardboardAluminumPaperGreen wasteGlassLumberMetalPlasticsRecyclingLandfilled12.48%8.48%0.03%1.37%1.00%0.54%0.73%0.98%0.04%25.65%74.35%: - ;Tlieiue Park at Penny's Bay (tpa)aw201413,87026,8281,7311,17641901397510113663,55810,3123,3482,2758368268145196263116,88119,946WU63,7857,9725,417198756393454666262616384474916.6.27 Using this method, the quantity of potentially recyclable materials is 26% of the total wastegenerated. It is noted that the 26% recycling rate is achieved through the composting offood wastes (12%) and the recycling of cardboard (8%).6.6.28 A major limitation of this method is that, without an estimate of waste arising composition,it is not possible to assess whether the proportion of potentially recyclable materialsestimated is reasonable in the context of local recyclable market. It is also noted that thisapproach assumes that there will be composting facilities for food wastes. This will befurther discussed in the following section on the market for compostable and recyclablematerials.6.6.29 The second method to estimate the quantity of potentially recyclable materials is based onthe survey of the commercial (distribution) waste generators carried out under the WRS in1994. The survey covers a total of 24 establishments, including wholesalers, retailers,restaurants, hotels and boarding houses. Table 6.6b shows the waste composition estimationof the Theme Park at Penny's Bay based on the survey results. This method assumes thatthe waste composition reflects the practice in Hong Kong, eg the preparation of meals andthe use of particular throwaway items in Hong Kong in 1994. The quantity of recyclablematerials to be recovered by the recycling industry under a market driven condition iscalculated using the existing recycling rate which is reported in the Waste ReductionFramework Plan < n > published by the HK SAR Government in 1998. The estimatedquantity of wastes recovered and recycled by the informal sector reflects the market forrecyclables from commercial and industrial sources in Hong Kong at that time..nn Planning Fnvimntnpnt and Tanri Bureau. Horn KnnP SAK GnvPrniTiPnt. 1998.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates6-27


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.6.30 The quantity of potentially recyclable materials that may be further recovered by proactivesource separation programmes is based on the potential for further recycling published inthe Waste Reduction Framework Plan . The recycling rate for further recovery is adjusteddownward to reflect the waste reduction target set in the WRFP. It should be noted that therecovery and recycling by Disney is assumed to be not in competition with the informalrecovery sector which operates under market conditions in Hong Kong. It is also assumedthat composting facilities for the source separated food wastes.6.6.31 According to the commercial (distribution) waste generation survey carried out under theWRS, the proportion of food wastes is high, amounting to close to 40%, followed bycardboard (24%) and paper (15%). The quantity of recyclable materials recovered by themarket driven recycling industry in the Theme Park at Penny's Bay is estimated to be about26% of the total wastes generated.6.6.32 Further recovery of the remaining materials through proactive source separation atDisneyland is estimated to be 18% of the total wastes generated, around 60% of which is tobe achieved by the composting of food wastes, assuming that a composting facility willbecome available in Hong Kong,6.6.33 The third method is based on the annual monitoring results of MSW by the EPD in 1998.This reflects the market for recyclable materials from MSW in Hong Kong in 1998. Itshould be noted that the waste composition from commercial and industrial sources may bedifferent from those generated at the Theme Park at Penny's Bay. Adjustment has beenmade to reflect the possibly small quantity of metals in the waste stream in the Theme Parkat Penny's Bay. Table 6.6c shows the estimated composition of wastes and estimatedquantity of potentially recyclable materials to be recovered by the recycling industry undera market driven condition. Potential for further recovery by Disney is also estimated, basedon the potential for further recovery as indicated in the Waste Reduction Framework Planand adjusted to reflect the waste reduction target.6.6.34 Based on the MSW composition in 1998, the main component of wastes is paper (includingcardboard), followed by food waste and plastics. These three materials account for over83% of the total waste arisings. The quantity of potentially recyclable materials to berecovered by the recycling industry under a market driven condition is estimated to beabout 23% of the total waste generated. Paper contributes to 73% of the total quantityrecycled, followed by plastics (23%). This method assumes that the Theme Park atPenny's Bay generates waste with similar composition to the MSW from the domestic,commercial and, to a certain extent, the industrial sectors.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-29Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.6.35 The quantity of potentially recyclable materials that may be further recovered by proactivesource separation programmes is based on the potential for further recycling published inthe Waste Reduction Framework Plan . The recycling rate for further recovery is adjustedto reflect the waste reduction target set in the WRFP. It should be noted that the recoveryand recycling by Disney is assumed to be not in competition with the informal recoverysector which operates under market conditions in Hong Kong. It is also assumed thatcomposting facilities will become available for the recovery of source separated foodwastes.6.6.36 Further recovery of the remaining wastes through proactive source separation programmesat Disneyland is estimated to be 21%, around 40% of which is to be achieved by thecomposting of food wastes, assuming that a composting facility will become available inHong Kong.6.6.37 Table 6.6d summarises the quantity of potentially recyclable materials using the indirectmethods. The first method shows that 26% of the wastes in the Theme Park are potentiallyrecyclable. The other two methods to estimate that the recycling industry will recover 23%to 26% of the waste generated under normal market driven conditions. Another 18% to21% of the recyclable materials will need to be diverted from the wastestream if thereduction target in the Waste Reduction Framework Plan is to be achieved. The commonrecyclable materials in all of the three methods include cardboard, to some extent plasticand mixed paper. These estimates assume that composting facilities will become available toreceive the food waste which amount to 40-60% of the quantity of recyclable materials tobe further recovered. The following sections discuss the markets for each of these materialsin Hong Kong.Table 6.6d - Summary of Estimated Recycling Rates^^h^'^^^Estimates based on Estimates based cm Estimates based' on' MSMif?£


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 6.6e - Recovery of Major Recyclable Materials in Hong Kong in 1998 (thousandtonnes)Waste fyp


