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Military Service and the Dynamics of Recruitment - Boydell & Brewer

Military Service and the Dynamics of Recruitment - Boydell & Brewer

military service

military service and the dynamics of recruitment 13characteristic that these three documents do have in common is that, to a greateror lesser degree, they were all used in connection with the new system of militaryassessment that was implemented at the time of the Crécy–Calais campaign. Ineach case, individuals whose names are ‘pointed’ or accompanied by annotationsspecifying counties are to be found on the Treaty Rolls with exonerations fromthe assessment. 17Taken together, these four documents supply the names of three bannerets,twenty-nine knights and seventy-two other men, though nine of the latterare illegible. 18 Comparison of these numbers with the manpower assigned toWarwick’s retinue in the various post-medieval copies of the army payrollsuggests that our nominal roll is far from complete. 19 The mounted archers whowere attached to the retinue – in the region of 150 men – are wholly absentfrom our roll, and it may well be that it includes the names of no more thantwo-thirds of the men-at-arms who were actually serving under the earl’s bannerin 1346. 20 As we have seen, the bannerets’ rolls omit very few names (five out offifty-five), so in order to accommodate the greater part of the shortfall – perhapsa dozen knights and three dozen esquires – we need to turn to the core documentfor Warwick’s retinue. The ratio of knights to esquires that we find there(1:1.5) suggests that some of the latter have not been named. The number ofesquires assigned to individual knights, never more than two, also raises suspicions.Sir Robert Herle has two esquires, whereas in his indenture of retinue,dated 20 April 1339, it is stipulated that in wartime he would bring four to theearl’s retinue. 21 If, as seems likely, most of the esquires listed on the core documentwere serving in the knights’ companies, we would also need to allow forthe earl’s personal esquires, men such as John de Morehalle, who is described17 Scales’s roll is most clearly related to the military assessment: 8 of the 13 names on the rollare assigned to counties in which they were exonerated from their assessment in May 1346:G. Wrottesley, Crecy and Calais from the Original Records in the Public Record Office (London,1898), p. 83 [henceforward Wrottesley]; TNA C 76/22, m. 22d. This applies to two names onSt Amand’s roll, which are also pointed (Wrottesley, pp. 83–4). Six of the names on the coredocument are pointed and they also have enrolled exonerations (Wrottesley, pp. 82, 84, 86).18 Some of the other, partially illegible, names can be recovered by reference to otherdocuments.19 For the loss of the original vadia guerre and related accounts for the Crécy–Calaiscampaign (recorded in a book of foreign expenses for Walter Wetwang’s term as Keeper ofthe King’s Wardrobe) and for an assessment of the various surviving early modern transcriptsof those accounts, see Ayton, ‘The English Army at Crécy’, pp. 160–62, 230–41.20 See BL Harleian MS 3968, fos 114r–129r (at fo. 115r), which assigns to Warwick’s retinue3 bannerets, 41 knights, 106 esquires (in all, including the earl, 151 men-at-arms) and 154mounted archers. The figures in College of Arms MS 2 M 16, the most widely used of thevarious imperfect early modern abstracts of Wetwang’s payroll, include an implausibly highnumber of knights (3 bannerets, 64 knights, 131 esquires and 149 archers). Wrottesley, p. 193.21 TNA C 81/1742, no. 26; ‘Private Indentures for Life Service in Peace and War, 1278–1476’,ed. M. Jones and S. Walker, Camden Miscellany, XXXII, Camden Fifth Series, iii (1994), no.37 (pp. 70–71).

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