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsMaterials Recovery and Recycling Facilities (MRRF) Studyby ERM.Final Environmental Impact Assessment< 12 > currently being undertaken6.6.44 Market for Scrap Metals : The recycling rate for commercial/industrial scrap metal is highin Hong Kong. With the recent decline of manufacturing industry, however, recyclingcompanies collecting commercial/industrial scrap metal have difficulty in securing goodquality materials. Most of the scrap metal collected in Hong Kong is exported to MainlandChina.6.6.45 Market for Scrap Plastics: Most of the plastic scrap collected and recycled in Hong Kongis from industrial source. A limited quantity of plastic scrap from commercial sources arerecycled. For plastic waste of known type, reprocessing may take place in Hong Kongwhere plastic wastes are typically and fed to extruders to produce plastic pellets are madeas raw materials for manufacturing. Source separated plastic containers and packagingplastics of known material type are likely to have high potential for recycling. The marketfor plastic scrap from Hong Kong is mainly in Mainland China.6.6.46 Market for Textile Waste: Textile recovery and recycling exists in two forms in HongKong. The first form which is more common, is to collect and then export the rags for respinning.The second form is to collect and sort the rags into different grades before sellingthem to local metal workshops for use in cleaning. The decline of metal industries in HongKong is partly responsible for the significant reduction in the recycling of textile wastelocally. A limited quantity of good quality clothing are collected and sold to buyers (mainlyfor overseas market).6.6.47 Future Markets: The decline of manufacturing industry in Hong Kong is the main factorwhich has led to the shrinking supply of industrial scrap and local markets and therefore areduction in the quantity of materials recovered in the last few years. However, asMainland China is the main market for many of the recyclable materials which have a highmarket price, the market for good source separated materials still exists and China isexpected to be the main outlets for recyclables recovered in Hong Kong for the foreseeablefuture.6.6.48 The MRRFs Study currently being undertaking by the EPD will look at the development ofMRRFs in Hong Kong. These MRRFs will enhance the market value of some of thematerials collected and increase the recycling of marginally recyclable materials. The studyis not yet completed and the MRRFs are likely to focus on materials which are currentlyleast recycled, for example, recyclables from domestic sources.6.6.49 Possible Recycling Target for The Theme Park: The targets to divert 58% of the MSWgenerated in the WRFP prepared by the HK SAR Government is not mandatory.According to the Plan, individual waste producing sectors will be asked to set their owntargets. Individual companies will be invited to join some of the programmes such as theWastewi$e Scheme in which companies are required to set reduction targets and achievethe target before they are awarded the Wastewi$e Logo. There is not a legal requirementto set a recycling target. The quantity of recyclable materials estimated in this section(12) Materials Recovery and Recycling Facilities Study, Environmental Resources Management on behalf of the Environmental Protection Department.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-33Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentshould be viewed as a reference to assess the waste management system, rather than amandatory mitigation measure.6.6.50 As discussed in the previous sections, the quantity of recyclable materials to be recoveredby the recycling industry under a market driven condition is estimated to be about 23 to26% of the total waste generated. This assumes the recycling industry can recover the highvalue materials from the waste stream. If the Theme Park is to develop its own sourceseparation programmes, it may create competition with the recycling industry for the supplyof recyclable materials.6.6.51 An analysis of the markets shows that markets for the major recyclables exists, especiallywhen source separation programmes are in place to enhance the market value of thematerials.6.6.52 The following issues on recycling at the Theme Park at Penny's Park are observed:• An important requirement is to monitor and maintain good records relating to waste arisings and composition,the types and quantities of waste recovered for recycling and waste disposal on at least an annual basis. Thisallows a more accurate estimate of the quantity and types of recyclable materials. The proxy approaches used inthis assessment have their limitations and should be used with caution. The operator should maintain goodrecord of the types and quantities of waste disposed of and recovered, so that both EPD and the operator canmonitor the results of the waste reduction measures implemented.• Source separation is the key to successful recycling and the market for most recyclable materials exist inMainland China. Some materials are likely to suffer from high transport cost if they are recycled in MainlandChina due to their low market value and heavy weight, including glass and food waste. In particular, foodwaste, which is estimated to contribute to up to 40% of total the waste likely to be generated, will need to beseparated before it can be composted.• The operation of the Theme Park should avoid using disposable products. The selection and labelling ofrecyclable materials in hotels, restaurants and retail shops also increase the quantity of recyclable materials. Forexample, avoiding expanded polystyrene (EPS) and the labelling of plastic containers, would facilitate recycling.• In addition to monitoring waste arisings, the monitoring of recycling programmes annually and an evaluation ofthese programmes on a regular basis will be important in order to improve the recycling programmes and updatethe recycling targets.• To increase the recyclable quantity from 23 to 26% of total waste generated anticipated market driven conditionsto 44% with additional proactive source separation programmes requires significant commitment from the ThemePark to divert additional waste materials from disposal, as well as the availability of a composting facility asoutlined in the Waste Reduction Framework Plan. This is equivalent to 7 to 8 tpd of additional recyclablematerials on top of the 9 to 10 tpd waste estimated in 2005.• The material recovery facility required to handle the additional recyclable materials should be provided within theTheme Park. This assumes that the source separation programme in the Theme Park will not compete with therecovery by the informal sector. This also assumes that the waste management system will allow the recyclingindustry to recover the material at an appropriate time before the wastes are containerised and sent for disposal.Coordination of the efforts of the recycling industry and the management of the Theme Park's source separationprogrammes will be required. One approach is to set up a small materials recovery facility (MRF) with acapacity of around 17 tpd in 2005, 32 tpd in 2014 and scope for expansion to 81 tpd in 2024 within the ThemePark back of house, as part of the network of neighbourhood MRFs (NMRFs) to be established in Hong Kongunder recommendations from the MRRF Study. The materials in NMRFs can then be further re-processed inthe specialised MRFs which will turn the recovered materials into a form acceptable by the markets.6.6.53 According to the assessment, the market driven recycling industry can recycle 23-26 % ofwaste to be generated in the Theme Park. It is recommended that a additional furthertarget of 10% for the recovery of recyclables and potentially, an extra 10% for the recoverof source separated wood waste (assuming that a composting facility for food wasteplanned in the Waste Reduction Framework Plan is available) is adopted in the WasteScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERIV1 Hong Kong 6-34Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinai Environmental Impact AssessmentManagement Plan of the Theme Park. The composition of the waste and the actualrecycling rate for various materials should be monitored. The preliminary recycling targetshould be reviewed on an annual basis to determine the practical recycling rate that can beachieved based on the recycling market as well as the potential change of the recyclingtarget beyond the WRFP's 10-year planning period.Territory-wide Environment Implications of the Additional TouristsSolid Waste Arisings6.6.54 Based on the operating experience of other international theme parks, the amount ofMunicipal Solid Waste (MSW) to be generated from the operation of the Theme Park(Phase I and II) at Penny's Bay has been assessed to be 38 tpd in 2005, increasing to 73.5tpd in 2014 and 175 tpd in 2024. These estimates assumed that no waste reductionmeasures were in place. Without waste reduction measures, such arisings would increasethe demand for valuable landfill void space.6.6.55 The North Lantau Transfer Station (NLTS) was commissioned in April 1998 and has athroughout of 650 tpd which will be expanded to 1,200 tpd to handle the anticipatedgrowth of waste arisings from the North Lantau area. The anticipated waste throughputsof NLTS are 180, 370, 770, and 880 tpd for the years 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016,respectively (13) . At the NLTS, the waste is compacted into 20 ft ISO containers for bulktransfer by marine vessels to the Western New Territories (WENT) landfill for finaldisposal. The Transfer Station will be able to handle the waste arisings from the ThemePark (Phases I and II) and associated developments at least until 2016. The WENT landfillwas commissioned in November 1993 and has a design capacity and void capacity of about61 M m 3 , and 53 Mm 3 respectively. Based on the current waste input forecast, die SAR'sstrategic landfills even with the full implementation of the Waste Reduction FrameworkPlan will be exhausted by 2019. The waste arisings assessment has further estimated thatwith no waste reduction initiatives, the wastes generated from the Theme Park (Phase I andII) between 2005 and 2019 are expected to reduce the life of the strategic landfills by only20 days.Waste Reduction Opportunities6.6.56 A detailed review of waste reduction opportunities has been undertaken in Section 6. Thereview indicates that the quantity of recyclable materials that may be recovered by localrecyclers under market driven conditions is estimated to be about 23 to 26% of the totalquantity of waste generated at the Theme Park. These estimates are based on theprevailing market conditions in Hong Kong.6.6.57 In addition, the potential for further recovery of major recyclables exists when sourceseparation programmes are in place to enhance the value and quality of the materials. It is,thus, recommended that the Theme Park should institute a source separation programme torecover additional recyclables from the remaining waste stream. A preliminary recyclingtarget of 10% is recommended for the additional recovery of recyclable materials. Afurther 10% is recommended for the recovery of compostable materials, if a composting(13) EPD Communication refEP 20/03/205 MScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-35Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Developmentsfacility is available in the HK SAR.Management Plan for the Theme Park.Final Environmental impact AssessmentThe targets should be adopted in the Waste6.6.58 Additionally, an annual waste composition and recycling monitoring programme will beimplemented to determine the practical recycling rate that can be achieved given theprevailing market for recyclables.6.6.59 With a standard waste recycling rate of only 23%, the life of strategic landfills will beprolonged by 5 days. With a source separation programme to recover recyclables from theremaining waste stream, the life of strategic landfills will be prolonged by another 2 days.With a further 10% removal rate for compostable materials, assuming that a compostingfacility is available, the life of strategic landfills will be prolonged by another 2 days.Disposal6.6.60 Based on the waste arisings from the Theme Park and associated facilities less that recycledby informal sector or 23-26 %, the daily waste arisings in 2005, 2014 and 2024 will be 28to 29 tpd, 54 to 57 tpd and 130 to 135 tpd, respectively. The Theme Park recyclablerecovery programme can further reduce waste by 10 %, which in 2005, 2014 and 2024will be 4 tpd, 7 tpd and 18 tpd respectively. In addition, when a composting facilitybecomes available in HK SAR, an extra 10 % of the waste could be recovered, ie 4 tpd, 7tpd and 18 tpd in 2005, 2014 and 2024, respectively.6.6.61 The anticipated waste throughout of NLTS is 370, 770, and 880 tpd for the years 2006,2011 and 2016, respectively. With the through capacity of 1,200 tpd, this indicates thatthere will be sufficient spare capacity at the NLTS to handle the waste arising from theTheme Park and associated developments at least to the year 2016. HKITP should closelyliaise with the EPD regarding waste transfer and disposal arrangements as the handlingcapacity of the NLTS and strategic capacity approaches its maximum capacity.Chemical Waste6.6.62 The HKITP will register as a chemical waste producer under the Chemical Waste ControlScheme. It will make arrangements with the Chemical Waste Treatment Centre at Tsing Yior other vendors for the collection, recycling and disposal of the chemical waste generatedfrom the Theme Park. Similar schemes have been adopted by other Disney Theme Parksand they have managed to recycle about 90% (by weight, 83% is recycled and 8% iscombusted as fuel) of the chemical wastes generated.6.6.63 The HKITP will target to recycle as much chemical waste as possible in order to minimisethe need for treatment and disposal. With respect to the types and quantities of chemicalwastes that may be generated from the Theme Park, it is considered that the ChemicalWaste Treatment Centre will have the capacity to treat the chemical waste arising from theTheme Park.6.6.64 Chemical waste will be stored, handled, transported and disposed of in accordance with theWaste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation and the Code of Practice onPackaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes. They should be collected andtransported to the CWTC or other licensed facility by a licensed waste haulier. Providedthat appropriate handling, storage and disposal procedures are followed, no unacceptableScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-36Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessmentimpacts associated with the management of chemical wastes during the operational phase ofthe PBRL are anticipated.Sewage Sludge6.6.65 Based on a sludge generation rate of 14,365 tds a" 1 in 2011, approximately 40 tds per dayof sludge will be generated, which is equivalent to approximately 130 m 3 of sludge. 10 rrfskips (as currently employed in Sha Tin STW) could be used for the transportation of thesludge to the disposal facility. A maximum of 13 truck loads will be required. It istherefore considered that the traffic impacts associated with off-site sludge disposal will beminimal.6.6.66 Should the proposed centralised Sludge and Difficult Wastes Incineration Facility (SDIF) belocated near the WENT landfill, it will be more cost effective and environmentallypreferred to transport the sludge in modified 20ft ISO containers (similar to the onecurrently used at the Stonecutters' Island STW) via the NLTS to the WENT LandfillReception Area and then to the SDIF.6.6.67 During the containment, storage and delivery of sewage sludge, odour impact may arise.Provided that fully enclosed containers and storage area are used and odour removalsystems are installed, no adverse environmental impact is expected.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-37Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentSummary of Construction and Operation ImpactsTable 6.5g - Summary of Waste Management Impactsinstruction PhaseDredged/Excavated SedimentUse of Public fill for thereclamationExcavated MaterialC&D WasteApproximately 46.3 M irr of sediment will be dredged/excavated, of which 0.11 M m 3 is expected to be seriously contaminated (Class C). Full-dredgeoption is adopted at Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I due to limited time available for ground improvement works. However, for Penny's BayReclamation Stage II and Yam O Reclamation, only sediment at seawall location will be dredged. The estimated dredged/excavated sediment and Class Csediment at Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I, Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II, Yam O Reclamation and Water Recreation Centre are 40 M m 3 from Q22000 to Q4 2001 (0.08 M m 3 Class C sediment), 5 M m 3 from Q3 2001 to Ql 2005 (0.02 M m 3 Class C sediment), 0.3 M m 3 from Q4 2001 to Q4 2002(0.01 M m 3 Class C sediment) and 1 M m 3 from Q2 2001 to Q4 2002 (no Class C sediment), respectively. Minimal (1,300 m3) volume will be generatedat CKWLR section from Q2 2001 to Q3 2003. All Class C sediment will be generated during the first few weeks of dredging at each reclamation and willbe disposal of at East Sha Chau Contaminated Mud Pits. The FMC has allocated 30 M m 3 of uncontaminated and disposal capacity to the Penny'sBay Reclamation (East Nine Pin, East Tung Lung and north of Lantau). The Engineers should inform FMC the extra volume of sedimentrequiring disposal so further disposal ground can be allocated.The volume of sand fill to be used at Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage I, Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II and Yam O Reclamation are 65M m 3 (from Q42000 to Q2 2002), 7.4 M m 3 (from Q2 2003 to Ql 2006) and 0.5 M m 3 (from Q4 2002 to Q2 2003), respectively. For Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage Ican accommodate approximately 2 M m 3 of public fill. Whereas 8.5 M m 3 of public fill (equivalent to most of the public fill to be generated in the territoryduring the reclamation period) will be used at Penny's Bay Reclamation Stage II which is the maximum volume from its geometry and design requirements.The Yam O Reclamation will accept 0.7 M m 3 of public fill.Floating debris may be generated due to public filling. However, provided that frequent collection and use of surface booms, no adverse environmentalimpact is expected.During the construction of Theme Park infrastructure foundation, excavated material will be generated, which is approximately 5% of the fill material, Theestimated excavated material to be generated at CKWLR section, Road P2 and PBRL are 10,200 m3, 7,800 m3 and68,500 m3, respectively. Since the, excavated material will Comprise sand fill, public fill, soil or rock, as well as the large filling requirement for thereclamation, the excavated material can be re-used on site and no surplus is expected. Air quality, noise and water quality impacts arising from theexcavation and handling of excavated material are addressed Sections 3, 4 and 5.The construction of infrastructures for the Theme Park will generate approximately 154,000 nf of C&DM, of which about 31,000 m 3 is C&D waste and123,000 m 3 is public fill. The estimated average C&D waste generation rate for Theme Park Phase I - Opening Day, Theme Park Phase I - Buildout andTheme Park Phase II - Buildout are 14 m 3 d" J (22 m 3 d' 1 peak rate) from April 2002 to April 2005, 2 m 3 d' 1 (3 m 3 d' 1 peak rate) from Q3 2008 to Q3 2011and 12 m 3 d" 1 (19 m 3 d' 1 peak rate) from Q4 2003 to Q3 2015. The PBRL will generate 920 m 3 of C&D waste and 3,680 m 3 of public fill from the periodof Q4 2002 to Q2 2004 and the average and peak daily C&D waste generation rate are 44 m 3 d' 1 and 65 m 3 d 4 , respectively. The Water Recreation Centrewill generate 200 m 3 of C&D material from Q2 2004 to Q4 2004 and the C&D waste and public fill generation is minimal (both less then 1 m 3 d" 1 ).The highest daily cumulative C&D waste and public fill generation will be from the period of Q4 2003 to Q2 2004, during the construction of Theme ParkPhase I - Opening Day, Theme Park Phase II - Buildout and PBRL, where average and peak generation rate for C&D waste are 29 m 3 d' 1 and 45 m 3 d' 1respectively, whereas for public fills generation are 118 m 3 d" 1 and 178 m 3 d' 1 , respectively. With respect to the relatively small volume of C&D wastegeneration, no adverse environmental impact associated with the handling and disposal of C&D waste. In addition, due to the large fill requirement ofPenny's Bay Reclamation the public fill is expected to be re-used on site.The potential environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning and demolition of the Cheoy Lee Shipyard will be evaluated under a separate EIAto be commissioned by the CEP.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates6-38


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentChemical WasteGeneral RefuseOperation PhaseMunicipal Solid Waste^H^f:^tott^^^;^;>, r ;>\^,;^/ ;/ ..,: ^ -_ -, , ^ „* , '. 'A small volume of chemical waste, such as used lubricating oils from plant maintenance materials, will be produced. Storage, handling, transport anddisposal of chemical waste should be in accordance with the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Handling and Storage of Chemical Wastes. Provided thatthis occurs, and chemical wastes are disposed of at a licensed facility, the contractor should be in compliance with all relevant regulations and there will belittle environmental impact.The maximum daily number of workers on site (4,300) will be from 2003 to 2004. Based on a waste generation rate of about 0,65 kg per person, it isestimated that the amount of general refuse to be generated will be in the order of 2.8 tpd.The operation of the PBRL and road links to the Theme Park (including the CKWLR section, Road P2, Resort Road) will generate negligible amount ofwaste (in the order of a few cubic metres per month). The operation of the Eastern Stormwater Drainage Channel will generate sand and gravel from desiltingoperations. The amount of sand and gravel collected will vary between dry and wet seasons.The amount of municipal solid waste to be generated from the operation of the Theme Park will increase from about 38 tpd in 2005 to 73.5 tpd in 2014,then to 175 tpd in 2024. Although majority (around 70%) of the MSW will be generated from the RD&E and hotels, a significant amount of waste will begenerated from the Theme Park. An efficient and effective waste collection system is essential in order to avoid any nuisance to visitors due to wastestorage, collection and transport within the site. The waste handling and collection system should also facilitate the material recovery and recycling.RecyclingDisposalThe floating refuse may arise at the coastal area of the Theme Park and associated developments and the artificial lake of the Water Recreation Centre.Although chemically inert, if floating refuse is not collected properly, these floating refuse may drift, which may create aesthetic or odour impact, or causedamage to marine craft. Provided that mitigation measures such as the use of surface boom to contain the floating refuse, are properly implemented, noinsurmountable environmental impacts with regards to floating debris will be anticipated.According to the assessment, the market driven recycling industry can recycle 23-26 % of waste to be generated in the Theme Park. It is recommendedthat a additional further target of 10% for the recovery of recyclables and potentially, an extra 10% for the recover of source separated wood waste(assuming that a composting facility for food waste planned in the Waste Reduction Framework Plan is available) is adopted in the Waste Management Planof the Theme Park.Based on the waste arisings from the Theme Park and associated facilities less that recycled by informal sector or 23-26 %, the daily waste arisings in2005, 2014 and 2024 will be 28 to 29 tpd, 54 to 57 tpd and 130 to 135 tpd, respectively. The Theme Park recyclable recovery programme can furtherreduce waste by 10 %, which in 2005, 2014 and 2024 will be 4 tpd, 7 tpd and 18 tpd respectively. In addition, when a composting facility becomesavailable in HK SAR, an extra 10 % of the waste could be recovered, ie 4 tpd, 7 tpd and 18 tpd in 2005, 2014 and 2024, respectively.The anticipated waste throughout of NLTS is 370, 770, and 880 tpd for the years 2006, 2011 and 2016, respectively. With the through capacity of 1,200tpd, this indicates that there will be sufficient spare capacity at the NLTS to handle the waste arising from the Theme Park and associated developments atleast to the year 2016. HKITP should closely liaise with the EPD regarding waste transfer and disposal arrangements as the handling capacity of theNLTS and strategic capacity approaches its maximum capacity.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates6-39


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentChemical WasteSewage SludgeThe operation of the Theme Park at Penny's Bay will use a variety of chemicals. Some of the used chemicals have to be disposed of. The operation ofthe Theme Park at Penny's Bay will be very similar to that of Disneyland, In addition, the remains of fireworks from the fireworks shows in the ThemePark may contain heavy metal in low concentrations (in a scale of ng kg' 1 ), and mid-level fireworks remains may contain dioxins furans, which is alsoclassified as chemical waste under Schedule 1 of the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation,The HKITP will register as a chemical waste producer under the Chemical Waste Control Scheme. It will make arrangements with the Chemical WasteTreatment Centre at Tsing Yi or other vendors for the collection, recycling and disposal of the chemical waste generated from the Theme Park. Similarschemes have been adopted by other Disney Theme Parks and it managed to recycle about 90% (by weight, 83% is recycled and 8% is combusted asfuel) of the chemical waste generated.The HKITP will target to recycle as much chemical waste as possible in order to minimise the need for treatment and disposal. With respect to the typesand quantities of chemical wastes that may be generated from the Theme Park, it is considered that the Chemical Waste Treatment Centre will be able totreat the chemical waste arising from the Theme Park,Chemical waste will be stored, handled, transported and disposed of in accordance with the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation and theCode of Practice on Packaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes. They should be collected and transported to the CWTC or other licensedfacility by a licensed waste haulier. Provided that appropriate handling, storage and disposal procedures are followed, no unacceptable impacts associatedwith the management of chemical waste during the operational phase of the PBRL are anticipated.Based on sludge generation rate of 14,365 tds a" 1 in 2011, approximately 40 tds per day of sludge will be generated, which is equivalent to approximately130 m 3 of sludge. 10 m 3 skips (as currently employed in Sha Tin STW) could be used for transportation of sludge to the disposal facility. A maximum of13 truck loads will be required. It is therefore considered that the traffic impacts associated with off-site sludge disposal will be minimal.Should the proposed centralised Sludge and Difficult Wastes Incineration Facility (SDIF) be located near the WENT landfill, it will be more cost effectiveand environmentally preferred to transport the sludge in modified 20ft ISO containers (similar to the one currently used at the Stonecutters' Island STW) viathe NLTS to the WENT Landfill Reception Area and then to the SDIF.During the containment, storage and delivery of sewage sludge, odour impact may arise. Provided that fully enclosed containers and storage area are usedand odour removal systems are installed no adverse environmental impact is expected.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates6-40


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment6.7 MITIGATION MEASURESINTRODUCTION6.7.1 This section sets out recycling, storage, transportation and disposal measures which arerecommended to avoid or minimise potential adverse impacts associated with waste arisingfrom the construction of the Penny's Bay reclamation and the associated Theme Parkdevelopments. The construction Contractors should incorporate these recommendationsinto a waste management plan for the construction works. The Contractors should submita waste management plan to the Engineer for approval. Such a management plan shouldincorporate site specific factors, such as the designation of areas for the segregation andtemporary storage of reusable and recyclable materials.6.7.2 During the operational phase of the Theme Park, the HKITP should develop a WasteManagement Plan which details the arrangements for minimisation, materialrecovery/recycling, collection, transportation and disposal of various types of wastegenerated from the operation of the Theme Park.6.7.3 It is the Contractor's (for the construction phase) and the HKITP's (for the operationalphase) responsibility to ensure that only approved licensed waste collectors are used andthat appropriate measures to minimise adverse impacts, including windblown litter and dustfrom the transportation of these wastes are employed. In addition, the Contractor mustensure that all the necessary waste disposal permits are obtained.CONSTRUCTION PHASEDredged/Excavated Sediment6.7.4 Potential impacts associated with the exposure to and disposal of contaminated sedimentscould be mitigated by adopting the following measures:• minimising exposure to any contaminated material by the wearing of protective gear such as gloves, providingadequate hygiene and washing facilities, and preventing eating during dredging/excavation;• any contaminated sediment dredged should not be allowed to stockpile on the site and should be immediatelyremoved from site once dredged;• all vessels for marine transportation of dredged sediment should be fitted with tight fitting seals to their bottomopenings to prevent leakage of materials; and• loading of barges and hoppers should be controlled to prevent splashing of dredged material to the surroundingwater, and barges or hoppers should under no circumstances to be filled to a level which will cause eitheroverflowing of materials or polluted water during loading or transportation.6.7.5 Other suitable mitigation measures for handling or dredged material are dealt with, inSection 5.Use of Public Fill for Reclamation6.7.6 The Contractor should enforce strict application of the public fill license and monitor thematerial placed in the reclamation and barges to control disposal of unauthorised material.The Contractor shall also provide floating booms and collect any floating materials on adaily basis at the public filling area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-41Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated Develo pm ents__Final Environmental Impact AssessmentMeasures Taken in the Planning and Design Stages to Reduce the Generation ofC&DM6.7.7 The various waste management options can be categorised in terms of preference from anenvironmental viewpoint. The options considered to be more preferable have the leastimpacts and are more sustainable in a long term context. Hence, the waste managementhierarchy is as follows:• avoidance and minimisation, that is, not generating waste through changing or improving practices and design;• reuse of materials, thus avoiding disposal (generally with only limited reprocessing);• recovery and recycling, thus avoiding disposal (although reprocessing may be required); and• treatment and disposal, according to relevant law, guidelines and good practice.6.7.8 This hierarchy should be used to evaluate the waste management options, thus allowingmaximum waste reduction and often reducing costs. For example, by reducing oreliminating over-ordering of construction materials, waste is avoided and costs are reducedboth in terms the purchasing of raw materials and in disposing of wastes. Records ofquantities of wastes generated, recycled and disposed (locations) should be properly kept.6.7.9 Standard formwork should be used as far as practicable in order to minimise the arisings ofC&DM. The use of more durable formwork or plastic facing for the construction worksshould be considered during the detailed design.6.7.10 Any uncontaminated soil should be reused on site as far as possible for landscape works inorder to minimise the amount of public fill to be disposed off-site. Should there be anysurplus public fill generated from the project, the HKITP should liaise with the.PublicFilling Sub-Committee to identify as far as possible suitable reclamation or site formationprojects near the project site to reuse the material.6.7.11 The design of the foundation works will minimise the amount of excavated material to begenerated. Should piling be required, H-piling will be used as far as practical.6.7.12 The purchasing of construction materials will be carefully planned in order to avoid overordering and wastage of construction materials, such as ready mixed concrete.Measures To be Taken in the Construction Stage To Reduce the Generation of C&DM6.7.13 The Contractor should recycle as much as possible of the C&D material on-site. Public filland C&D waste should be segregated and stored in different containers or skips to enhancereuse or recycling of materials and their proper disposal. Concrete and masonry, forexample can be crushed and used as fill and steel reinforcing bar can be used by scrap steelmills. Different areas of the sites should be designated for such segregation and storage.6.7.14 The use of wooden hoardings shall not be allowed. An alternative material, which can bereused or recycled, for example, metal (aluminium, alloy etc) shall be used.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-42Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact Assessment6.7.15 At present, Government is developing a charging policy for the disposal of waste tolandfill. When it is implemented, this will provide additional incentive to reduce thevolume of waste generated and to ensure proper segregation to allow disposal of inertmaterial to public filling areas.6.7.16 In order to minimise the impacts of the demolition works these wastes must be cleared asquickly as possible after demolition. The demolition and clearance works should thereforebe undertaken simultaneously.Chemical Waste6.7.17 For those processes which generate chemical waste, it may be possible to find alternativeswhich generate reduced quantities or even no chemical waste, or less dangerous types ofchemical waste.6.7.18 Chemical waste that is produced, as defined by Schedule 1 of the Waste Disposal(Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation, should be handled in accordance with the Code ofPractice on the Packaging, Handling and Storage of Chemical Wastes as follows.Containers used for storage of chemical wastes should:• be suitable for the substance they are holding, resistant to corrosion, maintained in a good condition, andsecurely closed;• have a capacity of less than 450 L unless the specifications have been approved by the EPD; and• display a label in English and Chinese in accordance with instructions prescribed in Schedule 2 of theRegulations.6.7.19 The storage area for chemical wastes should:• be clearly labelled and used solely for the storage of chemical waste;• be enclosed on at least 3 sides;• have an impermeable floor and bunding, of capacity to accommodate 110% of the volume of the largestcontainer or 20% by volume of the chemical waste stored in that area, whichever is the greatest;• have adequate ventilation;• be covered to prevent rainfall entering (water collected within the bund must be tested and disposed as chemicalwaste if necessary); and• be arranged so that incompatible materials are adequately separated.6.7.20 Disposal of chemical waste should:• be via a licensed waste collector; and• be to a facility licensed to receive chemical waste, such as the Chemical Waste Treatment Facility which alsooffers a chemical waste collection service and can supply the necessary storage containers; or• be to a re-user of the waste, under approval from the EPD.6.7.21 The Centre for Environmental Technology operates a Waste Exchange Scheme which canassist in finding receivers or buyers.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-43Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Jheme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentManagement of General Refuse6.7.22 General refuse generated on-site should be stored in enclosed bins or compaction unitsseparate from construction and chemical wastes. A reputable waste collector should beemployed by the contractor to remove general refuse from the site, separately fromconstruction and chemical wastes, on a daily basis to minimise odour, pest and litterimpacts. The burning of refuse on construction sites is prohibited by law.6.7.23 General refuse is generated largely by food service activities on site, so reusable rather thandisposable dishware should be used if feasible. Aluminium cans are often recovered fromthe waste stream by individual collectors if they are segregated and made easily accessible,so separate, labelled bins for their deposit should be provided if feasible.6.7.24 Office wastes can be reduced through the recycling of paper if volumes are large enough towarrant collection. Participation in a local collection scheme should be considered if one isavailable. In addition, waste separation facilities for paper, aluminium cans, plastic bottlesetc., should be provided.Management of Waste Disposal6.7.25 A trip-ticket system should be established in accordance with Works Bureau TechnicalCircular No 5/99 to monitor the disposal of C&DM and solid wastes at public fillingfacilities and landfills, and to control fly-tipping. A trip-ticket system will be included asone of the contractual requirements and implemented by the Engineer. The Engineershould audit the result of the system.6.7.26 A recording system for the amount of waste generated, recycled and disposed of (includingthe disposal sites) should be established during the construction stage.Staff Training6.7.27 Training should be provided to workers on the concepts of site cleanliness and onappropriate waste management procedures, including waste reduction, reuse and recyclingat the beginning of the contract.Summary6.7.28 The EIA has considered in the planning and design stages measures to minimise thegeneration of C&DM. The measures to minimise C&DM have been described in theabove sections. The Contractor should reuse the public fill generated from the projecteither on-site or in other construction sites as far as possible. The EIA has required theContractor under the contract to submit a waste management plan for the constructionworks to the Engineer for approval on the advice of the EPD.6.7.29 The waste management plan should include appropriate measures including the allocation ofan area for waste segregation. The Engineer should ensure that the day-to-day operationson site comply with the waste management plan. The contractor should separate public fillfrom C&D waste for disposal at appropriate locations and to sort the C&DM by categoryon-site to facilitate reuse/recycling in order to reduce the generation of waste.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 6-44Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY7.1 INTRODUCTION7.1.1 This Section of the report presents the results of the assessment of potential impacts from theconstruction and operation of the Theme Park and associated development on terrestrial andfreshwater (aquatic) ecological resources in the Assessment Area. Mitigation measures required tomaintain identified impacts to within acceptable levels are recommended, as appropriate.Supplementary terrestrial ecological information is provided in Annex F.7.2 LEGISLATION, STANDARDS, GUIDELINES AND CRITERIA7.2.1 A number of international and local regulations, legislation and guidelines provide the framework forthe protection of species and habitats of ecological importance; those related to the Project include:Country Parks Ordinance (Cap 208);Forests and Countryside Ordinance (Cap 96);Wild Animals Protection Ordinance (Cap 170);Town Planning Ordinance (Cap 131);Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines Chapter 10 (HKPSG);Technical Memorandum for the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO TM); andUnited Nations Convention on Biodiversity (1992).COUNTRY PARKS ORDINANCE7.2.2 The Country Parks Ordinance (Cap. 208) provides for the designation and management ofcountry parks and special areas. Country parks are designated for the purpose of natureconservation, countryside recreation and outdoor education. Special Areas are created mainly forthe purpose of nature conservation,FORESTS AND COUNTRYSIDE ORDINANCE7.2.3 The Forests and Countryside Ordinance prohibits felling, cutting, burning or destroying of treesand growing plants in forests and plantations on Government land. Related subsidiary Regulationsprohibit the selling or possession of listed rare and protected plant species. The list of protectedspecies in Hong Kong which comes under the Forestry Regulations was last amended on 11 June1993 under the Forestry (Amendment) Regulation 1993 made under Section 3 of the Forestsand Countryside Ordinance.WILD ANIMALS PROTECTION ORDINANCE7.2.4 Under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance, designated wild animals are protected from beinghunted, whilst their nests and eggs are protected from injury, destruction and removal. All birdsand most mammals are protected under this Ordinance. The Second Schedule of the Ordinancewhich lists all the animals protected was last revised in June 1992.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong .7-1Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTOWN PLANNING ORDINANCE7.2.5 The amended Town Planning Ordinance provides for the designation on Outline Zoning Plans ofcoastal protection areas, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), Conservation Area, CountryPark, Green Belt or other specified uses that promote conservation or protection of theenvironment. The authority responsible for administering the Town Planning Ordinance is theTown Planning Board.HONG KONG PLANNING STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES7.2.6 Chapter 10 of the HKPSG covers planning considerations relevant to conservation. This chapterdetails the principles of conservation, the conservation of natural landscape and habitats, historicbuildings, archaeological sites and other antiquities. It also addresses the issue of enforcement.The appendices list the legislation and administrative controls for conservation, other conservationrelated measures in Hong Kong and government departments involved in conservation.EIAOTM7.2.7 Annex 16 of the EIAO TM sets out the general approach and methodology for assessment ofecological impacts arising from a project or proposal, to allow a complete and objectiveidentification, prediction and evaluation of the potential ecological impacts. EIAO TM Annex 8recommends the criteria that can be used for evaluating habitat and ecological impactUNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY7.2.8 The Peoples' Republic of China (PRC) is one of the Contracting Parties to the United NationsConvention on Biological Diversity of 1992. The Convention requires signatories to make activeefforts to protect and manage their biodiversity resources. Hong Kong Government has stated thatit will be 'committed to meeting the environmental objectives' of the Convention (PELB 1996).7.3 EXISTING ENVIRONMENT AND SENSITIVE RECEIVERS7.3.1 This section summarises the terrestrial ecological resources within the Assessment Area andidentifies key potentially sensitive receivers. The Assessment Area as for the terrestrial ecologicalassessment as defined in the Study Brief includes all areas within 500 m from the boundary of thescope of the EIA study or the area likely to be impacted by the proposed developments.7.3.2 A literature review has been undertaken to identify previous and ongoing assessments and reportscovering the terrestrial ecological conditions within the Assessment Area, which includes the lands,the foreshore areas and other places designed for the Project Reports that were reviewed include:• Northshore Lantau Development Feasibility Study (NLDFS) EIA, CED (2000);• Route 10-North Lantau to Yuen Long Highway Investigation and Preliminary Design SouthernSection EIA, HyD (1999);• Lantau Port Development, Stage 1 Container Terminals 10 and 11, Preliminary Design Study, CED(1995);and• The Conservation Strategy for Lantau, Green Lantau Association et al (1998).7.3.3 Consultations with local ecologists have also been undertaken where appropriate. Habitat andecological communities within the Assessment Area has been mapped with reference to theVegetation Map prepared by World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong (1994).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-2Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.3.4 Broad scoping field surveys were then undertaken to fill the information gaps and supplement andfield check the data collected through the baseline/literature review process. Areas of ecologicalinterest that may be directly or indirectly affected by the proposed development were thensurveyed in more detail.7.3.5 All the field data for the NLDFS Study Area including the Theme Park area were collectedbetween January 1999 and December 1999, covering the wet and dry seasons (See Annex F-lSurvey Schedule). The ecological surveys covered habitat/vegetation, stream fauna, avifauna,mammals, herpetofauna and invertebrates. Further supplementary field surveys were specificallyconducted for the Theme Park Assessment Area, covering all the listed categories, in Novemberand December 1999, including a night survey of wildlife in December 1999. The surveymethodologies are presented below.SUMMARY OF SURVEYS7.3.6 A summary of field surveys and methodologies adopted is provided in the following sections:Habitat/Vegetation7.3.7 Each representative habitat type was surveyed on foot. All plant species encountered wereidentified and recorded to species level, whenever possible; the relative abundance of the plantspecies were also recorded. The dominant flora or fauna of each habitat/land-use type were alsoidentified, with subsequent further habitat and vegetation verifications undertaken.Stream Fauna7.3.8 The physical conditions of the streams were recorded. Stream fauna were investigated throughdirect observation and active searching.Avifauna7.3.9 All bird species identified and numbers encountered in all major habitat types within theAssessment Area were recorded in the field. Surveys were undertaken during the wet and the dryseason.Wildlife (Mammals and Herpetofauna)7.3.10 Signs or other evidences of mammal presence were noted in the field by active searching inpotential mammal habitats.7.3.11 Sampling techniques involving direct observation and active searching for reptiles in potential sheltersites/hiding places and amphibians in potential habitats were employed.Invertebrates (Butterflies Dragon/lies and Damselfly)7.3.12 Butterfly, dragonfly and damselfly fauna were investigated by direct observation/ searching in allmajor habitat types within the Assessment Area. Surveys were undertaken during the most activeperiod for the invertebrates, the wet season.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7 ' 3


Theme Park and Associated Developments __ Final Environmental Impact AssessmentNight-time Survey7.3.13 A night-time survey was undertaken mainly focusing on nocturnal avifauna. The presence of anylarge mammals was also noted.BASELINE CONDITIONS - HABITAT/VEGETATION7.3.14 The north-eastern part of Lantau within the Assessment Area comprises predominantly agrassland/shrubland mosaic habitat. The other terrestrial habitat types within the Assessment Areainclude tall shrubland, secondary woodland, abandoned farmland, wetland, plantation,village/orchard, wasteland, freshwater stream as well as backshore vegetation. A habitat mapshowing locations of recorded flora and fauna of ecological interest are shown in Figure 7.3a;photographs of the principal types of habitats in the Assessment Area are provided in Figures7.3b-l to 4.7.3.15 A description of the general ecological conditions for each of the identified habitats are givenbelow. Details of plant species recorded are presented in Annex F-2.Secondary Woodland7.3.16 Secondary woodlands present within this area of Lantau are continuous with an average height ofmore than 6 m. The secondary woodland at Ngong Shuen Au and the headland between Pa TauKwu Pak Wan and Pa Tau Kwu Nam Wan are confined to the low-altitude area next to villagesand ravines, Figure 7.3b-l shows a typical secondary woodland. The plant species diversity isconsidered moderate with a total of 55 species recorded. Due to their proximity to villages andorchards, introduced tree species such as Dimocarpus longan and Leucaena leucocephala, aswell as crop plants were also found.7.3.17 Plant species recorded are typical of secondary woodlands in Hong Kong and dominant treespecies recorded include common species Cratoxylum cochinchinense, Aporosa dioica, Litseaglutinosa, Mallotus paniculatus, Microcos paniculata and Schefflera octophylla. Height oftrees range from 6-12 m. The dominant species and the structure of the woodlands suggested thatthe secondary woodlands have been regenerated recently by succession in the last 30-50 years.Tall Shrubland7.3.18 Tall shrubland is a transitional stage in ecological succession between shrubland and woodland.The tall shrubland recorded comprised woody vegetation with average heights ranging from 2-4m (see Figure 7J6-7). They occur in scattered patches and a total of 53 plant species wererecorded in the Assessment Area. This habitat has low species and structural diversity. In theAssessment Area, such habitats were mostly found along streams and in valleys which have beenless affected by hill-fires. These tall shrubland habitats are dominated by the shrub Cratoxylumcochinchinense, Litsea rotundifolia, Litsea glutinosa, Microcos paniculata and Rhussuccedanea; no rare or protected species were recorded during the field surveys.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-4Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentGrassland/Shrubland Mosaic7.3.19 The grassland/ shrubland mosaic is the dominant habitat type within the Assessment Area, locatingon hillslopes and ridges (Figure 7.3b-l). The species composition of this habitat is mainlyherbaceous or woody plant species with an average height of less than 1.5 m A total of 68 plantspecies, but no rare or protected species, were recorded during the surveys. Major/dominantplant species include the common shrub Baeckea frutescens, Arundinella setosa, Cymbopogongoeringii, Eulalia quadrinervis, Isachaemum barbartum and the fern Dicmnopteris pedatawere recorded. The dominant species present indicated that such habitat had been frequentlydisturbed by hill fires. The species and structural diversity are considered low to moderate.Abandoned Farmland7.3.20 This habitat is represented by a small patch behind the beach of Pa Tau Kwu (see Figure 7.56-7).The dominant species include Neyraudia arundinacea (N. reyaudiana), Mikania micrantha,Apluda mutica and Cyclosorus interruptus. Only 14 species were recorded and neither rare norprotected species were found. This habitat is poor in floristic diversity and also simple in structure.Since the habitat was formed by human activity, it is low in naturalness and high in re-creatability.Wetland7.3.21 Brackish wetlands are dominated by grasses with an average height of less than 1.5 m and arelative high salinity. A brackish wetland patch (approximately 1 ha) was found next to CLPPenny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant and is dominated by the Zoysia sp. This habitat type is low inhabitat heterogeneity and floristic diversity.7.3.22 A narrow strip of freshwater wetland area (approximately 1 ha) is located adjacent to the northeast boundary of the Cheoy Lee shipyard on the eastern side of Penny's Bay. At least part of thewetland is permanently flooded (see Figure 7.56-2). Vegetation present is dominated by herbsless than 1.5 m tall. The dominant species include Fuirena ciliata, Fimbristylis complanata,Fimbristylis acuminata and Eragrostic sp. This habitat was probably formed as a result ofnatural drainage from the hillsides/ land behind the shipyard being obstructed by the shipyardreclamation. Naturalness is, therefore, only moderate and readability is high. This habitat ispoor in floristic diversity and also simple in structure.7.3.23 Among the 14 plant species recorded, one rare species, Fimbristylis acuminata (coveredapproximately 500 m 2 ), one protected species, pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis (coveredapproximately 80 m 2 in total, see Figure 7.36-2) and Fimbristylis complanata (coveredapproximately 500 m 2 ), were found.7.3.24 Fimbristylis acuminata, a cyperaceae wetland herbs, is locally rare in Hong Kong but has beenseen in a few wetland sites in Hong Kong, including Shui Hau (Lantau), Hoi Ha and Lai Chi Chong(Sai Kung). The pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis is a carnivorous creeping subshrub which isprotected in Hong Kong under the Forest and Countryside Ordinance. The species is widespreadin South East Asia and is distributed from Southern China (Guangdong and Hainan), Indochina toNorthern Australia. It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant and can adapt to wide rangeof habitats. It is common in Hong Kong and can be found along streams in Western NewScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-5Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTerritories (Castle Peak, Tai Lam, Siu Lam, So Kwu Wat), Western Lantau (Man Cheung Po)and Northern Lantau (Hau Hok Wan), and North East Lantau (Pak Mong). Nepenthes mirabilisusually form a large dense colonyPlantation7.3.25 This habitat type is dominated by woody species planted for landscape purposes. Plantationscomprise mainly Acacia confusa and Leucaena leucocephala and were found around the CLPPenny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant and adjacent excavated hillside (see Figure 7.36-2). Only fourtree species were found with heights of trees ranging from 5 - 15 m. All the trees species areintroduced species of relatively low ecological importance.Orchard/Village7.3.26 Orchards were found among villages at Ngong Shuen Au (see Figure 73b-T). Dominantcomponents included common fruit trees such as Dimocarpus longan and Clausena lansium, aswell as ornamental/landscape trees such as Acacia confusa and Albizia lebbeck. Tree speciesassociated with human activity such as Celtis tetrandra (C. sinensisis) and Macaranga tanariuswere commonly observed, while typical secondary woodland tree species such as Brideliatomentosa and Litsea glutinosa 6 - 12 m in height, were also found. Neither rare nor protectedplants were recorded among the 40 recorded species.Wasteland7.3.27 Wastelands refer to open flatland areas formed from reclamation next to the Cheoy Lee shipyardand the CLP Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant (Figure 7.3b-2). Dominant species such asNeyraudia reyaudiana and exotic weeds including Mikania micrantha and Lantana camarawere recorded. This habitat is very open and low in floristic diversity (23 species in total), habitatheterogeneity and naturalness.Backshore Vegetation7.3.28 A total of 70 plant species were recorded in backshore vegetation habitats. Vegetation found atthe backshore of sandy beaches included dominant plant species of Clerodendrum inerme,Scaevola sericea, Vitex rotundifolia, Macaranga tanarius, Cerbera manghas and Hibiscustiliaceus. Floristic diversity was low to moderate, with one rare species, Schoenus falcatus(Figure 7.3b-3).7.3.29 The backshore vegetation of rocky shores is continuous with shrublands or secondary woodlandsfurther landward (see Figure 7.3b-3\ Dominant plants found included Cladium marisus,Heteropogon contortus, Scaevola, Scolopia chinensis and Neyraudia arundinacea (N.reyaudiana). Floristic diversity is moderate but habitat heterogeneity is very low as a result ofsparse vegetation. Three rare species, Berchemia lineata, Schoenus falcatus and Selenarugosa and one restricted species Eriocaulon merrilli, all the species are not protected, werefound in back shore vegetation at Penny' Bay, the covered areas of these species areapproximately 10 m 2 , 90 m 2 , 5 m 2 and 20 m 2 respectively.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-6Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.3.30 Of the above species, Schoenus falcatus (see Figure 7.3b~3) is considered the most importantbecause it was for the first time recorded in Hong Kong under the present study, found only in thearea with water flow and near rocky shore at Penny's Bay. The species had neither been reportedin the Biodiversity Survey (1998, in preparation) nor by J. Shaw (1999). This species has beenreported in Kuizhou, Guangxi, Taiwan, Vietnam and Ryukyu Island; the species had not beenreported in Guangdong up to Tang and Wang (1961). Berchemia lineata, a creeping shrub foundon rocky shore, is also locally rare but not protected in Hong Kong and had only been seen on SaiWan (Sai Kung) and a few outlying islands. Scattered individuals were found on the rocky shoreon the west side of Penny's Bay (see Figure 7.3d). Scleria rugosa, a cyperaceae annual herb, israre but not protected in Hong Kong and had only been seen along stream in Tai Tarn (HongKong) and Lai Chi Chong (Sai Kung). A small populations of this species was found in backshorevegetation of rocky shore with freshwater seepage on the west shore of Penny's Bay.Freshwater Streams7.3.31 The four main freshwater streams within the Assessment Area are Mong Tung Hang Stream behindthe Cheoy Lee shipyard, a stream behind the CLP Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant and twostreams at Pa Tau Kwu Pak Wan and Pa Tau Kwu Nam Wan (see Figure 7.3a for locations).7.3.32 The upper Mong Tung Hang Stream with rocky substrate was observed to be natural and freefrom visible pollution, with shrubby riparian vegetation. The lower section is channelised and isrouted under the shipyard (see Figure 7.3b-3).7.3.33 The stream behind the CLP Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant is a natural watercourse and wasobserved to be free from visible pollution, with shrubland habitats along the upper section, andbrackish wetland at the estuary in Penny's Bay.7.3.34 The conditions of the two streams at Pa Tau Kwu are similar given their similarity in geographic andphysical environment. Both streams are small with bedrock as substratum; habitats along thesestreams comprise riparian vegetation including shrubland/grassland species. The stream at Pa TauKwu Pak Wan flows into the sea. The stream at Pa Tau Kwu Nam Wan is smaller than the streamat Pak Wan, and it drains into an abandoned agricultural field.7.3.35 In general all upper stream courses upland of the Tsing Chau Tsai headland have limited waterflow. These small bedrock streams are expected to support only limited aquatic life.BASELINE CONDITIONS - WILDLIFE AND FAUNA7.3.36 A review of the survey findings indicates that the wildlife recorded within the Assessment Areashow little seasonal variation with the exception of the avifauna (birds). More bird species wasrecorded within the Assessment Area during the winter season (about 28% of the recorded birdspecies are winter visitors to Hong Kong). Neither rare nor protected wildlife species were foundduring the night survey. The key findings of the wildlife surveys are presented below; details ofwildlife species recorded are provided in Annex F-3.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-7Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentMammals7.3.37 Faeces of civets were observed only once in January 1999 on a major path on Fa Peng Tengwhere the dominant vegetation is grassland/shrubland mosaic (see Figure 7.3d). No more recordsof civet nor their faeces were found during the survey period. No signs of other mammal, such asbarking deer (Muntiacus reevesi) were recorded, which is likely to be due to the lack of suitablehabitats as the areas are too open and there is not sufficient cover for large mammals.Herpetofauna7.3.38 For herpetofauna, only 3 common species, the Paddy Frog Rana limnocharis, Brown Tree FrogPolypedates megacephalus and Ornate Pigmy Frog Microhyla ornata were recorded infreshwater wetland areas behind the Cheoy Lee shipyard during the field surveys.7.3.39 Although several populations of Romer's Tree Frog (fhilautus romeri) have been recorded inLantau Island, no signs of Romer's Tree Frogs (including tadpoles and audible frog calls) werefound during the surveys conducted in February, May, October, November and December 1999.Invertebrates7.3.40 Nine species of dragonfly and damselfly were recorded in the Assessment Area and they are allcommon in Hong Kong. The habitats within the Assessment Area are not favourable for dragonfliesand damselflies, most of recorded species were encountered close to areas with fresh water.7.3.41 The field surveys recorded thirty-four species of butterfly, but none of which is rare nor ofecological significance. Most of the butterflies were encountered at the edge of woodlands andoften settle on nearby shrubby vegetation.Stream Fauna7.3.42 No rare, endangered, nor endemic stream invertebrates were found at any of the stream samplingsites; identified species were all common and typical of freshwater streams in Hong Kong.7.3.43 Five fish species were found in the streams, including the locally rare Rice Fish (Oryzias latipes) inMong Tung Hang Stream (Figure 7.3b-3). Mosquito Fish (Gambusia affinis) were identified inseepage pools and artificial ditches in the shipyard, as well as Grey Mullet fyfugil cephalus),Mudskipper (Periophthalmus cantonensis) and Therapon jarbua in the stream behind the CLPPenny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant. Except the Rice Fish which is locally rare (location shown inFigure 7.3a\ the others are common species. No fish species were found in upper stream.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-8Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.3.44 According to Chong and Dudgeon (1992), the distribution of the Rice Fish Oryzias latipes inHong Kong has reduced dramatically, and is now restricted to a few isolated sites in Hong Kong,including: Chi Ma Wan on Lantau, Sam A Tsuen in NorthEast New territories, eastern Sai Kungand Tung Chung area. It can be considered as endangered in Hong Kong due to the fragmenteddistribution of generally small populations. It is unusual to find this species in a the fast flowingstream such as Mong Tung Hang stream, as the species usually inhabits standing waterbodies orslow-flowing streams (Pan, 1991; Kawanabe and Mizuno, 1996). The population at Mong TungHang stream is restricted to the lowest natural reach of the stream course before the channelizedconcrete watercourse section close to the Cheoy Lee shipyard.Avifauna7.3.45 Almost all the 32 species of avifauna recorded in the Assessment Area and its immediate environsare common in Hong Kong such as the Black-eared Kite (Milvus milgrans), Common Sandpiper(Actitis hypoleucos), Spotted Dove (Streptopelia chinensis\ Chinese Bulbul (Pycnonotussinensis), Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus joscosus), Japanese White-eye (Zosteropsjaponicd), Long-tailed Shrike (Lanius schach) and Yellow-bellied Prinia (Prinia flaviventrius).The rare migrant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter sp.) was observed flying pass.7.3.46 The most significant finding of the avian survey is the recording of the locally rare White-bellied SeaEagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) in Pa Tau Kwu. From our survey records in this study, WhitebelliedSea Eagles Haliaeetus leucogaster were observed foraging from Yi Chuen to Pa Tau Kwuin earlier surveys and were initially considered to comprise one of the known local breeding WhitebelliedSea Eagles from Green Island or Tang Lung Chau. However, a breeding pair of WhitebelliedSea Eagle and their nest was recently (November and December 1999) identified in thewoodland at Pa Tau Kwu during avian survey in the Study Area (see Figure 7.4a-l for thelocation and Figure 7.4b-4 for the photographic record of the bird). A White-bellied Sea Eaglejuvenile, estimated to be 1 - 2 years old and capable of flight, was also recorded in the Pa TauKwu woodland during the avian survey in November 1999 but left and has not been seen againafter November 1999. The nest was located on a tree Tetradium glabrifolium, approximately 3-4m above the ground and facing towards Pa Tau Kwu Nam Wan. The nest was estimated to be1.1 m in width and 0.3 m in depth comprising large fresh wooden sticks and twigs (see Figure7.4b-4). The relatively small nest size indicates recent construction or occupation; additionally ithas been reported recently that a nesting pair of White-bellied Sea Eagles previously located onTang Lung Chau south of Ma Wan have vacated their nest.7.3.47 The White-bellied Sea Eagle is a scarce breeding species in Hong Kong, with between 10 and 20breeding pairs previously recorded during 1993-99), including the one in Tang Lung Chau (basedon up to 20 different breeding sites identified), which is distributed in different parts of the HongKong waters including Tolo Harbour, Mirs Bay, Port Shelter, south and west of Hong KongIsland, and both north and south of Lantau.(Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, in prep.). Theirnests are usually built on steep and rocky islands with major preference of big trees in acommanding position on a wooded knoll or headland (Wells, 1999). The size of nest is usuallyabout 1.5 m across and comparatively thin when new. The nest would be used repeatedly with nestrefurbishment in each breeding season by the same pair (Viney et. aL 9 1994).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-9Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.3.48 The White-bellied Sea Eagle has a wide distiibution, ranging from India and Sri Lanka to SouthChina, the Philippines, Wallacea, New Guinea as well as Bismarks to Australia and Tasmania(Howard & Moore, 1998; del Hoyo et. a/., 1994), with its presence restricted to Guangdong andFujian Provinces in China and occasional records of non-breeding birds elsewhere (Cheng, 1987).White-bellied Sea Eagles are known to be predominantly pisciverous, taking mainly fish carrions(Slackers et. aL, 1985). White-bellied Sea Eagles in Hong Kong are also predominantlypisciverous and feed on live fish, but the extent to which they scavenges is not known.7.3.49 Based on literature in Australia, the White-bellied Sea Eagle may be susceptible to humandisturbance and may abandon their nest or young (or be deterred from breeding) when disturbed(Marchant & Higgins, 1993). However the locally breeding White-bellied Sea Eagles recorded onGreen Island, however, are tolerant to the existing disturbance such as from helicopter, boatstravelling pass, and the urban development at Kennedy Town approximately 600 m away. Thepresence of the breeding pair of the White-bellied Sea Eagles at the Pa Tau Kwu woodlandindicates that the surrounding disturbance from motor boats, ships, helicopter and aircraft mayhave a minor impact on the birds. Therefore the White-bellied Sea Eagles in Hong Kong may havecertain degree of tolerance to disturbance.ECOLOGICAL VALUE/ IMPORTANCE7.3.50 An evaluation of the ecological value/ importance of the recorded habitats in the Assessment Areahas been prepared in accordance with the EIAO TM Annex 8 criteria; evaluation results areprovided in Table 7.3a-e.Table 7.3a - Ecological Value of Secondary Woodland in the Assessment Area'CdteH* *'NaturalnessSizeDiversityRarityRe-creatabilityFragmentationEcological linkagePotential valueNursery groundAgeAbundance/Richness ofWildlifeNgong Shuen Ait :The secondary woodlands have been modifiedand subjected to human disturbance.The average size is approximately 2 ha.The species diversity is moderate.No rare nor protected species were found in thehabitat.It will take some time (10-40 yrs) for thesecondary woodlands to be re-created.The woodlands are not fragmented.The present habitats are not functionally linkedto any highly valued habitat in close proximity ina significant way.The potential value is considered moderate.No record of significant nursery or breedingground was found in the survey.The habitats are relatively mature.ModeratePs* ; TatiNatural habitat with limited humandisturbance.Approximately 2 ha in size.The species diversity is moderateTwo adults of rare White-bellied SeaEagles Haliaeetus leucogaster wererecorded in the woodland. A juvenilewas recorded only in November 1999(details refer to Section 7.33).It will take some time (10-40 yrs) for thesecondary woodlands to be re-created.The woodland is not fragmented.The present habitats are notfunctionally linked to any highlyvalued habitat in close proximity in asignificant way.The potential value is consideredmoderate.A nest of White-bellied Sea EaglesHaliaeetus leucogaster was found insidethe woodland.The habitats are relatively mature.ModerateScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-10


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCriteriaEcological valueNgoitg Sliuen AaModeratePa Tau Kwu headhHighScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 7.3b - Ecological Value of Grassland/Shrubland Mosaic and Tall Shrabland in theAssessment AreaCriteriaNaturalnessSizeDiversityRarityRe-creatabilityFragmentationEcological linkagePotential valueNursery groundAgeAbundance/Richness ofWildlifeEcological valueGrassland/Shrubland MosaicNatural habitat but subject to frequent hillfires.The grassland/shrubland mosaic is thepredominant habitat types within theAssessment Area.The species diversity is low.No rare nor protected species were found inthese habitat types. This habitat type is themost common and dominant landscape inHong Kong.The vegetation type is secondary andreadily re-created naturally or artificially andwould recover easily from disturbance.The grassland/shrubland mosaic is notfragmented.The present habitats are not functionallylinked to any highly valued habitat in closeproximity in a significant way.The potential value is considered low.No record of significant nursery or breedingground were found in the survey.The habitats are frequently disturbed andtherefore are secondary in nature.LowLowTallSliriiblaiiit * **- -V- ' ,V ' '-Natural habitat but subject to hill-fires.Small patches of tall shrubland; mostlyfound along streams and in valleys.The species diversity is lowNo rare nor protected species were found inthese habitat types. This habitat type is themost common and dominant landscape inHong Kong.The vegetation type is secondary andreadily re-created naturally or artificially andwould recover easily from disturbance.The tall shrubland habitats are fragmented.The present habitats are not functionallylinked to any highly valued habitat in closeproximity in a significant way.The dense vegetation cover of the tallshrubland suggest that it has the potentialto be transformed into woodland, thepotential value is therefore consideredmoderate.No record of significant nursery or breedingground were found in the survey.The habitats are disturbed and therefore aresecondary in nature.LowLowTable 7.3c - Ecological Value of Wetland in the Assessment AreaNaturalnessBrackish Wetland,Naturalness is only moderate.Naturalness is only moderate and partially manmadehabitat.Size Small in size. Small in size.Diversity The species diversity is low. The species diversity is lowRarityNo rare nor protected species werefound in this habitat type.Two rare plant species, Fimbristylis acwninaia andFimbristylis complanata, and one protected species,pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis, were found.Re-creatability Re-creatability is moderate to high. Re-creatability is moderate to high.Fragmentation These habitat types are notThe wetlands are not fragmented, but small inEcological linkagefragmented.The present habitats are notfunctionally linked to any highlyvalued habitat in close proximity in asignificant way.The present habitats are not functionally linked toany highly valued habitat in close proximity in asignificant way.Potential value Low value for man-made habitats. The potential value is considered moderate.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-12


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentCriteriaNursery groundAgeAbundance/Richness ofWildlifeEcological valueBrackish WetlandNo record of significant nursery orbreeding ground was found in thesurvey.Not applicable.LowFreshwaterNo record of significant nursery or breedingground was found in the survey.The habitats probably formed recently byseepage from hillsides behind after reclamation.ModerateLowModerateTable 7.3d - Ecological Value of Wasteland/ Abandoned Farmland/ Plantation/Orchard/Village and Backshore Vegetation in the Assessment AreaCriteriaNaturalnessSizeDiversityRarityRe-creatabilityFragmentationEcological linkagePotential valueNursery groundAgeAbundance/Richness ofWildlifeEcological valueWasteland/Abandoned Farmland/Plantation/ Orchard/VillageAll are man-created habitats.All small in size.The species diversity is low.No rare nor protected species were found inthese habitat types.All the habitat types can be re-createdeasily.These habitat types are not fragmented.The present habitats are not functionallylinked to any highly valued habitat in closeproximity in a significant way.Low value for man-made habitats.No record of significant nursery or breedingground was found in the survey.Not applicable.LowLowBackshore V^tatloii/^ r-"^; ;,? - **;' ' V,', • ?y''&''>>' # Jr* * 4 ;-,'. t 'Natural habitat with limited humandisturbance.Moderate in sizeThe species diversity is moderate.Three rare plant species, Berchemia lineata,Schoenus falcatus and Selena rugosa and onerestricted plant Eriocaulon merrilli were foundin back shore vegetation at Penny's Bay.It has a moderate re-creatability.The habitats are not fragmented but alwayshave a linear shape.The present habitats are not functionallylinked to any highly valued habitat in closeproximity in a significant way.The potential value is low.No record of significant nursery or breedingground was found in the survey.Relative mature and stable.LowModerateTable 7.3eEcological Value of Stream Habitats in the Assessment AreaNaturalnessSizeDiversityLThe streams are largely natural and free ofpollution.The length of the natural streams at Pa Tau KwuPak Wan, Pa Tau Kwu Nam Wan and behind theCLP Penny's Bay Gas Turbine Plant areapproximately 1100 ni, 600 m, 1600 m respectively.The species diversity is moderate to low.The streams are largely natural and freeof pollution._The length of the natural streams isapproximately 1600m.The species diversity is moderate tolow.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-13


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsCriteriaRarityRe-creatabilityFragmentationEcological linkagePotential valueNursery groundAgeAbundance/Richness ofWildlifeEcological valuePa Tan KWII North Wan/ Pa Tau Kwu SouthWan/ behind the CLP Penny's Bay Gas TurbinePlantNo rare nor protected species were found in thesehabitat types.The stream habitats could be re-created.Not applicable.The present habitats are not functionally linkedto any highly valued habitat in close proximity ina significant way.The potential value is moderate to low.No record of significant nursery or breedingground was found in the survey.Not applicableLowModerateFinal Environmental Impact Assessment" ^:^ss¥iMoa^ang H^g^f;^;^^|f


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.3.57 Fauna of ecological interest found within the Assessment Area include the rare Rice Fish (Oryziaslatipes) found in the lowest section of the Mong Tung Hang Stream, as well as the White-belliedSea Eagles Haliaeetus leucogaster and their nest site identified at Pa Tau Kwu woodland.7.3.58 An evaluation of identified species of ecological interest recorded in the Assessment Area has beenprepared in accordance with the EIAO TM Annex 8 criteria (see Table 7.4f-g).Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental impact AssessmentTable 7.3f - Evaluation of Floral Species with Ecological Interest within Assessment AreaSjfUidei - r.Eriocaulon merrilli*Fimbristylis acuminata #FimbristyliscomplanatcfNepenthes mirabilis(Pitcher plant) #Berchemia lineataSchoenus falcatus *Growth FormHerbHerbHerbHerbShrubHerbLocationPenny'sBayPenny'sBayPenny'sBayPenny'sBayPenny'sBayPenny'sBayPenny'sBayProtectionStatusNot protectedNot protectedNot protectedProtectedNot protectedNot protected0i$trlliii^^i;; v^^stTung Chung, SaiKung and LaiChi WoShui Hau, Hoi Haand Lai ChiChongLai Chi Wo,Ngoon Ping atMa On Shan andTai Ho.North Lantauand NewTerritories, etc.Tai Long Wan(Sai Kung), PingChau (Mirs Bay)and Lung KwuChauSze Pak WanRestrictedRareRareRestrictedRareNew and rareScleria rugosa HerbNot protected Lai Chi Chong Rareand Violet HillNote: * Species which may be directly impacted due to the development (refer to Section 7.5)# Species which may be disturbed due to the development (refer to Section 7.5)Mitigation measures for important plant species are recommended in Section 7.7Table 7.3g - Evaluation of Faunal Species with Ecological Interest within AssessmentAreaHaliaeetusleucogasterGrowth/;WhitebelliedSeaEagleLocationPaTauKwuwoodlandOryzias latipes Rice Fish MongTungHangstreamStatus /;*?Proposednational firstgradewildlife forprotectionNot protectedTen to 20 breeding pairsin HK SAR have beenrecorded and distributedin different parts of HongKong (Hong Kong BirdWatching Society, inprep.)Chi Ma Wan, Sam ATsuen Tung Chung andEastern Sai KungLocally rareLocally rare7.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY7.4.1 A desktop literature review and supporting field surveys (summarised above in Section 7.2) wereconducted in order to establish the ecological profile of the area within and surrounding theAssessment Area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Gox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-16


Theme Park and Associated Developments __ Final Environmental Impact Assessment7.4.2 The potential impacts on terrestrial ecological resources due to the development of the Projecthave been assessed in accordance with the approach outlined under EIAO TM Annex 16;identified impacts have been evaluated based on the criteria in EIAO TM Annex 8.7.5 IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSCONSTRUCTION PHASE7.5.1 The potential terrestrial ecological impacts arising from Project construction activities may include:• Direct impacts as a result of habitat loss, loss of species, habitat fragmentation and indirect impact tofauna/ wildlife associated with these habitats (eg. loss of feeding grounds etc.) as a result of landtakefor construction of the Project; and• Indirect impact to the surrounding habitats and associated fauna/ wildlife due to increased humanactivities, disturbance by construction plant, equipment and activities as well as the potential foraccidental events such as bush/ hill fires.OPERATION PHASE7.5.2 The potential terrestrial ecological impacts arising from Project operational activities may include:• Indirect impacts to the surrounding habitats and associated fauna/ wildlife as a result of Projectoperational factors including:1. Noise from fireworks, Theme Park operations (day and night-time), transportation systemsand equipment;2. Light and glare from fireworks and laser show at night-time; and3. General disturbance associated with the presence of people in the assessment area.7.6 PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS7.6.1 This section presents an assessment of the potential impact on the terrestrial ecological resourceswithin the Assessment Area, based on the proposed development of Project facilities described inSection 2,7.6.2 The significance of identified impacts to terrestrial ecological resources has been evaluatedaccording to criteria specified in Table 1 ofAnnex 8 of the EIAO TM.CONSTRUCTION PHASE7.6.3 The following assessment focuses on potential terrestrial ecological impact on natural habitats inrelation to the proposed developments associated with the Project as outlined below. A summaryof terrestrial habitat losses is provided in Table 7 6a. A plan showing terrestrial habitats andresources potentially impacted by Project related development proposals is provided in Figure7.6aDirect ImpactPenny's Bay Reclamation and Associated WorksScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-17Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.6.47.6.5It has been estimated that natural terrestrial habitats within the Penny's Bay area likely to bedirectly affected by the reclamation include approximately 03 ha of secondary woodland at NgongShuen Au and 1.9 ha of grassland/shrubland mosaic, 0.7 ha of brackish wetland, 0.4 ha ofplantation and 11 ha of village/orchard and wasteland (see Figure 7.6a and Table 7.6a\In the present design, the construction of the Western Drainage Channel will retain the naturalcoastline of the western side of Penny's Bay, and therefore the backshore vegetation withrare/restricted species will not be affected. However, some of the backshore vegetation below thegeneral reclamation level +4 to +6.5 mPD at the southern Tsing Chau Tsai headland(approximately 1 ha) and below reclamation level +6.5 to +10 mPD near Wan Tuk at Penny's Bay(zoned as Amenity Area, approximately 1 ha) would be directly impacted by the reclamationworks, including the rare/restricted plant Schoenus falcatus and Eriocaulon merrilti (see Figure7.6b-l&2).ChokKo Wan Link Road from Yam O to Penny's Bay Interchange7.6.6The western section (approximately 1.5 km) of CKWLR from Yam O to Penny's Bay woulddirectly affect about 1.4 ha of secondary woodland, 2 ha of tall shrubland and 2.5 ha ofgrassland/shrubland mosaic at Ngong Shuen Au (see Figure 7.6a & c). Detailed assessment ofthe impact of the CKWLR on terrestrial ecology is reported in the NLDFS EIA.Road P2 and Penny's Bay Rail Link7.6.7The Road P2 connecting Yam 0 and Theme Park would directly affect about 0.1 ha of secondarywoodlandat Ngong Shuen Au, 0.1 ha of plantation and 0.4 ha of grassland/shrubland mosaic atChok Ko Wan Tsui (see Figure 7.6b-l & c). As the railway will be constructed on reclaimedland and the portal areas at both ends of the Rail Link are wasteland and grassland/shrublandmosaic, no terrestrial impact will be expected due to the PBRL construction.Table 7.6a - Summary of Terrestrial Habitat Loss (ha).Secondary WoodlandTall ShrublandGrassland/Shrubland MosaicBrackish WetlandFreshwater StreamMan-made habitat:Plantation/Wasteland/Village/Orchard*Exclude CKWLR0.42.30.711.51.82.5 4.80.711.5.7.6.8The potential impact on wildlife associated with the habitats that will be directly loss (mainlyshrubland and grassland habitats) is considered low given that the species present are of lowecological significance and that the wildlife may be displaced to similar habitats available in thesurrounding area.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-18


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentIndirect Impacts7.6.9 Indirect impacts to terrestrial ecology may arise from increased human activities associated withconstruction work, such as material storage and construction site runoff, if uncontrolled. This maydisturb the habitats and the associated flora and fauna, particularly the rare/restricted plants speciesFimbristylis acuminata, Fimbristylis complanata and pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis behindthe Cheoy Lee shipyard of Penny's Bay, the rare Rice Fish Oryzias latipes in Mong Tung Hangstream, wABerchemia lineata and Scleria rugosa along the west coast of Penny's Bay (Figure7.6a). There may be fragmentation of the predominantly grassland/shrubland mosaic withconcomitant effects on wildlife movement7.6.10 Another potential indirect construction impact from the Penny's Bay reclamation is disturbance tothe locally rare White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster. As discussed in Section 7.3.3,the White-bellied Sea Eagles in Hong Kong have been found to have certain degree of tolerance todisturbance. Noise and general disturbance effects associated with the construction of the Penny'sBay reclamation works, would have low to moderate impact as quiet construction plant will beused (refer Section 4.6) for the Penny's Bay Stage n reclamation, and the construction activities ofTheme Park Phase I and n will be over 1 km and 500 m from Pa Tau Kwu, respectively.However it cannot be ruled out that construction activities may lead to possible nest siteabandonment or breeding failure as a worst case result.7.6.11 The principal indirect threat to these birds of prey would be related to the increased human accessto the Project Area during construction activities (not presently represented in Pa Tau Kwu area)such as possible hill fires, nest predation or human theft of eggs or young birds.OPERATIONAL PHASE7.6.12 The operational ecological impacts have been assessed for the following key issues:• Increased human access; and• Theme Park operations including fireworks and laser show.General Increased Human Access7.6.13 Similar to the construction phase, after completion of the Theme Park and associated developmentindirect impacts to terrestrial ecology may arise from increased human activities resulting in anincreased risk of fires which would threaten the habitat and wildlife, and possible collecting andtrampling effects on the rare/restricted/protected species such as the Rice Fish (Oryzias latipes) inMong Tung Hang Stream and pitcher plants (Nepenthes mirabilis) behind the shipyard, ifuncontrolled. It should, however, be noted that the Theme Park fireworks will not increase the riskof fires as the fireworks displays are designed to return to ground within a designated safety areawithin the Theme Park (see Section 10). 'Theme Park Operations (including fireworks and laser show)7.6.14 In general, there are no adverse impacts to general wildlife within the Assessment Area since nosignificant nocturnal wildlife activities was recorded in the night survey.7.6.15 Project operational activities have the potential to disturb the White-bellied Sea Eagles. Disturbinginfluences directly and indirectly associated with the Project may include noise/ light from fireworksScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-19Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental IctAsdisplays laser effects in the Theme Park, light/ glare from the new facilities, transportation noise(road, rail and sea traffic) and operational plant noise (pumps etc.). However given the physicalseparation from the Pa Tau Kwu site, only the planned nightly laser show and short durationfireworks displays are considered to represent the most significant potential disturbing influence onthe birds.7.6.16 As the lasers beam will be teiminated on, non-reflective, fixed objects within the Theme Park andno significant nocturnal wildlife activities recorded in the night survey, the impacts are expected tobe low.7.6.17 The current nest site is located about 2 km from the Theme Park Phase I low/mid level fireworkslaunching position and about 0.8 km from the Theme Park Phase H low/mid level fireworkslaunching position. The noise impact from Theme Park Phase I fireworks is not expected to behigh due to the long distance separation. However, the Theme Park Phase n fireworks may resultin a disturbance to the White-bellied Sea Eagles, leading to possible site abandonment or breedingfailure as a worst case result.7.6.18 Similar to the construction phase, increased access by humans not presently represented in Pa TauKwu area may also pose an indirect threat to White-bellied Sea Eagle such as possible hill fire, nestpredation or human theft of eggs or young birds, if uncontrolled.OVERALL IMPACT EVALUATION7.6.19 summary evaluation of Project related impacts on terrestrial ecological resources in the AssessmentArea is provided in Table 7.6b-e.Table 7.6b - Overall Impact Evaluation of Secondary WoodlandfeSHiiSin^^^' JPaTauKwu s ': ~


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentTable 7.6c - Overall Impact Evaluation of Backshore VegetationBvtf tta&it CriteriaHabitat qualitySpeciesSize/AbundanceDurationReversibilityMagnitudeOverall impactconclusionPi$ew$sio» -" ' " Y, - - -:'::^'':^^r:^^^^f^m,^i^The habitat quality of backshore vegetation is moderate.There may be potential direct impact to the rare/restricted plant species found inbackshore vegetation at Penny's Bay, including Schoenus falcatus andEriocaulonmerrilli.Loss of area of the backshore vegetation will be approximately 4 ha due to thereclamation works at Penny's Bay. In the present design, the construction ofWestern Drainage Channel will avoid the destruction of and maintain the naturalcoastline in the west side of Penny's Bay, the backshore vegetation and therare/restricted would not be affected.The duration of impact will persist during construction and operation phase.The impact of direct loss of backshore vegetation is irreversible.The scale of habitat loss is small in the context of the surrounding similar habitats.ModerateTable 7.6d - Overall Impact Evaluation of Brackish WetlandEvaluation CriteriaHabitat qualitySpeciesSize/AbundanceDurationReversibilityMagnitudeOverall impactconclusionDiscussion - - X 1 'The habitat quality of brackish wetland is low.There may be potential direct or indirect impact to the wildlife inhabiting the areas.Loss of area of the brackish wetland will be approximately 0.7 ha.The duration of impact will persist during construction and operation phase.The impact of direct loss of brackish wetland is irreversible.The scale of habitat loss is small.LowTable 7.6e - Overall Impact Evaluation of Tall Shrubland, Grassland/Shrubland Mosaic,Plantation, Wasteland and Other HabitatsHabitat qualitySpeciesSize/AbundanceDurationReversibilityMagnitudeOverall impactconclusionDiscussionAll the habitats has low quality.There may be potential direct or indirect impact to the wildlife inhabiting the areas.Approximately 2 ha of tall shrubland, 4.8 ha of grassland/shrubland mosaic, 0.5 ha ofplantation and 11 ha of wasteland will be lost.The duration of impact will persist during construction and operation phase.The impact of direct loss is irreversible. The habitat is readily re-created and will recovereasily.The scale of habitat loss is small in the context of the surrounding similar habitats.Low7.6.20 Overall, potential impacts on terrestrial ecological resources due to the Project is not expected tobe high since most of the habitats impacted (such as the predominant grassland/shrubland) aregenerally of low ecological importance.7.6.21 The loss of secondary woodlands at Ngong Shuen Au and backshore vegetation along the Penny'sBay associated with this Project are considered to represent a moderate impact.Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-21


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment7.6.22 The rare/restricted plant Schoenus falcatus and Eriocaulon merritti will be lost at Penny's Bayand Chok Ko Wan Tsui.7.6.23 The potential indirect ecological impact to the locally rare White-bellied Sea Eagles Haliaeetusleucogaster are expected to be moderate to high primarily due to noise and human disturbance.7.6.24 The potential cumulative impacts due to Northshore Lantau Development and Chok Ko Wan LinkRoad are detailed in NLDFS EIA.7.7 GENERAL MITIGATION OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS7.7.1 As discussed in the previous section, major impact would be related to loss of secondarywoodlands at Ngong Shuen Au ? backshore vegetation and indirect impact to the locally rareWhite-bellied Sea Eagles. Other habitats, such as grassland/shrubland mosaic, would not bemitigated due to their low ecological value and commonness in Hong Kong.7.7.2 The following mitigation measures in relation to compensating habitat loss and minimising impact onspecies of ecological interest, as well as good construction practice to minimise disturbance to thesurrounding environment, are recommended below. In accordance with the EIAO TM, thehierarchy for ecological mitigation (first avoidance of impact, then minimisation of impact, thencompensation of impact), has been adopted where appropriate.HABITAT/VEGETATION LOSS• Provide secondary woodland planting to compensate for the approximate loss of 1.8 ha of thewoodland at Ngong Shuen Au which cannot be avoided by the Penny's Bay reclamation, Road P2 andCKWLR alignment. As considerable areas, not less than 6 ha, of woodland planting are proposed onthe adjacent hill side to the east of Ngong Shuen Au (see Section 12), sufficient compensatorywoodland will be provided. Species used for planting should take reference from the species identifiedin the Tree Survey and be native to Hong Kong or South China region.• Design the Western Drainage Channel of the Phase I Penny's Bay Reclamation to retain the naturalcoastline and avoid impact on the backshore vegetation so as the associated locally restricted, rare orprotected plant species present within the Assessment Area, including the plantBerchemia lineata andScleria rugosa (see Figure 7.3a for location).• Adjust development/construction area to avoid/minimize direct impact on the rare/restricted plantSchoenus falcatus and Eriocaulon merrilli at Penny's Bay and Chok Ko Wan Tsui. If avoidance of thesehabitats and plant species is not possible, transplanting of affected individuals should be undertakento similar environment as the original habitat, rocky shore with freshwater seepage or near a smallstream, before the works start. A detailed vegetation survey of these affected areas should beundertaken at the Detailed Design stage to identify the individuals of the concerned species, as a basisfor details of design refinement and transplanting requirements. Since the growth form of the plantspecies required for transplantation is herb, the whole plants with their inhabited soil can be relocatedto suitable habitat directly. All the individuals of the species should be relocated. Seeds of the targetspecies are recommended to collect so as to preserve the genetic resource and allow more source plantto transplant in case of the failure of transplantation. The seeds should be collected and preserved orgerminated appropriately by qualified botanist and institution respectively. Sze Pak Wan is the only,nearest and suitable site for the transplantation, however, it is small and may have not enough suitablehabitats for transplantation. When the available sites in Sze Pak Wan being fully occupied, South-eastChi Ma Wan Peninsular (Lantau) are other recommended sites for transplantation.WHITE-BELLIED SEA EAGLEScott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-22Shankland Cox * Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessment• Prohibit construction workers access to the nesting site of White-bellied Sea Eagles at Pa Tau Kwusecondary woodland through warning and regular audit by Site Engineer, and fence off the public landaccess from the development areas during construction and Theme Park areas during operation.• Use quietened construction plant and equipment for Penny's Bay Stage II Reclamation (refer Section4.6).• Locate Theme Park fireworks launching site as far away from the nesting site as possible. However, itwas considered not practicable for the Phase II launching site to locate elsewhere due to theconstraints on the Theme Park design pertaining to guest safety. The launch site for the Theme ParkPhase I is located approximately 2 km from Pa Tau Kwu. A cantilevered noise barrier was consideredas a potential mitigation measure to screen the fireworks noise from the White-bellied Sea Eagles nestbut was considered not practicable as it will introduce temporary noisy construction disturbance inclose proximity to the nesting site, and such structure will be large and instrusive, and may block theflight path and additionally may undermine the commanding position of the nesting site.• Avoid directing any laser beams towards the Pa Tau Kwu area.CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE• Erect fences where practical along the boundary of construction sites before the commencement ofworks to prevent tipping, vehicle movements, and encroachment of personnel into adjacent areas,particularly where the rare/protected species, such as r are Rice Fish Oryzias latipes in Mong Tung Hangstream, White-bellied Sea Eagles Haliaeetus leucogaster at Pa Tau Kwu woodland, Pitcher Plant Nepenthesmirabilis, Fimbristylis acuminata and Fimbristylis complanata behind Cheoy Lee shipyard, and Berchemialineata and Scleria rugosa along the west coast of Penny's Bay, are located;• Reinstate temporary work sites/disturbed areas to its original condition immediately after completion ofthe construction;• Select haul routes, storage and works areas etc. to avoid or minimize disturbance to ecologicallysignificant areas (refer to Figure 7.3a);• Check the work site boundaries regularly to ensure that they are not exceeded and that no damage hasbeen caused to surrounding natural habitats;• Prohibit and prevent open fires within the work site boundary during construction and providetemporary fire fighting equipment in all work areas;• Ensure no access for site workers or delivery of machinery from Pa Tau Kwu Pak Wan and Pa Tau KwuNam Wan.7.8 RESIDUAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS7.8.1 With the implementation of the mitigation measures recommended above, there may still be residualterrestrial ecological impacts associated with the Theme Park and associated developments.7.8.2 Although construction disturbance effects £g. noise) could potentially be controlled such thatdisturbance to the White-bellied Sea Eagles would be minimised, and the Theme Park fireworksdisplays would be located remote from the nesting site to reduce potential disturbance,abandonment of the nest site at Pa Tau Kwu woodland as result of construction and operationaldisturbances could not be ruled out. However the White-bellied Sea Eagles should be able to findsuitable alternative nesting sites, such as the remote Tang Lung Chau or Kau Yi Chau (withprevious record of White-bellied Sea Eagles breeding but the nest site has been abandoned),Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-23Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentSoutheast Lantau, or Sunshine Island with woodland areas, should they abandon the nesting site atthePaTauKwu.7.8.3 The 6 ha of woodland compensation planting will adequately mitigate the loss of 1.8 ha ofsecondary woodland. Transplanting of impacted individuals of the rare/restricted plant Schoenusfalcatus and Eriocaulon merrilli should be undertaken to mitigate any direct loss. The freshwaterwetland and Mong Tung Hang Stream will be avoided and therefore no residual impact isexpected. For the other habitat types impacted, given their low ecological importance affected, theresidual impact is considered minimal.7.9 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND AUDIT (EM&A)7.9.1 Monitoring and auditing of ecological resources has been recommended for the detailed design,construction and operation stages. The specific monitoring requirements are detailed in Annex N ofthis EIA Report which comprises the stand-alone Project EM&A Manual7.10 CONCLUSIONS7.10.1 The major habitat types within the Assessment Area comprises secondary woodland, tallshrubland, grassland/shrubland mosaic, brackish/JBreshwater wetland, village/orchard, wasteland,plantation, freshwater streams, as well as backshore vegetation. The field surveys which have beenundertaken indicate that the grassland/shrubland mosaic, which are typical of similar habitatselsewhere in Hong Kong, are the main habitat type. The identified secondary woodland,backshore vegetation, freshwater wetland and freshwater stream habitats are considered to havemoderate to high ecological value, and all the others habitats a low value. The plant species withecological interest may be affected by the Project is Schoenus falcatus and Eriocaulon merrilli.Two locally rare faunal species have been recorded in the Assessment Area: the Rice Fish(Oryzias latipes) in the lower Mong Tung Hang Stream and the White-bellied Sea Eagle(Haliaeetus leucogaster).7.10.2 The proposed developments associated with the Project will generally lead to a loss of lowecological value terrestrial habitats with low ecological impact Mitigation measures arerecommended to avoid or reduce the potential impacts on habitats of moderate to high ecologicalvalue such as woodland compensation planting.7.10.3 Noise and general disturbance effects associated with the construction of the Penny's Bayreclamation works, would have low to moderate impact as quiet construction plant will be used forthe Stage n reclamation, and the construction activities of Theme Park Phase I and n will be over1 km and 500 m from Pa Tau Kwu, respectively. However, the assessment does indicate thepotential worst case scenario of abandonment of the nest, although possible suitable habitats andnesting sites are available in the area. Additionally, the assessment identifies that the principal threatto these birds of prey comprises the threats from egg and young birds from human access to thenest area. Consequently, the mitigation measures to protect the White-bellied Sea Eagle from theprincipal threat include prohibiting human access to their nesting site during the construction phasevia secure fencing and monitoring. Adopting the precautionary principle, EM&A before and duringconstruction is recommended to monitor these birds. With the implementation of therecommended mitigation measures, no significant residual impact are expected to this bird of prey,Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong Kong 7-24Shankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact Assessmentalthough abandonment of the nest can not be ruled out, as possible suitable habitat and nesting sitesare available in the vicinity of the Assessment Area.7.10.4 During operation of the Theme Park and associated developments, an identified impact comprisesthe possibility of the White-bellied Sea Eagles abandoning the existing nesting site due to noise fromthe remote (more than 2 km and 800 m from Phase I and n, respectively), nightly laser show andshort duration fireworks displays. Human interference impact identified may be mitigated by thefurther prohibition of human access during Project operation by secure fencing. It is, thus,considered necessary to extend the EM&A programme during Theme Park operation to monitorthe reaction of White-bellied Sea Eagle to the fireworks. In the worst case of abandonment of thepair from their nest during operation, possible suitable habitat and nesting sites are available in thevicinity of the Assessment Area and thus no residual impact is predicted7.10.5 A summary of impact prediction, mitigation measures and residual impacts associated with theproposed Theme Park was shown in Table 7.10a.Table 7.10a - Summary of Ecological Impacts for Theme ParkIssue, I C


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentMitigationConstrtictioH Impact Operation!! jgffiM ffi^Compensatory woodland planting on the adjacent Locate Theme Park fireworks launching sitehill side to the east of Ngong ShuenAu;as far away from the nesting site as possible.Prohibit construction workers access to theHowever, it was considered not practicablenesting site of White-bellied Sea Eagles at Pa Tau for the Phase II launching site to locateKwu secondary woodland through warning and elsewhere due to the constraints on theregular audit by Site Engineer, and fence off the Theme Park design pertaining to guestpublic land access from the development areas; safety. The launch site for the Theme ParkUse quietened construction plant and equipment Phase I is located approximately 2 km fromduring Penny's Bay Phase II reclamation (refer Pa Tau Kwu;Section 4.6);Avoid directing any laser beams towards theAdjust development/ construction area toPa Tau Kwu area;avoid/minimize direct impact on the locallyrestricted, rare or protected plant species. Ifavoidance of these plant species is not possible,transplanting of affected individuals should beundertaken;Erect fences where practical along the boundary ofconstruction sites before the commencement ofworksReinstate temporary work sites/disturbed areasimmediately after completion of the construction;Select haul routes, storage and works areas etc, toavoid or minimize disturbance to ecologicallysignificant areas;ResidualImpactsCheck the work site boundaries regularly to ensurethat they are not exceeded and that no damage hasbeen caused to surrounding natural habitats;Prohibit and prevent open fires within the work siteboundary during construction and providetemporary fire fighting equipment in all work areas;Ensure no access for site workers or delivery ofmachinery from Pa Tau Kwu Pak Wan and Pa TauKwu Nam Wan.With the implementation of the recommendedmitigation measures, no significant residual impactare expected, however, abandonment of the nestby the White-bellied Sea Eagle can not be ruledout.Environment No significant adverse residual impacts.alAcceptabilityChok Ko Wan Link Road from Yam Q to Penny's Bay InterchangePotentialImpactsLoss of approximately 1.4 ha of secondarywoodland, 2 ha of tall shrubland and 2.5 ha ofgrassland/shrubland mosaic at Ngong ShuenAu.In the worst case of abandonment of theWhite-bellied Sea Eagle from their nestduring operation, possible suitable habitatand nesting sites are available in the vicinityof the Assessment Area and thus noresidual impact is predicted.No significant adverse residual impacts;Scott Wilson (Hong Kong) Ltd in association with ERM Hong KongShankland Cox • Wilbur Smith Associates7-26


Theme Park and Associated DevelopmentsFinal Environmental Impact AssessmentIssiie' '- V 1MitigationResidualImpactsEnvironmentalAcceptabilityRoad P2PotentialImpactsMitigationResidualImpactsEnvironmentalAcceptabilityConstruction ImpactCompensatory woodland planting on the adjacenthill side to the east of Ngong Shuen Au;Erect fences where practical along the boundary ofconstruction sites before the commencement ofworksReinstate temporary work sites/disturbed areasimmediately after completion of the construction;Select haul routes, storage and works areas etc. toavoid or minimize disturbance to ecologicallysignificant areas;Check the work site boundaries regularly to ensurethat they are not exceeded and that no damage hasbeen caused to surrounding natural habitats;Prohibit and prevent open fires within the work siteboundary during construction and providetemporary fire fighting equipment in all work areas.No residual impacts identified.No adverse impacts.Loss of approximately 0.1 ha of secondarywoodland at Ngong Shuen Au, 0.1 ha of plantationand 0.4 ha of grassland/shrubland mosaic at ChokKoWan Tsui.Compensatory woodland planting on the adjacenthill side to the east of Ngong Shuen Au;Erect fences where practical along the boundary ofconstruction sites before the commencement ofworksReinstate temporary work sites/disturbed areasimmediately after completion of the construction;Select haul routes, storage and works areas etc. toavoid or minimize disturbance to ecologicallysignificant areas;Check the work site boundaries regularly to ensurethat they are not exceeded and that no damage hasbeen caused to surrounding natural habitats;Prohibit and prevent open fires within the work siteboundary during construction and providetemporary fire fighting equipment in all work areas.No residual impacts identified.No adverse impacts.Operational Impact ^ ' «,

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